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Sample records for denotational semantics natural

  1. Action Algebras and Model Algebras in Denotational Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Luiz Carlos Castro; Haeusler, Edward Hermann

    This article describes some results concerning the conceptual separation of model dependent and language inherent aspects in a denotational semantics of a programming language. Before going into the technical explanation, the authors wish to relate a story that illustrates how correctly and precisely posed questions can influence the direction of research. By means of his questions, Professor Mosses aided the PhD research of one of the authors of this article and taught the other, who at the time was a novice supervisor, the real meaning of careful PhD supervision. The student’s research had been partially developed towards the implementation of programming languages through denotational semantics specification, and the student had developed a prototype [12] that compared relatively well to some industrial compilers of the PASCAL language. During a visit to the BRICS lab in Aarhus, the student’s supervisor gave Professor Mosses a draft of an article describing the prototype and its implementation experiments. The next day, Professor Mosses asked the supervisor, “Why is the generated code so efficient when compared to that generated by an industrial compiler?” and “You claim that the efficiency is simply a consequence of the Object- Orientation mechanisms used by the prototype programming language (C++); this should be better investigated. Pay more attention to the class of programs that might have this good comparison profile.” As a result of these aptly chosen questions and comments, the student and supervisor made great strides in the subsequent research; the advice provided by Professor Mosses made them perceive that the code generated for certain semantic domains was efficient because it mapped to the “right aspect” of the language semantics. (Certain functional types, used to represent mappings such as Stores and Environments, were pushed to the level of the object language (as in gcc). This had the side-effect of generating

  2. Semantics, Pragmatics, and the Nature of Semantic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewak, David Charles, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The primary concern of this dissertation is determining the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and how context sensitivity should be accommodated within a semantic theory. I approach the question over how to distinguish semantics from pragmatics from a new angle by investigating what the objects of a semantic theory are, namely…

  3. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  4. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  5. Towards a semantic lexicon for clinical natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongfang; Wu, Stephen T; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    A semantic lexicon which associates words and phrases in text to concepts is critical for extracting and encoding clinical information in free text and therefore achieving semantic interoperability between structured and unstructured data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Directly using existing standard terminologies may have limited coverage with respect to concepts and their corresponding mentions in text. In this paper, we analyze how tokens and phrases in a large corpus distribute and how well the UMLS captures the semantics. A corpus-driven semantic lexicon, MedLex, has been constructed where the semantics is based on the UMLS assisted with variants mined and usage information gathered from clinical text. The detailed corpus analysis of tokens, chunks, and concept mentions shows the UMLS is an invaluable source for natural language processing. Increasing the semantic coverage of tokens provides a good foundation in capturing clinical information comprehensively. The study also yields some insights in developing practical NLP systems. PMID:23304329

  6. Semantics of Context-Free Fragments of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The objective of this paper is to combine the viewpoint of model-theoretic semantics and generative grammar, to define semantics for context-free languages, and to apply the results to some fragments of natural language. Following the introduction in the first section, Section 2 describes a simple artificial example to illustrate how a semantic…

  7. Semantic control of feature extraction from natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Neri, Peter

    2014-02-01

    In the early stages of image analysis, visual cortex represents scenes as spatially organized maps of locally defined features (e.g., edge orientation). As image reconstruction unfolds and features are assembled into larger constructs, cortex attempts to recover semantic content for object recognition. It is conceivable that higher level representations may feed back onto early processes and retune their properties to align with the semantic structure projected by the scene; however, there is no clear evidence to either support or discard the applicability of this notion to the human visual system. Obtaining such evidence is challenging because low and higher level processes must be probed simultaneously within the same experimental paradigm. We developed a methodology that targets both levels of analysis by embedding low-level probes within natural scenes. Human observers were required to discriminate probe orientation while semantic interpretation of the scene was selectively disrupted via stimulus inversion or reversed playback. We characterized the orientation tuning properties of the perceptual process supporting probe discrimination; tuning was substantially reshaped by semantic manipulation, demonstrating that low-level feature detectors operate under partial control from higher level modules. The manner in which such control was exerted may be interpreted as a top-down predictive strategy whereby global semantic content guides and refines local image reconstruction. We exploit the novel information gained from data to develop mechanistic accounts of unexplained phenomena such as the classic face inversion effect. PMID:24501376

  8. Speed Limits: Orientation and Semantic Context Interactions Constrain Natural Scene Discrimination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Jochem W.; Kochy, Nick; Schalk, Franziska; Gruschow, Marcus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The visual system rapidly extracts information about objects from the cluttered natural environment. In 5 experiments, the authors quantified the influence of orientation and semantics on the classification speed of objects in natural scenes, particularly with regard to object-context interactions. Natural scene photographs were presented in an…

  9. On the Nature of Semantic Constraints on Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    We present two eye-tracking experiments that investigate lexical frequency and semantic context constraints in spoken-word recognition in German. In both experiments, the pivotal words were pairs of nouns overlapping at onset but varying in lexical frequency. In Experiment 1, German listeners showed an expected frequency bias towards…

  10. The Semantic Web as a Linguistic Resource: Opportunities for Natural Language Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellish, Chris; Sun, Xiantang

    This paper argues that, because the documents of the semantic web are created by human beings, they are actually much more like natural language documents than theory would have us believe. We present evidence that natural language words are used extensively and in complex ways in current ontologies. This leads to a number of dangers for the semantic web, but also opens up interesting new challenges for natural language processing. This is illustrated by our own work using natural language generation to present parts of ontologies.

  11. Stuttering and Natural Speech Processing of Semantic and Syntactic Constraints on Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Hampton, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Previous findings from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) indicate that adults who stutter (AWS) exhibit processing differences for visually presented linguistic information. This study explores how neural activations for AWS may differ for a linguistic task that does not require preparation for overt articulation and/or engage the articulatory loop for silent speech. Method Syntactic and semantic processing constraints were examined in AWS and adults who are normally fluent (AWNF) by assessing their behavioral performance and ERPs in a natural speech listening task. Results AWS performed similarly to AWNF in identifying verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, but ERPs elicited by syntactic and semantic constraints indicated atypical neural functions for AWS. ERPs of the AWNF displayed an expected N400 for reduced semantic expectations and a typical P600 for verb-agreement violations. In contrast, both N400s and P600s for the semantic and verb-agreement conditions were observed in the ERPs of the AWS. Conclusions The findings suggest that AWS may engage semantic-syntactic mechanisms more generally for semantic and syntactic processing. These findings converge with earlier studies using visual stimuli to indicate that, while linguistic abilities are normal in AWS, underlying brain activity mediating some aspects of language processing may function differently. PMID:18664690

  12. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  13. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  14. Is there a natural order for expressing semantic relations?

    PubMed

    Gershkoff-Stowe, Lisa; Goldin-Medow, Susan

    2002-11-01

    All languages rely to some extent on word order to signal relational information. Why? We address this question by exploring communicative and cognitive factors that could lead to a reliance on word order. In Study 1, adults were asked to describe scenes to another using their hands and not their mouths. The question was whether this home-made "language" would contain gesture sentences with consistent order. In addition, we asked whether reliance on order would be influenced by three communicative factors (whether the communication partner is permitted to give feedback; whether the information to be communicated is present in the context that recipient and gesturer share; whether the gesturer assumes the role of gesture receiver as well as gesture producer). We found that, not only was consistent ordering of semantic elements robust across the range of communication situations, but the same non-English order appeared in all contexts. Study 2 explored whether this non-English order is found only when a person attempts to share information with another. Adults were asked to reconstruct scenes in a non-communicative context using pictures drawn on transparencies. The adults picked up the pictures for their reconstructions in a consistent order, and that order was the same non-English order found in Study 1. Finding consistent ordering patterns in a non-communicative context suggests that word order is not driven solely by the demands of communicating information to another, but may reflect a more general property of human thought. PMID:12480479

  15. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  16. A natural language understanding system combining syntactic and semantic techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Haug, P.; Koehler, S.; Lau, L. M.; Wang, P.; Rocha, R.; Huff, S.

    1994-01-01

    A large proportion of the medical record currently available in computerized medical information systems is in the form of free text reports. While the accessibility of this source of data is improved through inclusion in the computerized record, it remains unavailable for automated decision support, medical research, and management of medical delivery systems. Natural language understanding systems (NLUS) designed to encode free text reports represent one approach to making this information available for these uses. Below we describe an experimental NLUS designed to parse the reports of chest radiographs and store the clinical data extracted in a medical data base. PMID:7949928

  17. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  18. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  19. How many kinds of reasoning? Inference, probability, and natural language semantics.

    PubMed

    Lassiter, Daniel; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-03-01

    The "new paradigm" unifying deductive and inductive reasoning in a Bayesian framework (Oaksford & Chater, 2007; Over, 2009) has been claimed to be falsified by results which show sharp differences between reasoning about necessity vs. plausibility (Heit & Rotello, 2010; Rips, 2001; Rotello & Heit, 2009). We provide a probabilistic model of reasoning with modal expressions such as "necessary" and "plausible" informed by recent work in formal semantics of natural language, and show that it predicts the possibility of non-linear response patterns which have been claimed to be problematic. Our model also makes a strong monotonicity prediction, while two-dimensional theories predict the possibility of reversals in argument strength depending on the modal word chosen. Predictions were tested using a novel experimental paradigm that replicates the previously-reported response patterns with a minimal manipulation, changing only one word of the stimulus between conditions. We found a spectrum of reasoning "modes" corresponding to different modal words, and strong support for our model's monotonicity prediction. This indicates that probabilistic approaches to reasoning can account in a clear and parsimonious way for data previously argued to falsify them, as well as new, more fine-grained, data. It also illustrates the importance of careful attention to the semantics of language employed in reasoning experiments. PMID:25497521

  20. Generating Executable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Medicine Using Natural Language and Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A.

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the “gold standard” for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%. PMID:17238302

  1. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  2. Nature and Facts about Natural and Artifactual Categories: Sex Differences in the Semantic Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2008-01-01

    There is abundant evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological experiments for the distinction of natural versus artifactual categories and a gender-specific difference: women's performances in cognitive tasks increase when natural categories are used, whereas men's performances increase with artifactual categories. Here, we used the semantic…

  3. The Nature of Semantic Savings for Items Forgotten from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Thomas O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The kind of semantic information that facilitates relearning was investigated. The paradigm consisted of three stages: (1) learn a list of number-word pairs; (2) return for a retention test; and (3) relearn a new list of pairs that have various kinds of semantic relatedness to the originally learned pairs. (Author/CTM)

  4. Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huth, Alexander G; de Heer, Wendy A; Griffiths, Thomas L; Theunissen, Frédéric E; Gallant, Jack L

    2016-04-28

    The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain. PMID:27121839

  5. Pulmonary disorder and present nuclear denotation: A brief summary.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-07-01

    There are many health effects caused by leaked radiation from damaged reactors of a nuclear power plant. However, the effect on pulmonary system is not reported much. Focusing on the present nuclear denotation crisis in Japan, it is wise to review on the specific issue of pulmonary disorder and nuclear denotation. Several disorders of interest, including malignancy and non-malignancy disorders, are mentioned in the literature. PMID:21760839

  6. Preventing percutaneous absorption of industrial chemicals: the skin denotation

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Berlin, A.; Gilbert, M.; Penning, W.

    1988-01-01

    Percutaneous absorption has received comparatively little attention in occupational health, although this route of entry has repeatedly caused occupation-related intoxications. In practice, the evaluation of skin penetration rates is far from simple. Much evidence has been obtained from studies of chemicals used for cosmetics and topical therapeutics, but the information available on compounds encountered in occupational health is limited. The data obtained from experimental studies have confirmed that the concentration, type of vehicle, skin area, skin condition, and extent of occlusion are important factors in determining the degree of percutaneous absorption, but no general model has been developed. Also, too little is known about the basic chemical properties governing the rate of penetration. Thus, prediction is difficult and bound to be rather inaccurate. Current preventive practice follows the procedure used by ACGIH and is mainly based on a skin denotation in official listings of chemicals to which exposure limits have been allocated. The number of substances and groups of chemicals which have received skin denotation in 17 selected countries varies between 24 and 179 and a total of 275 are listed as a skin hazard in one or more countries; ACGIH lists 143. Thus, the denotation practice varies. As an unfortunate result of these discrepancies and the dichotomy of skin denotation, the absence of skin denotation may erroneously indicate that efforts to protect the skin are unnecessary. Thus, an evaluation of skin penetration potentials should be incorporated in occupational health practice as a supplement to the official denotations. 23 references.

  7. Unlocking the nature of the phonological-deep dyslexia continuum: the keys to reading aloud are in phonology and semantics.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jenni; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2006-03-01

    It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mechanisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this possibility, the nature of any continuum between the disorders, and the possible underlying bases of it. A case series of patients were given an assessment battery to test for the characteristics of phonological and deep dyslexia. The status of their underlying phonological and semantic systems was also investigated. The majority of participants exhibited many of the symptoms associated with deep dyslexia whether or not they made semantic errors. Despite wide variation in word and nonword reading accuracy, there was considerable symptom overlap across the cohort and, thus, no sensible dividing line to separate the participants into distinct groups. The patient data indicated that the deep-phonological continuum might best be characterized according to the severity of the individual's reading impairment rather than in terms of a strict symptom succession. Assessments of phonological and semantic impairments suggested that the integrity of these primary systems underpinned the patients' reading performance. This proposal was supported by eliciting the symptoms of deep-phonological dyslexia in nonreading tasks. PMID:16513001

  8. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  9. Context Effects in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Processing

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Wessel O.; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The embodied view of language comprehension proposes that the meaning of words is grounded in perception and action rather than represented in abstract amodal symbols. Support for embodied theories of language processing comes from behavioral studies showing that understanding a sentence about an action can modulate congruent and incongruent physical responses, suggesting motor involvement during comprehension of sentences referring to bodily movement. Additionally, several neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that comprehending single words denoting manipulable objects elicits specific responses in the neural motor system. An interesting question that remains is whether action semantic knowledge is directly activated as motor simulations in the brain, or rather modulated by the semantic context in which action words are encountered. In the current paper we investigated the nature of conceptual representations using a go/no-go lexical decision task. Specifically, target words were either presented in a semantic context that emphasized dominant action features (features related to the functional use of an object) or non-dominant action features. The response latencies in a lexical decision task reveal that participants were faster to respond to words denoting objects for which the functional use was congruent with the prepared movement. This facilitation effect, however, was only apparent when the semantic context emphasized corresponding motor properties. These findings suggest that conceptual processing is a context-dependent process that incorporates motor-related knowledge in a flexible manner. PMID:21833218

  10. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  11. The Nature and Neural Correlates of Semantic Association versus Conceptual Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent concepts and the relationships between them is critical to human cognition. How does the brain code relationships between items that share basic conceptual properties (e.g., dog and wolf) while simultaneously representing associative links between dissimilar items that co-occur in particular contexts (e.g., dog and bone)? To clarify the neural bases of these semantic components in neurologically intact participants, both types of semantic relationship were investigated in an fMRI study optimized for anterior temporal lobe (ATL) coverage. The clear principal finding was that the same core semantic network (ATL, superior temporal sulcus, ventral prefrontal cortex) was equivalently engaged when participants made semantic judgments on the basis of association or conceptual similarity. Direct comparisons revealed small, weaker differences for conceptual similarity > associative decisions (e.g., inferior prefrontal cortex) and associative > conceptual similarity (e.g., ventral parietal cortex) which appear to reflect graded differences in task difficulty. Indeed, once reaction time was entered as a covariate into the analysis, no associative versus category differences remained. The paper concludes with a discussion of how categorical/feature-based and associative relationships might be represented within a single, unified semantic system. PMID:25636912

  12. Sensitivity to musical denotation and connotation in organic patients.

    PubMed

    Gardner, H; Silverman, J; Denes, G; Semenza, C; Rosenstiel, A K

    1977-09-01

    Musical segments convey at least two kinds of meaning: The "real-world" events referred to by lyrics and by occasions of performance constitute musical denotation: the formal expressive patterns suggested by such constituents as pitch, timbre, and intensity constitute musical connotation. To ascertain sensitivity to these musical facets among brain-injured patients, tests assessing appreciation of musical denotation and connotation were administered to unilaterally brain-injured subjects in the United States and Italy. On the musical denotation test, right hemisphere patients excelled on items where knowledge of lyrics was required; in contrast, anterior aphasics surpassed both posterior aphasics and right hemisphere patients on items where acquaintance with lyrics was unnecessary. On the musical connotation test, right hemisphere patients performed relatively better in matching sound patterns to temporally-sequenced designs than to gestalten; these patients also performed better than left hemisphere patients on a number of other dimensions. The relatively high performance of posterior aphasics on the connotation test, along with the lack of correlation between connotative and denotative scores received by aphasic patients, suggest a behavioral and neurological dissociation between the two forms of musical sensitivity. PMID:923263

  13. Semantic Search of Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  14. A Semantic Basis for Proof Queries and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen W.; Luth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We extend the query language PrQL, designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs, to also allow transformation of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchically nested labelled trees, which we claim is a natural way of taming the complexity of huge proofs. Query-driven transformations enable manipulation of this structure, in particular, to transform proofs produced by interactive theorem provers into forms that assist their understanding, or that could be consumed by other tools. In this paper we motivate and define basic transformation operations, using an abstract denotational semantics of hiproofs and queries. This extends our previous semantics for queries based on syntactic tree representations.We define update operations that add and remove sub-proofs, and manipulate the hierarchy to group and ungroup nodes. We show that

  15. Semantic prosody and judgment.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Some words tend to co-occur exclusively with a positive or negative context in natural language use, even though such valence patterns are not dictated by definitions or are part of the words' core meaning. These words contain semantic prosody, a subtle valenced meaning derived from co-occurrence in language. As language and thought are heavily intertwined, we hypothesized that semantic prosody can affect evaluative inferences about related ambiguous concepts. Participants inferred that an ambiguous medical outcome was more negative when it was caused, a verb with negative semantic prosody, than when it was produced, a synonymous verb with no semantic prosody (Studies 1a, 1b). Participants completed sentence fragments in a manner consistent with semantic prosody (Study 2), and semantic prosody affected various other judgments in line with evaluative inferences (estimates of an event's likelihood in Study 3). Finally, semantic prosody elicited both positive and negative evaluations of outcomes across a large set of semantically prosodic verbs (Study 4). Thus, semantic prosody can exert a strong influence on evaluative judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243765

  16. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  17. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  18. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  19. Semantic Grammar: A Technique for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces to Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    A major obstacle to the effective educational use of computers is the lack of a natural means of communication between the student and the computer. This report describes a technique for generating such natural language front-ends for advanced instructional systems. It discusses: (1) the essential properties of a natural language front-end, (2)…

  20. Semantic Grammar: An Engineering Technique for Constructing Natural Language Understanding Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.

    In an attempt to overcome the lack of natural means of communication between student and computer, this thesis addresses the problem of developing a system which can understand natural language within an educational problem-solving environment. The nature of the environment imposes efficiency, habitability, self-teachability, and awareness of…

  1. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  2. Semantator: Annotating Clinical Narratives with Semantic Web Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dezhao; Chute, Christopher G.; Tao, Cui

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate clinical research, clinical data needs to be stored in a machine processable and understandable way. Manual annotating clinical data is time consuming. Automatic approaches (e.g., Natural Language Processing systems) have been adopted to convert such data into structured formats; however, the quality of such automatically extracted data may not always be satisfying. In this paper, we propose Semantator, a semi-automatic tool for document annotation with Semantic Web ontologies. With a loaded free text document and an ontology, Semantator supports the creation/deletion of ontology instances for any document fragment, linking/disconnecting instances with the properties in the ontology, and also enables automatic annotation by connecting to the NCBO annotator and cTAKES. By representing annotations in Semantic Web standards, Semantator supports reasoning based upon the underlying semantics of the owl:disjointWith and owl:equivalentClass predicates. We present discussions based on user experiences of using Semantator. PMID:22779043

  3. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  4. Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact. PMID:25061931

  5. Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-11-01

    Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material. PMID:20801868

  6. Automatic natural acquisition of a semantic network for information retrieval systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enguehard, Chantal; Malvache, Pierre; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    The amount of information is becoming greater and greater, in industries where complex processes are performed it is becoming increasingly difficult to profit from all the documents produced when fresh knowledge becomes available (reports, experiments, findings). This situation causes a considerable and expensive waste of precious time lost searching for documents or, quite simply, results in outright repeating what has been done. One solution is to transform all paper information into computerized information. We might imagine that we are in a science-fiction world and that we have the perfect computer. We tell it everything we know, we make it read all the books, and if we ask it any question, it will find the response if that response exists. But unfortunately, we are in the real world and the last four decades have taught us to minimize our expectations of computers. During the 1960s, the information retrieval systems appeared. Their purpose is to provide access to any desired documents, in response to a question about a subject, even if it is not known to exist. Here we focus on the problem of selecting items to index the documents. In 1966, Salton identified this problem as crucial when he saw that his system, Medlars, did not find a relevant text because of the wrong indexation. Faced with this problem, he imagined a guide to help authors choose the correct indexation, but he anticipated the automation of this operation with the SMART system. It was stated previously that a manual language analysis for information items by subjects experts is likely to prove impractical in the long run. After a brief survey of the existing responses to the index choice problem, we shall present the system automatic natural acquisition (ANA) which chooses items to index texts by using as little knowledge as possible- -just by learning the language. This system does not use any grammar or lexicon, so the selected indexes will be very close to the field concerned in the texts.

  7. Semantic Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  8. Semantic Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes semantic mapping, an effective strategy for vocabulary instruction that involves the categorical structuring of information in graphic form and requires students to relate new words to their own experience and prior knowledge. (HOD)

  9. What's in a Name? Denotation, Connotation, and "A Boy Named Sue"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Bessie

    2011-01-01

    Language choice--specifically word choice--is an important topic on a basic communication or public speaking course. One sub-topic under "Language" involves understanding the difference between denotation and connotation. Denotation refers to a word's definition, while connotation refers to the emotions associated with the word. Speakers need to…

  10. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  11. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  12. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  13. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  14. 10 CFR 1703.102 - Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. 1703... § 1703.102 Definitions; words denoting number, gender and tense. Agency record is a record in the... singular; the present tense includes the future tense; and words of one gender include the other gender....

  15. The Nature of Predication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebesman, David

    2009-01-01

    I articulate and defend a necessary and sufficient condition for an occurrence of a term to function semantically as a predicate. The condition is that the term occurrence stands in the relation of "ascription" to its denotation, ascription being a fundamental semantic relation that differs from reference. This view on predication has dramatically…

  16. The Syntax and Semantics of Event Quantifiers in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Dun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax and semantics of nine Chinese "measures for verbs" (Chao 1968:615), which are words used with numerals to form event quantifiers counting the eventualities denoted by the predicate of a sentence. Based on their syntactic behavior, I argue that the nine words can be divided into two groups. The…

  17. Integrating Experiential and Distributional Data to Learn Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Mark; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David

    2009-01-01

    The authors identify 2 major types of statistical data from which semantic representations can be learned. These are denoted as "experiential data" and "distributional data". Experiential data are derived by way of experience with the physical world and comprise the sensory-motor data obtained through sense receptors. Distributional data, by…

  18. The event bush as a semantic-based numerical approach to natural hazard assessment (exemplified by volcanology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichny, C. A.; Nikolenko, S. I.; Carniel, R.; Vaganov, P. A.; Khrabrykh, Z. V.; Moukhachov, V. P.; Akimova-Shterkhun, V. L.; Rezyapkin, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    The event bush is a new formalism for organizing knowledge in various fields of geoscience, particularly suitable for hazard assessment purposes. Acting as an intermediary between expert knowledge and the well-established field of Bayesian belief networks, the event bush allows at the same time a variety of other applications, linking geoscientific knowledge to the field of artificial intelligence and uniting probabilistic, deterministic, and fuzzy approaches. In this paper, we present basic principles, mathematical formulation, guidelines for application, and examples, including the connection with Bayesian belief networks. Further development of the method will include spatial and temporal modelling, implementation in mapping in GIS medium, formalization by means of predicate logic, definition of variable states in BBNs by membership functions based on the event bush semantics, and other applications.

  19. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

  20. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of “pre-semantic” processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically-impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven “pre-semantic” tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularisation errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on “pre-semantic” tasks. Consequently, such

  1. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  2. Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Häfner, M.; Wrba, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  3. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  4. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  5. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  6. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  7. 18 CFR 1.102 - Words denoting number, gender and so forth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., gender and so forth. 1.102 Section 1.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Rules of Construction § 1.102 Words denoting number, gender and so forth. In determining the meaning of...) Words of one gender include the other gender....

  8. The Effects of Line Length and Paragraph Denotation on the Retrieval of Information from Prose Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study involving approximately 500 sixth and seventh graders suggest that a two-column layout with traditional paragraphing denotation is more readable than a single-column layout, but that an extreme line length does not place an undue strain on the reader. (Examples of the two formats are included.) (GT)

  9. The Function of Words: Distinct Neural Correlates for Words Denoting Differently Manipulable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; van Rooij, Daan; Lindemann, Oliver; Willems, Roel M.; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that language processing relies on brain areas dedicated to perception and action. For example, processing words denoting manipulable objects has been shown to activate a fronto-parietal network involved in actual tool use. This is suggested to reflect the knowledge the subject has about how objects are moved and used.…

  10. COTARD SYNDROME IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of meaning of words or concepts. semantic dementia can offer potential insights into the mechanisms of content-specific delusions. Objective The authors present a rare case of semantic dementia with Cotard syndrome, a delusion characterized by nihilism or self-negation. Method The semantic deficits and other features of semantic dementia were evaluated in relation to the patient's Cotard syndrome. Results Mrs. A developed the delusional belief that she was wasting and dying. This occurred after she lost knowledge for her somatic discomforts and sensations and for the organs that were the source of these sensations. Her nihilistic beliefs appeared to emerge from her misunderstanding of her somatic sensations. Conclusion This unique patient suggests that a mechanism for Cotard syndrome is difficulty interpreting the nature and source of internal pains and sensations. We propose that loss of semantic knowledge about one's own body may lead to the delusion of nihilism or death. PMID:22054629

  11. The semantics of biological forms.

    PubMed

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  12. Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

  13. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  14. Contrastive Semantics of Physical Activity Verbs: "Cutting" and "Chopping" in English, Polish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the contrastive lexical semantics of verbs comparable to "cut" and "chop" in three languages (English, Polish, and Japanese), using the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) technique of semantic analysis. It proposes a six-part semantic template, and argues that this template can serve as a basis for a lexical typology of…

  15. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  16. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in semantic composition vs. semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-05-01

    The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) is robustly implicated in semantic processing by a growing body of literature. However, these results have emerged from two distinct bodies of work, addressing two different processing levels. On the one hand, the LATL has been characterized as a 'semantic hub׳ that binds features of concepts across a distributed network, based on results from semantic dementia and hemodynamic findings on the categorization of specific compared to basic exemplars. On the other, the LATL has been implicated in combinatorial operations in language, as shown by increased activity in this region associated with the processing of sentences and of basic phrases. The present work aimed to reconcile these two literatures by independently manipulating combination and concept specificity within a minimal MEG paradigm. Participants viewed simple nouns that denoted either low specificity (fish) or high specificity categories (trout) presented in either combinatorial (spotted fish/trout) or non-combinatorial contexts (xhsl fish/trout). By combining these paradigms from the two literatures, we directly compared the engagement of the LATL in semantic memory vs. semantic composition. Our results indicate that although noun specificity subtly modulates the LATL activity elicited by single nouns, it most robustly affects the size of the composition effect when these nouns are adjectivally modified, with low specificity nouns eliciting a much larger effect. We conclude that these findings are compatible with an account in which the specificity and composition effects arise from a shared mechanism of meaning specification. PMID:24631260

  17. Formal semantic and computer text processing, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, J.G.; Lepage, F.

    1983-01-01

    Computer processing of large nonpreedited natural language texts has often been limited either to managing and editing or to analysing basic levels of content (indexes, concordances, clusters, etc.). Few systems approach syntactic information, even less semantic information. Because of the complexity and the originality of the underlying semantic information of any text it is not possible to import directly the AI and computational semantic concepts. It is necessary to explore news paths. The research presented here is oriented toward the understanding of certain semantic aspects in computer text processing (words and meaning representation and inference patterns). This is done through a model theoretic approach embedded in an algebraic language. The hypothesis which governs the concepts and the distinctions is the following: discourse in a text constitutes a semantic space built of an ordered set of sentences which are of different logical types and which present a specific pattern of coherence expressible in a syntactic manner. 47 references.

  18. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

  19. Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369

  20. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  1. SEMANTICS AND CRITICAL READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANIGAN, MICHAEL C.

    PROFICIENCY IN CRITICAL READING CAN BE ACCELERATED BY MAKING STUDENTS AWARE OF VARIOUS SEMANTIC DEVICES THAT HELP CLARIFY MEANINGS AND PURPOSES. EXCERPTS FROM THE ARTICLE "TEEN-AGE CORRUPTION" FROM THE NINTH-GRADE SEMANTICS UNIT WRITTEN BY THE PROJECT ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER AT EUCLID, OHIO, ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE HOW SEMANTICS RELATE TO…

  2. Semantically Interoperable XML Data.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-09-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  3. Semantically Interoperable XML Data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

  4. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  5. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  6. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  7. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  8. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  9. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  10. The Semantic Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

  11. Communication: General Semantics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Lee, Ed.

    This book contains the edited papers from the eleventh International Conference on General Semantics, titled "A Search for Relevance." The conference questioned, as a central theme, the relevance of general semantics in a world of wars and human misery. Reacting to a fundamental Korzybski-ian principle that man's view of reality is distorted by…

  12. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  13. Anomia as a Marker of Distinct Semantic Memory Impairments in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective Many neurologically-constrained models of semantic memory have been informed by two primary temporal lobe pathologies: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Semantic Dementia (SD). However, controversy persists regarding the nature of the semantic impairment associated with these patient populations. Some argue that AD presents as a disconnection syndrome in which linguistic impairment reflects difficulties in lexical or perceptual means of semantic access. In contrast, there is a wider consensus that SD reflects loss of core knowledge that underlies word and object meaning. Object naming provides a window into the integrity of semantic knowledge in these two populations. Method We examined naming accuracy, errors and the correlation of naming ability with neuropsychological measures (semantic ability, executive functioning, and working memory) in a large sample of patients with AD (n=36) and SD (n=21). Results Naming ability and naming errors differed between groups, as did neuropsychological predictors of naming ability. Despite a similar extent of baseline cognitive impairment, SD patients were more anomic than AD patients. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of literature supporting a dual impairment to semantic content and active semantic processing in AD, and confirm the fundamental deficit in semantic content in SD. We interpret these findings as supporting of a model of semantic memory premised upon dynamic interactivity between the process and content of conceptual knowledge. PMID:21443339

  14. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  15. Semantics and Syntax of Non-Standard Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paperno, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the diversity and unity of coordination constructions in natural language. Following the goal of bridging syntactic typology with formal semantics, it takes the typological variation in NP coordination patterns as a challenge for semantic theory. Hybrid Coordination in Russian and Comitative Coordination in…

  16. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of “good/bad” (valence), “calm/excited” (arousal), and “open/closed” (freedom), respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number (∼4) of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal) components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet), among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step toward a

  17. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  18. An overview of semantic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and

  19. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  20. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  1. Word Learning Does Not End at Fast-Mapping: Evolution of Verb Meanings through Reorganization of an Entire Semantic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saji, Noburo; Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Zhang, Yuping; Shu, Hua; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which children sort out the relations among verbs belonging to the same semantic domain. Using a set of Chinese verbs denoting a range of action events that are labeled by carrying or holding in English as a test case, we looked at how Chinese-speaking 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds and adults apply 13 different…

  2. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  3. Controlled English for Reasoning on the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coi, Juri Luca; Fuchs, Norbert E.; Kaljurand, Kaarel; Kuhn, Tobias

    The existing Semantic Web languages have a very technical focus and fail to provide good usability for users with no background in formal methods. We argue that controlled natural languages like Attempto Controlled English (ACE) can solve this problem. ACE is a subset of English that can be translated into various logic based languages, among them the Semantic Web standards OWL and SWRL. ACE is accompanied by a set of tools, namely the parser APE, the Attempto Reasoner RACE, the ACE View ontology and rule editor, the semantic wiki AceWiki, and the Protune policy framework. The applications cover a wide range of Semantic Web scenarios, which shows how broadly ACE can be applied. We conclude that controlled natural languages can make the Semantic Web better understandable and more usable.

  4. The nature and staging of attention dysfunction in early (minimal and mild) Alzheimer's disease: relationship to episodic and semantic memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Watson, P; Hodges, J R

    2000-01-01

    The development of cholinergic therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has highlighted the importance of understanding the role of attentional deficits and the relationship between attention and memory in the earliest stages of the disease. Variability in the tasks used to examine aspects of attention, and in the disease severity, between studies makes it difficult to determine which aspects of attention are affected earliest in AD, and how attentional impairment is related to other cognitive modules. We tested 27 patients in the early stages of the disease on the basis of the MMSE (minimal 24-30 corresponding to minimal cognitive impairment, very mild or possible AD in other classifications; and mild 18-23) on a battery of attentional tests aimed to assess sustained, divided, and selective attention, plus tests of episodic memory, semantic memory, visuoperceptual and visuospatial function, and verbal short-term memory. Although the mildly demented group were impaired on all attentional tests, the minimally impaired group showed a preserved ability to sustain attention, and to divide attention based on a dual-task paradigm. The minimally demented group had particular problems with response inhibition and speed of attentional switching. Examination of the relationship between attention and other cognitive domains showed impaired episodic memory in all patients. Deficits in attention were more prevalent than deficits in semantic memory suggesting that they occur at an earlier stage and the two were partially independent. Impairment in visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions and verbal short-term memory were the least common. Although attention is impaired early in AD, 40% of our patients showed deficits in episodic memory alone, confirming that amnesia may be the only cognitive deficit in the earliest stages of sporadic AD. PMID:10678692

  5. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  6. Algebraic Semantics for Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)

  7. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  8. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  9. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  10. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  11. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation

  12. Semantic text mining support for lignocellulose research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofuels produced from biomass are considered to be promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels production requires the use of enzyme cocktails that can efficiently and economically hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. As many fungi naturally break down lignocellulose, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved is a key challenge in the research and development of biomass-derived products and fuels. One approach to meeting this challenge is to mine the rapidly-expanding repertoire of microbial genomes for enzymes with the appropriate catalytic properties. Results Semantic technologies, including natural language processing, ontologies, semantic Web services and Web-based collaboration tools, promise to support users in handling complex data, thereby facilitating knowledge-intensive tasks. An ongoing challenge is to select the appropriate technologies and combine them in a coherent system that brings measurable improvements to the users. We present our ongoing development of a semantic infrastructure in support of genomics-based lignocellulose research. Part of this effort is the automated curation of knowledge from information on fungal enzymes that is available in the literature and genome resources. Conclusions Working closely with fungal biology researchers who manually curate the existing literature, we developed ontological natural language processing pipelines integrated in a Web-based interface to assist them in two main tasks: mining the literature for relevant knowledge, and at the same time providing rich and semantically linked information. PMID:22595090

  13. The Semantic SPASE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide

  14. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  15. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  16. Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

  17. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  18. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  19. Semantic Space Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  20. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  1. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  2. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  3. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  4. From Semantic Roles to Temporal Information Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Hector; Navarro, Borja; Saquete, Estela

    The automatic treatment of temporal elements of natural language has become a very important issue among NLP community. Recently, TimeML annotation scheme has been adopted as standard for temporal information representation by a large number of researchers. There are few TimeML resources for languages other than English whereas there exist semantic roles annotated corpora and automatic labeling tools for several languages. The objective of this paper is to study if semantic roles resources can be exploited to generate TimeML corpora. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the temporal semantic role and TimeML elements has been carried out, focusing on temporal expressions (TIMEX3). Using this analysis, an approach consisting of a set of transformation rules between semantic roles and TIMEX3 has been implemented. It has been evaluated in TIMEX3 identification for English and Spanish obtaining same quality results (76.85% F β= 1 AVG), which suggests that it could be also valid for other languages.

  5. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  6. FN400 potentials are functionally identical to N400 potentials and reflect semantic processing during recognition testing

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joel L.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    The “F” in FN400 denotes a more frontal scalp distribution relative to the morphologically similar N400 component—a distinction consistent with the hypothesized distinct roles of FN400 in familiarity memory versus N400 in language. However, no direct comparisons have substantiated these assumed dissimilarities. To this end, we manipulated short-term semantic priming during a recognition test. Semantic priming effects on N400 were indistinguishable from memory effects at the same latency, and semantic priming strongly modulated the “FN400,” despite having no influence on familiarity memory. Thus, no evidence suggested either electrophysiological or functional differences between the N400 and FN400, and findings were contrary to the linking of the “FN400” to familiarity. Instead, it appears that semantic/conceptual priming (reflected in the N400) occurs during recognition tests, and is frequently (mis)labeled as FN400 and attributed to familiarity. PMID:20701709

  7. Augmenting Weak Semantic Cognitive Maps with an “Abstractness” Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all “universal” semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here “abstractness” (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience. PMID:23840200

  8. Semantic Size of Abstract Concepts: It Gets Emotional When You Can’t See It

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Vasiljevic, Milica; Weick, Mario; Sereno, Margaret E.; O’Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Size is an important visuo-spatial characteristic of the physical world. In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically “big” (e.g., jungle) versus “small” (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically “big” and “small” concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to “big” words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to “small” words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word’s semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words. Our findings provide novel insights into the semantic representations of size in abstract concepts and highlight that affective attributes of words may not always index lexical access. PMID:24086421

  9. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  10. From Data to Semantic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  11. Live Social Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  12. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  13. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  14. Practical Semantic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Gray, N.; Burke, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many activities in the era of data-intensive astronomy are predicated upon some transference of domain knowledge and expertise from human to machine. The semantic infrastructure required to support this is no longer a pipe dream of computer science but a set of practical engineering challenges, more concerned with deployment and performance details than AI abstractions. The application of such ideas promises to help in such areas as contextual data access, exploiting distributed annotation and heterogeneous sources, and intelligent data dissemination and discovery. In this talk, we will review the status and use of semantic technologies in astronomy, particularly to address current problems in astroinformatics, with such projects as SKUA and AstroCollation.

  15. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  16. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance. PMID:25878657

  17. Reasoning in Semantic Web-based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Florian; Unel, Gulay

    In this chapter, we introduce the basics of formal languages and reasoning in a Web context. Denoting information by means of a logical formalism makes it possible to employ established techniques from the field of automated reasoning. However, reasoning in the context of Web-based systems has a distinct set of requirements in terms of quality and quantity of the information it has to cope with. In turn, this chapter focuses, in a very foundational way, on reasoning on Semantic Web-oriented data. For this purpose, we briefly identify and describe the basic paradigms forming the background for knowledge representation in Web-based Systems. We then examine how these paradigms are reflected in current standards and trends on the Web and what kinds of reasoning they typically facilitate. Based on this, we proceed to focus on concrete reasoning techniques and their particular properties, including optimizations and various other possibilities, e.g., parallelization and approximation, to meet the scalability requirements in Web-based systems.

  18. OMOGENIA: A Semantically Driven Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Aggelos

    Ontology creation can be thought of as a social procedure. Indeed the concepts involved in general need to be elicited from communities of domain experts and end-users by teams of knowledge engineers. Many problems in ontology creation appear to resemble certain problems in software design, particularly with respect to the setup of collaborative systems. For instance, the resolution of conceptual conflicts between formalized ontologies is a major engineering problem as ontologies move into widespread use on the semantic web. Such conflict resolution often requires human collaboration and cannot be achieved by automated methods with the exception of simple cases. In this chapter we discuss research in the field of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that focuses on classification and which throws light on ontology building. Furthermore, we present a semantically driven collaborative environment called OMOGENIA as a natural way to display and examine the structure of an evolving ontology in a collaborative setting.

  19. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    PubMed

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  20. Semantic memory: a feature-based analysis and new norms for Italian.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Semantic norms for properties produced by native speakers are valuable tools for researchers interested in the structure of semantic memory and in category-specific semantic deficits in individuals following brain damage. The aims of this study were threefold. First, we sought to extend existing semantic norms by adopting an empirical approach to category (Exp. 1) and concept (Exp. 2) selection, in order to obtain a more representative set of semantic memory features. Second, we extensively outlined a new set of semantic production norms collected from Italian native speakers for 120 artifactual and natural basic-level concepts, using numerous measures and statistics following a feature-listing task (Exp. 3b). Finally, we aimed to create a new publicly accessible database, since only a few existing databases are publicly available online. PMID:23055168

  1. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  2. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  3. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  4. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  5. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  6. The semantic planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  7. Semantic query processing and annotation generation for content-based retrieval of histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lilian H.; Hanka, Rudolf; Ip, Horace H. S.; Cheung, Kent K. T.; Lam, Ringo

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we present a semantic content representation scheme and the associated techniques for supporting (1) query by image examples or by natural language in a histological image database and (2) automatic annotation generation for images through image semantic analysis. In this research, various types of query are analyzed by either a semantic analyzer or a natural language analyzer to extract high level concepts and histological information, which are subsequently converted into an internal semantic content representation structure code-named 'Papillon.' Papillon serves not only as an intermediate representation scheme but also stores the semantic content of the image that will be used to match against the semantic index structure within the image database during query processing. During the image database population phase, all images that are going to be put into the database will go through the same processing so that every image would have its semantic content represented by a Papillon structure. Since the Papillon structure for an image contains high level semantic information of the image, it forms the basis of the technique that automatically generates textual annotation for the input images. Papillon bridges the gap between different media in the database, allows complicated intelligent browsing to be carried out efficiently, and also provides a well- defined semantic content representation scheme for different content processing engines developed for content-based retrieval.

  8. EEG Theta and Gamma Responses to Semantic Violations in Online Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; Bastiaansen, Marcel C. M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta ([Approximately]3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or contained a semantically…

  9. Semantic Similarity of Labels and Inductive Generalization: Taking a Second Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Godwin, Karrie E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by semantically-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in natural speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with semantically-similar labels.…

  10. I Will Fear No Audience: General Semantics Applied to a Communication Apprehensive Public Speaking Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Applies general semantics to a public speaking communication apprehension (CA) lab and divides the lab into four main frames or semester sections. Suggests that CA has been treated elementalistically up to now, and that programs need to view the person holistically. States that general semantics applied to CA teaches awareness of the natural order…

  11. EEG Theta and Alpha Responses Reveal Qualitative Differences in Processing Taxonomic versus Thematic Semantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…

  12. Rewriting Logic Semantics of a Plan Execution Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar A.; Rocha, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) is a synchronous language developed by NASA to support autonomous spacecraft operations. In this paper, we propose a rewriting logic semantics of PLEXIL in Maude, a high-performance logical engine. The rewriting logic semantics is by itself a formal interpreter of the language and can be used as a semantic benchmark for the implementation of PLEXIL executives. The implementation in Maude has the additional benefit of making available to PLEXIL designers and developers all the formal analysis and verification tools provided by Maude. The formalization of the PLEXIL semantics in rewriting logic poses an interesting challenge due to the synchronous nature of the language and the prioritized rules defining its semantics. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a general procedure for simulating synchronous set relations in rewriting logic that is sound and, for deterministic relations, complete. We also report on the finding of two issues at the design level of the original PLEXIL semantics that were identified with the help of the executable specification in Maude.

  13. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  14. Disorders of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  15. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  16. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005). PMID:26282623

  17. Semantic generalization in implicit language learning.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N

    2015-07-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether they collocate with abstract or concrete nouns. After reading sentences containing the verbs, participants were required to judge the familiarity of pairs of novel verbs and nouns and to indicate their confidence or the basis of their judgment (i.e., guess, intuition, memory). Although all of the words had occurred in the texts, none of the critical items had actually occurred together. However, endorsement rates were significantly higher for pairs that respected the semantic preference rules than those that did not. Through analysis of subjective measures and verbal report, we argue that, for the majority of participants, this effect was based on unconscious knowledge. We argue that implicit learning of the kind of generalizations underlying semantic preferences is possible even after limited exposure. PMID:25581225

  18. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  19. Ways of making-sense: Local gamma synchronization reveals differences between semantic processing induced by music and language.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Paulo; Chavez, Mario; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity. Similar results were observed after linguistic semantic violation except for gamma activity, which increased after semantic congruence between sentence-word pairs. Our findings indicate that local gamma activity is a neural marker that signals different ways of semantic processing between music and language, revealing the dynamic and self-organized nature of the semantic processing. PMID:26734990

  20. Semantic processing of English sentences using statistical computation based on neurophysiological models

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marcia T.

    2015-01-01

    Computer programs that can accurately interpret natural human language and carry out instructions would improve the lives of people with language processing deficits and greatly benefit society in general. von Neumann in theorized that the human brain utilizes its own unique statistical neuronal computation to decode language and that this produces specific patterns of neuronal activity. This paper extends von Neumann's theory to the processing of partial semantics of declarative sentences. I developed semantic neuronal network models that emulate key features of cortical language processing and accurately compute partial semantics of English sentences. The method of computation implements the MAYA Semantic Technique, a mathematical technique I previously developed to determine partial semantics of sentences within a natural language processing program. Here I further simplified the technique by grouping repeating patterns into fewer categories. Unlike other natural language programs, my approach computes three partial semantics. The results of this research show that the computation of partial semantics of a sentence uses both feedforward and feedback projection which suggest that the partial semantic presented in this research might be a conscious activity within the human brain. PMID:26106331

  1. Semantic processing of English sentences using statistical computation based on neurophysiological models.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marcia T

    2015-01-01

    Computer programs that can accurately interpret natural human language and carry out instructions would improve the lives of people with language processing deficits and greatly benefit society in general. von Neumann in theorized that the human brain utilizes its own unique statistical neuronal computation to decode language and that this produces specific patterns of neuronal activity. This paper extends von Neumann's theory to the processing of partial semantics of declarative sentences. I developed semantic neuronal network models that emulate key features of cortical language processing and accurately compute partial semantics of English sentences. The method of computation implements the MAYA Semantic Technique, a mathematical technique I previously developed to determine partial semantics of sentences within a natural language processing program. Here I further simplified the technique by grouping repeating patterns into fewer categories. Unlike other natural language programs, my approach computes three partial semantics. The results of this research show that the computation of partial semantics of a sentence uses both feedforward and feedback projection which suggest that the partial semantic presented in this research might be a conscious activity within the human brain. PMID:26106331

  2. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  3. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  4. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  5. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  6. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  7. Semantics and types of cough

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Bolser, Don; Davenport, Paul; Fontana, Giovanni; Morice, Alyn; Widdicombe, John

    2010-01-01

    The panel considered the different types of cough in terms of basic mechanisms and clinical manifestations; both experimentally and clinically cough could occur in single efforts and as ‘bouts’ or ‘epochs’. There were different definitions of cough but, provided the definition used was clear, this did not seem to be a major concern. The methods available for determining the nature or type of clinical cough were discussed, in particular automated cough counting in the clinic and more sophisticated methods available in the laboratory. With regard to semantics, there has been great variation in the names used; this applies to nervous sensors for cough, to cough reflexes and epochs, to clinical names for cough, and to cough sounds. Some simplification and uniformity of nomenclature seemed desirable although, provided the use of a name was clear, little confusion probably existed. The panel felt that the cough nomenclature would evolve with time and would prove to be useful for investigators, clinicians and coughers. PMID:19136069

  8. Does semantic redundancy gain result from multiple semantic priming?

    PubMed

    Schröter, Hannes; Bratzke, Daniel; Fiedler, Anja; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Fiedler, Schröter, and Ulrich (2013) reported faster responses to a single written word when the semantic content of this word (e.g., "elephant") matched both targets (e.g., "animal", "gray") as compared to a single target (e.g., "animal", "brown"). This semantic redundancy gain was explained by statistical facilitation due to a race of independent memory retrieval processes. The present experiment addresses one alternative explanation, namely that semantic redundancy gain results from multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. In different blocks of trials, participants performed a redundant-targets task and a lexical decision task. The targets of the redundant-targets task served as primes in the lexical decision task. Replicating the findings of Fiedler et al., a semantic redundancy gain was observed in the redundant-targets task. Crucially, however, there was no evidence of a multiple semantic priming effect in the lexical decision task. This result suggests that semantic redundancy gain cannot be explained by multiple pre-activation of words that match both targets. PMID:26342771

  9. Active maintenance of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-12-01

    In research on verbal working memory, articulatory rehearsal, a maintenance mechanism for phonological representations, has undergone intensive and excellent study. Possible mechanisms for semantic representation have received less attention. However, several studies have reported a double dissociation in types of memory deficits (semantic memory difficulties vs. phonological memory difficulties). This suggests the separability of two maintenance mechanisms. The present study focused on this separability in individuals with normal memory abilities, using a dual-task interference paradigm. The results indicate a crossover interaction between memory and interference task effects: Preventing articulatory rehearsal more strongly disrupted the phonological memory task, whereas performing a tapping task that interfered with attentional control more strongly disrupted semantic memory. These results suggest that semantic representations are actively maintained by a mechanism other than phonological maintenance. PMID:24687734

  10. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  11. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  12. Semantic Modeling of Requirements: Leveraging Ontologies in Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Masood Saleem

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of "Systems Engineering" (SE), having "stakeholders" from diverse domains with orthogonal facets, and need to consider all stages of "lifecycle" of system during conception, can benefit tremendously by employing "Knowledge Engineering" (KE) to achieve semantic agreement among all…

  13. Congruent and Incongruent Semantic Context Influence Vowel Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotton, J. M.; Elvebak, R. L.; Moua, L. C.; Heggem, N. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Kirk, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sentence context on the recognition of naturally spoken vowels degraded by reverberation and Gaussian noise was investigated. Target words were paired to have similar consonant sounds but different vowels (e.g., map/mop) and were embedded early in sentences which provided three types of semantic context. Fifty-eight…

  14. The Influence of Working Memory Load on Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Tom; Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; Hutchison, Keith A.; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The present research examines the nature of the different processes that have been proposed to underlie semantic priming. Specifically, it has been argued that priming arises as a result of "automatic target activation" and/or the use of strategies like prospective "expectancy generation" and "retrospective semantic…

  15. JournalMap: Geo-semantic searching for relevant knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists struggling to understand rapidly changing environments and evolving ecosystem threats need quick access to relevant research and documentation of natural systems. The advent of semantic and aggregation searching (e.g., Google Scholar, Web of Science) has made it easier to find useful lite...

  16. A Review of Ontologies with the Semantic Web in View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the movement of the World Wide Web from the first generation to the second, called the Semantic Web. Provides an overview of ontology, a philosophical theory about the nature of existence being applied to artificial intelligence that will have a crucial role in enabling content-based access, interoperability, and communication across the…

  17. Semantic wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

  18. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  19. Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Mustafa; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rademaker, Alfred W; Voss, Joel L; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Hurley, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative components despite intact comprehension of the corresponding noun. PMID:25982291

  20. Semantic preview benefit during reading.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

  1. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  2. Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sean; Roche, Bryan; Dymond, Simon; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Directly conditioned fear and avoidance readily generalises to dissimilar but conceptually related stimuli. Here, for the first time, we examined the conceptual/semantic generalisation of both fear and avoidance using real words (synonyms). Participants were first exposed to a differential fear conditioning procedure in which one word (e.g., "broth"; CS+) was followed with brief electric shock [unconditioned stimulus (US)] and another was not (e.g., "assist"; CS-). Next, an instrumental conditioning phase taught avoidance in the presence the CS+ but not the CS-. During generalisation testing, synonyms of the CS+ (e.g., "soup"; GCS+) and CS- (e.g., "help"; GCS-) were presented in the absence of shock. Conditioned fear and avoidance, measured via skin conductance responses, behavioural avoidance and US expectancy ratings, generalised to the semantically related, but not to the semantically unrelated, synonyms. Findings have implications for how natural language categories and concepts mediate the expansion of fear and avoidance repertoires in clinical contexts. PMID:25648156

  3. Frontotemporal neural systems supporting semantic processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Powers, John; Cook, Philip A; Smith, Edward E; Grossman, Murray

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesized that semantic memory for object concepts involves both representations of visual feature knowledge in modality-specific association cortex and heteromodal regions that are important for integrating and organizing this semantic knowledge so that it can be used in a flexible, contextually appropriate manner. We examined this hypothesis in an fMRI study of mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were presented with pairs of printed words and asked whether the words matched on a given visual-perceptual feature (e.g., guitar, violin: SHAPE). The stimuli probed natural kinds and manufactured objects, and the judgments involved shape or color. We found activation of bilateral ventral temporal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during semantic judgments, with AD patients showing less activation of these regions than healthy seniors. Moreover, AD patients showed less ventral temporal activation than did healthy seniors for manufactured objects, but not for natural kinds. We also used diffusion-weighted MRI of white matter to examine fractional anisotropy (FA). Patients with AD showed significantly reduced FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which carry projections linking temporal and frontal regions of this semantic network. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that semantic memory is supported in part by a large-scale neural network involving modality-specific association cortex, heteromodal association cortex, and projections between these regions. The semantic deficit in AD thus arises from gray matter disease that affects the representation of feature knowledge and processing its content, as well as white matter disease that interrupts the integrated functioning of this large-scale network. PMID:24425352

  4. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  5. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  6. Is Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence From Adult Grammaticality Judgment and Comprehension Studies.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Bidgood, Amy; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F; Freudenthal, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To explain the phenomenon that certain English verbs resist passivization (e.g., *£5 was cost by the book), Pinker (1989) proposed a semantic constraint on the passive in the adult grammar: The greater the extent to which a verb denotes an action where a patient is affected or acted upon, the greater the extent to which it is compatible with the passive. However, a number of comprehension and production priming studies have cast doubt upon this claim, finding no difference between highly affecting agent-patient/theme-experiencer passives (e.g., Wendy was kicked/frightened by Bob) and non-actional experiencer theme passives (e.g., Wendy was heard by Bob). The present study provides evidence that a semantic constraint is psychologically real, and is readily observed when more fine-grained independent and dependent measures are used (i.e., participant ratings of verb semantics, graded grammaticality judgments, and reaction time in a forced-choice picture-matching comprehension task). We conclude that a semantic constraint on the passive must be incorporated into accounts of the adult grammar. PMID:26607289

  7. Web Feature Service Semantic Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.; Percivall, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from different organizations and disciplines need to work together to find the solutions to complex problems. Multi-disciplinary science typically involves users with specialized tools and their own preferred view of the data including unique characteristics of the user's information model and symbology. Even though organizations use web services to expose data, there are still semantic inconsistencies that need to be solved. Recent activities within the OGC Interoperability Program (IP) have helped advance semantic mediation solutions when using OGC services to help solve complex problems. The OGC standards development process is influenced by the feedback of activities within the Interoperability Program, which conducts international interoperability initiatives such as Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Interoperability Experiments, and Interoperability Support Services. These activities are designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation, demonstration and adoption of open, consensus based standards and best practices. Two recent Testbeds, the OGC Web Services Phase 8 and Phase 9, have advanced the use of semantic mediation approaches to increase semantic interoperability among geospatial communities. The Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within these two testbeds, advanced semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This presentation will provide an overview of the interoperability program, the CCI Thread and will explain the methodology to mediate heterogeneous GML Application Profiles served via WFS, including discovery of services via a catalog standard interface and mediating symbology applicable to each application profile.

  8. Declining object recognition performance in semantic dementia: A case for stored visual object representations.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Playfoot, David

    2015-01-01

    The role of the semantic system in recognizing objects is a matter of debate. Connectionist theories argue that it is impossible for a participant to determine that an object is familiar to them without recourse to a semantic hub; localist theories state that accessing a stored representation of the visual features of the object is sufficient for recognition. We examine this issue through the longitudinal study of two cases of semantic dementia, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive degradation of the semantic system. The cases in this paper do not conform to the "common" pattern of object recognition performance in semantic dementia described by Rogers, T. T., Lambon Ralph, M. A., Hodges, J. R., & Patterson, K. (2004). Natural selection: The impact of semantic impairment on lexical and object decision. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21, 331-352., and show no systematic relationship between severity of semantic impairment and success in object decision. We argue that these data are inconsistent with the connectionist position but can be easily reconciled with localist theories that propose stored structural descriptions of objects outside of the semantic system. PMID:27355607

  9. The cohesive metaschema: a higher-level abstraction of the UMLS Semantic Network.

    PubMed

    Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Zong; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) joins together a group of established medical terminologies in a unified knowledge representation framework. Two major resources of the UMLS are its Metathesaurus, containing a large number of concepts, and the Semantic Network (SN), containing semantic types and forming an abstraction of the Metathesaurus. However, the SN itself is large and complex and may still be difficult to view and comprehend. Our structural partitioning technique partitions the SN into structurally uniform sets of semantic types based on the distribution of the relationships within the SN. An enhancement of the structural partition results in cohesive, singly rooted sets of semantic types. Each such set is named after its root which represents the common nature of the group. These sets of semantic types are represented by higher-level components called metasemantic types. A network, called a metaschema, which consists of the meta-semantic types connected by hierarchical and semantic relationships is obtained and provides an abstract view supporting orientation to the SN. The metaschema is utilized to audit the UMLS classifications. We present a set of graphical views of the SN based on the metaschema to help in user orientation to the SN. A study compares the cohesive metaschema to metaschemas derived semantically by UMLS experts. PMID:12669983

  10. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  11. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  12. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  13. The Relation between Content and Structure in Language Production: An Analysis of Speech Errors in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the impact of a degraded semantic system on the structure of language production, we analysed transcripts from autobiographical memory interviews to identify naturally-occurring speech errors by eight patients with semantic dementia (SD) and eight age-matched normal speakers. Relative to controls, patients were significantly…

  14. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  15. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  16. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  17. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  18. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  19. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  20. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  1. Bottle, tulip and wineglass: semantic and structural picture processing by savant artists.

    PubMed

    Pring, L; Hermelin, B

    1993-11-01

    Semantic and structural aspects of picture processing were investigated with graphically gifted mentally handicapped subjects and intellectually normal children. The results suggest that savants as well as controls rely primarily on semantically organised memory schemata when reproducing pictures. A semantically determined strategy also determines picture sorting. The findings indicate that within the domain of expertise there appears to be no difference between savants and normals regarding the nature of the mental structures underlying specific talents. The mental structures on which such talents are based, should therefore be regarded as being relatively independent of the level of general cognitive functioning. PMID:8294524

  2. Extracting semantic lexicons from discharge summaries using machine learning and the C-Value method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Denny, Josh C; Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Xu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Semantic lexicons that link words and phrases to specific semantic types such as diseases are valuable assets for clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Although terminological terms with predefined semantic types can be generated easily from existing knowledge bases such as the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS), they are often limited and do not have good coverage for narrative clinical text. In this study, we developed a method for building semantic lexicons from clinical corpus. It extracts candidate semantic terms using a conditional random field (CRF) classifier and then selects terms using the C-Value algorithm. We applied the method to a corpus containing 10 years of discharge summaries from Vanderbilt University Hospital (VUH) and extracted 44,957 new terms for three semantic groups: Problem, Treatment, and Test. A manual analysis of 200 randomly selected terms not found in the UMLS demonstrated that 59% of them were meaningful new clinical concepts and 25% were lexical variants of exiting concepts in the UMLS. Furthermore, we compared the effectiveness of corpus-derived and UMLS-derived semantic lexicons in the concept extraction task of the 2010 i2b2 clinical NLP challenge. Our results showed that the classifier with corpus-derived semantic lexicons as features achieved a better performance (F-score 82.52%) than that with UMLS-derived semantic lexicons as features (F-score 82.04%). We conclude that such corpus-based methods are effective for generating semantic lexicons, which may improve named entity recognition tasks and may aid in augmenting synonymy within existing terminologies. PMID:23304311

  3. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  4. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  5. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  6. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  7. Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

  8. Semantic Annotation of Computational Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Peter; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology to specify machine-processable semantic descriptions of computational components to enable them to be shared and reused. A particular focus of this scheme is to enable automatic compositon of such components into simple work-flows.

  9. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Xian-mo

    2007-01-01

    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  10. Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Antony R

    2007-01-01

    evolution. The initial interpretational steps include protein synthesis, molecular recognition, and catalytic potential that facilitate structural and functional roles. Combinatorial possibilities are extended through interactions of increasing complexity in the temporal dimension. (3) All living things show a behavior that indicates awareness of time, or chronognosis. The ∼4 billion years of biological evolution have given rise to forms with increasing sophistication in sensory adaptation. This has been linked to the development of an increasing chronognostic range, and an associated increase in combinatorial complexity. (4) Development of a modern human phenotype and the ability to communicate through language, led to the development of archival storage, and invention of the basic skills, institutions and mechanisms that allowed the evolution of modern civilizations. Combinatorial amplification at the supra-phenotypical level arose from the invention of syntax, grammar, numbers, and the subsequent developments of abstraction in writing, algorithms, etc. The translational machineries of the human mind, the "mutation" of ideas therein, and the "conversations" of our social intercourse, have allowed a limited set of symbolic descriptors to evolve into an exponentially expanding semantic heritage. (5) The three postulates above open interesting epistemological questions. An understanding of topics such dualism, the élan vital, the status of hypothesis in science, memetics, the nature of consciousness, the role of semantic processing in the survival of societies, and Popper's three worlds, require recognition of an insubstantial component. By recognizing a necessary linkage between semantic content and a physical machinery, we can bring these perennial problems into the framework of a realistic philosophy. It is suggested, following Popper, that the ∼4 billion years of evolution of the biosphere represents an exploration of the nature of reality at the physicochemical

  11. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  12. On the universal structure of human lexical semantics.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyejin; Sutton, Logan; Smith, Eric; Moore, Cristopher; Wilkins, Jon F; Maddieson, Ian; Croft, William; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy

    2016-02-16

    How universal is human conceptual structure? The way concepts are organized in the human brain may reflect distinct features of cultural, historical, and environmental background in addition to properties universal to human cognition. Semantics, or meaning expressed through language, provides indirect access to the underlying conceptual structure, but meaning is notoriously difficult to measure, let alone parameterize. Here, we provide an empirical measure of semantic proximity between concepts using cross-linguistic dictionaries to translate words to and from languages carefully selected to be representative of worldwide diversity. These translations reveal cases where a particular language uses a single "polysemous" word to express multiple concepts that another language represents using distinct words. We use the frequency of such polysemies linking two concepts as a measure of their semantic proximity and represent the pattern of these linkages by a weighted network. This network is highly structured: Certain concepts are far more prone to polysemy than others, and naturally interpretable clusters of closely related concepts emerge. Statistical analysis of the polysemies observed in a subset of the basic vocabulary shows that these structural properties are consistent across different language groups, and largely independent of geography, environment, and the presence or absence of a literary tradition. The methods developed here can be applied to any semantic domain to reveal the extent to which its conceptual structure is, similarly, a universal attribute of human cognition and language use. PMID:26831113

  13. Semantic mechanisms may be responsible for developing synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Danko

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about how synesthesia develops and which aspects of synesthesia can be acquired through a learning process. We review the increasing evidence for the role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia, and argue for the thesis that synesthetic abilities are developed and modified by semantic mechanisms. That is, in certain people semantic mechanisms associate concepts with perception-like experiences—and this association occurs in an extraordinary way. This phenomenon can be referred to as “higher” synesthesia or ideasthesia. The present analysis suggests that synesthesia develops during childhood and is being enriched further throughout the synesthetes’ lifetime; for example, the already existing concurrents may be adopted by novel inducers or new concurrents may be formed. For a deeper understanding of the origin and nature of synesthesia we propose to focus future research on two aspects: (i) the similarities between synesthesia and ordinary phenomenal experiences based on concepts; and (ii) the tight entanglement of perception, cognition and the conceptualization of the world. Importantly, an explanation of how biological systems get to generate experiences, synesthetic or not, may have to involve an explanation of how semantic networks are formed in general and what their role is in the ability to be aware of the surrounding world. PMID:25191239

  14. Predictions interact with missing sensory evidence in semantic processing areas.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Bendixen, Alexandra; Herrmann, Björn; Henry, Molly J; Mildner, Toralf; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    Human brain function draws on predictive mechanisms that exploit higher-level context during lower-level perception. These mechanisms are particularly relevant for situations in which sensory information is compromised or incomplete, as for example in natural speech where speech segments may be omitted due to sluggish articulation. Here, we investigate which brain areas support the processing of incomplete words that were predictable from semantic context, compared with incomplete words that were unpredictable. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants heard sentences that orthogonally varied in predictability (semantically predictable vs. unpredictable) and completeness (complete vs. incomplete, i.e. missing their final consonant cluster). The effects of predictability and completeness interacted in heteromodal semantic processing areas, including left angular gyrus and left precuneus, where activity did not differ between complete and incomplete words when they were predictable. The same regions showed stronger activity for incomplete than for complete words when they were unpredictable. The interaction pattern suggests that for highly predictable words, the speech signal does not need to be complete for neural processing in semantic processing areas. Hum Brain Mapp 37:704-716, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26583355

  15. On the universal structure of human lexical semantics

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Logan; Smith, Eric; Moore, Cristopher; Wilkins, Jon F.; Maddieson, Ian; Croft, William

    2016-01-01

    How universal is human conceptual structure? The way concepts are organized in the human brain may reflect distinct features of cultural, historical, and environmental background in addition to properties universal to human cognition. Semantics, or meaning expressed through language, provides indirect access to the underlying conceptual structure, but meaning is notoriously difficult to measure, let alone parameterize. Here, we provide an empirical measure of semantic proximity between concepts using cross-linguistic dictionaries to translate words to and from languages carefully selected to be representative of worldwide diversity. These translations reveal cases where a particular language uses a single “polysemous” word to express multiple concepts that another language represents using distinct words. We use the frequency of such polysemies linking two concepts as a measure of their semantic proximity and represent the pattern of these linkages by a weighted network. This network is highly structured: Certain concepts are far more prone to polysemy than others, and naturally interpretable clusters of closely related concepts emerge. Statistical analysis of the polysemies observed in a subset of the basic vocabulary shows that these structural properties are consistent across different language groups, and largely independent of geography, environment, and the presence or absence of a literary tradition. The methods developed here can be applied to any semantic domain to reveal the extent to which its conceptual structure is, similarly, a universal attribute of human cognition and language use. PMID:26831113

  16. Toward a semantic web of paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, Julien; Eshleman, Jason A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract The paleoclimate record is information-rich, yet significant technical barriers currently exist before this record can be used to answer scientific questions. Here we make the case for a universal format to structure paleoclimate data. A simple example demonstrates the scientific utility of such a self-describing way of organizing coral data and meta-data. This example is generalized to a universal ontology that may form the backbone of an open-source, open-access, and crowd-sourced paleoclimate database. The format is designed to enable <span class="hlt">semantic</span> searches, and is expected to accelerate discovery on topical scientific problems like climate extremes, the characteristics of <span class="hlt">natural</span> climate variability, and climate sensitivity to various forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010csw..book..105P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010csw..book..105P"><span id="translatedtitle">Corporate <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web: Towards the Deployment of <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Technologies in Enterprises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga</p> <p></p> <p>The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web offers promising solutions. While the global <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web idea aims at bringing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485123','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485123"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and default mode networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F.; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The default mode network (DMN) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are <span class="hlt">semantic</span> hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but, rather, a common “disinterest” in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056304"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and default mode networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A</p> <p>2015-06-23</p> <p>The default mode network (DMN) and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> <span class="hlt">nature</span> of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are <span class="hlt">semantic</span> hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> tasks, but, rather, a common "disinterest" in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829868','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829868"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of activation of <span class="hlt">semantically</span> similar concepts during spoken word recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mirman, Daniel; Magnuson, James S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> similarity effects provide critical insight into the organization of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge and the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity effects by using the visual world eyetracking paradigm. Four objects were shown on a computer monitor, and participants were instructed to click on a named object, during which time their gaze position was recorded. The likelihood of fixating competitor objects was predicted by the degree of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> similarity to the target concept. We found reliable, graded competition that depended on degree of target–competitor similarity, even for distantly related items for which priming has not been found in previous priming studies. Time course measures revealed a consistently earlier fixation peak for near <span class="hlt">semantic</span> neighbors relative to targets. Computational investigations with an attractor dynamical model, a spreading activation model, and a decision model revealed that a combination of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is required to obtain such peak timing, providing new constraints on models of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing. PMID:19744941</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965586','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3965586"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> interference in a randomized naming task: Effects of age, order, and category</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gordon, Jean K.; Cheimariou, Spyridoula</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lexical retrieval in production is a competitive process, requiring activation of a target word from <span class="hlt">semantic</span> input, and its selection from amongst co-activated items. Competitors are automatically primed through spreading activation within the lexicon, but competition may be increased by the prior presentation of related items, the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference effect. This has been demonstrated in tasks in which pictures grouped by <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category are compared to unrelated pictures (blocked naming) and in tasks involving successive naming of items from the same <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category (continuous naming). Such highly structured tasks may not be representative of the processes at work under more <span class="hlt">natural</span> word retrieval conditions. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective examination of naming latencies from a randomized picture naming task containing a wide variety of items and categories. Our large sample of adults, ranging in age from 22 to 89 years, also allowed us to test the hypothesis that older adults, who are particularly susceptible to word-retrieval problems, experience increased difficulty resolving competition among lexical items. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> interference effects were evident in the interaction between <span class="hlt">semantic</span> category and order of presentation within a block—miscellaneous items were named more quickly, whereas related items were named more slowly. This interference effect did not vary with participant age, contrary to the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interference. PMID:24499271</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EntIS...8..464L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EntIS...8..464L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linkages among multiple sources for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The vision of the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar <span class="hlt">semantic</span> applications in an enterprise environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950018214"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> for Ada 9X</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's '<span class="hlt">natural</span> <span class="hlt">semantics</span>', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363406"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> remote patient monitoring system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of <span class="hlt">semantics</span> describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990046202','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990046202"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formal <span class="hlt">Semantics</span> of PVS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031661','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031661"><span id="translatedtitle">A Graph-Based Recovery and Decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Predications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cameron, Delroy; Bodenreider, Olivier; Yalamanchili, Hima; Danh, Tu; Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit P.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives This paper presents a methodology for recovering and decomposing Swanson’s Raynaud Syndrome–Fish Oil Hypothesis semi-automatically. The methodology leverages the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of assertions extracted from biomedical literature (called <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predications) along with structured background knowledge and graph-based algorithms to semi-automatically capture the informative associations originally discovered manually by Swanson. Demonstrating that Swanson’s manually intensive techniques can be undertaken semi-automatically, paves the way for fully automatic <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-based hypothesis generation from scientific literature. Methods <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> predications obtained from biomedical literature allow the construction of labeled directed graphs which contain various associations among concepts from the literature. By aggregating such associations into informative subgraphs, some of the relevant details originally articulated by Swanson has been uncovered. However, by leveraging background knowledge to bridge important knowledge gaps in the literature, a methodology for semi-automatically capturing the detailed associations originally explicated in <span class="hlt">natural</span> language by Swanson has been developed. Results Our methodology not only recovered the 3 associations commonly recognized as Swanson’s Hypothesis, but also decomposed them into an additional 16 detailed associations, formulated as chains of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> predications. Altogether, 14 out of the 19 associations that can be attributed to Swanson were retrieved using our approach. To the best of our knowledge, such an in-depth recovery and decomposition of Swanson’s Hypothesis has never been attempted. Conclusion In this work therefore, we presented a methodology for semi- automatically recovering and decomposing Swanson’s RS-DFO Hypothesis using <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations and graph algorithms. Our methodology provides new insights into potential prerequisites for <span class="hlt">semantics</span>-driven Literature-Based Discovery (LBD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960950','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960950"><span id="translatedtitle">Interconnected growing self-organizing maps for auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> acquisition modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Mengxue; Li, Aijun; Fang, Qiang; Kaufmann, Emily; Kröger, Bernd J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Based on the incremental <span class="hlt">nature</span> of knowledge acquisition, in this study we propose a growing self-organizing neural network approach for modeling the acquisition of auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories. We introduce an Interconnected Growing Self-Organizing Maps (I-GSOM) algorithm, which takes associations between auditory information and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information into consideration, in this paper. Direct phonetic–<span class="hlt">semantic</span> association is simulated in order to model the language acquisition in early phases, such as the babbling and imitation stages, in which no phonological representations exist. Based on the I-GSOM algorithm, we conducted experiments using paired acoustic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> training data. We use a cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training procedure to model the teaching and learning process between children and their communication partners. A reinforcing-by-link training procedure and a link-forgetting procedure are introduced to model the acquisition of associative relations between auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information. Experimental results indicate that (1) I-GSOM has good ability to learn auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> categories presented within the training data; (2) clear auditory and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> boundaries can be found in the network representation; (3) cyclical reinforcing and reviewing training leads to a detailed categorization as well as to a detailed clustering, while keeping the clusters that have already been learned and the network structure that has already been developed stable; and (4) reinforcing-by-link training leads to well-perceived auditory–<span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations. Our I-GSOM model suggests that it is important to associate auditory information with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information during language acquisition. Despite its high level of abstraction, our I-GSOM approach can be interpreted as a biologically-inspired neurocomputational model. PMID:24688478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3937097','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3937097"><span id="translatedtitle">Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> spaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> that ensembles of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> spaces can yield improved performance on the tasks of automatically extracting synonyms and abbreviation-expansion pairs. This notion, which merits further exploration, allows different distributional models – with different model parameters – and different types of corpora to be combined, potentially allowing enhanced performance to be obtained on a wide range of <span class="hlt">natural</span> language processing tasks. PMID:24499679</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440529"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Linguistic Maturity in Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We propose a method to quantify <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation of words created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0-12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child's age and number of words produced. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content of narratives changes in a predictable pattern with children's age and argue that SELMA is a measure quantifying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> linguistic maturity. The study opens up the possibility of using quantitative measures for studying the development of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representation in children's narratives, and emphasizes the importance of word co-occurrences for understanding the development of meaning. PMID:26440529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973458"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> some of the most ancient old world pulse crops and their diversity in modern European languages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mikić, Aleksandar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- ('a leguminous plant'), *bhabh- ('field bean'), *[Formula: see text] ('a kernel of leguminous plant', 'pea'), ghArs- ('a leguminous plant'), *kek- ('pea') and *lent- ('lentil'). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača ('pea'), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV ('pea') and *[Formula: see text] ('lentil'). The Proto-Caucasianx root *[Formula: see text] <span class="hlt">denoted</span> pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) ('bean', 'lentil') and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r ('pea', 'bean', 'vetch') could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV ('bean') within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- ('lentil') and *pūl- ('field bean'). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. PMID:22973458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> similarity of labels and inductive generalization: taking a second look.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fisher, Anna V; Matlen, Bryan J; Godwin, Karrie E</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Prior research suggests that preschoolers can generalize object properties based on category information conveyed by <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels. However, previous research did not control for co-occurrence probability of labels in <span class="hlt">natural</span> speech. The current studies re-assessed children's generalization with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels. Experiment 1 indicated that adults made category-based inferences regardless of co-occurrence probability; however, 4-year-olds generalized with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels that co-occurred in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit) but not with non-co-occurring labels (e.g., crocodile-alligator). Experiment 2 indicated that generalization with <span class="hlt">semantically</span>-similar labels increased gradually between 4- and 6-years of age. These results are discussed in relation to theories of early learning. PMID:21227407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009best.conf..390M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009best.conf..390M"><span id="translatedtitle">Scalable Medical Image Understanding by Fusing Cross-Modal Object Recognition with Formal Domain <span class="hlt">Semantics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Möller, Manuel; Sintek, Michael; Buitelaar, Paul; Mukherjee, Saikat; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Freund, Jörg</p> <p></p> <p>Recent advances in medical imaging technology have dramatically increased the amount of clinical image data. In contrast, techniques for efficiently exploiting the rich <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information in medical images have evolved much slower. Despite the research outcomes in image understanding, current image databases are still indexed by manually assigned subjective keywords instead of the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the images. Indeed, most current content-based image search applications index image features that do not generalize well and use inflexible queries. This slow progress is due to the lack of scalable and generic information representation systems which can abstract over the high dimensional <span class="hlt">nature</span> of medical images as well as <span class="hlt">semantically</span> model the results of object recognition techniques. We propose a system combining medical imaging information with ontological formalized <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge that provides a basis for building universal knowledge repositories and gives clinicians fully cross-lingual and cross-modal access to biomedical information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041418','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041418"><span id="translatedtitle">CNTRO: A <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tao, Cui; Wei, Wei-Qi; Solbrig, Harold R.; Savova, Guergana; Chute, Christopher G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web specifications to represent temporal information in clinical narratives is an important step for temporal reasoning and answering time-oriented queries. Existing temporal models are either not compatible with the powerful reasoning tools developed for the <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web, or designed only for structured clinical data and therefore are not ready to be applied on <span class="hlt">natural</span>-language-based clinical narrative reports directly. We have developed a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web ontology which is called Clinical Narrative Temporal Relation ontology. Using this ontology, temporal information in clinical narratives can be represented as RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples. More temporal information and relations can then be inferred by <span class="hlt">Semantic</span>-Web based reasoning tools. Experimental results show that this ontology can represent temporal information in real clinical narratives successfully. PMID:21347086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897385','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897385"><span id="translatedtitle">Have Green – A Visual Analytics Framework for Large <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wong, Pak C.; Chin, George; Foote, Harlan P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Thomas, James J.</p> <p>2006-10-29</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph is a network of heterogeneous nodes and links annotated with a domain ontology. In intelligence analysis, investigators use <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs to organize concepts and relationships as graph nodes and links in hopes of discovering key trends, patterns, and insights. However, as new information continues to arrive from a multitude of sources, the size and complexity of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs will soon overwhelm an investigator's cognitive capacity to carry out significant analyses. We introduce a powerful visual analytics framework designed to enhance investigators--<span class="hlt">natural</span> analytical capabilities to comprehend and analyze large <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. The paper describes the overall framework design, presents major development accomplishments to date, and discusses future directions of a new visual analytics system known as Have Green.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060017072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060017072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Analysis of Email Using Domain Ontologies and WordNet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The problem of capturing and accessing knowledge in paper form has been supplanted by a problem of providing structure to vast amounts of electronic information. Systems that can construct <span class="hlt">semantic</span> links for <span class="hlt">natural</span> language documents like email messages automatically will be a crucial element of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> email tools. We have designed an information extraction process that can leverage the knowledge already contained in an existing <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web, recognizing references in email to existing nodes in a network of ontology instances by using linguistic knowledge and knowledge of the structure of the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> web. We developed a heuristic score that uses several forms of evidence to detect references in email to existing nodes in the Semanticorganizer repository's network. While these scores cannot directly support automated probabilistic inference, they can be used to rank nodes by relevance and link those deemed most relevant to email messages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2232694','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2232694"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlining <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation for medical narratives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We introduce two abstraction mechanisms by which the process of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation of medical narratives can be simplified and further optimized. One relates to generalized triggering conditions, the other to inheritance-based specifications of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> rules. The proposed methodology leads to a parsimonious inventory of abstract, simple and domain-independent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> interpretation schemata whose effectiveness has been evaluated on a medical text corpus. PMID:10566496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042235','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042235"><span id="translatedtitle">Explaining <span class="hlt">semantic</span> short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias <span class="hlt">semantic</span> processing towards task-relevant aspects of knowledge and away from irrelevant information. We tested three <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients with tasks that tapped four aspects of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control: (i) resolving ambiguity between word meanings, (ii) sensitivity to cues, (iii) ignoring irrelevant information and (iv) detecting weak <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associations. All were impaired in conditions requiring more <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control, irrespective of the STM demands of the task, suggesting a mild, but task-general, deficit in regulating <span class="hlt">semantic</span> knowledge. This mild deficit has a disproportionate effect on STM tasks because they have high intrinsic control demands: in STM tasks, control is required to keep information active when it is no longer available in the environment and to manage competition between items held in memory simultaneously. By re-interpreting the core deficit in <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients in this way, we are able to explain their apparently selective impairment without the need for a specialised STM store. Instead, we argue that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> STM patients occupy the mildest end of spectrum of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> control disorders. PMID:21195105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=2&id=EJ749588','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Web+AND+semantics&pg=2&id=EJ749588"><span id="translatedtitle">Representations for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Learning Webs: <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Technology in Learning Support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Recent work on applying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: <span class="hlt">semantic</span> technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233863','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233863"><span id="translatedtitle">SSWAP: A Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SSWAP (Simple <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to <span class="hlt">semantically</span> integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded <span class="hlt">semantic</span> w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736216"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Clustering of Search Engine Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the <span class="hlt">semantics</span> of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and <span class="hlt">semantics</span> similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate <span class="hlt">semantically</span> meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are <span class="hlt">semantically</span> similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859233','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859233"><span id="translatedtitle">Synonyms Provide <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Preview Benefit in English</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schotter, Elizabeth R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit was observed for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit. Why synonyms provide <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors—attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..877K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5872..877K"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a Reactive <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Execution Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele</p> <p></p> <p>Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4402216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4402216"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Networks Associated with Computerized <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tests of generative <span class="hlt">semantic</span> verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with <span class="hlt">semantic</span> memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness between words and grouping of words into <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> relatedness between words based on latent <span class="hlt">semantic</span> analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized <span class="hlt">semantic</span> indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974408','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/974408"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithms and architectures for high performance analysis of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hendrickson, Bruce Alan</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Semantic</span> graphs offer one promising avenue for intelligence analysis in homeland security. They provide a mechanism for describing a wide variety of relationships between entities of potential interest. The vertices are nouns of various types, e.g. people, organizations, events, etc. Edges in the graph represent different types of relationships between entities, e.g. 'is friends with', 'belongs-to', etc. <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> graphs offer a number of potential advantages as a knowledge representation system. They allow information of different kinds, and collected in differing ways, to be combined in a seamless manner. A <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph is a very compressed representation of some of relationship information. It has been reported that the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph can be two orders of magnitude smaller than the processed intelligence data. This allows for much larger portions of the data universe to be resident in computer memory. Many intelligence queries that are relevant to the terrorist threat are <span class="hlt">naturally</span> expressed in the language of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. One example is the search for 'interesting' relationships between two individuals or between an individual and an event, which can be phrased as a search for short paths in the graph. Another example is the search for an analyst-specified threat pattern, which can be cast as an instance of subgraph isomorphism. It is important to note than many kinds of analysis are not relationship based, so these are not good candidates for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graphs. Thus, a <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph should always be used in conjunction with traditional knowledge representation and interface methods. Operations that involve looking for chains of relationships (e.g. friend of a friend) are not efficiently executable in a traditional relational database. However, the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph can be thought of as a pre-join of the database, and it is ideally suited for these kinds of operations. Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are working to facilitate <span class="hlt">semantic</span> graph</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556488','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556488"><span id="translatedtitle">A continuous <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space describes the representation of thousands of object and action categories across the human brain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huth, Alexander G.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Vu, An T.; Gallant, Jack L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary Humans can see and name thousands of distinct object and action categories, so it is unlikely that each category is represented in a distinct brain area. A more efficient scheme would be to represent categories as locations in a continuous <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space mapped smoothly across the cortical surface. To search for such a space, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activity evoked by <span class="hlt">natural</span> movies. We then used voxel-wise models to examine the cortical representation of 1705 object and action categories. The first few dimensions of the underlying <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space were recovered from the fit models by principal components analysis. Projection of the recovered <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space onto cortical flat maps shows that <span class="hlt">semantic</span> selectivity is organized into smooth gradients that cover much of visual and non-visual cortex. Furthermore, both the recovered <span class="hlt">semantic</span> space and the cortical organization of the space are shared across different individuals. PMID:23259955</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+of+congress%22&pg=5&id=EJ659594','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+of+congress%22&pg=5&id=EJ659594"><span id="translatedtitle">Hindrances in <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Mapping Involving Thesauri and Metadata: A Linguistic Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Park, Jung-ran</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes the characteristics of <span class="hlt">natural</span> languages that hinder the optimal organization and accessing of networked resources, focusing on the <span class="hlt">semantic</span> mapping processes utilizing thesauri or metadata. Considers future information retrieval system design, especially networked retrieval and <span class="hlt">natural</span> language, and gives an example of problems in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568934','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568934"><span id="translatedtitle">Not just <span class="hlt">semantics</span>: Strong frequency and weak cognate effects on <span class="hlt">semantic</span> association in bilinguals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Antón-Méndez, Inés; Gollan, Tamar H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the possibility that knowledge of two languages influences the <span class="hlt">nature</span> of <span class="hlt">semantic</span> representations, bilinguals and monolinguals were compared in a word association task. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced less typical responses relative to monolinguals when given cues with a very common associate (e.g., given bride, bilinguals said “dress” instead of “groom”). In Experiment 2, bilinguals produced responses as typical as those of monolinguals when given cues with high-frequency associates, but not when given cues with low-frequency associates. Bilinguals’ responses were also affected, to a certain extent, by the cognate status of the stimulus word pairs: They were more similar to monolinguals’ responses when the cue and its strongest associate were both cognates (e.g., minute–second is minuto–segundo in Spanish), as opposed to both being noncognates. Experiment 3 confirmed the presence of a robust frequency effect on bilingual but not on monolingual association responses. These findings imply a lexical locus for the bilingual effect on association responses and reveal the association task to be not quite as purely <span class="hlt">semantic</span> as was previously assumed. PMID:20852236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6057..354D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6057..354D"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceptually based techniques for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> image classification and retrieval</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Depalov, Dejan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos; Li, Dongge; Gandhi, Bhavan</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The accumulation of large collections of digital images has created the need for efficient and intelligent schemes for content-based image retrieval. Our goal is to organize the contents <span class="hlt">semantically</span>, according to meaningful categories. We present a new approach for <span class="hlt">semantic</span> classification that utilizes a recently proposed color-texture segmentation algorithm (by Chen et al.), which combines knowledge of human perception and signal characteristics to segment <span class="hlt">natural</span> scenes into perceptually uniform regions. The color and texture features of these regions are used as medium level descriptors, based on which we extract <span class="hlt">semantic</span> labels, first at the segment and then at the scene level. The segment features consist of spatial texture orientation information and color composition in terms of a limited number of locally adapted dominant colors. The focus of this paper is on region classification. We use a hierarchical vocabulary of segment labels that is consistent with those used in the NIST TRECVID 2003 development set. We test the approach on a database of 9000 segments obtained from 2500 photographs of <span class="hlt">natural</span> scenes. For training and classification we use the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique. We examine the performance of the algorithm (precision and recall rates) when different sets of features (e.g., one or two most dominant colors versus four quantized dominant colors) are used. Our results indicate that the proposed approach offers significant performance improvements over existing approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294481"><span id="translatedtitle">Ontology-based <span class="hlt">Semantic</span> Support to Improve Accessibility of Graphics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murillo-Morales, Tomás; Miesenberger, Klaus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We aim to ease the process of authoring accessible graphics as well as taking a first step towards the long-term goal of allowing blind persons to access graphics autonomously. We are developing and experimenting with a hierarchical set of knowledge bases related to the presentation of visual objects and cues in the form of ontologies that will act as the formal, axiomatic underpinnings of an accessibility layer or, later on, a graphics reader/browser for blind and visually impaired people. The concept and prototypes of smart (or communicative) graphics [1], in which readers obtain information about the syntactic and <span class="hlt">semantic</span> content through the use of e.g. a <span class="hlt">natural</span> language interface, should be expanded by exploiting the benefits of formal <span class="hlt">semantics</span> supported by domain- and task-aware ontologies describing the elements, visual cues and relations used for visualization or visual display. PMID:26294481</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433424"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the Words <span class="hlt">Denoting</span> Some of the Most Ancient Old World Pulse Crops and Their Diversity in Modern European Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mikić, Aleksandar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words <span class="hlt">denoting</span> the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- (‘a leguminous plant’), *bhabh- (‘field bean’), * (‘a kernel of leguminous plant’, ‘pea’), ghArs- (‘a leguminous plant’), *kek- (‘pea’) and *lent- (‘lentil’). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača (‘pea’), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV (‘pea’) and * (‘lentil’). The Proto-Caucasianx root * <span class="hlt">denoted</span> pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) (‘bean’, ‘lentil’) and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r (‘pea’, ‘bean’, ‘vetch’) could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV (‘bean’) within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- (‘lentil’) and *pūl- (‘field bean’). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. 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