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Sample records for denotational semantics natural

  1. Action Algebras and Model Algebras in Denotational Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Luiz Carlos Castro; Haeusler, Edward Hermann

    This article describes some results concerning the conceptual separation of model dependent and language inherent aspects in a denotational semantics of a programming language. Before going into the technical explanation, the authors wish to relate a story that illustrates how correctly and precisely posed questions can influence the direction of research. By means of his questions, Professor Mosses aided the PhD research of one of the authors of this article and taught the other, who at the time was a novice supervisor, the real meaning of careful PhD supervision. The student’s research had been partially developed towards the implementation of programming languages through denotational semantics specification, and the student had developed a prototype [12] that compared relatively well to some industrial compilers of the PASCAL language. During a visit to the BRICS lab in Aarhus, the student’s supervisor gave Professor Mosses a draft of an article describing the prototype and its implementation experiments. The next day, Professor Mosses asked the supervisor, “Why is the generated code so efficient when compared to that generated by an industrial compiler?” and “You claim that the efficiency is simply a consequence of the Object- Orientation mechanisms used by the prototype programming language (C++); this should be better investigated. Pay more attention to the class of programs that might have this good comparison profile.” As a result of these aptly chosen questions and comments, the student and supervisor made great strides in the subsequent research; the advice provided by Professor Mosses made them perceive that the code generated for certain semantic domains was efficient because it mapped to the “right aspect” of the language semantics. (Certain functional types, used to represent mappings such as Stores and Environments, were pushed to the level of the object language (as in gcc). This had the side-effect of generating

  2. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  3. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  4. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  5. Towards a semantic lexicon for clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongfang; Wu, Stephen T; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A semantic lexicon which associates words and phrases in text to concepts is critical for extracting and encoding clinical information in free text and therefore achieving semantic interoperability between structured and unstructured data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Directly using existing standard terminologies may have limited coverage with respect to concepts and their corresponding mentions in text. In this paper, we analyze how tokens and phrases in a large corpus distribute and how well the UMLS captures the semantics. A corpus-driven semantic lexicon, MedLex, has been constructed where the semantics is based on the UMLS assisted with variants mined and usage information gathered from clinical text. The detailed corpus analysis of tokens, chunks, and concept mentions shows the UMLS is an invaluable source for natural language processing. Increasing the semantic coverage of tokens provides a good foundation in capturing clinical information comprehensively. The study also yields some insights in developing practical NLP systems. PMID:23304329

  6. Semantics of Context-Free Fragments of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The objective of this paper is to combine the viewpoint of model-theoretic semantics and generative grammar, to define semantics for context-free languages, and to apply the results to some fragments of natural language. Following the introduction in the first section, Section 2 describes a simple artificial example to illustrate how a semantic…

  7. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-01

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect. PMID:24501376

  8. Speed Limits: Orientation and Semantic Context Interactions Constrain Natural Scene Discrimination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Jochem W.; Kochy, Nick; Schalk, Franziska; Gruschow, Marcus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The visual system rapidly extracts information about objects from the cluttered natural environment. In 5 experiments, the authors quantified the influence of orientation and semantics on the classification speed of objects in natural scenes, particularly with regard to object-context interactions. Natural scene photographs were presented in an…

  9. On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

  10. The Semantic Web as a Linguistic Resource: Opportunities for Natural Language Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellish, Chris; Sun, Xiantang

    This paper argues that, because the documents of the semantic web are created by human beings, they are actually much more like natural language documents than theory would have us believe. We present evidence that natural language words are used extensively and in complex ways in current ontologies. This leads to a number of dangers for the semantic web, but also opens up interesting new challenges for natural language processing. This is illustrated by our own work using natural language generation to present parts of ontologies.

  11. Stuttering and Natural Speech Processing of Semantic and Syntactic Constraints on Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Hampton, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Previous findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) indicate that adults who stutter (AWS) exhibit processing differences for visually presented linguistic information. This study explores how neural activations for AWS may differ for a linguistic task that does not require preparation for overt articulation and/or engage the articulatory loop for silent speech. Method Syntactic and semantic processing constraints were examined in AWS and adults who are normally fluent (AWNF) by assessing their behavioral performance and ERPs in a natural speech listening task. Results AWS performed similarly to AWNF in identifying verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, but ERPs elicited by syntactic and semantic constraints indicated atypical neural functions for AWS. ERPs of the AWNF displayed an expected N400 for reduced semantic expectations and a typical P600 for verb-agreement violations. In contrast, both N400s and P600s for the semantic and verb-agreement conditions were observed in the ERPs of the AWS. Conclusions The findings suggest that AWS may engage semantic-syntactic mechanisms more generally for semantic and syntactic processing. These findings converge with earlier studies using visual stimuli to indicate that, while linguistic abilities are normal in AWS, underlying brain activity mediating some aspects of language processing may function differently. PMID:18664690

  12. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  13. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  14. Is there a natural order for expressing semantic relations?

    PubMed

    Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Goldin-Medow, Susan

    2002-11-01

    All languages rely to some extent on word order to signal relational information. Why? We address this question by exploring communicative and cognitive factors that could lead to a reliance on word order. In Study 1, adults were asked to describe scenes to another using their hands and not their mouths. The question was whether this home-made "language" would contain gesture sentences with consistent order. In addition, we asked whether reliance on order would be influenced by three communicative factors (whether the communication partner is permitted to give feedback; whether the information to be communicated is present in the context that recipient and gesturer share; whether the gesturer assumes the role of gesture receiver as well as gesture producer). We found that, not only was consistent ordering of semantic elements robust across the range of communication situations, but the same non-English order appeared in all contexts. Study 2 explored whether this non-English order is found only when a person attempts to share information with another. Adults were asked to reconstruct scenes in a non-communicative context using pictures drawn on transparencies. The adults picked up the pictures for their reconstructions in a consistent order, and that order was the same non-English order found in Study 1. Finding consistent ordering patterns in a non-communicative context suggests that word order is not driven solely by the demands of communicating information to another, but may reflect a more general property of human thought. PMID:12480479

  15. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  16. A natural language understanding system combining syntactic and semantic techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Haug, P.; Koehler, S.; Lau, L. M.; Wang, P.; Rocha, R.; Huff, S.

    1994-01-01

    A large proportion of the medical record currently available in computerized medical information systems is in the form of free text reports. While the accessibility of this source of data is improved through inclusion in the computerized record, it remains unavailable for automated decision support, medical research, and management of medical delivery systems. Natural language understanding systems (NLUS) designed to encode free text reports represent one approach to making this information available for these uses. Below we describe an experimental NLUS designed to parse the reports of chest radiographs and store the clinical data extracted in a medical data base. PMID:7949928

  17. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  18. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  19. How many kinds of reasoning? Inference, probability, and natural language semantics.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Daniel; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-03-01

    The "new paradigm" unifying deductive and inductive reasoning in a Bayesian framework (Oaksford & Chater, 2007; Over, 2009) has been claimed to be falsified by results which show sharp differences between reasoning about necessity vs. plausibility (Heit & Rotello, 2010; Rips, 2001; Rotello & Heit, 2009). We provide a probabilistic model of reasoning with modal expressions such as "necessary" and "plausible" informed by recent work in formal semantics of natural language, and show that it predicts the possibility of non-linear response patterns which have been claimed to be problematic. Our model also makes a strong monotonicity prediction, while two-dimensional theories predict the possibility of reversals in argument strength depending on the modal word chosen. Predictions were tested using a novel experimental paradigm that replicates the previously-reported response patterns with a minimal manipulation, changing only one word of the stimulus between conditions. We found a spectrum of reasoning "modes" corresponding to different modal words, and strong support for our model's monotonicity prediction. This indicates that probabilistic approaches to reasoning can account in a clear and parsimonious way for data previously argued to falsify them, as well as new, more fine-grained, data. It also illustrates the importance of careful attention to the semantics of language employed in reasoning experiments. PMID:25497521

  20. Generating Executable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Medicine Using Natural Language and Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the “gold standard” for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

  1. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  2. Nature and Facts about Natural and Artifactual Categories: Sex Differences in the Semantic Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2008-01-01

    There is abundant evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological experiments for the distinction of natural versus artifactual categories and a gender-specific difference: women's performances in cognitive tasks increase when natural categories are used, whereas men's performances increase with artifactual categories. Here, we used the semantic…

  3. The Nature of Semantic Savings for Items Forgotten from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Thomas O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The kind of semantic information that facilitates relearning was investigated. The paradigm consisted of three stages: (1) learn a list of number-word pairs; (2) return for a retention test; and (3) relearn a new list of pairs that have various kinds of semantic relatedness to the originally learned pairs. (Author/CTM)

  4. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huth, Alexander G; de Heer, Wendy A; Griffiths, Thomas L; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Gallant, Jack L

    2016-04-28

    The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain. PMID:27121839

  5. Unlocking the nature of the phonological-deep dyslexia continuum: the keys to reading aloud are in phonology and semantics.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jenni; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2006-03-01

    It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mechanisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this possibility, the nature of any continuum between the disorders, and the possible underlying bases of it. A case series of patients were given an assessment battery to test for the characteristics of phonological and deep dyslexia. The status of their underlying phonological and semantic systems was also investigated. The majority of participants exhibited many of the symptoms associated with deep dyslexia whether or not they made semantic errors. Despite wide variation in word and nonword reading accuracy, there was considerable symptom overlap across the cohort and, thus, no sensible dividing line to separate the participants into distinct groups. The patient data indicated that the deep-phonological continuum might best be characterized according to the severity of the individual's reading impairment rather than in terms of a strict symptom succession. Assessments of phonological and semantic impairments suggested that the integrity of these primary systems underpinned the patients' reading performance. This proposal was supported by eliciting the symptoms of deep-phonological dyslexia in nonreading tasks. PMID:16513001

  6. Pulmonary disorder and present nuclear denotation: A brief summary.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-07-01

    There are many health effects caused by leaked radiation from damaged reactors of a nuclear power plant. However, the effect on pulmonary system is not reported much. Focusing on the present nuclear denotation crisis in Japan, it is wise to review on the specific issue of pulmonary disorder and nuclear denotation. Several disorders of interest, including malignancy and non-malignancy disorders, are mentioned in the literature. PMID:21760839

  7. Preventing percutaneous absorption of industrial chemicals: the skin denotation

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Berlin, A.; Gilbert, M.; Penning, W.

    1988-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption has received comparatively little attention in occupational health, although this route of entry has repeatedly caused occupation-related intoxications. In practice, the evaluation of skin penetration rates is far from simple. Much evidence has been obtained from studies of chemicals used for cosmetics and topical therapeutics, but the information available on compounds encountered in occupational health is limited. The data obtained from experimental studies have confirmed that the concentration, type of vehicle, skin area, skin condition, and extent of occlusion are important factors in determining the degree of percutaneous absorption, but no general model has been developed. Also, too little is known about the basic chemical properties governing the rate of penetration. Thus, prediction is difficult and bound to be rather inaccurate. Current preventive practice follows the procedure used by ACGIH and is mainly based on a skin denotation in official listings of chemicals to which exposure limits have been allocated. The number of substances and groups of chemicals which have received skin denotation in 17 selected countries varies between 24 and 179 and a total of 275 are listed as a skin hazard in one or more countries; ACGIH lists 143. Thus, the denotation practice varies. As an unfortunate result of these discrepancies and the dichotomy of skin denotation, the absence of skin denotation may erroneously indicate that efforts to protect the skin are unnecessary. Thus, an evaluation of skin penetration potentials should be incorporated in occupational health practice as a supplement to the official denotations. 23 references.

  8. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  9. Context Effects in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Wessel O.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioral studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object) or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner. PMID:21833218

  10. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  11. The Nature and Neural Correlates of Semantic Association versus Conceptual Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent concepts and the relationships between them is critical to human cognition. How does the brain code relationships between items that share basic conceptual properties (e.g., dog and wolf) while simultaneously representing associative links between dissimilar items that co-occur in particular contexts (e.g., dog and bone)? To clarify the neural bases of these semantic components in neurologically intact participants, both types of semantic relationship were investigated in an fMRI study optimized for anterior temporal lobe (ATL) coverage. The clear principal finding was that the same core semantic network (ATL, superior temporal sulcus, ventral prefrontal cortex) was equivalently engaged when participants made semantic judgments on the basis of association or conceptual similarity. Direct comparisons revealed small, weaker differences for conceptual similarity > associative decisions (e.g., inferior prefrontal cortex) and associative > conceptual similarity (e.g., ventral parietal cortex) which appear to reflect graded differences in task difficulty. Indeed, once reaction time was entered as a covariate into the analysis, no associative versus category differences remained. The paper concludes with a discussion of how categorical/feature-based and associative relationships might be represented within a single, unified semantic system. PMID:25636912

  12. Sensitivity to musical denotation and connotation in organic patients.

    PubMed

    Gardner, H; Silverman, J; Denes, G; Semenza, C; Rosenstiel, A K

    1977-09-01

    Musical segments convey at least two kinds of meaning: The "real-world" events referred to by lyrics and by occasions of performance constitute musical denotation: the formal expressive patterns suggested by such constituents as pitch, timbre, and intensity constitute musical connotation. To ascertain sensitivity to these musical facets among brain-injured patients, tests assessing appreciation of musical denotation and connotation were administered to unilaterally brain-injured subjects in the United States and Italy. On the musical denotation test, right hemisphere patients excelled on items where knowledge of lyrics was required; in contrast, anterior aphasics surpassed both posterior aphasics and right hemisphere patients on items where acquaintance with lyrics was unnecessary. On the musical connotation test, right hemisphere patients performed relatively better in matching sound patterns to temporally-sequenced designs than to gestalten; these patients also performed better than left hemisphere patients on a number of other dimensions. The relatively high performance of posterior aphasics on the connotation test, along with the lack of correlation between connotative and denotative scores received by aphasic patients, suggest a behavioral and neurological dissociation between the two forms of musical sensitivity. PMID:923263

  13. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  14. A Semantic Basis for Proof Queries and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen W.; Luth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We extend the query language PrQL, designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs, to also allow transformation of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchically nested labelled trees, which we claim is a natural way of taming the complexity of huge proofs. Query-driven transformations enable manipulation of this structure, in particular, to transform proofs produced by interactive theorem provers into forms that assist their understanding, or that could be consumed by other tools. In this paper we motivate and define basic transformation operations, using an abstract denotational semantics of hiproofs and queries. This extends our previous semantics for queries based on syntactic tree representations.We define update operations that add and remove sub-proofs, and manipulate the hierarchy to group and ungroup nodes. We show that

  15. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  16. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  17. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  18. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  19. Semantic Grammar: A Technique for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces to Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    A major obstacle to the effective educational use of computers is the lack of a natural means of communication between the student and the computer. This report describes a technique for generating such natural language front-ends for advanced instructional systems. It discusses: (1) the essential properties of a natural language front-end, (2)…

  20. Semantic Grammar: An Engineering Technique for Constructing Natural Language Understanding Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.

    In an attempt to overcome the lack of natural means of communication between student and computer, this thesis addresses the problem of developing a system which can understand natural language within an educational problem-solving environment. The nature of the environment imposes efficiency, habitability, self-teachability, and awareness of…

  1. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  2. Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  3. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  4. Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact. PMID:25061931

  5. Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-11-01

    Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. PMID:20801868

  6. Automatic natural acquisition of a semantic network for information retrieval systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enguehard, Chantal; Malvache, Pierre; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    The amount of information is becoming greater and greater, in industries where complex processes are performed it is becoming increasingly difficult to profit from all the documents produced when fresh knowledge becomes available (reports, experiments, findings). This situation causes a considerable and expensive waste of precious time lost searching for documents or, quite simply, results in outright repeating what has been done. One solution is to transform all paper information into computerized information. We might imagine that we are in a science-fiction world and that we have the perfect computer. We tell it everything we know, we make it read all the books, and if we ask it any question, it will find the response if that response exists. But unfortunately, we are in the real world and the last four decades have taught us to minimize our expectations of computers. During the 1960s, the information retrieval systems appeared. Their purpose is to provide access to any desired documents, in response to a question about a subject, even if it is not known to exist. Here we focus on the problem of selecting items to index the documents. In 1966, Salton identified this problem as crucial when he saw that his system, Medlars, did not find a relevant text because of the wrong indexation. Faced with this problem, he imagined a guide to help authors choose the correct indexation, but he anticipated the automation of this operation with the SMART system. It was stated previously that a manual language analysis for information items by subjects experts is likely to prove impractical in the long run. After a brief survey of the existing responses to the index choice problem, we shall present the system automatic natural acquisition (ANA) which chooses items to index texts by using as little knowledge as possible- -just by learning the language. This system does not use any grammar or lexicon, so the selected indexes will be very close to the field concerned in the texts.

  7. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  8. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  9. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  10. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  11. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  12. What's in a Name? Denotation, Connotation, and "A Boy Named Sue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Bessie

    2011-01-01

    Language choice--specifically word choice--is an important topic on a basic communication or public speaking course. One sub-topic under "Language" involves understanding the difference between denotation and connotation. Denotation refers to a word's definition, while connotation refers to the emotions associated with the word. Speakers need to…

  13. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  14. Semantic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes semantic mapping, an effective strategy for vocabulary instruction that involves the categorical structuring of information in graphic form and requires students to relate new words to their own experience and prior knowledge. (HOD)

  15. The Nature of Predication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebesman, David

    2009-01-01

    I articulate and defend a necessary and sufficient condition for an occurrence of a term to function semantically as a predicate. The condition is that the term occurrence stands in the relation of "ascription" to its denotation, ascription being a fundamental semantic relation that differs from reference. This view on predication has dramatically…

  16. Integrating Experiential and Distributional Data to Learn Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Mark; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David

    2009-01-01

    The authors identify 2 major types of statistical data from which semantic representations can be learned. These are denoted as "experiential data" and "distributional data". Experiential data are derived by way of experience with the physical world and comprise the sensory-motor data obtained through sense receptors. Distributional data, by…

  17. The Syntax and Semantics of Event Quantifiers in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Dun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax and semantics of nine Chinese "measures for verbs" (Chao 1968:615), which are words used with numerals to form event quantifiers counting the eventualities denoted by the predicate of a sentence. Based on their syntactic behavior, I argue that the nine words can be divided into two groups. The…

  18. The event bush as a semantic-based numerical approach to natural hazard assessment (exemplified by volcanology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichny, C. A.; Nikolenko, S. I.; Carniel, R.; Vaganov, P. A.; Khrabrykh, Z. V.; Moukhachov, V. P.; Akimova-Shterkhun, V. L.; Rezyapkin, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    The event bush is a new formalism for organizing knowledge in various fields of geoscience, particularly suitable for hazard assessment purposes. Acting as an intermediary between expert knowledge and the well-established field of Bayesian belief networks, the event bush allows at the same time a variety of other applications, linking geoscientific knowledge to the field of artificial intelligence and uniting probabilistic, deterministic, and fuzzy approaches. In this paper, we present basic principles, mathematical formulation, guidelines for application, and examples, including the connection with Bayesian belief networks. Further development of the method will include spatial and temporal modelling, implementation in mapping in GIS medium, formalization by means of predicate logic, definition of variable states in BBNs by membership functions based on the event bush semantics, and other applications.

  19. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

  20. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  1. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  2. Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Häfner, M.; Wrba, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  3. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  4. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  5. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  6. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  7. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  8. The Effects of Line Length and Paragraph Denotation on the Retrieval of Information from Prose Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study involving approximately 500 sixth and seventh graders suggest that a two-column layout with traditional paragraphing denotation is more readable than a single-column layout, but that an extreme line length does not place an undue strain on the reader. (Examples of the two formats are included.) (GT)

  9. The Function of Words: Distinct Neural Correlates for Words Denoting Differently Manipulable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; van Rooij, Daan; Lindemann, Oliver; Willems, Roel M.; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that language processing relies on brain areas dedicated to perception and action. For example, processing words denoting manipulable objects has been shown to activate a fronto-parietal network involved in actual tool use. This is suggested to reflect the knowledge the subject has about how objects are moved and used.…

  10. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  11. The semantics of biological forms.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  12. Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

  13. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  14. Contrastive Semantics of Physical Activity Verbs: "Cutting" and "Chopping" in English, Polish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the contrastive lexical semantics of verbs comparable to "cut" and "chop" in three languages (English, Polish, and Japanese), using the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) technique of semantic analysis. It proposes a six-part semantic template, and argues that this template can serve as a basis for a lexical typology of…

  15. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  16. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in semantic composition vs. semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-05-01

    The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) is robustly implicated in semantic processing by a growing body of literature. However, these results have emerged from two distinct bodies of work, addressing two different processing levels. On the one hand, the LATL has been characterized as a 'semantic hub׳ that binds features of concepts across a distributed network, based on results from semantic dementia and hemodynamic findings on the categorization of specific compared to basic exemplars. On the other, the LATL has been implicated in combinatorial operations in language, as shown by increased activity in this region associated with the processing of sentences and of basic phrases. The present work aimed to reconcile these two literatures by independently manipulating combination and concept specificity within a minimal MEG paradigm. Participants viewed simple nouns that denoted either low specificity (fish) or high specificity categories (trout) presented in either combinatorial (spotted fish/trout) or non-combinatorial contexts (xhsl fish/trout). By combining these paradigms from the two literatures, we directly compared the engagement of the LATL in semantic memory vs. semantic composition. Our results indicate that although noun specificity subtly modulates the LATL activity elicited by single nouns, it most robustly affects the size of the composition effect when these nouns are adjectivally modified, with low specificity nouns eliciting a much larger effect. We conclude that these findings are compatible with an account in which the specificity and composition effects arise from a shared mechanism of meaning specification. PMID:24631260

  17. Formal semantic and computer text processing, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, J.G.; Lepage, F.

    1983-01-01

    Computer processing of large nonpreedited natural language texts has often been limited either to managing and editing or to analysing basic levels of content (indexes, concordances, clusters, etc.). Few systems approach syntactic information, even less semantic information. Because of the complexity and the originality of the underlying semantic information of any text it is not possible to import directly the AI and computational semantic concepts. It is necessary to explore news paths. The research presented here is oriented toward the understanding of certain semantic aspects in computer text processing (words and meaning representation and inference patterns). This is done through a model theoretic approach embedded in an algebraic language. The hypothesis which governs the concepts and the distinctions is the following: discourse in a text constitutes a semantic space built of an ordered set of sentences which are of different logical types and which present a specific pattern of coherence expressible in a syntactic manner. 47 references.

  18. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

  19. Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369

  20. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  1. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  2. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  3. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  4. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  5. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  6. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  7. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  8. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  9. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  10. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  11. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  12. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  13. Anomia as a Marker of Distinct Semantic Memory Impairments in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective Many neurologically-constrained models of semantic memory have been informed by two primary temporal lobe pathologies: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Semantic Dementia (SD). However, controversy persists regarding the nature of the semantic impairment associated with these patient populations. Some argue that AD presents as a disconnection syndrome in which linguistic impairment reflects difficulties in lexical or perceptual means of semantic access. In contrast, there is a wider consensus that SD reflects loss of core knowledge that underlies word and object meaning. Object naming provides a window into the integrity of semantic knowledge in these two populations. Method We examined naming accuracy, errors and the correlation of naming ability with neuropsychological measures (semantic ability, executive functioning, and working memory) in a large sample of patients with AD (n=36) and SD (n=21). Results Naming ability and naming errors differed between groups, as did neuropsychological predictors of naming ability. Despite a similar extent of baseline cognitive impairment, SD patients were more anomic than AD patients. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of literature supporting a dual impairment to semantic content and active semantic processing in AD, and confirm the fundamental deficit in semantic content in SD. We interpret these findings as supporting of a model of semantic memory premised upon dynamic interactivity between the process and content of conceptual knowledge. PMID:21443339

  14. Semantics and Syntax of Non-Standard Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paperno, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the diversity and unity of coordination constructions in natural language. Following the goal of bridging syntactic typology with formal semantics, it takes the typological variation in NP coordination patterns as a challenge for semantic theory. Hybrid Coordination in Russian and Comitative Coordination in…

  15. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  16. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of “good/bad” (valence), “calm/excited” (arousal), and “open/closed” (freedom), respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number (∼4) of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal) components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet), among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step toward a

  17. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  18. An overview of semantic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  19. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  20. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  1. Word Learning Does Not End at Fast-Mapping: Evolution of Verb Meanings through Reorganization of an Entire Semantic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different…

  2. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  3. Controlled English for Reasoning on the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coi, Juri Luca; Fuchs, Norbert E.; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Kuhn, Tobias

    The existing Semantic Web languages have a very technical focus and fail to provide good usability for users with no background in formal methods. We argue that controlled natural languages like Attempto Controlled English (ACE) can solve this problem. ACE is a subset of English that can be translated into various logic based languages, among them the Semantic Web standards OWL and SWRL. ACE is accompanied by a set of tools, namely the parser APE, the Attempto Reasoner RACE, the ACE View ontology and rule editor, the semantic wiki AceWiki, and the Protune policy framework. The applications cover a wide range of Semantic Web scenarios, which shows how broadly ACE can be applied. We conclude that controlled natural languages can make the Semantic Web better understandable and more usable.

  4. The nature and staging of attention dysfunction in early (minimal and mild) Alzheimer's disease: relationship to episodic and semantic memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Watson, P; Hodges, J R

    2000-01-01

    The development of cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has highlighted the importance of understanding the role of attentional deficits and the relationship between attention and memory in the earliest stages of the disease. Variability in the tasks used to examine aspects of attention, and in the disease severity, between studies makes it difficult to determine which aspects of attention are affected earliest in AD, and how attentional impairment is related to other cognitive modules. We tested 27 patients in the early stages of the disease on the basis of the MMSE (minimal 24-30 corresponding to minimal cognitive impairment, very mild or possible AD in other classifications; and mild 18-23) on a battery of attentional tests aimed to assess sustained, divided, and selective attention, plus tests of episodic memory, semantic memory, visuoperceptual and visuospatial function, and verbal short-term memory. Although the mildly demented group were impaired on all attentional tests, the minimally impaired group showed a preserved ability to sustain attention, and to divide attention based on a dual-task paradigm. The minimally demented group had particular problems with response inhibition and speed of attentional switching. Examination of the relationship between attention and other cognitive domains showed impaired episodic memory in all patients. Deficits in attention were more prevalent than deficits in semantic memory suggesting that they occur at an earlier stage and the two were partially independent. Impairment in visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions and verbal short-term memory were the least common. Although attention is impaired early in AD, 40% of our patients showed deficits in episodic memory alone, confirming that amnesia may be the only cognitive deficit in the earliest stages of sporadic AD. PMID:10678692

  5. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  6. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  7. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  8. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  9. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  10. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  11. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation

  12. Semantic text mining support for lignocellulose research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofuels produced from biomass are considered to be promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels production requires the use of enzyme cocktails that can efficiently and economically hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. As many fungi naturally break down lignocellulose, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved is a key challenge in the research and development of biomass-derived products and fuels. One approach to meeting this challenge is to mine the rapidly-expanding repertoire of microbial genomes for enzymes with the appropriate catalytic properties. Results Semantic technologies, including natural language processing, ontologies, semantic Web services and Web-based collaboration tools, promise to support users in handling complex data, thereby facilitating knowledge-intensive tasks. An ongoing challenge is to select the appropriate technologies and combine them in a coherent system that brings measurable improvements to the users. We present our ongoing development of a semantic infrastructure in support of genomics-based lignocellulose research. Part of this effort is the automated curation of knowledge from information on fungal enzymes that is available in the literature and genome resources. Conclusions Working closely with fungal biology researchers who manually curate the existing literature, we developed ontological natural language processing pipelines integrated in a Web-based interface to assist them in two main tasks: mining the literature for relevant knowledge, and at the same time providing rich and semantically linked information. PMID:22595090

  13. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  14. Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

  15. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  16. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  17. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  18. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  19. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  20. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  1. Semantic Space Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  2. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  3. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  4. From Semantic Roles to Temporal Information Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Hector; Navarro, Borja; Saquete, Estela

    The automatic treatment of temporal elements of natural language has become a very important issue among NLP community. Recently, TimeML annotation scheme has been adopted as standard for temporal information representation by a large number of researchers. There are few TimeML resources for languages other than English whereas there exist semantic roles annotated corpora and automatic labeling tools for several languages. The objective of this paper is to study if semantic roles resources can be exploited to generate TimeML corpora. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the temporal semantic role and TimeML elements has been carried out, focusing on temporal expressions (TIMEX3). Using this analysis, an approach consisting of a set of transformation rules between semantic roles and TIMEX3 has been implemented. It has been evaluated in TIMEX3 identification for English and Spanish obtaining same quality results (76.85% F β= 1 AVG), which suggests that it could be also valid for other languages.

  5. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  6. FN400 potentials are functionally identical to N400 potentials and reflect semantic processing during recognition testing

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joel L.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    The “F” in FN400 denotes a more frontal scalp distribution relative to the morphologically similar N400 component—a distinction consistent with the hypothesized distinct roles of FN400 in familiarity memory versus N400 in language. However, no direct comparisons have substantiated these assumed dissimilarities. To this end, we manipulated short-term semantic priming during a recognition test. Semantic priming effects on N400 were indistinguishable from memory effects at the same latency, and semantic priming strongly modulated the “FN400,” despite having no influence on familiarity memory. Thus, no evidence suggested either electrophysiological or functional differences between the N400 and FN400, and findings were contrary to the linking of the “FN400” to familiarity. Instead, it appears that semantic/conceptual priming (reflected in the N400) occurs during recognition tests, and is frequently (mis)labeled as FN400 and attributed to familiarity. PMID:20701709

  7. Augmenting Weak Semantic Cognitive Maps with an “Abstractness” Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all “universal” semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here “abstractness” (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience. PMID:23840200

  8. Semantic Size of Abstract Concepts: It Gets Emotional When You Can’t See It

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Vasiljevic, Milica; Weick, Mario; Sereno, Margaret E.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Size is an important visuo-spatial characteristic of the physical world. In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically “big” (e.g., jungle) versus “small” (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically “big” and “small” concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to “big” words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to “small” words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word’s semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words. Our findings provide novel insights into the semantic representations of size in abstract concepts and highlight that affective attributes of words may not always index lexical access. PMID:24086421

  9. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  10. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  11. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  12. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  13. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  14. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  15. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  16. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  17. Reasoning in Semantic Web-based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Florian; Unel, Gulay

    In this chapter, we introduce the basics of formal languages and reasoning in a Web context. Denoting information by means of a logical formalism makes it possible to employ established techniques from the field of automated reasoning. However, reasoning in the context of Web-based systems has a distinct set of requirements in terms of quality and quantity of the information it has to cope with. In turn, this chapter focuses, in a very foundational way, on reasoning on Semantic Web-oriented data. For this purpose, we briefly identify and describe the basic paradigms forming the background for knowledge representation in Web-based Systems. We then examine how these paradigms are reflected in current standards and trends on the Web and what kinds of reasoning they typically facilitate. Based on this, we proceed to focus on concrete reasoning techniques and their particular properties, including optimizations and various other possibilities, e.g., parallelization and approximation, to meet the scalability requirements in Web-based systems.

  18. OMOGENIA: A Semantically Driven Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Aggelos

    Ontology creation can be thought of as a social procedure. Indeed the concepts involved in general need to be elicited from communities of domain experts and end-users by teams of knowledge engineers. Many problems in ontology creation appear to resemble certain problems in software design, particularly with respect to the setup of collaborative systems. For instance, the resolution of conceptual conflicts between formalized ontologies is a major engineering problem as ontologies move into widespread use on the semantic web. Such conflict resolution often requires human collaboration and cannot be achieved by automated methods with the exception of simple cases. In this chapter we discuss research in the field of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that focuses on classification and which throws light on ontology building. Furthermore, we present a semantically driven collaborative environment called OMOGENIA as a natural way to display and examine the structure of an evolving ontology in a collaborative setting.

  19. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  20. Semantic memory: a feature-based analysis and new norms for Italian.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Semantic norms for properties produced by native speakers are valuable tools for researchers interested in the structure of semantic memory and in category-specific semantic deficits in individuals following brain damage. The aims of this study were threefold. First, we sought to extend existing semantic norms by adopting an empirical approach to category (Exp. 1) and concept (Exp. 2) selection, in order to obtain a more representative set of semantic memory features. Second, we extensively outlined a new set of semantic production norms collected from Italian native speakers for 120 artifactual and natural basic-level concepts, using numerous measures and statistics following a feature-listing task (Exp. 3b). Finally, we aimed to create a new publicly accessible database, since only a few existing databases are publicly available online. PMID:23055168

  1. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  2. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  3. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  4. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  5. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  6. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  7. Semantic query processing and annotation generation for content-based retrieval of histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lilian H.; Hanka, Rudolf; Ip, Horace H. S.; Cheung, Kent K. T.; Lam, Ringo

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we present a semantic content representation scheme and the associated techniques for supporting (1) query by image examples or by natural language in a histological image database and (2) automatic annotation generation for images through image semantic analysis. In this research, various types of query are analyzed by either a semantic analyzer or a natural language analyzer to extract high level concepts and histological information, which are subsequently converted into an internal semantic content representation structure code-named 'Papillon.' Papillon serves not only as an intermediate representation scheme but also stores the semantic content of the image that will be used to match against the semantic index structure within the image database during query processing. During the image database population phase, all images that are going to be put into the database will go through the same processing so that every image would have its semantic content represented by a Papillon structure. Since the Papillon structure for an image contains high level semantic information of the image, it forms the basis of the technique that automatically generates textual annotation for the input images. Papillon bridges the gap between different media in the database, allows complicated intelligent browsing to be carried out efficiently, and also provides a well- defined semantic content representation scheme for different content processing engines developed for content-based retrieval.

  8. EEG Theta and Gamma Responses to Semantic Violations in Online Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta ([Approximately]3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or contained a semantically…

  9. Semantic Similarity of Labels and Inductive Generalization: Taking a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Godwin, Karrie E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by semantically-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in natural speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with semantically-similar labels.…

  10. EEG Theta and Alpha Responses Reveal Qualitative Differences in Processing Taxonomic versus Thematic Semantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…

  11. I Will Fear No Audience: General Semantics Applied to a Communication Apprehensive Public Speaking Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Applies general semantics to a public speaking communication apprehension (CA) lab and divides the lab into four main frames or semester sections. Suggests that CA has been treated elementalistically up to now, and that programs need to view the person holistically. States that general semantics applied to CA teaches awareness of the natural order…

  12. Rewriting Logic Semantics of a Plan Execution Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar A.; Rocha, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) is a synchronous language developed by NASA to support autonomous spacecraft operations. In this paper, we propose a rewriting logic semantics of PLEXIL in Maude, a high-performance logical engine. The rewriting logic semantics is by itself a formal interpreter of the language and can be used as a semantic benchmark for the implementation of PLEXIL executives. The implementation in Maude has the additional benefit of making available to PLEXIL designers and developers all the formal analysis and verification tools provided by Maude. The formalization of the PLEXIL semantics in rewriting logic poses an interesting challenge due to the synchronous nature of the language and the prioritized rules defining its semantics. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a general procedure for simulating synchronous set relations in rewriting logic that is sound and, for deterministic relations, complete. We also report on the finding of two issues at the design level of the original PLEXIL semantics that were identified with the help of the executable specification in Maude.

  13. Disorders of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  14. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  15. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  16. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005). PMID:26282623

  17. Semantic generalization in implicit language learning.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N

    2015-07-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether they collocate with abstract or concrete nouns. After reading sentences containing the verbs, participants were required to judge the familiarity of pairs of novel verbs and nouns and to indicate their confidence or the basis of their judgment (i.e., guess, intuition, memory). Although all of the words had occurred in the texts, none of the critical items had actually occurred together. However, endorsement rates were significantly higher for pairs that respected the semantic preference rules than those that did not. Through analysis of subjective measures and verbal report, we argue that, for the majority of participants, this effect was based on unconscious knowledge. We argue that implicit learning of the kind of generalizations underlying semantic preferences is possible even after limited exposure. PMID:25581225

  18. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  19. Ways of making-sense: Local gamma synchronization reveals differences between semantic processing induced by music and language.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Paulo; Chavez, Mario; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity. Similar results were observed after linguistic semantic violation except for gamma activity, which increased after semantic congruence between sentence-word pairs. Our findings indicate that local gamma activity is a neural marker that signals different ways of semantic processing between music and language, revealing the dynamic and self-organized nature of the semantic processing. PMID:26734990

  20. Semantic processing of English sentences using statistical computation based on neurophysiological models

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marcia T.

    2015-01-01

    Computer programs that can accurately interpret natural human language and carry out instructions would improve the lives of people with language processing deficits and greatly benefit society in general. von Neumann in theorized that the human brain utilizes its own unique statistical neuronal computation to decode language and that this produces specific patterns of neuronal activity. This paper extends von Neumann's theory to the processing of partial semantics of declarative sentences. I developed semantic neuronal network models that emulate key features of cortical language processing and accurately compute partial semantics of English sentences. The method of computation implements the MAYA Semantic Technique, a mathematical technique I previously developed to determine partial semantics of sentences within a natural language processing program. Here I further simplified the technique by grouping repeating patterns into fewer categories. Unlike other natural language programs, my approach computes three partial semantics. The results of this research show that the computation of partial semantics of a sentence uses both feedforward and feedback projection which suggest that the partial semantic presented in this research might be a conscious activity within the human brain. PMID:26106331

  1. Semantic processing of English sentences using statistical computation based on neurophysiological models.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marcia T

    2015-01-01

    Computer programs that can accurately interpret natural human language and carry out instructions would improve the lives of people with language processing deficits and greatly benefit society in general. von Neumann in theorized that the human brain utilizes its own unique statistical neuronal computation to decode language and that this produces specific patterns of neuronal activity. This paper extends von Neumann's theory to the processing of partial semantics of declarative sentences. I developed semantic neuronal network models that emulate key features of cortical language processing and accurately compute partial semantics of English sentences. The method of computation implements the MAYA Semantic Technique, a mathematical technique I previously developed to determine partial semantics of sentences within a natural language processing program. Here I further simplified the technique by grouping repeating patterns into fewer categories. Unlike other natural language programs, my approach computes three partial semantics. The results of this research show that the computation of partial semantics of a sentence uses both feedforward and feedback projection which suggest that the partial semantic presented in this research might be a conscious activity within the human brain. PMID:26106331

  2. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  3. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  4. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  5. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  6. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  7. Semantics and types of cough

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Bolser, Don; Davenport, Paul; Fontana, Giovanni; Morice, Alyn; Widdicombe, John

    2010-01-01

    The panel considered the different types of cough in terms of basic mechanisms and clinical manifestations; both experimentally and clinically cough could occur in single efforts and as ‘bouts’ or ‘epochs’. There were different definitions of cough but, provided the definition used was clear, this did not seem to be a major concern. The methods available for determining the nature or type of clinical cough were discussed, in particular automated cough counting in the clinic and more sophisticated methods available in the laboratory. With regard to semantics, there has been great variation in the names used; this applies to nervous sensors for cough, to cough reflexes and epochs, to clinical names for cough, and to cough sounds. Some simplification and uniformity of nomenclature seemed desirable although, provided the use of a name was clear, little confusion probably existed. The panel felt that the cough nomenclature would evolve with time and would prove to be useful for investigators, clinicians and coughers. PMID:19136069

  8. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. PMID:26342771

  9. Active maintenance of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-12-01

    In research on verbal working memory, articulatory rehearsal, a maintenance mechanism for phonological representations, has undergone intensive and excellent study. Possible mechanisms for semantic representation have received less attention. However, several studies have reported a double dissociation in types of memory deficits (semantic memory difficulties vs. phonological memory difficulties). This suggests the separability of two maintenance mechanisms. The present study focused on this separability in individuals with normal memory abilities, using a dual-task interference paradigm. The results indicate a crossover interaction between memory and interference task effects: Preventing articulatory rehearsal more strongly disrupted the phonological memory task, whereas performing a tapping task that interfered with attentional control more strongly disrupted semantic memory. These results suggest that semantic representations are actively maintained by a mechanism other than phonological maintenance. PMID:24687734

  10. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  11. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  12. Congruent and Incongruent Semantic Context Influence Vowel Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotton, J. M.; Elvebak, R. L.; Moua, L. C.; Heggem, N. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Kirk, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sentence context on the recognition of naturally spoken vowels degraded by reverberation and Gaussian noise was investigated. Target words were paired to have similar consonant sounds but different vowels (e.g., map/mop) and were embedded early in sentences which provided three types of semantic context. Fifty-eight…

  13. The Influence of Working Memory Load on Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Tom; Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; Hutchison, Keith A.; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The present research examines the nature of the different processes that have been proposed to underlie semantic priming. Specifically, it has been argued that priming arises as a result of "automatic target activation" and/or the use of strategies like prospective "expectancy generation" and "retrospective semantic…

  14. JournalMap: Geo-semantic searching for relevant knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists struggling to understand rapidly changing environments and evolving ecosystem threats need quick access to relevant research and documentation of natural systems. The advent of semantic and aggregation searching (e.g., Google Scholar, Web of Science) has made it easier to find useful lite...

  15. A Review of Ontologies with the Semantic Web in View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the movement of the World Wide Web from the first generation to the second, called the Semantic Web. Provides an overview of ontology, a philosophical theory about the nature of existence being applied to artificial intelligence that will have a crucial role in enabling content-based access, interoperability, and communication across the…

  16. Semantic Modeling of Requirements: Leveraging Ontologies in Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Masood Saleem

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of "Systems Engineering" (SE), having "stakeholders" from diverse domains with orthogonal facets, and need to consider all stages of "lifecycle" of system during conception, can benefit tremendously by employing "Knowledge Engineering" (KE) to achieve semantic agreement among all…

  17. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  18. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  19. Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Mustafa; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rademaker, Alfred W; Voss, Joel L; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Hurley, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative components despite intact comprehension of the corresponding noun. PMID:25982291

  20. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

  1. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  2. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts. PMID:25648156

  3. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  4. Frontotemporal neural systems supporting semantic processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Powers, John; Cook, Philip A; Smith, Edward E; Grossman, Murray

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesized that semantic memory for object concepts involves both representations of visual feature knowledge in modality-specific association cortex and heteromodal regions that are important for integrating and organizing this semantic knowledge so that it can be used in a flexible, contextually appropriate manner. We examined this hypothesis in an fMRI study of mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were presented with pairs of printed words and asked whether the words matched on a given visual-perceptual feature (e.g., guitar, violin: SHAPE). The stimuli probed natural kinds and manufactured objects, and the judgments involved shape or color. We found activation of bilateral ventral temporal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during semantic judgments, with AD patients showing less activation of these regions than healthy seniors. Moreover, AD patients showed less ventral temporal activation than did healthy seniors for manufactured objects, but not for natural kinds. We also used diffusion-weighted MRI of white matter to examine fractional anisotropy (FA). Patients with AD showed significantly reduced FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which carry projections linking temporal and frontal regions of this semantic network. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that semantic memory is supported in part by a large-scale neural network involving modality-specific association cortex, heteromodal association cortex, and projections between these regions. The semantic deficit in AD thus arises from gray matter disease that affects the representation of feature knowledge and processing its content, as well as white matter disease that interrupts the integrated functioning of this large-scale network. PMID:24425352

  5. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  6. Is Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence From Adult Grammaticality Judgment and Comprehension Studies.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Bidgood, Amy; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F; Freudenthal, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To explain the phenomenon that certain English verbs resist passivization (e.g., *£5 was cost by the book), Pinker (1989) proposed a semantic constraint on the passive in the adult grammar: The greater the extent to which a verb denotes an action where a patient is affected or acted upon, the greater the extent to which it is compatible with the passive. However, a number of comprehension and production priming studies have cast doubt upon this claim, finding no difference between highly affecting agent-patient/theme-experiencer passives (e.g., Wendy was kicked/frightened by Bob) and non-actional experiencer theme passives (e.g., Wendy was heard by Bob). The present study provides evidence that a semantic constraint is psychologically real, and is readily observed when more fine-grained independent and dependent measures are used (i.e., participant ratings of verb semantics, graded grammaticality judgments, and reaction time in a forced-choice picture-matching comprehension task). We conclude that a semantic constraint on the passive must be incorporated into accounts of the adult grammar. PMID:26607289

  7. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  8. The cohesive metaschema: a higher-level abstraction of the UMLS Semantic Network.

    PubMed

    Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Zong; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) joins together a group of established medical terminologies in a unified knowledge representation framework. Two major resources of the UMLS are its Metathesaurus, containing a large number of concepts, and the Semantic Network (SN), containing semantic types and forming an abstraction of the Metathesaurus. However, the SN itself is large and complex and may still be difficult to view and comprehend. Our structural partitioning technique partitions the SN into structurally uniform sets of semantic types based on the distribution of the relationships within the SN. An enhancement of the structural partition results in cohesive, singly rooted sets of semantic types. Each such set is named after its root which represents the common nature of the group. These sets of semantic types are represented by higher-level components called metasemantic types. A network, called a metaschema, which consists of the meta-semantic types connected by hierarchical and semantic relationships is obtained and provides an abstract view supporting orientation to the SN. The metaschema is utilized to audit the UMLS classifications. We present a set of graphical views of the SN based on the metaschema to help in user orientation to the SN. A study compares the cohesive metaschema to metaschemas derived semantically by UMLS experts. PMID:12669983

  9. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  10. Declining object recognition performance in semantic dementia: A case for stored visual object representations.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Playfoot, David

    2015-01-01

    The role of the semantic system in recognizing objects is a matter of debate. Connectionist theories argue that it is impossible for a participant to determine that an object is familiar to them without recourse to a semantic hub; localist theories state that accessing a stored representation of the visual features of the object is sufficient for recognition. We examine this issue through the longitudinal study of two cases of semantic dementia, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive degradation of the semantic system. The cases in this paper do not conform to the "common" pattern of object recognition performance in semantic dementia described by Rogers, T. T., Lambon Ralph, M. A., Hodges, J. R., & Patterson, K. (2004). Natural selection: The impact of semantic impairment on lexical and object decision. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21, 331-352., and show no systematic relationship between severity of semantic impairment and success in object decision. We argue that these data are inconsistent with the connectionist position but can be easily reconciled with localist theories that propose stored structural descriptions of objects outside of the semantic system. PMID:27355607

  11. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  12. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  13. The Relation between Content and Structure in Language Production: An Analysis of Speech Errors in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the impact of a degraded semantic system on the structure of language production, we analysed transcripts from autobiographical memory interviews to identify naturally-occurring speech errors by eight patients with semantic dementia (SD) and eight age-matched normal speakers. Relative to controls, patients were significantly…

  14. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  15. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  16. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  17. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  18. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  19. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  20. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  1. Bottle, tulip and wineglass: semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists.

    PubMed

    Pring, L; Hermelin, B

    1993-11-01

    Semantic and structural aspects of picture processing were investigated with graphically gifted mentally handicapped subjects and intellectually normal children. The results suggest that savants as well as controls rely primarily on semantically organised memory schemata when reproducing pictures. A semantically determined strategy also determines picture sorting. The findings indicate that within the domain of expertise there appears to be no difference between savants and normals regarding the nature of the mental structures underlying specific talents. The mental structures on which such talents are based, should therefore be regarded as being relatively independent of the level of general cognitive functioning. PMID:8294524

  2. Extracting semantic lexicons from discharge summaries using machine learning and the C-Value method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Denny, Josh C; Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Xu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Semantic lexicons that link words and phrases to specific semantic types such as diseases are valuable assets for clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Although terminological terms with predefined semantic types can be generated easily from existing knowledge bases such as the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS), they are often limited and do not have good coverage for narrative clinical text. In this study, we developed a method for building semantic lexicons from clinical corpus. It extracts candidate semantic terms using a conditional random field (CRF) classifier and then selects terms using the C-Value algorithm. We applied the method to a corpus containing 10 years of discharge summaries from Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) and extracted 44,957 new terms for three semantic groups: Problem, Treatment, and Test. A manual analysis of 200 randomly selected terms not found in the UMLS demonstrated that 59% of them were meaningful new clinical concepts and 25% were lexical variants of exiting concepts in the UMLS. Furthermore, we compared the effectiveness of corpus-derived and UMLS-derived semantic lexicons in the concept extraction task of the 2010 i2b2 clinical NLP challenge. Our results showed that the classifier with corpus-derived semantic lexicons as features achieved a better performance (F-score 82.52%) than that with UMLS-derived semantic lexicons as features (F-score 82.04%). We conclude that such corpus-based methods are effective for generating semantic lexicons, which may improve named entity recognition tasks and may aid in augmenting synonymy within existing terminologies. PMID:23304311

  3. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  4. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  5. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  6. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  7. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  8. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Xian-mo

    2007-01-01

    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  9. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  10. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    evolution. The initial interpretational steps include protein synthesis, molecular recognition, and catalytic potential that facilitate structural and functional roles. Combinatorial possibilities are extended through interactions of increasing complexity in the temporal dimension. (3) All living things show a behavior that indicates awareness of time, or chronognosis. The ∼4 billion years of biological evolution have given rise to forms with increasing sophistication in sensory adaptation. This has been linked to the development of an increasing chronognostic range, and an associated increase in combinatorial complexity. (4) Development of a modern human phenotype and the ability to communicate through language, led to the development of archival storage, and invention of the basic skills, institutions and mechanisms that allowed the evolution of modern civilizations. Combinatorial amplification at the supra-phenotypical level arose from the invention of syntax, grammar, numbers, and the subsequent developments of abstraction in writing, algorithms, etc. The translational machineries of the human mind, the "mutation" of ideas therein, and the "conversations" of our social intercourse, have allowed a limited set of symbolic descriptors to evolve into an exponentially expanding semantic heritage. (5) The three postulates above open interesting epistemological questions. An understanding of topics such dualism, the élan vital, the status of hypothesis in science, memetics, the nature of consciousness, the role of semantic processing in the survival of societies, and Popper's three worlds, require recognition of an insubstantial component. By recognizing a necessary linkage between semantic content and a physical machinery, we can bring these perennial problems into the framework of a realistic philosophy. It is suggested, following Popper, that the ∼4 billion years of evolution of the biosphere represents an exploration of the nature of reality at the physicochemical

  11. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  12. On the universal structure of human lexical semantics

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Logan; Smith, Eric; Moore, Cristopher; Wilkins, Jon F.; Maddieson, Ian; Croft, William

    2016-01-01

    How universal is human conceptual structure? The way concepts are organized in the human brain may reflect distinct features of cultural, historical, and environmental background in addition to properties universal to human cognition. Semantics, or meaning expressed through language, provides indirect access to the underlying conceptual structure, but meaning is notoriously difficult to measure, let alone parameterize. Here, we provide an empirical measure of semantic proximity between concepts using cross-linguistic dictionaries to translate words to and from languages carefully selected to be representative of worldwide diversity. These translations reveal cases where a particular language uses a single “polysemous” word to express multiple concepts that another language represents using distinct words. We use the frequency of such polysemies linking two concepts as a measure of their semantic proximity and represent the pattern of these linkages by a weighted network. This network is highly structured: Certain concepts are far more prone to polysemy than others, and naturally interpretable clusters of closely related concepts emerge. Statistical analysis of the polysemies observed in a subset of the basic vocabulary shows that these structural properties are consistent across different language groups, and largely independent of geography, environment, and the presence or absence of a literary tradition. The methods developed here can be applied to any semantic domain to reveal the extent to which its conceptual structure is, similarly, a universal attribute of human cognition and language use. PMID:26831113

  13. Predictions interact with missing sensory evidence in semantic processing areas.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Bendixen, Alexandra; Herrmann, Björn; Henry, Molly J; Mildner, Toralf; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    Human brain function draws on predictive mechanisms that exploit higher-level context during lower-level perception. These mechanisms are particularly relevant for situations in which sensory information is compromised or incomplete, as for example in natural speech where speech segments may be omitted due to sluggish articulation. Here, we investigate which brain areas support the processing of incomplete words that were predictable from semantic context, compared with incomplete words that were unpredictable. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants heard sentences that orthogonally varied in predictability (semantically predictable vs. unpredictable) and completeness (complete vs. incomplete, i.e. missing their final consonant cluster). The effects of predictability and completeness interacted in heteromodal semantic processing areas, including left angular gyrus and left precuneus, where activity did not differ between complete and incomplete words when they were predictable. The same regions showed stronger activity for incomplete than for complete words when they were unpredictable. The interaction pattern suggests that for highly predictable words, the speech signal does not need to be complete for neural processing in semantic processing areas. Hum Brain Mapp 37:704-716, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26583355

  14. Semantic mechanisms may be responsible for developing synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Danko

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about how synesthesia develops and which aspects of synesthesia can be acquired through a learning process. We review the increasing evidence for the role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia, and argue for the thesis that synesthetic abilities are developed and modified by semantic mechanisms. That is, in certain people semantic mechanisms associate concepts with perception-like experiences—and this association occurs in an extraordinary way. This phenomenon can be referred to as “higher” synesthesia or ideasthesia. The present analysis suggests that synesthesia develops during childhood and is being enriched further throughout the synesthetes’ lifetime; for example, the already existing concurrents may be adopted by novel inducers or new concurrents may be formed. For a deeper understanding of the origin and nature of synesthesia we propose to focus future research on two aspects: (i) the similarities between synesthesia and ordinary phenomenal experiences based on concepts; and (ii) the tight entanglement of perception, cognition and the conceptualization of the world. Importantly, an explanation of how biological systems get to generate experiences, synesthetic or not, may have to involve an explanation of how semantic networks are formed in general and what their role is in the ability to be aware of the surrounding world. PMID:25191239

  15. On the universal structure of human lexical semantics.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyejin; Sutton, Logan; Smith, Eric; Moore, Cristopher; Wilkins, Jon F; Maddieson, Ian; Croft, William; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2016-02-16

    How universal is human conceptual structure? The way concepts are organized in the human brain may reflect distinct features of cultural, historical, and environmental background in addition to properties universal to human cognition. Semantics, or meaning expressed through language, provides indirect access to the underlying conceptual structure, but meaning is notoriously difficult to measure, let alone parameterize. Here, we provide an empirical measure of semantic proximity between concepts using cross-linguistic dictionaries to translate words to and from languages carefully selected to be representative of worldwide diversity. These translations reveal cases where a particular language uses a single "polysemous" word to express multiple concepts that another language represents using distinct words. We use the frequency of such polysemies linking two concepts as a measure of their semantic proximity and represent the pattern of these linkages by a weighted network. This network is highly structured: Certain concepts are far more prone to polysemy than others, and naturally interpretable clusters of closely related concepts emerge. Statistical analysis of the polysemies observed in a subset of the basic vocabulary shows that these structural properties are consistent across different language groups, and largely independent of geography, environment, and the presence or absence of a literary tradition. The methods developed here can be applied to any semantic domain to reveal the extent to which its conceptual structure is, similarly, a universal attribute of human cognition and language use. PMID:26831113

  16. Toward a semantic web of paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, Julien; Eshleman, Jason A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract The paleoclimate record is information-rich, yet significant technical barriers currently exist before this record can be used to answer scientific questions. Here we make the case for a universal format to structure paleoclimate data. A simple example demonstrates the scientific utility of such a self-describing way of organizing coral data and meta-data. This example is generalized to a universal ontology that may form the backbone of an open-source, open-access, and crowd-sourced paleoclimate database. The format is designed to enable <span class="hlt">semantic</span> searches, and is expected to accelerate discovery on topical scientific problems like climate extremes, the characteristics of <span class="hlt">natural</span> climate variability, and climate sensitivity to various forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010csw..book..105P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010csw..book..105P"><span id="translatedtitle">Corporate <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web: Towards the Deployment of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Technologies in Enterprises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga</p> <p></p> <p>The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web offers promising solutions. While the global <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web idea aims at bringing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965586"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> interference in a randomized naming task: Effects of age, order, and category</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gordon, Jean K.; Cheimariou, Spyridoula</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lexical retrieval in production is a competitive process, requiring activation of a target word from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> input, and its selection from amongst co-activated items. Competitors are automatically primed through spreading activation within the lexicon, but competition may be increased by the prior presentation of related items, the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference effect. This has been demonstrated in tasks in which pictures grouped by <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category are compared to unrelated pictures (blocked naming) and in tasks involving successive naming of items from the same <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category (continuous naming). Such highly structured tasks may not be representative of the processes at work under more <span class="hlt">natural</span> word retrieval conditions. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective examination of naming latencies from a randomized picture naming task containing a wide variety of items and categories. Our large sample of adults, ranging in age from 22 to 89 years, also allowed us to test the hypothesis that older adults, who are particularly susceptible to word-retrieval problems, experience increased difficulty resolving competition among lexical items. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> interference effects were evident in the interaction between <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category and order of presentation within a block—miscellaneous items were named more quickly, whereas related items were named more slowly. This interference effect did not vary with participant age, contrary to the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference. PMID:24499271</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829868','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829868"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of activation of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> similar concepts during spoken word recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge and the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. PMID:19744941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485123','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485123"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and default mode networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F.; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The default mode network (DMN) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are <span class="hlt">semantic</span> hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but, rather, a common “disinterest” in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056304"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and default mode networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>The default mode network (DMN) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are <span class="hlt">semantic</span> hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but, rather, a common "disinterest" in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EntIS...8..464L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EntIS...8..464L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linkages among multiple sources for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The vision of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar <span class="hlt">semantic</span> applications in an enterprise environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018214"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for Ada 9X</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's '<span class="hlt">natural</span> <span class="hlt">semantics</span>', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363406"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> remote patient monitoring system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990046202','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990046202"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formal <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of PVS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960950','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960950"><span id="translatedtitle">Interconnected growing self-organizing maps for auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> acquisition modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Mengxue; Li, Aijun; Fang, Qiang; Kaufmann, Emily; Kröger, Bernd J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Based on the incremental <span class="hlt">nature</span> of knowledge acquisition, in this study we propose a growing self-organizing neural network approach for modeling the acquisition of auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories. We introduce an Interconnected Growing Self-Organizing Maps (I-GSOM) algorithm, which takes associations between auditory information and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information into consideration, in this paper. Direct phonetic–<span class="hlt">semantic</span> association is simulated in order to model the language acquisition in early phases, such as the babbling and imitation stages, in which no phonological representations exist. Based on the I-GSOM algorithm, we conducted experiments using paired acoustic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> training data. We use a cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training procedure to model the teaching and learning process between children and their communication partners. A reinforcing-by-link training procedure and a link-forgetting procedure are introduced to model the acquisition of associative relations between auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. Experimental results indicate that (1) I-GSOM has good ability to learn auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories presented within the training data; (2) clear auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> boundaries can be found in the network representation; (3) cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training leads to a detailed categorization as well as to a detailed clustering, while keeping the clusters that have already been learned and the network structure that has already been developed stable; and (4) reinforcing-by-link training leads to well-perceived auditory–<span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations. Our I-GSOM model suggests that it is important to associate auditory information with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information during language acquisition. Despite its high level of abstraction, our I-GSOM approach can be interpreted as a biologically-inspired neurocomputational model. PMID:24688478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031661','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031661"><span id="translatedtitle">A Graph-Based Recovery and Decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Predications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cameron, Delroy; Bodenreider, Olivier; Yalamanchili, Hima; Danh, Tu; Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit P.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives This paper presents a methodology for recovering and decomposing Swanson’s Raynaud Syndrome–Fish Oil Hypothesis semi-automatically. The methodology leverages the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of assertions extracted from biomedical literature (called <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predications) along with structured background knowledge and graph-based algorithms to semi-automatically capture the informative associations originally discovered manually by Swanson. Demonstrating that Swanson’s manually intensive techniques can be undertaken semi-automatically, paves the way for fully automatic <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-based hypothesis generation from scientific literature. Methods <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> predications obtained from biomedical literature allow the construction of labeled directed graphs which contain various associations among concepts from the literature. By aggregating such associations into informative subgraphs, some of the relevant details originally articulated by Swanson has been uncovered. However, by leveraging background knowledge to bridge important knowledge gaps in the literature, a methodology for semi-automatically capturing the detailed associations originally explicated in <span class="hlt">natural</span> language by Swanson has been developed. Results Our methodology not only recovered the 3 associations commonly recognized as Swanson’s Hypothesis, but also decomposed them into an additional 16 detailed associations, formulated as chains of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predications. Altogether, 14 out of the 19 associations that can be attributed to Swanson were retrieved using our approach. To the best of our knowledge, such an in-depth recovery and decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis has never been attempted. Conclusion In this work therefore, we presented a methodology for semi- automatically recovering and decomposing Swanson’s RS-DFO Hypothesis using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations and graph algorithms. Our methodology provides new insights into potential prerequisites for <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-driven Literature-Based Discovery (LBD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3937097','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3937097"><span id="translatedtitle">Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> that ensembles of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> spaces can yield improved performance on the tasks of automatically extracting synonyms and abbreviation-expansion pairs. This notion, which merits further exploration, allows different distributional models – with different model parameters – and different types of corpora to be combined, potentially allowing enhanced performance to be obtained on a wide range of <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing tasks. PMID:24499679</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973458"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> some of the most ancient old world pulse crops and their diversity in modern European languages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mikić, Aleksandar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- ('a leguminous plant'), *bhabh- ('field bean'), *[Formula: see text] ('a kernel of leguminous plant', 'pea'), ghArs- ('a leguminous plant'), *kek- ('pea') and *lent- ('lentil'). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača ('pea'), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV ('pea') and *[Formula: see text] ('lentil'). The Proto-Caucasianx root *[Formula: see text] <span class="hlt">denoted</span> pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) ('bean', 'lentil') and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r ('pea', 'bean', 'vetch') could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV ('bean') within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- ('lentil') and *pūl- ('field bean'). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. PMID:22973458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440529"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Linguistic Maturity in Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We propose a method to quantify <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child's age and number of words produced. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content of narratives changes in a predictable pattern with children's age and argue that SELMA is a measure quantifying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linguistic maturity. The study opens up the possibility of using quantitative measures for studying the development of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation in children's narratives, and emphasizes the importance of word co-occurrences for understanding the development of meaning. PMID:26440529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009best.conf..390M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009best.conf..390M"><span id="translatedtitle">Scalable Medical Image Understanding by Fusing Cross-Modal Object Recognition with Formal Domain <span class="hlt">Semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Möller, Manuel; Sintek, Michael; Buitelaar, Paul; Mukherjee, Saikat; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Freund, Jörg</p> <p></p> <p>Recent advances in medical imaging technology have dramatically increased the amount of clinical image data. In contrast, techniques for efficiently exploiting the rich <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information in medical images have evolved much slower. Despite the research outcomes in image understanding, current image databases are still indexed by manually assigned subjective keywords instead of the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the images. Indeed, most current content-based image search applications index image features that do not generalize well and use inflexible queries. This slow progress is due to the lack of scalable and generic information representation systems which can abstract over the high dimensional <span class="hlt">nature</span> of medical images as well as <span class="hlt">semantically</span> model the results of object recognition techniques. We propose a system combining medical imaging information with ontological formalized <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge that provides a basis for building universal knowledge repositories and gives clinicians fully cross-lingual and cross-modal access to biomedical information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041418','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041418"><span id="translatedtitle">CNTRO: A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tao, Cui; Wei, Wei-Qi; Solbrig, Harold R.; Savova, Guergana; Chute, Christopher G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web specifications to represent temporal information in clinical narratives is an important step for temporal reasoning and answering time-oriented queries. Existing temporal models are either not compatible with the powerful reasoning tools developed for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, or designed only for structured clinical data and therefore are not ready to be applied on <span class="hlt">natural</span>-language-based clinical narrative reports directly. We have developed a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web ontology which is called Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation ontology. Using this ontology, temporal information in clinical narratives can be represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples. More temporal information and relations can then be inferred by <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web based reasoning tools. Experimental results show that this ontology can represent temporal information in real clinical narratives successfully. PMID:21347086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897385','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897385"><span id="translatedtitle">Have Green – A Visual Analytics Framework for Large <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wong, Pak C.; Chin, George; Foote, Harlan P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Thomas, James J.</p> <p>2006-10-29</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph is a network of heterogeneous nodes and links annotated with a domain ontology. In intelligence analysis, investigators use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs to organize concepts and relationships as graph nodes and links in hopes of discovering key trends, patterns, and insights. However, as new information continues to arrive from a multitude of sources, the size and complexity of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs will soon overwhelm an investigator's cognitive capacity to carry out significant analyses. We introduce a powerful visual analytics framework designed to enhance investigators--<span class="hlt">natural</span> analytical capabilities to comprehend and analyze large <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. The paper describes the overall framework design, presents major development accomplishments to date, and discusses future directions of a new visual analytics system known as Have Green.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> similarity of labels and inductive generalization: taking a second look.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fisher, Anna V; Matlen, Bryan J; Godwin, Karrie E</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in <span class="hlt">natural</span> speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels. Experiment 1 indicated that adults made category-based inferences regardless of co-occurrence probability; however, 4-year-olds generalized with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels that co-occurred in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit) but not with non-co-occurring labels (e.g., crocodile-alligator). Experiment 2 indicated that generalization with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels increased gradually between 4- and 6-years of age. These results are discussed in relation to theories of early learning. PMID:21227407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060017072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060017072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Analysis of Email Using Domain Ontologies and WordNet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The problem of capturing and accessing knowledge in paper form has been supplanted by a problem of providing structure to vast amounts of electronic information. Systems that can construct <span class="hlt">semantic</span> links for <span class="hlt">natural</span> language documents like email messages automatically will be a crucial element of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> email tools. We have designed an information extraction process that can leverage the knowledge already contained in an existing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web, recognizing references in email to existing nodes in a network of ontology instances by using linguistic knowledge and knowledge of the structure of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web. We developed a heuristic score that uses several forms of evidence to detect references in email to existing nodes in the Semanticorganizer repository's network. While these scores cannot directly support automated probabilistic inference, they can be used to rank nodes by relevance and link those deemed most relevant to email messages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2232694','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2232694"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlining <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation for medical narratives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We introduce two abstraction mechanisms by which the process of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation of medical narratives can be simplified and further optimized. One relates to generalized triggering conditions, the other to inheritance-based specifications of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> rules. The proposed methodology leads to a parsimonious inventory of abstract, simple and domain-independent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation schemata whose effectiveness has been evaluated on a medical text corpus. PMID:10566496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042235','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042235"><span id="translatedtitle">Explaining <span class="hlt">semantic</span> short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control disorders. PMID:21195105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233863','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233863"><span id="translatedtitle">SSWAP: A Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SSWAP (Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded <span class="hlt">semantic</span> w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=2&id=EJ749588','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=2&id=EJ749588"><span id="translatedtitle">Representations for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Learning Webs: <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Technology in Learning Support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Recent work on applying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859233','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859233"><span id="translatedtitle">Synonyms Provide <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Preview Benefit in English</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schotter, Elizabeth R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit was observed for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit. Why synonyms provide <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors—attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..877K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..877K"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a Reactive <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Execution Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele</p> <p></p> <p>Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4402216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4402216"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Networks Associated with Computerized <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tests of generative <span class="hlt">semantic</span> verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness between words and grouping of words into <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness between words based on latent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736216"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Clustering of Search Engine Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and <span class="hlt">semantics</span> similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate <span class="hlt">semantically</span> meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974408','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974408"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithms and architectures for high performance analysis of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hendrickson, Bruce Alan</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> graphs offer one promising avenue for intelligence analysis in homeland security. They provide a mechanism for describing a wide variety of relationships between entities of potential interest. The vertices are nouns of various types, e.g. people, organizations, events, etc. Edges in the graph represent different types of relationships between entities, e.g. 'is friends with', 'belongs-to', etc. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> graphs offer a number of potential advantages as a knowledge representation system. They allow information of different kinds, and collected in differing ways, to be combined in a seamless manner. A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph is a very compressed representation of some of relationship information. It has been reported that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph can be two orders of magnitude smaller than the processed intelligence data. This allows for much larger portions of the data universe to be resident in computer memory. Many intelligence queries that are relevant to the terrorist threat are <span class="hlt">naturally</span> expressed in the language of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. One example is the search for 'interesting' relationships between two individuals or between an individual and an event, which can be phrased as a search for short paths in the graph. Another example is the search for an analyst-specified threat pattern, which can be cast as an instance of subgraph isomorphism. It is important to note than many kinds of analysis are not relationship based, so these are not good candidates for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. Thus, a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph should always be used in conjunction with traditional knowledge representation and interface methods. Operations that involve looking for chains of relationships (e.g. friend of a friend) are not efficiently executable in a traditional relational database. However, the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph can be thought of as a pre-join of the database, and it is ideally suited for these kinds of operations. Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are working to facilitate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556488','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556488"><span id="translatedtitle">A continuous <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space describes the representation of thousands of object and action categories across the human brain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huth, Alexander G.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Vu, An T.; Gallant, Jack L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary Humans can see and name thousands of distinct object and action categories, so it is unlikely that each category is represented in a distinct brain area. A more efficient scheme would be to represent categories as locations in a continuous <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space mapped smoothly across the cortical surface. To search for such a space, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activity evoked by <span class="hlt">natural</span> movies. We then used voxel-wise models to examine the cortical representation of 1705 object and action categories. The first few dimensions of the underlying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space were recovered from the fit models by principal components analysis. Projection of the recovered <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space onto cortical flat maps shows that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> selectivity is organized into smooth gradients that cover much of visual and non-visual cortex. Furthermore, both the recovered <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space and the cortical organization of the space are shared across different individuals. PMID:23259955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+of+congress%22&pg=5&id=EJ659594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+of+congress%22&pg=5&id=EJ659594"><span id="translatedtitle">Hindrances in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Mapping Involving Thesauri and Metadata: A Linguistic Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Park, Jung-ran</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes the characteristics of <span class="hlt">natural</span> languages that hinder the optimal organization and accessing of networked resources, focusing on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mapping processes utilizing thesauri or metadata. Considers future information retrieval system design, especially networked retrieval and <span class="hlt">natural</span> language, and gives an example of problems in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568934','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568934"><span id="translatedtitle">Not just <span class="hlt">semantics</span>: Strong frequency and weak cognate effects on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> association in bilinguals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Antón-Méndez, Inés; Gollan, Tamar H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the possibility that knowledge of two languages influences the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations, bilinguals and monolinguals were compared in a word association task. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced less typical responses relative to monolinguals when given cues with a very common associate (e.g., given bride, bilinguals said “dress” instead of “groom”). In Experiment 2, bilinguals produced responses as typical as those of monolinguals when given cues with high-frequency associates, but not when given cues with low-frequency associates. Bilinguals’ responses were also affected, to a certain extent, by the cognate status of the stimulus word pairs: They were more similar to monolinguals’ responses when the cue and its strongest associate were both cognates (e.g., minute–second is minuto–segundo in Spanish), as opposed to both being noncognates. Experiment 3 confirmed the presence of a robust frequency effect on bilingual but not on monolingual association responses. These findings imply a lexical locus for the bilingual effect on association responses and reveal the association task to be not quite as purely <span class="hlt">semantic</span> as was previously assumed. PMID:20852236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6057..354D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6057..354D"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceptually based techniques for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> image classification and retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Depalov, Dejan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos; Li, Dongge; Gandhi, Bhavan</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The accumulation of large collections of digital images has created the need for efficient and intelligent schemes for content-based image retrieval. Our goal is to organize the contents <span class="hlt">semantically</span>, according to meaningful categories. We present a new approach for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> classification that utilizes a recently proposed color-texture segmentation algorithm (by Chen et al.), which combines knowledge of human perception and signal characteristics to segment <span class="hlt">natural</span> scenes into perceptually uniform regions. The color and texture features of these regions are used as medium level descriptors, based on which we extract <span class="hlt">semantic</span> labels, first at the segment and then at the scene level. The segment features consist of spatial texture orientation information and color composition in terms of a limited number of locally adapted dominant colors. The focus of this paper is on region classification. We use a hierarchical vocabulary of segment labels that is consistent with those used in the NIST TRECVID 2003 development set. We test the approach on a database of 9000 segments obtained from 2500 photographs of <span class="hlt">natural</span> scenes. For training and classification we use the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique. We examine the performance of the algorithm (precision and recall rates) when different sets of features (e.g., one or two most dominant colors versus four quantized dominant colors) are used. Our results indicate that the proposed approach offers significant performance improvements over existing approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294481"><span id="translatedtitle">Ontology-based <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Support to Improve Accessibility of Graphics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murillo-Morales, Tomás; Miesenberger, Klaus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We aim to ease the process of authoring accessible graphics as well as taking a first step towards the long-term goal of allowing blind persons to access graphics autonomously. We are developing and experimenting with a hierarchical set of knowledge bases related to the presentation of visual objects and cues in the form of ontologies that will act as the formal, axiomatic underpinnings of an accessibility layer or, later on, a graphics reader/browser for blind and visually impaired people. The concept and prototypes of smart (or communicative) graphics [1], in which readers obtain information about the syntactic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content through the use of e.g. a <span class="hlt">natural</span> language interface, should be expanded by exploiting the benefits of formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> supported by domain- and task-aware ontologies describing the elements, visual cues and relations used for visualization or visual display. PMID:26294481</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433424"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the Words <span class="hlt">Denoting</span> Some of the Most Ancient Old World Pulse Crops and Their Diversity in Modern European Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mikić, Aleksandar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- (‘a leguminous plant’), *bhabh- (‘field bean’), * (‘a kernel of leguminous plant’, ‘pea’), ghArs- (‘a leguminous plant’), *kek- (‘pea’) and *lent- (‘lentil’). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača (‘pea’), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV (‘pea’) and * (‘lentil’). The Proto-Caucasianx root * <span class="hlt">denoted</span> pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) (‘bean’, ‘lentil’) and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r (‘pea’, ‘bean’, ‘vetch’) could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV (‘bean’) within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- (‘lentil’) and *pūl- (‘field bean’). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. PMID:22973458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6073E..0GE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6073E..0GE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> classification of business images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following <span class="hlt">semantic</span> classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6149..174K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6149..174K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Algebra of Lexical <span class="hlt">Semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kornai, András</p> <p></p> <p>The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51A1530H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51A1530H"><span id="translatedtitle">Gazetteer Brokering through <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Mediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of <span class="hlt">semantic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED026631.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED026631.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyticity and Features of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Steinberg, Danny D.</p> <p></p> <p>The findings reported in this paper are the result of an experiment to determine the empirical validity of such <span class="hlt">semantic</span> concepts as analytic, synthetic, and contradictory. Twenty-eight university students were presented with 156 sentences to assign to one of four <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories: (1) synthetic ("The dog is a poodle"), (2) analytic ("The tulip…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081192&hterms=semantic+search&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsemantic%2Bsearch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081192&hterms=semantic+search&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsemantic%2Bsearch"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer Brings Teams Together</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laufenberg, Lawrence</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer enables researchers in different locations to share, search for, and integrate data. Its customizable <span class="hlt">semantic</span> links offer fast access to interrelated information. This knowledge management and information integration tool also supports real-time instrument data collection and collaborative image annotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=frontal+AND+lobe&pg=5&id=EJ882986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=frontal+AND+lobe&pg=5&id=EJ882986"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Priming+AND+effect&pg=2&id=EJ1008767','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Priming+AND+effect&pg=2&id=EJ1008767"><span id="translatedtitle">Phasic Affective Modulation of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Priming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1043193.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1043193.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web in Teacher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Czerkawski, Betül Özkan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=7&id=EJ919400','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+fMRI&pg=7&id=EJ919400"><span id="translatedtitle">Neuronal Activation for <span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Reversible Sentences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantically</span> reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> reversible and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+time&pg=2&id=EJ1062994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+time&pg=2&id=EJ1062994"><span id="translatedtitle">Implicit Learning of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Preferences of Verbs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+time&pg=7&id=EJ1052653','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reaction+AND+time&pg=7&id=EJ1052653"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthographic and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Processing in Young Readers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This investigation examined orthographic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing during reading acquisition. Children in first to fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE-STONE-EARS), an exact match…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> search integration to climate data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Pouchard, Line Catherine; Shrestha, Biva</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+discovery+AND+knowledge+AND+discovery+AND+knowledge+AND+discovery&pg=7&id=ED566816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+discovery+AND+knowledge+AND+discovery+AND+knowledge+AND+discovery&pg=7&id=ED566816"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning the <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of Structured Data Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taheriyan, Mohsen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> model to describe their contents. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7492E..1PX','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7492E..1PX"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial information <span class="hlt">semantic</span> query based on SPARQL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial <span class="hlt">semantic</span> by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relations. It is important to establish spatial <span class="hlt">semantics</span> that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> approaches in our spatial queries system. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial <span class="hlt">semantic</span> query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychologie&id=EJ139518','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychologie&id=EJ139518"><span id="translatedtitle">Semantique et psychologie (<span class="hlt">Semantics</span> and Psychology)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Le Ny, Jean-Francois</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=owl&pg=5&id=EJ873256','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=owl&pg=5&id=EJ873256"><span id="translatedtitle">Social Networking on the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=yucatan&pg=2&id=ED109897','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=yucatan&pg=2&id=ED109897"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Studies of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Structure. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Michael L.</p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this research was to successfully model several <span class="hlt">semantic</span> domains in English and Spanish, in order to (a) test the reliability of judged-similarities tasks in cross-cultural situations and (b) obtain information about changes in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> organization with bilingualism and education. To achieve these goals, data were collected in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Control+AND+Eye+AND+Movements&pg=4&id=EJ802607','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Control+AND+Eye+AND+Movements&pg=4&id=EJ802607"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Processing of Previews within Compound Words</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not <span class="hlt">semantically</span>, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&id=EJ792142','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&id=EJ792142"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web and Educational Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The "<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+extraction&pg=3&id=EJ723925','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+extraction&pg=3&id=EJ723925"><span id="translatedtitle">Computation of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Number from Morphological Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+metadata&pg=7&id=EJ582149','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+metadata&pg=7&id=EJ582149"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Modeling Approach to Metadata.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brasethvik, Terje</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Explores problems in information sharing; discusses the concept of metadata; illustrates its use on the World Wide Web, as well as other related approaches; and presents an approach to information sharing that uses a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> modeling language (referent model language) as the basis for expressing <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of information and designing metadata…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+modelling&pg=2&id=EJ752049','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+modelling&pg=2&id=EJ752049"><span id="translatedtitle">Is There a Critical Period for <span class="hlt">Semantics</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slabakova, Roumyana</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews recent research on the second language acquisition of meaning with a view of establishing whether there is a critical period for the acquisition of compositional <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. It is claimed that the functional lexicon presents the most formidable challenge, while syntax and phrasal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> pose less difficulty to learners.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009450"><span id="translatedtitle">Social <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> for an Effective Enterprise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>An evolution of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, the Social <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> system are also modeled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2758682','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2758682"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Correlates of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and Phonemic Fluency Ability in First and Second Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Ali, Nilufa; Crinion, Jenny T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter density. The participants were 59 highly proficient speakers of 2 languages. Our findings corroborate the importance of the left inferior temporal cortex in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relative to phonemic fluency and show this effect to be the same in a first language (L1) and second language (L2). Additionally, we show that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and head of caudate bilaterally are associated with phonemic more than <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fluency, and this effect is stronger for L2 than L1 in the caudate nuclei. To further validate these structural results, we reanalyzed previously reported functional data and found that pre-SMA and left caudate activation was higher for phonemic than <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fluency. On the basis of our findings, we also predict that lesions to the pre-SMA and caudate nuclei may have a greater impact on phonemic than <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fluency, particularly in L2 speakers. PMID:19293396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25890389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25890389"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of temporal predictability in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> expectation: An MEG investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lau, Ellen F; Nguyen, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Prior research suggests that prediction of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and syntactic information prior to the bottom-up input is an important component of language comprehension. Recent work in basic visual and auditory perception suggests that the ability to predict features of an upcoming stimulus is even more valuable when the exact timing of the stimulus presentation can also be predicted. However, it is unclear whether lexical-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> predictions are similarly locked to a particular time, as previous studies of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predictability have used a predictable presentation rate. In the current study we vary the temporal predictability of target word presentation in the visual modality and examine the consequences for effects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predictability on the event-related N400 response component, as measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Although we observe robust effects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predictability on the N400 response, we find no evidence that these effects are larger in the presence of temporal predictability. These results suggest that, at least in the visual modality, lexical-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> predictions may be maintained over a broad time-window, which could allow predictive facilitation to survive the presence of optional modifiers in <span class="hlt">natural</span> language settings. The results also indicate that the mechanisms supporting predictive facilitation may vary in important ways across tasks and cognitive domains. PMID:25890389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384890"><span id="translatedtitle">Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that <span class="hlt">naturally</span> accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made <span class="hlt">semantically</span> unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were <span class="hlt">semantically</span> unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech. PMID:19384890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5854..158Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5854..158Y"><span id="translatedtitle">SASL: A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Annotation System for Literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai</p> <p></p> <p>Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information to them. Generally, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> annotation requires identifying entities before attaching <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches <span class="hlt">semantic</span> to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ciis.conf...56U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ciis.conf...56U"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Aware Crossover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar</p> <p></p> <p>It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), <span class="hlt">semantics</span> are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new <span class="hlt">semantic</span> based crossover known GP called <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294424"><span id="translatedtitle">Only time will tell - why temporal information is essential for our neuroscientific understanding of <span class="hlt">semantics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hauk, Olaf</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Theoretical developments about the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations and processes should be accompanied by a discussion of how these theories can be validated on the basis of empirical data. Here, I elaborate on the link between theory and empirical research, highlighting the need for temporal information in order to distinguish fundamental aspects of <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. The generic point that fast cognitive processes demand fast measurement techniques has been made many times before, although arguably more often in the psychophysiological community than in the metabolic neuroimaging community. Many reviews on the neuroscience of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> mostly or even exclusively focus on metabolic neuroimaging data. Following an analysis of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in terms of the representations and processes involved, I argue that fundamental theoretical debates about the neuroscience of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> can only be concluded on the basis of data with sufficient temporal resolution. Any "<span class="hlt">semantic</span> effect" may result from a conflation of long-term memory representations, retrieval and working memory processes, mental imagery, and episodic memory. This poses challenges for all neuroimaging modalities, but especially for those with low temporal resolution. It also throws doubt on the usefulness of contrasts between meaningful and meaningless stimuli, which may differ on a number of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and non-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> dimensions. I will discuss the consequences of this analysis for research on the role of convergence zones or hubs and distributed modal brain networks, top-down modulation of task and context as well as interactivity between levels of the processing hierarchy, for example in the framework of predictive coding. PMID:27294424</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26244723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26244723"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Relations between Visual Objects Can Be Unconsciously Processed but Not Reported under Change Blindness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ball, Felix; Bernasconi, Fosco; Busch, Niko A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Change blindness-the failure to detect changes in visual scenes-has often been interpreted as a result of impoverished visual information encoding or as a failure to compare the prechange and postchange scene. In the present electroencephalography study, we investigated whether <span class="hlt">semantic</span> features of prechange and postchange information are processed unconsciously, even when observers are unaware that a change has occurred. We presented scenes composed of <span class="hlt">natural</span> objects in which one object changed from one presentation to the next. Object changes were either <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related (e.g., rail car changed to rail) or unrelated (e.g., rail car changed to sausage). Observers were first asked to detect whether any change had occurred and then to judge the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relation of the two objects involved in the change. We found a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mismatch ERP effect, that is, a more negative-going ERP for <span class="hlt">semantically</span> unrelated compared to related changes, originating from a cortical network including the left middle temporal gyrus and occipital cortex and resembling the N400 effect, albeit at longer latencies. Importantly, this <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mismatch effect persisted even when observers were unaware of the change and the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relationship of prechange and postchange object. This finding implies that change blindness does not preclude the encoding of the prechange and postchange objects' identities and possibly even the comparison of their <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content. Thus, change blindness cannot be interpreted as resulting from impoverished or volatile visual representations or as a failure to process the prechange and postchange object. Instead, change detection appears to be limited at a later, postperceptual stage. PMID:26244723</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26357049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26357049"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining <span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Related Significant Genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taha, Kamal</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796142"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of hearing loss on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> access by auditory and audiovisual speech in children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Damian, Markus F.; Abdi, Hervé</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives This research studied whether the mode of input (auditory vs audiovisual) influenced <span class="hlt">semantic</span> access by speech in children with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). Design Participants, 31 children with HI and 62 children with normal hearing (NH), were tested with our new multi-modal picture word task. Children were instructed to name pictures displayed on a monitor and ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors. The <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content of the distractors was varied to be related vs unrelated to the pictures (e.g, picture-distractor of dog-bear vs dog-cheese respectively). In children with NH, picture naming times were slower in the presence of <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related distractors. This slowing, called <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference, is attributed to the meaning-related picture-distractor entries competing for selection and control of the response [the lexical selection by competition (LSbyC) hypothesis]. Recently, a modification of the LSbyC hypothesis, called the competition threshold (CT) hypothesis, proposed that 1) the competition between the picture-distractor entries is determined by a threshold, and 2) distractors with experimentally reduced fidelity cannot reach the competition threshold. Thus, <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related distractors with reduced fidelity do not produce the normal interference effect, but instead no effect or <span class="hlt">semantic</span> facilitation (faster picture naming times for <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related vs -unrelated distractors). Facilitation occurs because the activation level of the <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related distractor with reduced fidelity 1) is not sufficient to exceed the competition threshold and produce interference but 2) is sufficient to activate its concept which then strengthens the activation of the picture and facilitates naming. This research investigated whether the proposals of the CT hypothesis generalize to the auditory domain, to the <span class="hlt">natural</span> degradation of speech due to HI, and to participants who are children. Our multi-modal picture word task</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3024..926N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3024..926N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> description of drama scene by using SD-form</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niimi, Michiharu; Kawaguchi, Eiji</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Multimedia data processing is becoming more and more a central concern among the people who have been working on image processing. Multimedia database retrieval is one of such a problem. A foreign language study assisting system is a good example for a multimedia data base design. Because each language depends on conversational situation such as topic and speech intention as well as place of conversation.In that case, we can not neglect the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aspect of multimedia information. The author's group has already proposed a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure description form, called the SD-form, of the language meaning. They studied the feasibility of its application to <span class="hlt">natural</span> language generation, story understanding, and conversational text retrieval systems. This paper presents our new attempt to expand our previous system from a text database systems to a multimedia database system which include motion picture, speech sound as well as language text. the source of the data in this project is a series of bilingual TV drama broadcasted in Japan. The most important point is this attempt is that each video scene is described by a set of SD-forms by which scenes are retrieved <span class="hlt">semantically</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Integrative Digital Pathology: Insights into Microsemiological <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> and Image Analysis Scalability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racoceanu, Daniel; Capron, Frédérique</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Being able to provide a traceable and dynamic second opinion has become an ethical priority for patients and health care professionals in modern computer-aided medicine. In this perspective, a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cognitive virtual microscopy approach has been recently initiated, the MICO project, by focusing on cognitive digital pathology. This approach supports the elaboration of pathology-compliant daily protocols dedicated to breast cancer grading, in particular mitotic counts and nuclear atypia. A proof of concept has thus been elaborated, and an extension of these approaches is now underway in a collaborative digital pathology framework, the FlexMIm project. As important milestones on the way to routine digital pathology, a series of pioneer international benchmarking initiatives have been launched for mitosis detection (MITOS), nuclear atypia grading (MITOS-ATYPIA) and glandular structure detection (GlaS), some of the fundamental grading components in diagnosis and prognosis. These initiatives allow envisaging a consolidated validation referential database for digital pathology in the very near future. This reference database will need coordinated efforts from all major teams working in this area worldwide, and it will certainly represent a critical bottleneck for the acceptance of all future imaging modules in clinical practice. In line with recent advances in molecular imaging and genetics, keeping the microscopic modality at the core of future digital systems in pathology is fundamental to insure the acceptance of these new technologies, as well as for a deeper systemic, structured comprehension of the pathologies. After all, at the scale of routine whole-slide imaging (WSI; ∼0.22 µm/pixel), the microscopic image represents a structured 'genomic cluster', enabling a <span class="hlt">naturally</span> structured support for integrative digital pathology approaches. In order to accelerate and structure the integration of this heterogeneous information, a major effort is and will continue to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909263"><span id="translatedtitle">Deregulated <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cognition contributes to object-use deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Burns, Alistair; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Executive control is impaired from the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and this produces deregulated <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cognition (Corbett, Jefferies, Burns, & Lambon Ralph, ; Perry, Watson, & Hodges, ). While control deficits should affect <span class="hlt">semantic</span> retrieval across all modalities, previous studies have typically focused on verbal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks. Even when non-verbal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks have been used, these have typically employed simple picture-matching tasks, which may be influenced by abnormalities in covert naming. Therefore, in the present study, we examined 10 patients with AD on a battery of object-use tasks, in order to advance our understanding of the origins of non-verbal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> deficits in this population. The AD patients' deficits were contrasted with previously published performance on the same tasks within two additional groups of patients, displaying either <span class="hlt">semantic</span> degradation (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia) or deregulation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> retrieval (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia; Corbett, Jefferies, Ehsan, & Lambon Ralph, ). While overall accuracy was comparable to the scores in both other groups, the AD patients' object-use impairment most closely resembled that observed in SA; they exhibited poorer performance on comprehension tasks that placed strong demands on executive control. A similar pattern was observed in the expressive domain: the AD and SA groups were relatively good at straightforward object use compared to executively demanding, mechanical puzzles. Error types also differed: while all patients omitted essential actions, the SA and AD groups' demonstrations also featured unrelated intrusions. An association between AD patients' object use and their scores on standard executive measures suggested that control deficits contributed to their non-verbal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> deficits. Moreover, in a task specifically designed to manipulate executive demand, patients with AD (and SA) exhibited difficulty in thinking flexibly about the non-canonical uses of everyday objects, especially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyA..458..313C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyA..458..313C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Gene-based and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure of the Gene Ontology as a complex network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coronnello, Claudia; Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The last decade has seen the advent and consolidation of ontology based tools for the identification and biological interpretation of classes of genes, such as the Gene Ontology. The Gene Ontology (GO) is constantly evolving over time. The information accumulated time-by-time and included in the GO is encoded in the definition of terms and in the setting up of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relations amongst terms. Here we investigate the Gene Ontology from a complex network perspective. We consider the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network of terms <span class="hlt">naturally</span> associated with the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relationships provided by the Gene Ontology consortium. Moreover, the GO is a <span class="hlt">natural</span> example of bipartite network of terms and genes. Here we are interested in studying the properties of the projected network of terms, i.e. a gene-based weighted network of GO terms, in which a link between any two terms is set if at least one gene is annotated in both terms. One aim of the present paper is to compare the structural properties of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and the gene-based network. The relative importance of terms is very similar in the two networks, but the community structure changes. We show that in some cases GO terms that appear to be distinct from a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> point of view are instead connected, and appear in the same community when considering their gene content. The identification of such gene-based communities of terms might therefore be the basis of a simple protocol aiming at improving the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure of GO. Information about terms that share large gene content might also be important from a biomedical point of view, as it might reveal how genes over-expressed in a certain term also affect other biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components not directly linked according to GO <span class="hlt">semantics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sns&pg=2&id=EJ982935','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sns&pg=2&id=EJ982935"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yates, Mark</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Although it is assumed that <span class="hlt">semantics</span> is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing has been in terms of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mon&id=EJ819519','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mon&id=EJ819519"><span id="translatedtitle">Shared Features Dominate <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When asked to list <span class="hlt">semantic</span> features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many <span class="hlt">semantic</span> features are processed faster in lexical and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> decision tasks [Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). "The impact of feedback <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in visual word recognition:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=van+Bergen&pg=2&id=EJ876765','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=van+Bergen&pg=2&id=EJ876765"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Priming Effects in Normal versus Poor Readers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Assink, Egbert M. H.; Van Bergen, Floor; Van Teeseling, Heleen; Knuijt, Paul P. N. A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The authors studied sensitivity to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming, as distinct from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> judgment, in poor readers. Association strength (high vs. low <span class="hlt">semantic</span> association) was manipulated factorially with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> association type (categoric vs. thematic association). Participants were 11-year-old poor readers (n = 15) who were matched with a group of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eye+AND+tracker&pg=2&id=EJ928534','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eye+AND+tracker&pg=2&id=EJ928534"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article extends recent findings that presenting <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories in stories that were either <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related (one category per story) or <span class="hlt">semantically</span> unrelated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Orange&pg=6&id=EJ925770','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Orange&pg=6&id=EJ925770"><span id="translatedtitle">Verb Production during Action Naming in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In contrast with widely documented deficits of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia (SD), little is known about action <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and verb production in SD. The degradation of action <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alzheimers+AND+disease&pg=4&id=EJ923627','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alzheimers+AND+disease&pg=4&id=EJ923627"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> priming paradigms have been used to investigate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> levels, priming effects produced by words that are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related but not associated should…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224273','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224273"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncovering the Architecture of Action <span class="hlt">Semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other <span class="hlt">semantic</span> domains to examine the “architecture” of action <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated “use” actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action “<span class="hlt">semantic</span> space”. In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit <span class="hlt">semantic</span> task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity of tools. PMID:25045905</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454668"><span id="translatedtitle">Varieties of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> 'access' deficit. Both <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655340','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655340"><span id="translatedtitle">Varieties of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ‘access’ deficit in Wernicke’s aphasia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Jefferies, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke’s aphasia, associated with poor auditory–verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ‘access’ deficit, as opposed to the ‘storage’ deficits observed in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of ‘access’ impairment—related to difficulty resolving competition (in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke’s aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and those with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia on Warrington’s paradigmatic assessment of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ‘access’ deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ‘blocking’ effects). Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability—one that mapped onto classical ‘syndromes’ and one that did not—predicted aspects of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ‘access’ deficit. Both <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia cases showed multimodal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke’s aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN22A..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN22A..05P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantically</span> aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We will describe the benefits we realized using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data integration framework, <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco is an open-source framework for building <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling <span class="hlt">semantic</span> queries. Whereas earlier <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> technologies, both as the engine driving <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1109/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1109/"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to geospatial <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and technology workshop handbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Varanka, Dalia E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial <span class="hlt">semantics</span> with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general <span class="hlt">semantics</span> on the Web and specific examples of geospatial <span class="hlt">semantics</span> using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general <span class="hlt">semantics</span> section includes information and access to publicly available <span class="hlt">semantic</span> archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial <span class="hlt">semantics</span> with access to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214623M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214623M"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> eScience Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible <span class="hlt">semantic</span> eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> enable the data services. The <span class="hlt">Semantically</span>-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data registrationtools. The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN51B1042F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN51B1042F"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> eScience Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible <span class="hlt">semantic</span> eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> enable the data services. The <span class="hlt">Semantically</span>-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data registrationtools. The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980185793','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980185793"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, Mark E. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding <span class="hlt">semantic</span> declarations to a user's code and parsing this <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These <span class="hlt">semantic</span> parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its <span class="hlt">semantic</span> parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> concepts and locate some program <span class="hlt">semantic</span> errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some <span class="hlt">semantic</span> errors and document <span class="hlt">semantic</span> concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570649"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR <span class="hlt">semantic</span> resources and services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Md, Dipka Kalra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability platform and then developed the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration of data. PMID:27570649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884219','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884219"><span id="translatedtitle">List Context Fosters <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Processing: Parallels Between <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and Morphological Facilitation When Primes Are Forward Masked</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feldman, Laurie Beth; Basnight-Brown, Dana M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined patterns of facilitation under forward-masked priming conditions across 3 list contexts (Experiments 1–3) that varied with respect to properties of filler trials—(a) mixed (morphological, orthographic, <span class="hlt">semantic</span>), (b) identity, and (c) semantic—but held the relatedness proportion constant (75%). Facilitation for targets that were related morphologically to their prime occurred regardless of filler context, but facilitation for <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related pairs occurred only in the context of identity and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fillers. Facilitation was absent for orthographically similar prime–target pairs in all 3 filler contexts when matching numbers of orthographically similar word–word and word–nonword prime–target pairs rendered orthographic similarity uninformative with respect to lexicality of the target. Enhanced <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and morphological facilitation in the context of identity and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relative to mixed fillers support a <span class="hlt">semantically</span> attuned, as contrasted with a purely form-based, account of early morphological processing. PMID:18444764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001763','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5001763"><span id="translatedtitle">Cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR <span class="hlt">semantic</span> resources and services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; MD, Dipka Kalra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability platform and then developed the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration of data. PMID:27570649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040084377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer: A Customizable <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, <span class="hlt">semantically</span> structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer is one of the earliest and largest <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Organizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ArFKT..23S..23B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ArFKT..23S..23B"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> maps from laser terrestrial data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Będkowski, J.; Majek, K.; Musialik, P.; Masłowski, A.; Adamek, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this paper creating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> maps based on laser terrestrial data is shown. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> map is based on transformed geometric data (3D laser range finder) into the data with assigned labels. These labels can help in several applications such as navigation of mobile robot by finding traversable and not traversable regions. Computation of large 3D data sets requires high computational power, therefore we proposed the GPU based (Graphic Processing Unit) implementation to decrease the computational time. As a result we demonstrate the computed <span class="hlt">semantic</span> map for mobile robot navigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014701','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014701"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Metrics for Analysis of Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The <span class="hlt">semantic</span> metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050010168','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050010168"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web Technology: Applications at NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ashish, Naveen</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on <span class="hlt">semantic</span>-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of <span class="hlt">semantic</span>-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building <span class="hlt">semantics</span> based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soa&pg=6&id=EJ731374','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soa&pg=6&id=EJ731374"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Facilitation and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Interference in Language Production: Further Evidence for the Conceptual Selection Model of Lexical Access</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bloem, Ineke; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Heij, Wido La</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Bloem and La Heij (2003) reported that in a word-translation task context words induce <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference whereas context pictures induce <span class="hlt">semantic</span> facilitation. This finding was accounted for by a model of lexical access in which: (a) <span class="hlt">semantic</span> facilitation is localized at the conceptual level, (b) <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference is localized at the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2703940','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2703940"><span id="translatedtitle">SENT: <span class="hlt">semantic</span> features in text</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We present SENT (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es. PMID:19458159</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6492E..18G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007SPIE.6492E..18G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Attention trees and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> paths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> preview benefit in English: Individual differences in the extraction and use of parafoveal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information could account for this discrepancy. Ninety-nine adult readers who were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability read sentences while their eye movements were recorded. The gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used to manipulate the availability of relevant <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and orthographic information in the parafovea. On average, readers showed a benefit from previews high in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> feature overlap with the target. However, reading and spelling ability yielded opposite effects on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit. High reading ability was associated with a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit that was equivalent to an identical preview on first-pass reading. High spelling ability was associated with a reduced <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit despite an overall higher rate of skipping. These results suggest that differences in the magnitude of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefits in English reflect constraints on extracting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information from the parafovea and competition between the orthographic features of the preview and the target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910013409','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910013409"><span id="translatedtitle">Programming with process groups: Group and multicast <span class="hlt">semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Process groups are a <span class="hlt">natural</span> tool for distributed programming and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. Discussed here is a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. The findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the causality domain. A system based on this architecture is now being implemented in collaboration with the Chorus and Mach projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4871983','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4871983"><span id="translatedtitle">Multimodal Feature Integration in the Angular Gyrus during Episodic and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bonnici, Heidi M.; Richter, Franziska R.; Yazar, Yasemin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>G) contribute to the retrieval of episodic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memories. Our multivariate pattern classifier could distinguish episodic memory representations in AnG according to whether they were multimodal (audio-visual) or unimodal (auditory or visual) in <span class="hlt">nature</span>, whereas statistically equivalent AnG activity was observed during retrieval of unimodal and multimodal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memories. Classification accuracy during episodic retrieval scaled with the trial-by-trial vividness with which participants experienced their recollections. Therefore, the findings offer new insights into the integrative processes subserved by AnG and how its function may contribute to our subjective experience of remembering. PMID:27194327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SER+AND+functions&id=EJ209594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SER+AND+functions&id=EJ209594"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Values of "Ser" and "Estar."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DeMello, George</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the distinctions that exist among the uses of "ser" and "estar" in Spanish. They are explained with reference to the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> values present in the three basic functions of these verbs: principal, auxiliary, and attributive. (NCR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASPC..394..742G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASPC..394..742G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fact and Future of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, N.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web has turned from W3C vision into a set of practical engineering challenges; at the same time, the success of Web~2.0 applications has illustrated a broad variety of new ways that users (and indeed machines) can interact with data sources. Now is an excellent time to examine the many opportunities for astronomy, including <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data access, data mining (exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources), and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. This paper presents a brief review of the technologies, illustrating it with examples of the wide range of existing Virtual Observatory <span class="hlt">semantic</span> applications, from the elaborate and formal to the informal and lightweight. The latter tools overlap with Web-2.0 style applications, and indicate how we might adapt some of that community's more successful ideas. Throughout, the emphasis will be on how existing applications help us imagine further possibilities of the emerging field of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Astronomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semiotica&id=EJ127814','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semiotica&id=EJ127814"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zuber, Ryszard</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses constructions known as <span class="hlt">semantic</span> antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8757E..0AT&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8757E..0AT&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Software analysis in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Joshua; Hall, Robert T.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Many approaches in software analysis, particularly dynamic malware analyis, benefit greatly from the use of linked data and other <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technology. In this paper, we describe AIS, Inc.'s <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Extractor (SemEx) component from the Malware Analysis and Attribution through Genetic Information (MAAGI) effort, funded under DARPA's Cyber Genome program. The SemEx generates OWL-based <span class="hlt">semantic</span> models of high and low level behaviors in malware samples from system call traces generated by AIS's introspective hypervisor, IntroVirtTM. Within MAAGI, these <span class="hlt">semantic</span> models were used by modules that cluster malware samples by functionality, and construct "genealogical" malware lineages. Herein, we describe the design, implementation, and use of the SemEx, as well as the C2DB, an OWL ontology used for representing software behavior and cyber-environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+boy+AND+girl&pg=7&id=EJ211485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+boy+AND+girl&pg=7&id=EJ211485"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Cognitive Development Predict <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Integration?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Janet W.; Scholnick, Ellin Kofsky</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Investigates the influence of logical skills (inclusion and seriation) on the degree and kind of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration performed on remembered material among 47 third- and fourth-grade boys and girls and college students. (JMB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMSF31A0704R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMSF31A0704R"><span id="translatedtitle">Enabling <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Interoperability for Earth System Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raskin, R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Data interoperability across heterogeneous systems can be hampered by differences in terminology, particularly when multiple scientific communities are involved. To reconcile differences in <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, a common <span class="hlt">semantic</span> framework was created as a collection of ontologies. Such a shared understanding of concepts enables ontology-aware software tools to understand the meaning of terms in documents and web pages. The ontologies were created as part of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) prototype. The ontologies provide a representation of Earth system science knowledge and associated data, organized in a scalable structure, bulding on the keywords developed by the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). An integrated search tool consults the ontologies to enable searches without an exact term match. The ontologies can be used within other applications (such as Earth Science Markup Language descriptors) and future <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services in Earth system science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25810414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25810414"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> information influences race categorization from faces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) <span class="hlt">semantic</span> labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ASPC..411..175G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ASPC..411..175G"><span id="translatedtitle">The SKUA Project and the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, N.; Linde, T.; Andrews, K.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web promises much for software developers, but because its claimed benefits are rather abstract, there is little obvious incentive to master its unfamiliar technology. In contrast, many `Social Web' applications seem rather trivial, and not obviously useful for astronomy. The SKUA project (<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Knowledge Underpinning Astronomy) is implementing a service which will realise the benefits of both these web technologies. This RESTful web service gives application authors ready access to simple persistence, simple (social) sharing, and lightweight <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, at a low software-engineering cost. The SKUA service allows applications to persist assertions (such as bookmarks and ratings), and share them between users. On top of this, it provides lightweight, astronomy-specific <span class="hlt">semantics</span> to enhance the usefulness and retrieval of the users' data. We will demonstrate the service, and astronomical applications using it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046793"><span id="translatedtitle">A Collection of Features for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B</p> <p>2007-05-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs that vary over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+contrasts&pg=2&id=EJ905973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+contrasts&pg=2&id=EJ905973"><span id="translatedtitle">Shifting Interests: Changes in the Lexical <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of ED-MEDIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wild, Fridolin; Valentine, Chris; Scott, Peter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Large research networks <span class="hlt">naturally</span> form complex communities with overlapping but not identical expertise. To map the distribution of professional competence in field of "technology-enhanced learning", the lexical <span class="hlt">semantics</span> expressed in research articles published in a representative, large-scale conference (ED-MEDIA) can be investigated and changes…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contamination&pg=4&id=EJ916501','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contamination&pg=4&id=EJ916501"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Contamination and Mathematical Proof: Can a Non-Proof Prove?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Inglis, Matthew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The way words are used in <span class="hlt">natural</span> language can influence how the same words are understood by students in formal educational contexts. Here we argue that this so-called <span class="hlt">semantic</span> contamination effect plays a role in determining how students engage with mathematical proof, a fundamental aspect of learning mathematics. Analyses of responses to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relevance+AND+educational&pg=3&id=EJ1039053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relevance+AND+educational&pg=3&id=EJ1039053"><span id="translatedtitle">Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level <span class="hlt">semantic</span> components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maps&pg=4&id=EJ1040690','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maps&pg=4&id=EJ1040690"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept Map Engineering: Methods and Tools Based on the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Relation Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Minkyu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of technologies that use <span class="hlt">natural</span> language as the basis for concept map construction. In particular, this study focuses on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relation (SR) approach to drawing rich and authentic concept maps that reflect students' internal representations of a problem situation. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=5&id=EJ971722','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=5&id=EJ971722"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: To examine the <span class="hlt">nature</span> and extent of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prefix&pg=4&id=ED549667','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prefix&pg=4&id=ED549667"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of Russian Indefinite Pronouns: Scope, Domain Widening, Specificity, and Proportionality and Their Interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eremina, Olga</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The main goal of this dissertation is to consider the different types of indefinites in Russian as a system and provide a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> account for each of them that would be able to <span class="hlt">naturally</span> explain their distribution. The four sets of so-called 'indefinite pronouns' ("-to," "-nibud'," "-libo," and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED375453.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED375453.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Magic in the Classroom: Using Conjuring To Teach Selectivity and General <span class="hlt">Semantics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frasier, C. Jay</p> <p></p> <p>Communication teachers can use magic in the classroom to teach the selective <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the communication process and principles of general <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. Since magic "works" due to perceptual limitations, selective perception can be illustrated through various magic effects. Magical effects where the secret is apparent to everyone in the class except…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050161664','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050161664"><span id="translatedtitle">Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, William Henry</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-meaningful parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN33F..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN33F..01M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ontology Reuse in Geoscience <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayernik, M. S.; Gross, M. B.; Daniels, M. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Stott, D.; Maull, K. E.; Khan, H.; Corson-Rikert, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The tension between local ontology development and wider ontology connections is fundamental to the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> web. It is often unclear, however, what the key decision points should be for new <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web applications in deciding when to reuse existing ontologies and when to develop original ontologies. In addition, with the growth of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web ontologies and applications, new <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web applications can struggle to efficiently and effectively identify and select ontologies to reuse. This presentation will describe the ontology comparison, selection, and consolidation effort within the EarthCollab project. UCAR, Cornell University, and UNAVCO are collaborating on the EarthCollab project to use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web technologies to enable the discovery of the research output from a diverse array of projects. The EarthCollab project is using the VIVO <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> web software suite to increase discoverability of research information and data related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) diverse research projects informed by geodesy through the UNAVCO geodetic facility and consortium. This presentation will outline of EarthCollab use cases, and provide an overview of key ontologies being used, including the VIVO-Integrated <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Framework (VIVO-ISF), Global Change Information System (GCIS), and Data Catalog (DCAT) ontologies. We will discuss issues related to bringing these ontologies together to provide a robust ontological structure to support the EarthCollab use cases. It is rare that a single pre-existing ontology meets all of a new application's needs. New projects need to stitch ontologies together in ways that fit into the broader <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9445E..24S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9445E..24S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating word <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties using Sketch Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8742E..02G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8742E..02G"><span id="translatedtitle">Context-rich <span class="hlt">semantic</span> framework for effective data-to-decisions in coalition networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grueneberg, Keith; de Mel, Geeth; Braines, Dave; Wang, Xiping; Calo, Seraphin; Pham, Tien</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In a coalition context, data fusion involves combining of soft (e.g., field reports, intelligence reports) and hard (e.g., acoustic, imagery) sensory data such that the resulting output is better than what it would have been if the data are taken individually. However, due to the lack of explicit <span class="hlt">semantics</span> attached with such data, it is difficult to automatically disseminate and put the right contextual data in the hands of the decision makers. In order to understand the data, explicit meaning needs to be added by means of categorizing and/or classifying the data in relationship to each other from base reference sources. In this paper, we present a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> framework that provides automated mechanisms to expose real-time raw data effectively by presenting appropriate information needed for a given situation so that an informed decision could be made effectively. The system utilizes controlled <span class="hlt">natural</span> language capabilities provided by the ITA (International Technology Alliance) Controlled English (CE) toolkit to provide a human-friendly <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation of messages so that the messages can be directly processed in human/machine hybrid environments. The Real-time <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Enrichment (RTSE) service adds relevant contextual information to raw data streams from domain knowledge bases using declarative rules. The rules define how the added <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and context information are derived and stored in a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge base. The software framework exposes contextual information from a variety of hard and soft data sources in a fast, reliable manner so that an informed decision can be made using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> queries in intelligent software systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3212890','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3212890"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The complexity and inter-related <span class="hlt">nature</span> of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> to assist integration, and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........77Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........77Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Beibei</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> relatedness, or its inverse, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures <span class="hlt">semantics</span> based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2860570','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2860570"><span id="translatedtitle">Neuronal Activation for <span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Reversible Sentences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantically</span> reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study we used fMRI to compare the processing of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> reversible and nonreversible sentences in 41 healthy participants to identify how <span class="hlt">semantic</span> reversibility influences neuronal activation. By including several linguistic and nonlinguistic conditions within our paradigm, we were also able to test whether the processing of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> reversible sentences places additional load on sentence-specific processing, such as syntactic processing and syntactic-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration, or on phonological working memory. Our results identified increased activation for reversible sentences in a region on the left temporal–parietal boundary, which was also activated when the same group of participants carried out an articulation task which involved saying “one, three” repeatedly. We conclude that the processing of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> reversible sentences places additional demands on the subarticulation component of phonological working memory. PMID:19445603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3617880','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3617880"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantics</span> by analogy for illustrative volume visualization☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying <span class="hlt">semantics</span> using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25528401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25528401"><span id="translatedtitle">Vowelling and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming effects in Arabic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the present experiment we used a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, <span class="hlt">semantically</span> unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, <span class="hlt">semantic</span>, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed. PMID:25528401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004460"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Natural</span> Language Interface to Databases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ford, D. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The development of a <span class="hlt">Natural</span> Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is <span class="hlt">semantic</span>-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJTP...54.4546D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJTP...54.4546D"><span id="translatedtitle">A Quantum Approach to Vagueness and to the <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of Music</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.; Negri, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Quantum computational logics represent a suitable abstract environment for modelling <span class="hlt">semantic</span> situations where vagueness and ambiguity play a relevant role. In this framework vague possible worlds can be described as a kind of abstract scenes, where individual concepts, relational concepts and events behave as quantum-like superpositions that ambiguously allude to a number of possibly antagonistic alternatives. The quantum <span class="hlt">semantics</span> can be <span class="hlt">naturally</span> applied to a formal analysis of musical compositions, where both musical ideas and extra-musical meanings are characterized by some essentially vague and ambiguous features. We investigate some examples.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4367988','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4367988"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Sensitive Text Clustering: A Feature Space Modeling Technology Based on Dimension Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yuanchao; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of text clustering is to divide document collections into clusters based on the similarity between documents. In this paper, an extension-based feature modeling approach towards <span class="hlt">semantically</span> sensitive text clustering is proposed along with the corresponding feature space construction and similarity computation method. By combining the similarity in traditional feature space and that in extension space, the adverse effects of the complexity and diversity of <span class="hlt">natural</span> language can be addressed and clustering <span class="hlt">semantic</span> sensitivity can be improved correspondingly. The generated clusters can be organized using different granularities. The experimental evaluations on well-known clustering algorithms and datasets have verified the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:25794172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129183','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129183"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing annotation compositionality and provenance for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Though the annotation of digital artifacts with metadata has a long history, the bulk of that work focuses on the association of single terms or concepts to single targets. As annotation efforts expand to capture more complex information, annotations will need to be able to refer to knowledge structures formally defined in terms of more atomic knowledge structures. Existing provenance efforts in the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web domain primarily focus on tracking provenance at the level of whole triples and do not provide enough detail to track how individual triple elements of annotations were derived from triple elements of other annotations. Results We present a task- and domain-independent ontological model for capturing annotations and their linkage to their <span class="hlt">denoted</span> knowledge representations, which can be singular concepts or more complex sets of assertions. We have implemented this model as an extension of the Information Artifact Ontology in OWL and made it freely available, and we show how it can be integrated with several prominent annotation and provenance models. We present several application areas for the model, ranging from linguistic annotation of text to the annotation of disease-associations in genome sequences. Conclusions With this model, progressively more complex annotations can be composed from other annotations, and the provenance of compositional annotations can be represented at the annotation level or at the level of individual elements of the RDF triples composing the annotations. This in turn allows for progressively richer annotations to be constructed from previous annotation efforts, the precise provenance recording of which facilitates evidence-based inference and error tracking. PMID:24268021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aphasia&pg=6&id=EJ957720','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Aphasia&pg=6&id=EJ957720"><span id="translatedtitle">Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Dementia and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Aphasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> impairment following damage to other brain regions (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJAEO..37..133N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJAEO..37..133N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Using ontological inference and hierarchical matchmaking to overcome <span class="hlt">semantic</span> heterogeneity in remote sensing-based biodiversity monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieland, Simon; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Förster, Michael</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Ontology-based applications hold promise in improving spatial data interoperability. In this work we use remote sensing-based biodiversity information and apply <span class="hlt">semantic</span> formalisation and ontological inference to show improvements in data interoperability/comparability. The proposed methodology includes an observation-based, "bottom-up" engineering approach for remote sensing applications and gives a practical example of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mediation of geospatial products. We apply the methodology to three different nomenclatures used for remote sensing-based classification of two heathland <span class="hlt">nature</span> conservation areas in Belgium and Germany. We analysed sensor nomenclatures with respect to their <span class="hlt">semantic</span> formalisation and their bio-geographical differences. The results indicate that a hierarchical and transparent nomenclature is far more important for transferability than the sensor or study area. The inclusion of additional information, not necessarily belonging to a vegetation class description, is a key factor for the future success of using <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for interoperability in remote sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228422"><span id="translatedtitle">Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory deficits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Due to the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430707"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> characterization of an algorithm for estimating others` beliefs from observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Isozaki, Hideki; Katsuno, Hirofumi</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Human beings often estimate others beliefs and intentions when they interact with others. Estimation of others beliefs will be useful also in controlling the behavior and utterances of artificial agents, especially when lines of communication are unstable or slow. But, devising such estimation algorithms and background theories for the algorithms is difficult, because of many factors affecting one`s belief. We have proposed an algorithm that estimates others beliefs from observation in the changing world. Experimental results show that this algorithm returns <span class="hlt">natural</span> answers to various queries. However, the algorithm is only heuristic, and how the algorithm deals with beliefs and their changes is not entirely clear. We propose certain <span class="hlt">semantics</span> based on a nonstandard structure for modal logic. By using these <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, we shed light on a logical meaning of the belief estimation that the algorithm deals with. We also discuss how the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and the algorithm can be generalized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4153608','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4153608"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Survey Responses: How and Why <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> Shape Survey Statistics on Organizational Behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> algorithms explained 60–86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical <span class="hlt">nature</span> of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain. PMID:25184672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053840"><span id="translatedtitle">Color perception involves color representations firstly at a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> level and then at a lexical level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heurley, Loïc P; Brouillet, Thibaut; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Brouillet, Denis</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Studies and models have suggested that color perception first involves access to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations of color. This result leads to two questions: (1) is knowledge able to influence the perception of color when associated with a color? and (2) can the perception of color really involve only <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations? We developed an experiment where participants have to discriminate the color of a patch (yellow vs. green). The target patch is preceded either by a black-and-white line drawing or by a word representing a <span class="hlt">natural</span> object associated with the same or a different color (banana vs. frog). We expected a priming effect for pictures because, with a 350-ms SOA, they only involve access to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations of color, whereas words seem only elicit an access to lexical representations. As expected, we found a priming effect for pictures, but also for words. Moreover, we found a general slowdown of response times in the word-prime-condition suggesting the need of an additional processing step to produce priming. In a second experiment, we manipulated the SOA in order to preclude a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> access in the word-prime-condition that could explain the additional step of processing. We also found a priming effect, suggesting that interaction with perception occurs at a lexical level and the additional step occurs at a color perception level. In the discussion, we develop a new model of color perception assuming that color perception involves access to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations and then access to lexical representations. PMID:23053840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25184672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25184672"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting survey responses: how and why <span class="hlt">semantics</span> shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical <span class="hlt">nature</span> of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain. PMID:25184672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4868886','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4868886"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Signature: Comparative Interpretation of Gene Expression on a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background. Interpretation of microarray data remains challenging because biological meaning should be extracted from enormous numeric matrices and be presented explicitly. Moreover, huge public repositories of microarray dataset are ready to be exploited for comparative analysis. This study aimed to provide a platform where essential implication of a microarray experiment could be visually expressed and various microarray datasets could be intuitively compared. Results. On the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space, gene sets from Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) were plotted as landmarks and their relative distances were calculated by Lin's <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure. By formal concept analysis, a microarray dataset was transformed into a concept lattice with gene clusters as objects and Gene Ontology terms as attributes. Concepts of a lattice were located on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space reflecting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> distance from landmarks and edges between concepts were drawn; consequently, a specific geographic pattern could be observed from a microarray dataset. We termed a distinctive geography shared by microarray datasets of the same category as “<span class="hlt">semantic</span> signature.” Conclusions. “<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> space,” a map of biological entities, could serve as a universal platform for comparative microarray analysis. When microarray data were displayed on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space as concept lattices, “<span class="hlt">semantic</span> signature,” characteristic geography for a microarray experiment, could be discovered. PMID:27242916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gang+AND+Wang&id=EJ1004255','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gang+AND+Wang&id=EJ1004255"><span id="translatedtitle">Sub-Lexical Phonological and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Processing of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Radicals: A Primed Naming Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> radicals which are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+benefit&id=EJ1103243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+benefit&id=EJ1103243"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Preview Benefit in English: Individual Differences in the Extraction and Use of Parafoveal <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although there is robust evidence that skilled readers of English extract and use orthographic and phonological information from the parafovea to facilitate word identification, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefits have been elusive. We sought to establish whether individual differences in the extraction and/or use of parafoveal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information could…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maintenance&pg=2&id=EJ952431','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maintenance&pg=2&id=EJ952431"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Existence of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Working Memory: Evidence for Direct <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Maintenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online <span class="hlt">semantic</span> maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27445936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27445936"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Categorization Megastudy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goh, Winston D; Yap, Melvin J; Lau, Mabel C; Ng, Melvin M R; Tan, Luuan-Chin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A large number of studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood density, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these <span class="hlt">semantic</span> richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction-faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features-while arousal, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood density, and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=6&id=EJ736356','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=6&id=EJ736356"><span id="translatedtitle">An Intelligent <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27242916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27242916"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Signature: Comparative Interpretation of Gene Expression on a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jihun; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Ju Han</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background. Interpretation of microarray data remains challenging because biological meaning should be extracted from enormous numeric matrices and be presented explicitly. Moreover, huge public repositories of microarray dataset are ready to be exploited for comparative analysis. This study aimed to provide a platform where essential implication of a microarray experiment could be visually expressed and various microarray datasets could be intuitively compared. Results. On the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space, gene sets from Molecular Signature Database (MSigDB) were plotted as landmarks and their relative distances were calculated by Lin's <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure. By formal concept analysis, a microarray dataset was transformed into a concept lattice with gene clusters as objects and Gene Ontology terms as attributes. Concepts of a lattice were located on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space reflecting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> distance from landmarks and edges between concepts were drawn; consequently, a specific geographic pattern could be observed from a microarray dataset. We termed a distinctive geography shared by microarray datasets of the same category as "<span class="hlt">semantic</span> signature." Conclusions. "<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> space," a map of biological entities, could serve as a universal platform for comparative microarray analysis. When microarray data were displayed on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space as concept lattices, "<span class="hlt">semantic</span> signature," characteristic geography for a microarray experiment, could be discovered. PMID:27242916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prime+AND+numbers&pg=6&id=EJ793391','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prime+AND+numbers&pg=6&id=EJ793391"><span id="translatedtitle">List Context Fosters <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Processing: Parallels between <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and Morphological Facilitation when Primes Are Forward Masked</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Feldman, Laurie Beth; Basnight-Brown, Dana M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined patterns of facilitation under forward-masked priming conditions across 3 list contexts (Experiments 1-3) that varied with respect to properties of filler trials--(a) mixed (morphological, orthographic, <span class="hlt">semantic</span>), (b) identity, and (c) <span class="hlt">semantic</span>--but held the relatedness proportion constant (75%). Facilitation for targets that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4923159','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4923159"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Richness Effects in Spoken Word Recognition: A Lexical Decision and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Categorization Megastudy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goh, Winston D.; Yap, Melvin J.; Lau, Mabel C.; Ng, Melvin M. R.; Tan, Luuan-Chin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A large number of studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> richness dimensions [e.g., number of features, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood density, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity , concreteness, emotional valence] influence word recognition processes. Some of these richness effects appear to be task-general, while others have been found to vary across tasks. Importantly, almost all of these findings have been found in the visual word recognition literature. To address this gap, we examined the extent to which these <span class="hlt">semantic</span> richness effects are also found in spoken word recognition, using a megastudy approach that allows for an examination of the relative contribution of the various <span class="hlt">semantic</span> properties to performance in two tasks: lexical decision, and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categorization. The results show that concreteness, valence, and number of features accounted for unique variance in latencies across both tasks in a similar direction—faster responses for spoken words that were concrete, emotionally valenced, and with a high number of features—while arousal, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood density, and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity did not influence latencies. Implications for spoken word recognition processes are discussed. PMID:27445936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bootstrap&pg=4&id=EJ745791','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bootstrap&pg=4&id=EJ745791"><span id="translatedtitle">Giving the Boot to the Bootstrap: How Not to Learn the <span class="hlt">Natural</span> Numbers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rips, Lance J.; Asmuth, Jennifer; Bloomfield, Amber</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>According to one theory about how children learn the concept of <span class="hlt">natural</span> numbers, they first determine that "one", "two", and "three" <span class="hlt">denote</span> the size of sets containing the relevant number of items. They then make the following inductive inference (the Bootstrap): The next number word in the counting series <span class="hlt">denotes</span> the size of the sets you get by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2761904','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2761904"><span id="translatedtitle">SSWAP: A Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gessler, Damian DG; Schiltz, Gary S; May, Greg D; Avraham, Shulamit; Town, Christopher D; Grant, David; Nelson, Rex T</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background SSWAP (Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains). The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies), providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies), and discovery servers (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> search engines) interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and <span class="hlt">semantics</span> to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at (as in to "swap info") uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at , developer tools at , and a portal to third-party ontologies at (a "swap meet"). Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared <span class="hlt">semantic</span>, and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> discovery) while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i) the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii) the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii) the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25731904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25731904"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> grasping escapes Weber's law.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20945219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20945219"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for scripts in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia: Implications for theories of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Funnell, E</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents evidence that the breakdown of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia reveals the influence of two properties of script theory (Schank, 1982; Schank & Abelson, 1977). First, the physical and personal context of specific scripts supports meaning for words, objects, and locations that are involved in the script. Second, meaning is updated or transformed by a dynamic memory system that learns continuously from personal experience. In severe cases, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia exposes the basic level of this learning system from which all knowledge normally develops. It will be argued that the evidence supports a theory of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory that represents meaning in a continuum of levels of meaning from the most specific and context-bound to the most generalisable and context-free. This contrasts with current theories of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory that represent meaning as a collection of abstracted properties entirely removed from the context of events and activities. PMID:20945219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.2476S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.2476S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Entity Pairing for Improved Data Validation and Discovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yanning; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Narock, Tom; Groman, Robert; Rauch, Shannon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>One of the central incentives for linked data implementations is the opportunity to leverage the rich logic inherent in structured data. The logic embedded in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> models can strengthen capabilities for data discovery and data validation when pairing entities from distinct, contextually-related datasets. The creation of links between the two datasets broadens data discovery by using the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> logic to help machines compare similar entities and properties that exist on different levels of granularity. This <span class="hlt">semantic</span> capability enables appropriate entity pairing without making inaccurate assertions as to the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the relationship. Entity pairing also provides a context to accurately validate the correctness of an entity's property values - an exercise highly valued by data management practices who seek to ensure the quality and correctness of their data. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) <span class="hlt">semantically</span> models metadata surrounding oceanographic researchcruises, but other sources outside of BCO-DMO exist that also model metadata about these same cruises. For BCO-DMO, the process of successfully pairing its entities to these sources begins by selecting sources that are decidedly trustworthy and authoritative for the modeled concepts. In this case, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has a well-respected reputation among the oceanographic research community, presents a data context that is uniquely different and valuable, and <span class="hlt">semantically</span> models its cruise metadata. Where BCO-DMO exposes the processed, analyzed data products generated by researchers, R2R exposes the raw shipboard data that was collected on the same research cruises. Interlinking these cruise entities expands data discovery capabilities but also allows for validating the contextual correctness of both BCO-DMO's and R2R's cruise metadata. Assessing the potential for a link between two datasets for a similar entity consists of aligning like</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3172402','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3172402"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Biomedical <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a <span class="hlt">semantically</span> transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote <span class="hlt">semantic</span> transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3553422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3553422"><span id="translatedtitle">Concealed <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and episodic autobiographical memory electrified</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than <span class="hlt">semantic</span> probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014772"><span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Approach to <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and Coreference Annotation at LLNL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firpo, M</p> <p>2005-02-04</p> <p>A case is made for the importance of high quality <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and coreference annotation. The challenges of providing such annotation are described. Asperger's Syndrome is introduced, and the connections are drawn between the needs of text annotation and the abilities of persons with Asperger's Syndrome to meet those needs. Finally, a pilot program is recommended wherein <span class="hlt">semantic</span> annotation is performed by people with Asperger's Syndrome. The primary points embodied in this paper are as follows: (1) Document annotation is essential to the <span class="hlt">Natural</span> Language Processing (NLP) projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); (2) LLNL does not currently have a system in place to meet its need for text annotation; (3) Text annotation is challenging for a variety of reasons, many related to its very rote <span class="hlt">nature</span>; (4) Persons with Asperger's Syndrome are particularly skilled at rote verbal tasks, and behavioral experts agree that they would excel at text annotation; and (6) A pilot study is recommend in which two to three people with Asperger's Syndrome annotate documents and then the quality and throughput of their work is evaluated relative to that of their neuro-typical peers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26974015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26974015"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental changes in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> development is discussed. PMID:26974015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2905215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2905215"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> transparency affects memory conjunction errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wong, Mungchen; Rotello, Caren M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Memory conjunction errors occur when aspects of two different events are falsely recognized or recalled as having occurred as parts of the same event. One theoretical account of conjunction errors is rooted in traditional dual-process models of recognition judgments, in which responses are based on an item’s familiarity or the retrieval of recollected details associated with the encoding of that item. We manipulated the familiarity of test probes by varying their <span class="hlt">semantic</span> overlap with studied items, taking advantage of the inherent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> transparency of compound words. Transparent compounds are those whose component parts (lexemes) are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related to the meaning of the entire word. In contrast, opaque compounds’ lexemes do not contribute directly to the meaning of the compound. We showed that the familiarity of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> transparent assembly lures created from their lexemes (study dog and house, test on doghouse) is greater than the familiarity of opaque assembly lures (study back and draw, test on drawback). A response-signal experiment revealed no evidence for the use of a recall-to-reject process for either <span class="hlt">semantically</span> transparent or opaque lures. PMID:19966238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519554"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting syntactic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> anomalies in schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moro, Andrea; Bambini, Valentina; Bosia, Marta; Anselmetti, Simona; Riccaboni, Roberta; Cappa, Stefano F; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>One of the major challenges in the study of language in schizophrenia is to identify specific levels of the linguistic structure that might be selectively impaired. While historically a main <span class="hlt">semantic</span> deficit has been widely claimed, results are mixed, with also evidence of syntactic impairment. This might be due to heterogeneity in materials and paradigms across studies, which often do not allow to tap into single linguistic components. Moreover, the interaction between linguistic and neurocognitive deficits is still unclear. In this study, we concentrated on syntactic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. We employed an anomaly detection task including short and long sentences with either syntactic errors violating the principles of Universal Grammar, or a novel form of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> errors, resulting from a contradiction in the computation of the whole sentence meaning. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy subjects. Results showed that, in patients, only the ability to identify syntactic anomaly, both in short and long sentences, was impaired. This result cannot be explained by working memory abilities or psychopathological features. These findings suggest the presence of an impairment of syntactic knowledge in schizophrenia, at least partially independent of the cognitive and psychopathological profile. On the contrary, we cannot conclude that there is a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> impairment, at least in terms of compositional <span class="hlt">semantics</span> abilities. PMID:26519554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639949','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639949"><span id="translatedtitle">Textrous!: Extracting <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Textual Meaning from Gene Sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daimon, Caitlin M.; Siddiqui, Sana; Luttrell, Louis M.; Maudsley, Stuart</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The un-biased and reproducible interpretation of high-content gene sets from large-scale genomic experiments is crucial to the understanding of biological themes, validation of experimental data, and the eventual development of plans for future experimentation. To derive biomedically-relevant information from simple gene lists, a mathematical association to scientific language and meaningful words or sentences is crucial. Unfortunately, existing software for deriving meaningful and easily-appreciable scientific textual ‘tokens’ from large gene sets either rely on controlled vocabularies (Medical Subject Headings, Gene Ontology, BioCarta) or employ Boolean text searching and co-occurrence models that are incapable of detecting indirect links in the literature. As an improvement to existing web-based informatic tools, we have developed Textrous!, a web-based framework for the extraction of biomedical <span class="hlt">semantic</span> meaning from a given input gene set of arbitrary length. Textrous! employs <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing techniques, including latent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indexing (LSI), sentence splitting, word tokenization, parts-of-speech tagging, and noun-phrase chunking, to mine MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central articles, articles from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and Mammalian Phenotype annotation obtained from Jackson Laboratories. Textrous! has the ability to generate meaningful output data with even very small input datasets, using two different text extraction methodologies (collective and individual) for the selecting, ranking, clustering, and visualization of English words obtained from the user data. Textrous!, therefore, is able to facilitate the output of quantitatively significant and easily appreciable <span class="hlt">semantic</span> words and phrases linked to both individual gene and batch genomic data. PMID:23646135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23646135"><span id="translatedtitle">Textrous!: extracting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> textual meaning from gene sets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hongyu; Martin, Bronwen; Daimon, Caitlin M; Siddiqui, Sana; Luttrell, Louis M; Maudsley, Stuart</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The un-biased and reproducible interpretation of high-content gene sets from large-scale genomic experiments is crucial to the understanding of biological themes, validation of experimental data, and the eventual development of plans for future experimentation. To derive biomedically-relevant information from simple gene lists, a mathematical association to scientific language and meaningful words or sentences is crucial. Unfortunately, existing software for deriving meaningful and easily-appreciable scientific textual 'tokens' from large gene sets either rely on controlled vocabularies (Medical Subject Headings, Gene Ontology, BioCarta) or employ Boolean text searching and co-occurrence models that are incapable of detecting indirect links in the literature. As an improvement to existing web-based informatic tools, we have developed Textrous!, a web-based framework for the extraction of biomedical <span class="hlt">semantic</span> meaning from a given input gene set of arbitrary length. Textrous! employs <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing techniques, including latent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indexing (LSI), sentence splitting, word tokenization, parts-of-speech tagging, and noun-phrase chunking, to mine MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central articles, articles from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and Mammalian Phenotype annotation obtained from Jackson Laboratories. Textrous! has the ability to generate meaningful output data with even very small input datasets, using two different text extraction methodologies (collective and individual) for the selecting, ranking, clustering, and visualization of English words obtained from the user data. Textrous!, therefore, is able to facilitate the output of quantitatively significant and easily appreciable <span class="hlt">semantic</span> words and phrases linked to both individual gene and batch genomic data. PMID:23646135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sbd.nist.gov/image/cell_image.html','NISTDBS'); return false;" href="http://sbd.nist.gov/image/cell_image.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantics</span> for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://srdata.nist.gov/gateway/gateway?search=keyword">National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SRD 165 NIST <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database (Web, free access)   This Database is a prototype to test concepts for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> searching of cell image data based on experimental details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131218','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131218"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> SenseLab: implementing the vision of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web in neuroscience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Objective Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Methods Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. Conclusion We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/ PMID:20006477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26103601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26103601"><span id="translatedtitle">Syntax, action verbs, action <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, and object <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, <span class="hlt">semantic</span>, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action <span class="hlt">semantics</span> in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4445881','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4445881"><span id="translatedtitle">Volumetric <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Segmentation using Pyramid Context Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barron, Jonathan T.; Arbeláez, Pablo; Keränen, Soile V. E.; Biggin, Mark D.; Knowles, David W.; Malik, Jitendra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present an algorithm for the per-voxel <span class="hlt">semantic</span> segmentation of a three-dimensional volume. At the core of our algorithm is a novel “pyramid context” feature, a descriptive representation designed such that exact per-voxel linear classification can be made extremely efficient. This feature not only allows for efficient <span class="hlt">semantic</span> segmentation but enables other aspects of our algorithm, such as novel learned features and a stacked architecture that can reason about self-consistency. We demonstrate our technique on 3D fluorescence microscopy data of Drosophila embryos for which we are able to produce extremely accurate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> segmentations in a matter of minutes, and for which other algorithms fail due to the size and high-dimensionality of the data, or due to the difficulty of the task. PMID:26029008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26528974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26528974"><span id="translatedtitle">SITRUS: <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information processing module whose purpose is to generate a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4701240','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4701240"><span id="translatedtitle">SITRUS: <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (<span class="hlt">semantic</span> infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information processing module whose purpose is to generate a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23760620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23760620"><span id="translatedtitle">[Why radiologists should be concerned with <span class="hlt">semantics</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gerstmair, A; Kotter, E</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Radiological image and data archives contain huge amounts of data which are barely utilized by current technologies. In the future <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies currently under development will enable analysis of the contents not only on the level of individual patients but also along entire data collections thereby resulting in new applications that will benefit routine clinical practice, teaching activities and research. As a prerequisite the development of software for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> analysis of image and report contents is necessary, i.e. an "understanding" of the contents by the software. Based on specific ontologies, standardized protocols and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> image annotation new systems will be developed that make the content of these data archives accessible and support diagnosis, quality assurance, innovative research applications and last not least, the merging of data of different medical disciplines, such as radiology, pathology and clinical chemistry. PMID:23760620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011243"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and <span class="hlt">semantically</span> relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> theme analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EntIS...4....1G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EntIS...4....1G"><span id="translatedtitle">Business information query expansion through <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1684f0002W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1684f0002W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> technologies in a decision support system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based <span class="hlt">semantic</span> closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3711356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3711356"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> and visual memory after alcohol abuse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donat, D C</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>This study compared the relative performance of 40 patients (M age = 31.7) with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> memory was unimpaired. This result is consistent with previous results obtained on tests of intelligence despite the added requirement of encoding, storing, and retrieving data inherent in the memory tasks. This result provides support for the contention that visuospatial and visuomotor skills evince primary residual impairment secondary to the abuse of alcohol. The significance of this result, in light of previous research, is discussed. PMID:3711356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010492','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010492"><span id="translatedtitle">Face (and Nose) Priming for Book: The Malleability of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coane, Jennifer H.; Balota, David A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There are two general classes of models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure that support <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming effects. Feature-overlap models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming assume that shared features between primes and targets are critical (e.g., cat-DOG). Associative accounts assume that contextual co-occurrence is critical and that the system is organized along associations independent of featural overlap (e.g., leash-DOG). If unrelated concepts can become related as a result of contextual co-occurrence, this would be more supportive of associative accounts and provide insight into the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the network underlying “semantic” priming effects. <span class="hlt">Naturally</span> co-occurring recent associations (e.g., face-BOOK) were tested under conditions that minimize strategic influences (i.e., short stimulus onset asynchrony, low relatedness proportion) in a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming paradigm. Priming for new associations did not differ from the priming found for pre-existing relations (e.g., library-BOOK). Mediated priming (e.g., nose-BOOK) was also found. These results suggest that contextual associations can result in the reorganization of the network that subserves “semantic” priming effects. PMID:20494866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1892100','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1892100"><span id="translatedtitle">e-Science and biological pathway <span class="hlt">semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luciano, Joanne S; Stevens, Robert D</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration of these data. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain <span class="hlt">semantic</span> weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these <span class="hlt">semantic</span> weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science. PMID:17493286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6450...90T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6450...90T"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web: From Representation to Realization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-linked web of electronic information - the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6045...52L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6045...52L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web and Contextual Information: <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Yon Soo</p> <p></p> <p>This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web should be developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3412440','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3412440"><span id="translatedtitle">What's Unique about Unique Entities? An fMRI Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of Famous Faces and Landmarks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Olson, Ingrid R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Famous people and artifacts are referred to as “unique entities” (UEs) due to the unique <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique <span class="hlt">semantic</span> attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, and social cognitive processing. PMID:22021913</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15894468"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the limits of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> illusion phenomenon: ERPs reveal temporary <span class="hlt">semantic</span> change deafness in discourse comprehension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nieuwland, Mante S; Van Berkum, Jos J A</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>In general, language comprehension is surprisingly reliable. Listeners very rapidly extract meaning from the unfolding speech signal, on a word-by-word basis, and usually successfully. Research on '<span class="hlt">semantic</span> illusions' however suggests that under certain conditions, people fail to notice that the linguistic input simply doesn't make sense. In the current event-related brain potentials (ERP) study, we examined whether listeners would, under such conditions, spontaneously detect an anomaly in which a human character central to the story at hand (e.g., "a tourist") was suddenly replaced by an inanimate object (e.g., "a suitcase"). Because this replacement introduced a very powerful coherence break, we expected listeners to immediately notice the anomaly and generate the standard ERP effect associated with incoherent language, the N400 effect. However, instead of the standard N400 effect, anomalous words elicited a positive ERP effect from about 500-600 ms onwards. The absence of an N400 effect suggests that subjects did not immediately notice the anomaly, and that for a few hundred milliseconds the comprehension system has converged on an apparently coherent but factually incorrect interpretation. The presence of the later ERP effect indicates that subjects were processing for comprehension and did ultimately detect the anomaly. Therefore, we take the absence of a regular N400 effect as the online manifestation of a temporary <span class="hlt">semantic</span> illusion. Our results also show that even attentive listeners sometimes fail to notice a radical change in the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of a story character, and therefore suggest a case of short-lived '<span class="hlt">semantic</span> change deafness' in language comprehension. PMID:15894468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=B12&pg=3&id=EJ682791','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=B12&pg=3&id=EJ682791"><span id="translatedtitle">Causal and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Relatedness in Discourse Understanding and Representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+business&pg=6&id=EJ737583','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+business&pg=6&id=EJ737583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nelson, Mike</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> prosody or <span class="hlt">semantic</span> association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+one&pg=3&id=EJ1013901','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+one&pg=3&id=EJ1013901"><span id="translatedtitle">Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> against Morphology and Syntax</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, from one side, and <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, morphology, and syntax, from the other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1064313.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1064313.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Educational Tool for Browsing the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web while they navigate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+sound&pg=5&id=EJ787470','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+sound&pg=5&id=EJ787470"><span id="translatedtitle">Auditory Distraction in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Memory: A Process-Based Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Five experiments demonstrate auditory-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> distraction in tests of memory for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-<span class="hlt">semantic</span>, rather than acoustic,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=4&id=EJ1095123','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=4&id=EJ1095123"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative E-Learning Using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Course Blog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lu, Lai-Chen; Yeh, Ching-Long</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Collaborative e-learning delivers many enhancements to e-learning technology; it enables students to collaborate with each other and improves their learning efficiency. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> blog combines <span class="hlt">semantic</span> Web and blog technology that users can import, export, view, navigate, and query the blog. We developed a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> course blog for collaborative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Deaf+AND+hearing&pg=5&id=EJ894916','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Deaf+AND+hearing&pg=5&id=EJ894916"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge concerns <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1690b0005B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1690b0005B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vector space model based on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bondarchuk, Dmitry; Timofeeva, Galina</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Most of data-mining methods are based on the vector space model of knowledge representation. The vector space model uses the frequency of a term in order to determine its relevance in a document. Terms can be similar by <span class="hlt">semantic</span> meaning but be lexicographically different ones, so the classification based on the frequency of terms does not give desired results in some subject areas such as the vacancies selection. The modified vector space model based on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness is suggested for data-mining in this area. Evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm is better then one based on the standard vector space model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4022996','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4022996"><span id="translatedtitle">Adapting to conversation with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia: using enactment as a compensatory strategy in everyday social interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kindell, Jacqueline; Sage, Karen; Keady, John; Wilkinson, Ray</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Studies to date in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia have examined communication in clinical or experimental settings. There is a paucity of research describing the everyday interactional skills and difficulties seen in this condition. Aims To examine the everyday conversation, at home, of an individual with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia. Methods & Procedures A 71-year-old man with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia and his wife were given a video camera and asked to record <span class="hlt">natural</span> conversation in the home situation with no researcher present. Recordings were also made in the home environment, with the individual with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia in conversation with a member of the research team. Conversation analysis was used to transcribe and analyse the data. Recurring features were noted to identify conversational patterns. Outcomes & Results Analysis demonstrated a repeated practice by the speaker with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia of acting out a diversity of scenes (enactment). As such, the speaker regularly used direct reported speech along with paralinguistic features (such as pitch and loudness) and non-vocal communication (such as body posture, pointing and facial expression) as an adaptive strategy to communicate with others in conversation. Conclusions & Implications This case shows that while severe difficulties may be present on neuropsychological assessment, relatively effective communicative strategies may be evident in conversation. A repeated practice of enactment in conversation allowed this individual to act out, or perform what he wanted to say, allowing him to generate a greater level of meaningful communication than his limited vocabulary alone could achieve through describing the events concerned. Such spontaneously acquired adaptive strategies require further attention in both research and clinical settings in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia and analysis of interaction in this condition, using conversation analysis, may be helpful. PMID:24033649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977640"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> lexicon for biological language processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Verspoor, K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>It is well understood that <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing (NLP) applications require sophisticated lexical resources to support their processing goals. In the biomedical domain, we are privileged to have access to extensive terminological resources in the form of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, which have been integrated into the framework of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS) Metathesaurus. However, the existence of such terminological resources does not guarantee their utility for NLP. In particular, we have two core requirements for lexical resources for NLP in addition to the basic enumeration of important domain terms: representation of morphosyntactic information about those terms, specifically part of speech information and inflectional patterns to support parsing and lemma assignment, and representation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information indicating general categorical information about terms, and significant relations between terms to support text understanding and inference (Hahn et at, 1999). Biomedical vocabularies by and large commonly leave out morphosyntactic information, and where they address <span class="hlt">semantic</span> considerations, they often do so in an unprincipled manner, for instance by indicating a relation between two concepts without indicating the type of that relation. But all is not lost. The UMLS knowledge sources include two additional resources which are relevant - the SPECIALIST lexicon, a lexicon addressing our morphosyntactic requirements, and the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Network, a representation of core conceptual categories in the biomedical domain. The coverage of these two knowledge sources with respect to the full coverage of the Metathesaurus is, however, not entirely clear. Furthermore, when our goals are specifically to process biological text - and often more specifically, text in the molecular biology domain - it is difficult to say whether the coverage of these resources is meaningful. The utility of the UMLS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN23E..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN23E..08L"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific Datasets: Discovery and Aggregation for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Interpretation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more <span class="hlt">natural</span> way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114010','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114010"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web integration of Cheminformatics resources with the SADI framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The diversity and the largely independent <span class="hlt">nature</span> of chemical research efforts over the past half century are, most likely, the major contributors to the current poor state of chemical computational resource and database interoperability. While open software for chemical format interconversion and database entry cross-linking have partially addressed database interoperability, computational resource integration is hindered by the great diversity of software interfaces, languages, access methods, and platforms, among others. This has, in turn, translated into limited reproducibility of computational experiments and the need for application-specific computational workflow construction and semi-automated enactment by human experts, especially where emerging interdisciplinary fields, such as systems chemistry, are pursued. Fortunately, the advent of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, and the very recent introduction of RESTful <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services (SWS) may present an opportunity to integrate all of the existing computational and database resources in chemistry into a machine-understandable, unified system that draws on the entirety of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web. Results We have created a prototype framework of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) framework SWS that exposes the QSAR descriptor functionality of the Chemistry Development Kit. Since each of these services has formal ontology-defined input and output classes, and each service consumes and produces RDF graphs, clients can automatically reason about the services and available reference information necessary to complete a given overall computational task specified through a simple SPARQL query. We demonstrate this capability by carrying out QSAR analysis backed by a simple formal ontology to determine whether a given molecule is drug-like. Further, we discuss parameter-based control over the execution of SADI SWS. Finally, we demonstrate the value of computational resource envelopment as SADI services through</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26063251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26063251"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> retrieval and navigation in clinical document collections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreuzthaler, Markus; Daumke, Philipp; Schulz, Stefan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Patients with chronic diseases undergo numerous in- and outpatient treatment periods, and therefore many documents accumulate in their electronic records. We report on an on-going project focussing on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enrichment of medical texts, in order to support recall-oriented navigation across a patient's complete documentation. A document pool of 1,696 de-identified discharge summaries was used for prototyping. A <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing toolset for document annotation (based on the text-mining framework UIMA) and indexing (Solr) was used to support a browser-based platform for document import, search and navigation. The integrated search engine combines free text and concept-based querying, supported by dynamically generated facets (diagnoses, procedures, medications, lab values, and body parts). The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> document enrichment within document collections of a single patient. Originally conceived as an add-on for the clinical workplace, this technology could also be adapted to support personalised health record platforms, as well as cross-patient search for cohort building and other secondary use scenarios. PMID:26063251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329088"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of working memory load on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heyman, Tom; Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; Hutchison, Keith A; De Deyne, Simon</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The present research examines the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the different processes that have been proposed to underlie <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming. Specifically, it has been argued that priming arises as a result of automatic target activation and/or the use of strategies like prospective expectancy generation and retrospective <span class="hlt">semantic</span> matching. This article investigates the extent that these processes rely on cognitive resources by experimentally manipulating working memory load. To disentangle prospective and retrospective processes, prime-target pairs were selected such that they were symmetrically associated (e.g., answer-question; SYM) or asymmetrically associated in either the forward direction (e.g., panda-bear; FA) or the backward direction (e.g., ball-catch; BA). The results showed that priming for FA pairs completely evaporated under a high working memory load but that it remained stable for BA and SYM pairs. This was taken to mean that prospective processes, which are assumed to cause FA priming, require cognitive resources, whereas retrospective processes, which lead to BA priming, are relatively effortless. PMID:25329088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262393"><span id="translatedtitle">Constructing a Graph Database for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Literature-Based Discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Dinevski, Dejan; Rindflesch, Thomas C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Literature-based discovery (LBD) generates discoveries, or hypotheses, by combining what is already known in the literature. Potential discoveries have the form of relations between biomedical concepts; for example, a drug may be determined to treat a disease other than the one for which it was intended. LBD views the knowledge in a domain as a network; a set of concepts along with the relations between them. As a starting point, we used SemMedDB, a database of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relations between biomedical concepts extracted with SemRep from Medline. SemMedDB is distributed as a MySQL relational database, which has some problems when dealing with network data. We transformed and uploaded SemMedDB into the Neo4j graph database, and implemented the basic LBD discovery algorithms with the Cypher query language. We conclude that storing the data needed for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> LBD is more <span class="hlt">natural</span> in a graph database. Also, implementing LBD discovery algorithms is conceptually simpler with a graph query language when compared with standard SQL. PMID:26262393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773936"><span id="translatedtitle">On fuzzy <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure for DNA coding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tang; Bhuiyan, Md Al-Amin</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A coding measure scheme numerically translates the DNA sequence to a time domain signal for protein coding regions identification. A number of coding measure schemes based on numerology, geometry, fixed mapping, statistical characteristics and chemical attributes of nucleotides have been proposed in recent decades. Such coding measure schemes lack the biologically meaningful aspects of nucleotide data and hence do not significantly discriminate coding regions from non-coding regions. This paper presents a novel fuzzy <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure (FSSM) coding scheme centering on FSSM codons׳ clustering and genetic code context of nucleotides. Certain <span class="hlt">natural</span> characteristics of nucleotides i.e. appearance as a unique combination of triplets, preserving special structure and occurrence, and ability to own and share density distributions in codons have been exploited in FSSM. The nucleotides׳ fuzzy behaviors, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarities and defuzzification based on the center of gravity of nucleotides revealed a strong correlation between nucleotides in codons. The proposed FSSM coding scheme attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 36-133% as compared to other existing coding measure schemes tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. PMID:26773936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1026967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1026967"><span id="translatedtitle">High performance <span class="hlt">semantic</span> factoring of giga-scale <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph databases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>al-Saffar, Sinan; Adolf, Bob; Haglin, David; Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Feo, John; Mizell, David</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its <span class="hlt">semantic</span> factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222176','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222176"><span id="translatedtitle">High Performance <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Factoring of Giga-Scale <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Graph Databases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; Al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Goodman, Eric L.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.</p> <p>2010-10-04</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its <span class="hlt">semantic</span> factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074953"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast Distributed Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Networks via Social Media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Slezak, Diego Fernández</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> organization using social media, a collective expression of human thought. We propose a novel, time-dependent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure (TSS), based on the social network Twitter. We show that TSS is consistent with static measures of similarity but provides high temporal resolution for the identification of real-world events and induced changes in the distributed structure of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relationships across the entire lexicon. Using TSS, we measured the evolution of a concept and its movement along the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood, driven by specific news/events. Finally, we showed that particular events may trigger a temporary reorganization of elements in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network. PMID:26074953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120370','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120370"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Analysis of Scientific Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stewart, Mark</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding <span class="hlt">semantic</span> declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These <span class="hlt">semantic</span> parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> concepts and help locate some program <span class="hlt">semantic</span> errors. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4449913','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4449913"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast Distributed Dynamics of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Networks via Social Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Fernández Slezak, Diego</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> organization using social media, a collective expression of human thought. We propose a novel, time-dependent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity measure (TSS), based on the social network Twitter. We show that TSS is consistent with static measures of similarity but provides high temporal resolution for the identification of real-world events and induced changes in the distributed structure of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relationships across the entire lexicon. Using TSS, we measured the evolution of a concept and its movement along the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighborhood, driven by specific news/events. Finally, we showed that particular events may trigger a temporary reorganization of elements in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network. PMID:26074953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24611440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24611440"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved verbal learning in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> variant of primary progressive aphasia when using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milano, Nicholas J; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">semantic</span> variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is characterized by impairments in confrontation naming and single word comprehension. Although episodic memory may be relatively spared, there can be impairment in verbal learning tasks. We report a patient with PPA-S and impaired verbal learning who was tested to learn if when provided with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories, her learning would improve. A 70-year-old right-handed woman with a 2-year history of progressive difficulties with word finding, naming, and memory was tested for language and memory deficits using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). She was then retested with the HVLT-R after being provided with the three <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories to which these words belonged. Confrontation naming was impaired on the Boston Naming Test. Sentence repetition was normal. Comprehension testing with word picture matching and sentence comprehension was normal. On a test of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations, Pyramids and Palm Trees, she was impaired. She was also impaired on tests of verbal learning (HVLT-R) (total: 13) but not recall. When a different version of the HVLT-R was given with the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories of the words given beforehand, her scores improved (total: 26). This patient with PPA-S had an impairment of verbal learning, but not delayed recall. When given a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category cue beforehand, her verbal learning performance improved. This observation suggests that this patient did not spontaneously use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> encoding. Using a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cueing strategy may help other patients with PPA-S improve their capacity for verbal learning. PMID:24611440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2663789','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2663789"><span id="translatedtitle">Adventures in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Publishing: Exemplar <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Enhancements of a Research Article</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; <span class="hlt">semantic</span> markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> publishing for their own research</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006607','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006607"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Nature</span> of Lexical-<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Access in Bilingual Aphasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiran, Swathi; Balachandran, Isabel; Lucas, Jason</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background. Despite a growing clinical need, there are no clear guidelines on assessment of lexical access in the two languages in individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objective. In this study, we examined the influence of language proficiency on three tasks requiring lexical access in English and Spanish bilingual normal controls and in bilingual individuals with aphasia. Methods. 12 neurologically healthy Spanish-English bilinguals and 10 Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the study. All participants completed three lexical retrieval tasks: two picture-naming tasks (BNT, BPNT) and a category generation (CG) task. Results. This study found that across all tasks, the greatest predictors for performance were the effect of group and language ability rating (LAR). Bilingual controls had a greater score or produced more correct responses than participants with bilingual aphasia across all tasks. The results of our study also indicate that normal controls and bilinguals with aphasia make similar types of errors in both English and Spanish and develop similar clustering strategies despite significant performance differences between the groups. Conclusions. Differences between bilingual patients and controls demonstrate a fundamental lexical retrieval deficit in bilingual individuals with aphasia, but one that is further influenced by language proficiency in the two languages. PMID:24825956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass&pg=7&id=ED550586','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=glass&pg=7&id=ED550586"><span id="translatedtitle">Lexical <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> and Its Philosophical Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leben, Derek</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Lexical <span class="hlt">semantics</span> is the field of cognitive science which attempts to explain how speakers learn to use and accept sentences like "She filled the glass with water" but avoid and reject sentences like "She poured the glass with water," often with poor or impoverished evidence. In order to explain why some verbs alternate in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053595.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053595.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Basis of Do So.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Binder, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>The thesis of this paper is that the "do so" test described by Lakoff and Ross (1966) is a test of the speaker's belief system regarding the relationship of verbs to their surface subject, and that judgments of grammaticality concerning "do so" are based on the speaker's underlying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> beliefs. ("Speaker" refers here to both speakers and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rivalry&pg=2&id=EJ908534','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rivalry&pg=2&id=EJ908534"><span id="translatedtitle">Implicit <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Perception in Object Substitution Masking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Decades of research on visual perception has uncovered many phenomena, such as binocular rivalry, backward masking, and the attentional blink, that reflect "failures of consciousness". Although stimuli do not reach awareness in these paradigms, there is evidence that they nevertheless undergo <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. Object substitution masking (OSM),…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040021366&hterms=design+oriented+objects&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddesign%2Boriented%2Bobjects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040021366&hterms=design+oriented+objects&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddesign%2Boriented%2Bobjects"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Metrics for Object Oriented Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Etzkorn, Lethe</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called <span class="hlt">semantic</span> metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various <span class="hlt">semantic</span> metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=animacy&pg=3&id=EJ785559','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=animacy&pg=3&id=EJ785559"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Indeterminacy in Object Relative Clauses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article examined whether <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040176.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040176.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Korzybski's <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> to Teach English Composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scott, Robert Ian</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Students who are taught to understand and apply Korzybski's uses of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> to their writing will learn to write more concretely. As students locate words and descriptions vertically on Korzybski's scale of abstraction levels, they will become able to perceive how meanings change when descriptions become either more general or specific, to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=antibiotic+AND+resistance&pg=2&id=EJ595486','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=antibiotic+AND+resistance&pg=2&id=EJ595486"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovering <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Patterns in Bibliographically Coupled Documents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Qin, Jian</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>An example of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> pattern analysis, based on keywords selected from documents grouped by bibliographical coupling, is used to demonstrate the methodological aspects of knowledge discovery in bibliographic databases. Frequency distribution patterns suggest the existence of a common intellectual base with a wide range of specialties and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RF&pg=4&id=EJ657897','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RF&pg=4&id=EJ657897"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithmic Procedure for Finding <span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Related Journals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pudovkin, Alexander I.; Garfield, Eugene</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Using citations, papers and references as parameters a relatedness factor (RF) is computed for a series of journals. Sorting these journals by the RF produces a list of journals most closely related to a specified starting journal. The method appears to select a set of journals that are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> most similar to the target journal. The…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=goldfish&pg=2&id=ED337295','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=goldfish&pg=2&id=ED337295"><span id="translatedtitle">Preschool Children's Understanding of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Relations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fu, Panfang</p> <p></p> <p>Two experiments investigated 4- to 5-year olds' understanding of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relations and methods for incorporating new words into their lexicon. In one experiment, 24 children were shown a picture of a container and told that an object called "X" was hidden inside it. Children were asked questions about the object X and about "Y," which indicated a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349383','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349383"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthographic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing in young readers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Polse, Lara R.; Reilly, Judy S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This investigation examined orthographic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing during reading acquisition. Children in first through fourth grade were presented with a target word and two response alternatives, and were asked to identify the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> match. Words were presented in four conditions: an exact match and unrelated foil (STONE – STONE – EARS), an exact match and an orthographic neighbor foil (STONE – STONE – STOVE), a synonym match and an unrelated foil (STONE – ROCK – EARS), and a synonym match and an orthographic neighbor foil (STONE – ROCK – STOVE). Accuracy and reaction time results suggest that orthographic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing follow a two-step acquisition pattern. First, the orthographic component of reading develops quickly, however, forming strong conceptual links from orthographic to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations follows a protracted trajectory, which matures between the third and fourth grade. These results are consistent with research that suggests younger children rely on more concrete, perceptual systems and then transition to more flexible, abstract cognition. PMID:25750465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+non+AND+verbal&pg=6&id=EJ845135','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+non+AND+verbal&pg=6&id=EJ845135"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantically</span> Redundant Language--A Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rizza, Chris</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this article, I discuss the concept of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> redundant language through a case study of the Te Rauparaha Maori haka. I suggest that current linguistic theories cannot give a full account of ritualized speech events, of which the haka is an example, as these theories are based on a traditional dyadic model of interaction involving a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+valid&pg=2&id=EJ1015750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+valid&pg=2&id=EJ1015750"><span id="translatedtitle">Validity <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> in Educational and Psychological Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hathcoat, John D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">semantics</span>, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732031"><span id="translatedtitle">Phasic affective modulation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual facial primes (Experiment 3) in an (in)direct <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming paradigm, as well as brief facial feedback in a summative priming paradigm (Experiment 4), yielded increased priming effects under brief positive compared to negative affect. Furthermore, this modulation took place on the level of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> spreading rather than on strategic mechanisms (Experiment 5). Alternative explanations such as distraction, motivation, arousal, and cognitive tuning could be ruled out. This phasic affective modulation constitutes a mechanism overlooked thus far that may contaminate priming effects in all priming paradigms that involve affective stimuli. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a novel explanation for the observation that priming effects are usually larger for positive than for negative stimuli. Finally, it has important implications for linguistic research, by suggesting that association norms may be biased for affective words. PMID:22732031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reference+AND+anaphoric&pg=5&id=ED187108','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reference+AND+anaphoric&pg=5&id=ED187108"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Syntactic Antecedents and Frame <span class="hlt">Semantics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gensler, Orin</p> <p></p> <p>A polemic is made for frame <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and the linguistic phenomenon of anaphoric reference without noun phrase (NP) antecedent is examined within this frame. Non-syntactic anaphora is that which does not point out into the real world but rather points back into the discourse in a frame which has been built up between the speaker and hearer in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reference+AND+anaphoric&pg=4&id=ED197315','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Reference+AND+anaphoric&pg=4&id=ED197315"><span id="translatedtitle">Reading Comprehension and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Memory. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wickelgren, Wayne A.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A research project investigated the process of reading comprehension through which the reader generates a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation of the message conveyed by a text. The first focus of the project was an examination of the functioning of abstract knowledge in text comprehension. Studies were conducted to explore the activation of proposition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wildman&pg=5&id=EJ197732','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wildman&pg=5&id=EJ197732"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>, Syntactic; and Spatial Anticipation in Reading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wildman, Daniel M.; Kling, Martin</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Critically reviews studies related to readers' anticipation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span>, syntactic, and spatial features of text in the light of current theories of reading. Concludes that the class of interactive models, which conceive simultaneous bottom-up and top-down processing, are most consistent with available evidence. (AA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+monolithic&id=EJ736361','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+monolithic&id=EJ736361"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> E-Learning: Synthesising Fantasies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lytras, Miltiadis; Naeve, Ambjorn</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>When the subject of scientific analysis is learning, the research needs to be anchored in various nonmonolithic pillars. Several disciplines require a common ground of convergence. An objective observer of the domain can easily conclude that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> e-learning brings together the three different worlds of learners, pedagogues and technologists.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanoes&pg=3&id=EJ864493','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanoes&pg=3&id=EJ864493"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich <span class="hlt">semantic</span> stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architecture+AND+patterns&pg=3&id=EJ987434','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architecture+AND+patterns&pg=3&id=EJ987434"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptualist <span class="hlt">Semantics</span>: Explanatory Power, Scope and Uniqueness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Riemer, Nick</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A familiar assumption in much linguistic <span class="hlt">semantics</span> is that meanings are to be identified conceptually as, or as subparts of, the conceptual representations deployed in general cognitive processes. However, this assumption has increasingly come into question as a result of developments in the study of cognition both within and outside linguistics.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+strings&pg=7&id=ED179090','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+strings&pg=7&id=ED179090"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.</p> <p></p> <p>This research examines how <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The teachers taught by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003SPIE.5021..300D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003SPIE.5021..300D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Shot Classification in Sports Video</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a unified framework for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level <span class="hlt">semantic</span> video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear <span class="hlt">semantic</span> meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fernando&pg=5&id=EJ532182','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fernando&pg=5&id=EJ532182"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Coaching to Improve Teacher Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caccia, Paul F.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Explains that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> coaching is a system of conversational analysis and communication design developed by Fernando Flores, and was based on the earlier research of John Austin and John Searle. Describes how to establish the coaching relationship, and how to coach for improved performance. (PA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466439"><span id="translatedtitle">Indeterminacy, linguistic <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and fuzzy logic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Novak, V.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic <span class="hlt">semantics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jiang&pg=2&id=EJ827099','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jiang&pg=2&id=EJ827099"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Contextual Cuing and Visual Attention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category membership of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=decomposition&pg=7&id=EJ787722','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=decomposition&pg=7&id=EJ787722"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Compositionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Three experiments tested the main claims of the idiom decomposition hypothesis: People have clear intuitions on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> compositionality of idiomatic expressions, which determines the syntactic behavior of these expressions and how they are recognized. Experiment 1 showed that intuitions are clear only for a very restricted number of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124252"><span id="translatedtitle">The geometric <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of algebraic quantum mechanics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cruz Morales, John Alexander; Zilber, Boris</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, we will present an ongoing project that aims to use model theory as a suitable mathematical setting for studying the formalism of quantum mechanics. We argue that this approach provides a geometric <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for such a formalism by means of establishing a (non-commutative) duality between certain algebraic and geometric objects. PMID:26124252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=5&id=ED527997','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=5&id=ED527997"><span id="translatedtitle">Hybrid Filtering in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Query Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hanjo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&id=EJ974158','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&id=EJ974158"><span id="translatedtitle">Students as Designers of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role in developing…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ840792.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ840792.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Leveraging the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web for Adaptive Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web. In practice, these approaches…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25415950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25415950"><span id="translatedtitle">Social image tagging with diverse <span class="hlt">semantics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Xueming; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Yuan Yan; Mei, Tao</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have witnessed the popularity of image-sharing websites for sharing personal experiences through photos on the Web. These websites allow users describing the content of their uploaded images with a set of tags. Those user-annotated tags are often noisy and biased. Social image tagging aims at removing noisy tags and suggests new relevant tags. However, most existing tag enrichment approaches predominantly focus on tag relevance and overlook tag diversity problem. How to make the top-ranked tags covering a wide range of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> is still an opening, yet challenging, issue. In this paper, we propose an approach to retag social images with diverse <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. Both the relevance of a tag to image as well as its <span class="hlt">semantic</span> compensations to the already determined tags are fused to determine the final tag list for a given image. Different from existing image tagging approaches, the top-ranked tags are not only highly relevant to the image but also have significant <span class="hlt">semantic</span> compensations with each other. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25415950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environment+AND+development&pg=7&id=EJ1009136','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environment+AND+development&pg=7&id=EJ1009136"><span id="translatedtitle">Cases, Simulacra, and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>"Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might provide the basis…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metonymy&pg=4&id=EJ470821','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metonymy&pg=4&id=EJ470821"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Change and Heterosemy in Grammaticalization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lichtenberk, Frantisek</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Investigates the <span class="hlt">semantical</span> aspects of Oceanic language elements that function as directional verbs of motion (e.g., "go,""come,""return"). It is argued that human conceptualization of phenomena (viz. metaphor and metonymy) directly motivate the variety of grammaticalization processes observed with respect to these elements and supports the view…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+enhancement&pg=7&id=EJ840114','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+enhancement&pg=7&id=EJ840114"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain Oscillations during <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Evaluation of Speech</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shahin, Antoine J.; Picton, Terence W.; Miller, Lee M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Changes in oscillatory brain activity have been related to perceptual and cognitive processes such as selective attention and memory matching. Here we examined brain oscillations, measured with electroencephalography (EEG), during a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> speech processing task that required both lexically mediated memory matching and selective attention.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Apples&pg=2&id=EJ884654','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Apples&pg=2&id=EJ884654"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing an Associative Account of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Satiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tian, Xing; Huber, David E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>How is the meaning of a word retrieved without interference from recently viewed words? The ROUSE theory of priming assumes a discounting process to reduce source confusion between subsequently presented words. As applied to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> satiation, this theory predicted a loss of association between the lexical item and meaning. Four experiments…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073700','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70073700"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco: a <span class="hlt">semantically</span> powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a <span class="hlt">semantically</span> enabled environmental monitoring framework called <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco and used it to build a water quality portal named <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Aqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss <span class="hlt">Semant</span>Eco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3698140','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3698140"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> querying of relational data for clinical intelligence: a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services-based approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Clinical Intelligence, as a research and engineering discipline, is dedicated to the development of tools for data analysis for the purposes of clinical research, surveillance, and effective health care management. Self-service ad hoc querying of clinical data is one desirable type of functionality. Since most of the data are currently stored in relational or similar form, ad hoc querying is problematic as it requires specialised technical skills and the knowledge of particular data schemas. Results A possible solution is <span class="hlt">semantic</span> querying where the user formulates queries in terms of domain ontologies that are much easier to navigate and comprehend than data schemas. In this article, we are exploring the possibility of using SADI <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web services for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> querying of clinical data. We have developed a prototype of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> querying infrastructure for the surveillance of, and research on, hospital-acquired infections. Conclusions Our results suggest that SADI can support ad-hoc, self-service, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> queries of relational data in a Clinical Intelligence context. The use of SADI compares favourably with approaches based on declarative <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mappings from data schemas to ontologies, such as query rewriting and RDFizing by materialisation, because it can easily cope with situations when (i) some computation is required to turn relational data into RDF or OWL, e.g., to implement temporal reasoning, or (ii) integration with external data sources is necessary. PMID:23497556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600993"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrophysiological effects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> context in picture and word naming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janssen, Niels; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Recent language production studies have started to use electrophysiological measures to investigate the time course of word selection processes. An important contribution with respect to this issue comes from studies that have relied on an effect of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> context in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> blocking task. Here we used this task to further establish the empirical pattern associated with the effect of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> context, and whether the effect arises during output processing. Electrophysiological and reaction time measures were co-registered while participants overtly named picture and word stimuli in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> blocking task. The results revealed inhibitory reaction time effects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> context for both words and pictures, and a corresponding electrophysiological effect that could not be interpreted in terms of output processes. These data suggest that the electrophysiological effect of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> context in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> blocking task does not reflect output processes, and therefore undermine an interpretation of this effect in terms of word selection. PMID:21600993</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007LNCS.4825..802M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007LNCS.4825..802M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Recipes for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Dog Food — The ESWC and ISWC Metadata Projects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Möller, Knud; Heath, Tom; Handschuh, Siegfried; Domingue, John</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web conferences such as ESWC and ISWC offer prime opportunities to test and showcase <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies. Conference metadata about people, papers and talks is diverse in <span class="hlt">nature</span> and neither too small to be uninteresting or too big to be unmanageable. Many metadata-related challenges that may arise in the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web at large are also present here. Metadata must be generated from sources which are often unstructured and hard to process, and may originate from many different players, therefore suitable workflows must be established. Moreover, the generated metadata must use appropriate formats and vocabularies, and be served in a way that is consistent with the principles of linked data. This paper reports on the metadata efforts from ESWC and ISWC, identifies specific issues and barriers encountered during the projects, and discusses how these were approached. Recommendations are made as to how these may be addressed in the future, and we discuss how these solutions may generalize to metadata production for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web at large.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15635062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15635062"><span id="translatedtitle">The neural mechanisms of speech comprehension: fMRI studies of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ambiguity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodd, Jennifer M; Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>A number of regions of the temporal and frontal lobes are known to be important for spoken language comprehension, yet we do not have a clear understanding of their functional role(s). In particular, there is considerable disagreement about which brain regions are involved in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aspects of comprehension. Two functional magnetic resonance studies use the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ambiguity to identify regions within the fronto-temporal language network that subserve the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> aspects of spoken language comprehension. Volunteers heard sentences containing ambiguous words (e.g. 'the shell was fired towards the tank') and well-matched low-ambiguity sentences (e.g. 'her secrets were written in her diary'). Although these sentences have similar acoustic, phonological, syntactic and prosodic properties (and were rated as being equally <span class="hlt">natural</span>), the high-ambiguity sentences require additional processing by those brain regions involved in activating and selecting contextually appropriate word meanings. The ambiguity in these sentences goes largely unnoticed, and yet high-ambiguity sentences produced increased signal in left posterior inferior temporal cortex and inferior frontal gyri bilaterally. Given the ubiquity of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> ambiguity, we conclude that these brain regions form an important part of the network that is involved in computing the meaning of spoken sentences. PMID:15635062</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013prst.conf...50M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013prst.conf...50M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A Computational Unification of Scientific Law:. Spelling out a Universal <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> for Physical Reality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcer, Peter J.; Rowlands, Peter</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The principal criteria Cn (n = 1 to 23) and grammatical production rules are set out of a universal computational rewrite language spelling out a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> description of an emergent, self-organizing architecture for the cosmos. These language productions already predicate: (1) Einstein's conservation law of energy, momentum and mass and, subsequently, (2) with respect to gauge invariant relativistic space time (both Lorentz special & Einstein general); (3) Standard Model elementary particle physics; (4) the periodic table of the elements & chemical valence; and (5) the molecular biological basis of the DNA / RNA genetic code; so enabling the Cybernetic Machine specialist Groups Mission Statement premise;** (6) that <span class="hlt">natural</span> <span class="hlt">semantic</span> language thinking at the higher level of the self-organized emergent chemical molecular complexity of the human brain (only surpassed by that of the cosmos itself!) would be realized (7) by this same universal <span class="hlt">semantic</span> language via (8) an architecture of a conscious human brain/mind and self which, it predicates consists of its neural / glia and microtubule substrates respectively, so as to endow it with; (9) the intelligent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> capability to be able to specify, symbolize, spell out and understand the cosmos that conceived it; and (10) provide a quantum physical explanation of consciousness and of how (11) the dichotomy between first person subjectivity and third person objectivity or `hard problem' is resolved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937810','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937810"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Diversity in Word Recognition across Aging and Bilingualism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johns, Brendan T.; Sheppard, Christine L.; Jones, Michael N.; Taler, Vanessa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Frequency effects are pervasive in studies of language, with higher frequency words being recognized faster than lower frequency words. However, the exact <span class="hlt">nature</span> of frequency effects has recently been questioned, with some studies finding that contextual information provides a better fit to lexical decision and naming data than word frequency (Adelman et al., 2006). Recent work has cemented the importance of these results by demonstrating that a measure of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity of the contexts that a word occurs in provides a powerful measure to account for variability in word recognition latency (Johns et al., 2012, 2015; Jones et al., 2012). The goal of the current study is to extend this measure to examine bilingualism and aging, where multiple theories use frequency of occurrence of linguistic constructs as central to accounting for empirical results (Gollan et al., 2008; Ramscar et al., 2014). A lexical decision experiment was conducted with four groups of subjects: younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals. Consistent with past results, a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity variable accounted for the greatest amount of variance in the latency data. In addition, the pattern of fits of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity across multiple corpora suggests that bilinguals and older adults are more sensitive to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity information than younger monolinguals. PMID:27458392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II4..177B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II4..177B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-Temporal Change Modeling of Lulc: a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Kriging Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharjee, S.; Ghosh, S. K.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Spatio-temporal land-use/ land-cover (LULC) change modeling is important to forecast the future LULC distribution, which may facilitate <span class="hlt">natural</span> resource management, urban planning, etc. The spatio-temporal change in LULC trend often exhibits non-linear behavior, due to various dynamic factors, such as, human intervention (e.g., urbanization), environmental factors, etc. Hence, proper forecasting of LULC distribution should involve the study and trend modeling of historical data. Existing literatures have reported that the meteorological attributes (e.g., NDVI, LST, MSI), are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related to the terrain. Being influenced by the terrestrial dynamics, the temporal changes of these attributes depend on the LULC properties. Hence, incorporating meteorological knowledge into the temporal prediction process may help in developing an accurate forecasting model. This work attempts to study the change in inter-annual LULC pattern and the distribution of different meteorological attributes of a region in Kolkata (a metropolitan city in India) during the years 2000-2010 and forecast the future spread of LULC using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> kriging (SemK) approach. A new variant of time-series SemK is proposed, namely Rev-SemKts to capture the multivariate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations between different attributes. From empirical analysis, it may be observed that the augmentation of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge in spatio-temporal modeling of meteorological attributes facilitate more precise forecasting of LULC pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009lkic.conf..777M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009lkic.conf..777M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Maps Capturing Organization Knowledge in e-Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mavridis, Androklis; Koumpis, Adamantios; Demetriadis, Stavros N.</p> <p></p> <p>e-learning, shows much promise in accessibility and opportunity to learn, due to its asynchronous <span class="hlt">nature</span> and its ability to transmit knowledge fast and effectively. However without a universal standard for online learning and teaching, many systems are proclaimed as “e-learning-compliant”, offering nothing more than automated services for delivering courses online, providing no additional enhancement to reusability and learner personalization. Hence, the focus is not on providing reusable and learner-centered content, but on developing the technology aspects of e-learning. This current trend has made it crucial to find a more refined definition of what constitutes knowledge in the e-learning context. We propose an e-learning system architecture that makes use of a knowledge model to facilitate continuous dialogue and inquiry-based knowledge learning, by exploiting the full benefits of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web as a medium capable for supplying the web with formalized knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010121540&hterms=Set+Theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Set%2BTheory%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010121540&hterms=Set+Theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Set%2BTheory%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both <span class="hlt">natural</span> and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311641','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311641"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaussian mixture models and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> gating improve reconstructions from human brain activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schoenmakers, Sanne; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel; Heskes, Tom</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Better acquisition protocols and analysis techniques are making it possible to use fMRI to obtain highly detailed visualizations of brain processes. In particular we focus on the reconstruction of <span class="hlt">natural</span> images from BOLD responses in visual cortex. We expand our linear Gaussian framework for percept decoding with Gaussian mixture models to better represent the prior distribution of <span class="hlt">natural</span> images. Reconstruction of such images then boils down to probabilistic inference in a hybrid Bayesian network. In our set-up, different mixture components correspond to different character categories. Our framework can automatically infer higher-order <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories from lower-level brain areas. Furthermore, the framework can gate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information from higher-order brain areas to enforce the correct category during reconstruction. When categorical information is not available, we show that automatically learned clusters in the data give a similar improvement in reconstruction. The hybrid Bayesian network leads to highly accurate reconstructions in both supervised and unsupervised settings. PMID:25688202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16442849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16442849"><span id="translatedtitle">Graph theoretic modeling of large-scale <span class="hlt">semantic</span> networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bales, Michael E; Johnson, Stephen B</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>During the past several years, social network analysis methods have been used to model many complex real-world phenomena, including social networks, transportation networks, and the Internet. Graph theoretic methods, based on an elegant representation of entities and relationships, have been used in computational biology to study biological networks; however they have not yet been adopted widely by the greater informatics community. The graphs produced are generally large, sparse, and complex, and share common global topological properties. In this review of research (1998-2005) on large-scale <span class="hlt">semantic</span> networks, we used a tailored search strategy to identify articles involving both a graph theoretic perspective and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. Thirty-one relevant articles were retrieved. The majority (28, 90.3%) involved an investigation of a real-world network. These included corpora, thesauri, dictionaries, large computer programs, biological neuronal networks, word association networks, and files on the Internet. Twenty-two of the 28 (78.6%) involved a graph comprised of words or phrases. Fifteen of the 28 (53.6%) mentioned evidence of small-world characteristics in the network investigated. Eleven (39.3%) reported a scale-free topology, which tends to have a similar appearance when examined at varying scales. The results of this review indicate that networks generated from <span class="hlt">natural</span> language have topological properties common to other <span class="hlt">natural</span> phenomena. It has not yet been determined whether artificial human-curated terminology systems in biomedicine share these properties. Large network analysis methods have potential application in a variety of areas of informatics, such as in development of controlled vocabularies and for characterizing a given domain. PMID:16442849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3105497','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3105497"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantics</span>-based composition of EMBOSS services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. Results In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite) is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010) for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1) a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, <span class="hlt">semantically</span> meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2) a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD) files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM). Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current) ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Conclusions Our results show that adequate domain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9669044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9669044"><span id="translatedtitle">Odor identification: perceptual and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dimensions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6742587','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6742587"><span id="translatedtitle">Readings in <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The book presents papers on <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NLP&pg=5&id=ED537867','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NLP&pg=5&id=ED537867"><span id="translatedtitle">A CCG-Based Method for Training a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Role Labeler in the Absence of Explicit Syntactic Training Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boxwell, Stephen A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Treebanks are a necessary prerequisite for many NLP tasks, including, but not limited to, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> role labeling. For many languages, however, treebanks are either nonexistent or too small to be useful. Time-critical applications may require rapid deployment of <span class="hlt">natural</span> language software for a new critical language--much faster than the development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED227721.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED227721.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">World-Making and World-Revealing: <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> and Pragmatics of Modal Auxiliary Verbs during the Third Year of Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pea, Roy D.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Extensive longitudinal data were gathered on a child's entry into the symbolically mediated modal world by examining changes in the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> and pragmatics of her uses of modal auxiliary verbs. The data are 53 transcripts of <span class="hlt">natural</span> conversations between a girl, Nina, and her mother recorded periodically from her 23rd month to her 39th month. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26666706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26666706"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of handedness on brain activity patterns and effective connectivity network during the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> task of Chinese characters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Qing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Increasing efforts have been <span class="hlt">denoted</span> to elucidating the effective connectivity (EC) among brain regions recruited by certain language task; however, it remains unclear the impact of handedness on the EC network underlying language processing. In particularly, this has not been investigated in Chinese language, which shows several differences from alphabetic language. This study thereby explored the functional activity patterns and the EC network during a Chinese <span class="hlt">semantic</span> task based on functional MRI data of healthy left handers (LH) and right handers (RH). We found that RH presented a left lateralized activity pattern in cerebral cortex and a right lateralized pattern in cerebellum; while LH were less lateralized than RH in both cerebral and cerebellar areas. The conditional Granger causality method in deconvolved BOLD level further demonstrated more interhemispheric directional connections in LH than RH group, suggesting better bihemispheric coordination and increased interhemispheric communication in LH. Furthermore, we found significantly increased EC from right middle occipital gyrus to bilateral insula (INS) while decreased EC from left INS to left precentral gyrus in LH group comparing to RH group, implying that handedness may differentiate the causal relationship of information processing in integration of visual-spatial analysis and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> word retrieval of Chinese characters. PMID:26666706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678893','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678893"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of handedness on brain activity patterns and effective connectivity network during the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> task of Chinese characters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Qing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Increasing efforts have been <span class="hlt">denoted</span> to elucidating the effective connectivity (EC) among brain regions recruited by certain language task; however, it remains unclear the impact of handedness on the EC network underlying language processing. In particularly, this has not been investigated in Chinese language, which shows several differences from alphabetic language. This study thereby explored the functional activity patterns and the EC network during a Chinese <span class="hlt">semantic</span> task based on functional MRI data of healthy left handers (LH) and right handers (RH). We found that RH presented a left lateralized activity pattern in cerebral cortex and a right lateralized pattern in cerebellum; while LH were less lateralized than RH in both cerebral and cerebellar areas. The conditional Granger causality method in deconvolved BOLD level further demonstrated more interhemispheric directional connections in LH than RH group, suggesting better bihemispheric coordination and increased interhemispheric communication in LH. Furthermore, we found significantly increased EC from right middle occipital gyrus to bilateral insula (INS) while decreased EC from left INS to left precentral gyrus in LH group comparing to RH group, implying that handedness may differentiate the causal relationship of information processing in integration of visual-spatial analysis and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> word retrieval of Chinese characters. PMID:26666706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=demand+AND+lead+AND+time&pg=7&id=EJ827106','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=demand+AND+lead+AND+time&pg=7&id=EJ827106"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Control Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information over brief delays but perform well on other <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processes that have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4378535','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4378535"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposing Effects of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Diversity in Lexical and <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Relatedness Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> ambiguity has often been divided into 2 forms: homonymy, referring to words with 2 unrelated interpretations (e.g., bark), and polysemy, referring to words associated with a number of varying but <span class="hlt">semantically</span> linked uses (e.g., twist). Typically, polysemous words are thought of as having a fixed number of discrete definitions, or “senses,” with each use of the word corresponding to one of its senses. In this study, we investigated an alternative conception of polysemy, based on the idea that polysemous variation in meaning is a continuous, graded phenomenon that occurs as a function of contextual variation in word usage. We quantified this contextual variation using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> diversity (SemD), a corpus-based measure of the degree to which a particular word is used in a diverse set of linguistic contexts. In line with other approaches to polysemy, we found a reaction time (RT) advantage for high SemD words in lexical decision, which occurred for words of both high and low imageability. When participants made <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness decisions to word pairs, however, responses were slower to high SemD pairs, irrespective of whether these were related or unrelated. Again, this result emerged irrespective of the imageability of the word. The latter result diverges from previous findings using homonyms, in which ambiguity effects have only been found for related word pairs. We argue that participants were slower to respond to high SemD words because their high contextual variability resulted in noisy, underspecified <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations that were more difficult to compare with one another. We demonstrated this principle in a connectionist computational model that was trained to activate distributed <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations from orthographic inputs. Greater variability in the orthography-to-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> mappings of high SemD words resulted in a lower degree of similarity for related pairs of this type. At the same time, the representations of high SemD unrelated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17125182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17125182"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Eye: a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web application to rationalize and enhance chemical electronic publishing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casher, Omer; Rzepa, Henry S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Eye, an ontology with associated tools, improves the classification and open accessibility of chemical information in electronic publishing. In a manner analogous to digital music management, RDF metadata encoded as Adobe XMP can be extracted from a variety of document formats, such as PDF, and managed in an RDF repository called Sesame. Users upload electronic documents containing XMP to a central server by "dropping" them into WebDAV folders. The documents can then be navigated in a Web browser via their metadata, and multiple documents containing identical metadata can then be aggregated. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Eye does not actually store any documents. By including unique identifiers within the XMP, such as the DOI, associated documents can be retrieved from the Web with the help of resolving agents. The power of this metadata driven approach is illustrated by including, within the XMP, InChI identifiers for molecular structures and finding relationships between articles based on their InChIs. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>Eye will become increasingly more comprehensive as usage becomes more widespread. Furthermore, following the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web architecture enables the reuse of open software tools, provides a "<span class="hlt">semantically</span> intuitive" alternative to search engines, and fosters a greater sense of trust in Web-based scientific information. PMID:17125182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620940','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620940"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying bilingual <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neural representations across languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their brain activation in the other language. The study shows reliable (p < .05) pattern-based classification accuracies for the classification of brain activity for nouns across languages. It also shows that the stable voxels used to classify the brain activation were located in areas associated with encoding information about <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dimensions of the words in the study. The identification of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> trace of individual nouns from the pattern of cortical activity demonstrates the existence of a multi-voxel pattern of activation across the cortex for a single noun common to both languages in bilinguals. PMID:21978845</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797040"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Congruency effects are taken as evidence that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3\\3") or different ("3\\5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3\\5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming. PMID:24797040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278934','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278934"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental contributions to preschoolers' <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fluency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kavé, Gitit; Shalmon, Moran; Knafo, Ariel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> fluency was examined in Hebrew-speaking 5-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins (N = 396, 198 pairs), 22% of them with mother-reported speech-related problems. There were positive correlations of similar magnitudes among monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic twins. Analyses showed no genetic effects, alongside significant shared (39%) and non-shared environmental (61%) effects on fluency scores. The presence of speech-related problems in one twin affected the fluency score of the co-twin. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that parental education and length of stay at daycare significantly predicted fluency scores. We suggest that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> fluency performance is highly affected by environmental factors at age 5 although genetic effects might emerge later on. PMID:23278934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590539','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590539"><span id="translatedtitle">Language and culture modulate online <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R.; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh–English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. PMID:25767190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6045....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6045....1B"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model for Open <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Hyperwikis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulain, Philip; Shadbolt, Nigel; Gibbins, Nicholas</p> <p></p> <p>Wiki systems have developed over the past years as lightweight, community-editable, web-based hypertext systems. With the emergence of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> wikis such as <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> MediaWiki [6], these collections of interlinked documents have also gained a dual role as ad-hoc RDF [7] graphs. However, their roots lie in the limited hypertext capabilities of the World Wide Web [1]: embedded links, without support for features like composite objects or transclusion. Collaborative editing on wikis has been hampered by redundancy; much of the effort spent on Wikipedia is used keeping content synchronised and organised.[3] We have developed a model for a system, which we have prototyped and are evaluating, which reintroduces ideas from the field of hypertext to help alleviate this burden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25767190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25767190"><span id="translatedtitle">Language and culture modulate online <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ellis, Ceri; Kuipers, Jan R; Thierry, Guillaume; Lovett, Victoria; Turnbull, Oliver; Jones, Manon W</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Language has been shown to influence non-linguistic cognitive operations such as colour perception, object categorization and motion event perception. Here, we show that language also modulates higher level processing, such as <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. Using event-related brain potentials, we show that highly fluent Welsh-English bilinguals require significantly less processing effort when reading sentences in Welsh which contain factually correct information about Wales, than when reading sentences containing the same information presented in English. Crucially, culturally irrelevant information was processed similarly in both Welsh and English. Our findings show that even in highly proficient bilinguals, language interacts with factors associated with personal identity, such as culture, to modulate online <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. PMID:25767190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1190754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1190754"><span id="translatedtitle">Graph Mining Meets the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Lim, Seung-Hwan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web. Today, data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web has emerged. We address that need through implementation of three popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, and PageRank). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on 6 real world data sets and show graph mining algorithms (that have a linear-algebra formulation) can indeed be unleashed on data represented as RDF graphs using the SPARQL query interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2735264','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2735264"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> indeterminacy in object relative clauses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article examined whether <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing different animacy configurations to unambiguous passive controls; and Study 3 related completion data and reading data. The results showed that comprehension difficulty was modulated by animacy configuration and voice (active vs. passive). These differences were well correlated with the availability of alternative interpretations as the relative clause unfolds, as revealed by the completion data. In contrast to approaches arguing that comprehension difficulty stems from syntactic complexity, these results suggest that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indeterminacy is a major source of comprehension difficulty in object relative clauses. Results are consistent with constraint-based approaches to ambiguity resolution and bring new insights into previously identified sources of difficulty. PMID:19724662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010urif.book..111D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010urif.book..111D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Based RFID Data Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Virgilio, Roberto; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Ruta, Michele; Scioscia, Floriano; Torlone, Riccardo</p> <p></p> <p>Traditional Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) applications have been focused on replacing bar codes in supply chain management. Leveraging a ubiquitous computing architecture, the chapter presents a framework allowing both quick decentralized on-line item discovery and centralized off-line massive business logic analysis, according to needs and requirements of supply chain actors. A <span class="hlt">semantic</span>-based environment, where tagged objects become resources exposing to an RFID reader not a trivial identification code but a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> annotation, enables tagged objects to describe themselves on the fly without depending on a centralized infrastructure. On the other hand, facing on data management issues, a proposal is formulated for an effective off-line multidimensional analysis of huge amounts of RFID data generated and stored along the supply chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6152...96T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6152...96T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Advertising for Web 3.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting</p> <p></p> <p>Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded <span class="hlt">semantics</span>. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight <span class="hlt">semantic</span> attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1123250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1123250"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph databases on commodity clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste</p> <p>2013-10-06</p> <p>We are developing a full software system for accelerating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5500..309D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5500..309D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Search with GoPubMed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doms, Andreas; Schroeder, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Searching relevant information on the web is a main occupation of researchers nowadays. Classical keyword-based search engines have limits. Inconsistent vocabulary used by authors is not handled. Relevant information spread over multiple documents can not be found. An overview over an entire document collection can not be given by the means of ranked lists. Question answering requiring <span class="hlt">semantic</span> disambiguation of occurring terminology is not possible. Trends in the literature can not be followed if vocabulary is evolving over time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN43E..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN43E..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">X-Informatics: Practical <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borne, K. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The discipline of data science is merging with multiple science disciplines to form new X-informatics research disciplines. They are almost too numerous to name, but they include geoinformatics, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, biodiversity informatics, ecoinformatics, materials informatics, and the emerging discipline of astroinformatics. Within any X-informatics discipline, the information granules are unique to that discipline -- e.g., gene sequences in bio, the sky object in astro, and the spatial object in geo (such as points, lines, and polygons in the vector model, and pixels in the raster model). Nevertheless the goals are similar: transparent data re-use across subdisciplines and within education settings, information and data integration and fusion, personalization of user interactions with the data collection, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> search and retrieval, and knowledge discovery. The implementation of an X-informatics framework enables these <span class="hlt">semantic</span> e-science research goals. We describe the concepts, challenges, and new developments associated with the new discipline of astroinformatics, and how geoinformatics provides valuable lessons learned and a model for practical <span class="hlt">semantic</span> science within a traditional science discipline through the accretion of data science methodologies (such as formal metadata creation, data models, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge engineering, provenance, taxonomies, and ontologies). The emerging concept of data-as-a-service (DaaS) builds upon the concept of smart data (or data DNA) for intelligent data management, automated workflows, and intelligent processing. Smart data, defined through X-informatics, enables several practical <span class="hlt">semantic</span> science use cases, including self-discovery, data intelligence, automatic recommendations, relevance analysis, dimension reduction, feature selection, constraint-based mining, interdisciplinary data re-use, knowledge-sharing, data use in education, and more. We describe these concepts within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2766179','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2766179"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurology of anomia in the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> variant of primary progressive aphasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Cobia, Derin; Rademaker, Alfred; Thompson, Cynthia; Weintraub, Sandra</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">semantic</span> variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by the combination of word comprehension deficits, fluent aphasia and a particularly severe anomia. In this study, two novel tasks were used to explore the factors contributing to the anomia. The single most common factor was a blurring of distinctions among members of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category, leading to errors of overgeneralization in word–object matching tasks as well as in word definitions and object descriptions. This factor was more pronounced for <span class="hlt">natural</span> kinds than artifacts. In patients with the more severe anomias, conceptual maps were more extensively disrupted so that inter-category distinctions were as impaired as intra-category distinctions. Many objects that could not be named aloud could be matched to the correct word in patients with mild but not severe anomia, reflecting a gradual intensification of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> factor as the naming disorder becomes more severe. Accurate object descriptions were more frequent than accurate word definitions and all patients experienced prominent word comprehension deficits that interfered with everyday activities but no consequential impairment of object usage or face recognition. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed three characteristics: greater atrophy of the left hemisphere; atrophy of anterior components of the perisylvian language network in the superior and middle temporal gyri; and atrophy of anterior components of the face and object recognition network in the inferior and medial temporal lobes. The left sided asymmetry and perisylvian extension of the atrophy explains the more profound impairment of word than object usage and provides the anatomical basis for distinguishing the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> variant of primary progressive aphasia from the partially overlapping group of patients that fulfil the widely accepted diagnostic criteria for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> dementia. PMID:19506067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739881','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739881"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Model for Species Description Applied to the Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Balhoff, James P.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Mullins, Patricia L.; Deans, Andrew R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As <span class="hlt">natural</span> language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity–quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key. [Biodiversity informatics; Evaniidae; New Caledonia; new species; ontology; <span class="hlt">semantic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4026710','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4026710"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a high-dimensional graph of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space to model relationships among words</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jackson, Alice F.; Bolger, Donald J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The GOLD model (Graph Of Language Distribution) is a network model constructed based on co-occurrence in a large corpus of <span class="hlt">natural</span> language that may be used to explore what information may be present in a graph-structured model of language, and what information may be extracted through theoretically-driven algorithms as well as standard graph analysis methods. The present study will employ GOLD to examine two types of relationship between words: <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity and associative relatedness. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> similarity refers to the degree of overlap in meaning between words, while associative relatedness refers to the degree to which two words occur in the same schematic context. It is expected that a graph structured model of language constructed based on co-occurrence should easily capture associative relatedness, because this type of relationship is thought to be present directly in lexical co-occurrence. However, it is hypothesized that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity may be extracted from the intersection of the set of first-order connections, because two words that are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> similar may occupy similar thematic or syntactic roles across contexts and thus would co-occur lexically with the same set of nodes. Two versions the GOLD model that differed in terms of the co-occurence window, bigGOLD at the paragraph level and smallGOLD at the adjacent word level, were directly compared to the performance of a well-established distributional model, Latent <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Analysis (LSA). The superior performance of the GOLD models (big and small) suggest that a single acquisition and storage mechanism, namely co-occurrence, can account for associative and conceptual relationships between words and is more psychologically plausible than models using singular value decomposition (SVD). PMID:24860525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4546568','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4546568"><span id="translatedtitle">Hemispheric lateralization of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> feature distinctiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reilly, M.; Machado, N.; Blumstein, S. E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory propose that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation of concepts is based, in part, on a network of features. In this view, a feature that is distinctive for an object (a zebra has stripes) is processed differently from a feature that is shared across many objects (a zebra has four legs). The goal of this paper is to determine whether there are hemispheric differences in such processing. In a feature verification task, participants responded ‘yes’ or ‘no’ following concepts which were presented to a single visual field (left or right) paired with a shared or distinctive feature. Both hemispheres showed faster reaction times to shared features than to distinctive features, although right hemisphere responses were significantly slower overall and particularly in the processing of distinctive features. These findings support models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing in which the dominant left hemisphere more efficiently performs highly discriminating ‘fine’ encoding, in contrast to the right hemisphere which performs less discriminating ‘coarse’ encoding. PMID:26022059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8758E..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8758E..06S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">GOOSE: <span class="hlt">semantic</span> search on internet connected sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search <span class="hlt">semantically</span> for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based <span class="hlt">semantic</span> matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316341"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-<span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Prediction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-<span class="hlt">semantic</span> prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011LNCS.6602...77B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011LNCS.6602...77B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Measure Transformer <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> for Bayesian Machine Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgström, Johannes; Gordon, Andrew D.; Greenberg, Michael; Margetson, James; van Gael, Jurgen</p> <p></p> <p>The Bayesian approach to machine learning amounts to inferring posterior distributions of random variables from a probabilistic model of how the variables are related (that is, a prior distribution) and a set of observations of variables. There is a trend in machine learning towards expressing Bayesian models as probabilistic programs. As a foundation for this kind of programming, we propose a core functional calculus with primitives for sampling prior distributions and observing variables. We define combinators for measure transformers, based on theorems in measure theory, and use these to give a rigorous <span class="hlt">semantics</span> to our core calculus. The original features of our <span class="hlt">semantics</span> include its support for discrete, continuous, and hybrid measures, and, in particular, for observations of zero-probability events. We compile our core language to a small imperative language that has a straightforward <span class="hlt">semantics</span> via factor graphs, data structures that enable many efficient inference algorithms. We use an existing inference engine for efficient approximate inference of posterior marginal distributions, treating thousands of observations per second for large instances of realistic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137139"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> generation can cause episodic forgetting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bäuml, Karl-Heinz</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>The repeated retrieval of a subset of previously learned items can cause forgetting of the nonretrieved items. The study reported here investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting generalizes to a situation in which the retrieved and nonretrieved items are not part of the same experiential episode and task. Subjects learned an item list that they had to recall later in the experiment. In a separate intermediate phase, they repeatedly generated related items from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory, or were presented the same items intact for study. Only the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> generation of items, and not their presentation for study, induced forgetting of the initially learned items. This result indicates that, first, <span class="hlt">semantic</span> generation can cause recall-specific episodic forgetting and, second, retrieval-induced forgetting can occur even if the retrieved and nonretrieved items belong to different experiential episodes and tasks. Connections of the present results to other memory phenomena, such as part-set cuing and the generation effect, social cognition, and eyewitness memory, are discussed. PMID:12137139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIN24A..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIN24A..03M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of interdisciplinary data and information integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>We have developed an application of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the <span class="hlt">Semantically</span>-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723010"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> support and parallel parsing in Chinese.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Yufen; Boland, Julie E</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted using written Chinese sentences that contained a multi-word ambiguous region. The goal was to determine whether readers maintained multiple interpretations throughout the ambiguous region or selected a single interpretation at the point of ambiguity. Within the ambiguous region, we manipulated the strength of support for the complement clause (CC) analysis and the relative clause (RC) analysis of the ambiguous construction Verb NP1 de NP2. In Experiment 1, the critical sentences were disambiguated to the dispreferred CC interpretation; in Experiment 2, the sentences were disambiguated as the preferred RC interpretation. Unsurprisingly, processing difficulty at the point of disambiguation was observed only in Experiment 1. As predicted by a parallel mechanism, greater processing difficulty arose at disambiguation when the RC interpretation was much more strongly supported by <span class="hlt">semantic</span> cues relative to the CC alternative, than when the two analyses were <span class="hlt">semantically</span> supported to a similar degree. Regression analyses confirmed that the degree of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> support predicted processing difficulty at disambiguation. The findings provide evidence for a parallel constraint-based parsing mechanism. PMID:24723010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624136"><span id="translatedtitle">Conscious and unconscious detection of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> anomalies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hannon, Brenda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25982148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25982148"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Search in the Remote Associates Test.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davelaar, Eddy J</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Searching through <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory may involve the use of several retrieval cues. In a verbal fluency task, the set of available cues is limited and every candidate word is a target. Individuals exhibit clustering behavior as predicted by optimal foraging theory. In another <span class="hlt">semantic</span> search task, the remote associates task (RAT), three cues are presented and a single target word has to be found. Whereas the task has been widely studied as a task of creativity or insight problem solving, in this article, the RAT is treated as a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> retrieval task and assessed from the perspective of information foraging theory. Experiments are presented that address the superadditive combination of cues and the anti-clustering behavior in the recall sequence. A new type of search behavior in the RAT is put forward that involves maximizing the difference in activation between target and distractors. This type of search is advantageous when the target is weak and cue patches are contaminated with strong competitors. PMID:25982148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009LNCS.5823..876M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009LNCS.5823..876M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Enhancement for Enterprise Data Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Li; Sun, Xingzhi; Cao, Feng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Kanellos, Nick; Wolfson, Dan; Pan, Yue</p> <p></p> <p>Taking customer data as an example, the paper presents an approach to enhance the management of enterprise data by using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technologies. Customer data is the most important kind of core business entity a company uses repeatedly across many business processes and systems, and customer data management (CDM) is becoming critical for enterprises because it keeps a single, complete and accurate record of customers across the enterprise. Existing CDM systems focus on integrating customer data from all customer-facing channels and front and back office systems through multiple interfaces, as well as publishing customer data to different applications. To make the effective use of the CDM system, this paper investigates <span class="hlt">semantic</span> query and analysis over the integrated and centralized customer data, enabling automatic classification and relationship discovery. We have implemented these features over IBM Websphere Customer Center, and shown the prototype to our clients. We believe that our study and experiences are valuable for both <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web community and data management community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780793"><span id="translatedtitle">Discriminative <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Subspace Analysis for Relevance Feedback.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has attracted much attention during the past decades for its potential practical applications to image database management. A variety of relevance feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level <span class="hlt">semantic</span> concepts for an image retrieval task. In the process of RF, it would be impractical or too expensive to provide explicit class label information for each image. Instead, similar or dissimilar pairwise constraints between two images can be acquired more easily. However, most of the conventional RF approaches can only deal with training images with explicit class label information. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative <span class="hlt">semantic</span> subspace analysis (DSSA) method, which can directly learn a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> subspace from similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints without using any explicit class label information. In particular, DSSA can effectively integrate the local geometry of labeled similar images, the discriminative information between labeled similar and dissimilar images, and the local geometry of labeled and unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. Compared with the popular distance metric analysis approaches, our method can also learn a distance metric but perform more effectively when dealing with high-dimensional images. Extensive experiments on both the synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of the CBIR. PMID:26780793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337267','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Annotation for Biological Information Retrieval System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oshaiba, Mohamed Marouf Z.; El Houby, Enas M. F.; Salah, Akram</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Online literatures are increasing in a tremendous rate. Biological domain is one of the fast growing domains. Biological researchers face a problem finding what they are searching for effectively and efficiently. The aim of this research is to find documents that contain any combination of biological process and/or molecular function and/or cellular component. This research proposes a framework that helps researchers to retrieve meaningful documents related to their asserted terms based on gene ontology (GO). The system utilizes GO by <span class="hlt">semantically</span> decomposing it into three subontologies (cellular component, biological process, and molecular function). Researcher has the flexibility to choose searching terms from any combination of the three subontologies. Document annotation is taking a place in this research to create an index of biological terms in documents to speed the searching process. Query expansion is used to infer <span class="hlt">semantically</span> related terms to asserted terms. It increases the search meaningful results using the term synonyms and term relationships. The system uses a ranking method to order the retrieved documents based on the ranking weights. The proposed system achieves researchers' needs to find documents that fit the asserted terms <span class="hlt">semantically</span>. PMID:25737720</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/930805"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web for Manufacturing Web Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>As markets become unexpectedly turbulent with a shortened product life cycle and a power shift towards buyers, the need for methods to rapidly and cost-effectively develop products, production facilities and supporting software is becoming urgent. The use of a virtual enterprise plays a vital role in surviving turbulent markets. However, its success requires reliable and large-scale interoperation among trading partners via a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web of trading partners' services whose properties, capabilities, and interfaces are encoded in an unambiguous as well as computer-understandable form. This paper demonstrates a promising approach to integration and interoperation between a design house and a manufacturer by developing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web services for business and engineering transactions. To this end, detailed activity and information flow diagrams are developed, in which the two trading partners exchange messages and documents. The properties and capabilities of the manufacturer sites are defined using DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) ontology definition language. The prototype development of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> webs shows that enterprises can widely interoperate in an unambiguous and autonomous manner; hence, virtual enterprise is realizable at a low cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..543K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..543K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Location Extraction from Crowdsourced Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koswatte, S.; Mcdougall, K.; Liu, X.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Crowdsourced Data (CSD) has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network). This study attempts to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were <span class="hlt">semantically</span> analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and <span class="hlt">semantics</span> can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7143E..0NL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7143E..0NL"><span id="translatedtitle">GIS information organization based on the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Geospatial Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial <span class="hlt">semantic</span> during the search process. The <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is a new <span class="hlt">semantic</span>-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data according to the architecture of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985889"><span id="translatedtitle">LEARNING <span class="hlt">SEMANTICS</span>-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE</p> <p>2007-01-29</p> <p>An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information, and consequently limits its applicability to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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