Sample records for dense star polymer

  1. Cooling of dense stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuruta, S.

    1972-01-01

    Cooling rates were calculated for neutron stars of about one solar mass and 10 km radius, with magnetic fields from zero to about 10 to the 14th power gauss, for extreme cases of maximum and zero superfluidity. The results show that most pulsars are so cold that thermal ionization of surface atoms would be negligible. Nucleon superfluidity and crystallization of heavy nuclei were treated quantitatively, and more realistic hadron star models were chosen. Cooling rates were calculated for a stable hyperon star near the maximum mass limit, a medium weight neutron star, and a light neutron star with neutron-rich heavy nuclei near the minimum mass limit. Results show that cooling rates are a sensitive function of density. The Crab and Vela pulsars are considered, as well as cooling of a massive white dwarf star.

  2. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  3. Dense Gas Processing of Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Yoganathan; R. Mammucari; N. R. Foster

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing global awareness about environmental pollution, and many sanctions and sustainable practices have been implemented. In particular, the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a practice that is being limited and minimized world-wide. These VOCs are not only damaging to the environment, but are also an occupational hazard. The polymer processing industry is known to use

  4. GRAPE6 Simulations of Dense Star Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn D. Slavin; J. E. Maxwell; H. N. Cohn; P. M. Lugger

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent results from a long-term program of N-body simulations of dense star cluster evolution which is being done with GRAPE-6 systems at Indiana University and Purdue University Calumet. We have been simulating cases of star cluster evolution with a particular focus on the dynamical evolution of hard binary populations of varying size. Initial models with a range

  5. Engineering A polymer brush is a dense monolayer of highly

    E-print Network

    Chemical Engineering Abstract A polymer brush is a dense monolayer of highly stretched polymer that bathes it. Historically, polymer brushes have been of interest for their potential to overcome van der in the technological deployment of polymer brushes has been the difficulty of creating brushes with sufficiently large

  6. White Dwarf Sequences in Dense Star Clusters

    E-print Network

    Jarrod R. Hurley; Michael M. Shara

    2003-02-06

    We use the results of realistic N-body simulations to investigate the appearance of the white dwarf population in dense star clusters. We show that the presence of a substantial binary population in a star cluster, and the interaction of this population with the cluster environment, has serious consequences for the morphology of the observed white dwarf sequence and the derived white dwarf cooling age of the cluster. We find that over time the dynamical evolution of the cluster -- mass-segregation, stellar interactions and tidal stripping -- hampers the use of white dwarfs as tracers of the initial mass function, and also leads to a significant enhancement of the white dwarf mass fraction. Future observations of star clusters should be conducted slightly interior to the half-mass radius of the cluster in order to best obtain information about the cluster age and initial mass function from the white dwarf luminosity function. The evolution of binary stars and the cluster environment must necessarily be accounted for when studying the white dwarf populations of dynamically evolved star clusters.

  7. GRAPE-6 Simulations of Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Maxwell, J. E.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    We report on recent results from a long-term program of N-body simulations of dense star cluster evolution which is being done with GRAPE-6 systems at Indiana University and Purdue University Calumet. We have been simulating cases of star cluster evolution with a particular focus on the dynamical evolution of hard binary populations of varying size. Initial models with a range of mass spectra, both with and without primordial binary populations, are being investigated to points well beyond core collapse. Our goal is to better understand the evoultion of compact binary populations in collapsed-core globular clusters. Observations of collapsed-core clusters with HST and Chandra have revealed populations of hard, X-ray binaries well outside the cluster core. Our work is focused on understanding the diffusion of these dynamically hardened binaries to regions in the cluster halo and the robustness of this process in models with mass spectra versus single-mass models.

  8. HBT 28-Jun-2005 Formation of Planets in Dense Star

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    HBT 28-Jun-2005 Formation of Planets in Dense Star Clusters Henry Throop Southwest Research September 23, 2005 #12;HBT 28-Jun-2005 Where Do Most Stars Form? · Stars form by the collapse of molecular = Giant Molecular Clouds) #12;HBT 28-Jun-2005 Case I: Star Formation in Open Clusters Small clouds: e

  9. New Molecular Theory for Dense, Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Karl

    2015-03-01

    The development of a molecular theory for dense polymer systems ranks among the most challenging problems in the statistical mechanics of complex matter. These difficulties become compounded when considering the influence of molecular details on thermodynamic properties of thin polymer films, properties deviating from those of the bulk phases. A new theory of dense polymer films is developed as a significant generalization of methods used to devise the lattice cluster theory, an extension of Flory-Huggins theory that include details of monomer structure and short range correlations (neglected in FH theory) and that has successfully been applied to a wide range of polymer systems. The new theory incorporates the essential ``transport'' constraints of Helfand and focuses on the strict imposition of excluded volume constraints, appropriate to dense polymer systems, rather than the maintenance of chain connectivity as appropriate for lower densities and implemented in self-consistent theories of polymer adsorption at interfaces. The theory is illustrated by presenting examples of the computed density and chain end profiles for free standing films as a function of bulk density, chain length, temperature, and chain semi-flexibility.

  10. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in Dense Star Clusters: Implications for Stars, Disks, and Planets

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in Dense Star Clusters: Implications for Stars, Disks, and Planets Draft the Bondi-Hoyle accretion of gas from a GMC onto young star- disk systems in a cluster. This post, material is accreted onto the stars by the Bondi-Hoyle accretion (Bondi 1952; Bondi & Hoyle 1944). BH

  11. Method for forming a uniformly dense polymer foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 to about 0.5 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microballoon material wherein some of the microballoons are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  12. Interfacial Micellar Structures from Novel Amphiphilic Star Polymers

    E-print Network

    Vakni, David

    Interfacial Micellar Structures from Novel Amphiphilic Star Polymers Kirsten L. Genson, Joshua: August 4, 2004 An amphiphilic heteroarm star polymer containing 12 alternating hydrophobic amphiphilicity and suggests a profound influence of star molecular architecture on the self

  13. Ferromagnetism of dense matter and magnetic properties of neutron stars

    E-print Network

    P. Haensel; S. Bonazzola

    1996-05-24

    Possible consequences of ferromagnetic transition in dense matter suggested recently by Kutschera and W{\\'o}jcik, for the magnetic properties of neutron stars, are studied. Specific model of dense matter, in which a small admixture of protons is completely polarized due to their interaction with neutrons, is considered. Magnetic field of neutron stars with a ferromagnetic core is calculated within the framework of general relativity. Two types of boundary conditions at the ferromagnetic core edge are considered, corresponding to normal and superconducting liquid envelope, respectively. Numerical results for the neutron star magnetic dipole moment are confronted with pulsar timing. To be consistent with observations, ferromagnetic cores surrounded by a non-superconducting envelope, should consist of weakly ordered ferromagnetic domains. If domains are highly ordered, ferromagnetic core should be screened by a superconducting envelope.

  14. THE FORMATION OF YOUNG DENSE STAR CLUSTERS THROUGH MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Saitoh, T. R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Young star clusters such as NGC 3603 and Westerlund 1 and 2 in the Milky Way and R136 in the Large Magellanic Cloud are dynamically more evolved than expected based on their current relaxation times. In particular, the combination of a high degree of mass segregation, a relatively low central density, and the large number of massive runaway stars in their vicinity are hard to explain with the monolithic formation of these clusters. Young star clusters can achieve such a mature dynamical state if they formed through the mergers of a number of less massive clusters. The shorter relaxation times of less massive clusters cause them to dynamically evolve further by the time they merge, and the merger product preserves the memory of the dynamical evolution of its constituent clusters. With a series of N-body simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of single massive clusters and those that are assembled through merging smaller clusters together. We find that the formation of massive star clusters through the mergers of smaller clusters can reproduce the currently observed spatial distribution of massive stars, the density, and the characteristics (number and mass distribution) of the stars ejected as runaways from young dense clusters. We therefore conclude that these clusters and possibly other young massive star clusters formed through the mergers of smaller clusters.

  15. Shear rate threshold for the boundary slip in dense polymer films Nikolai V. Priezjev

    E-print Network

    Priezjev, Nikolai V.

    transition from no-slip to steady-state slip flow is associated with faster relaxation of the polymer chainsShear rate threshold for the boundary slip in dense polymer films Nikolai V. Priezjev Department; published 24 September 2009 The shear rate dependence of the slip length in thin polymer films confined

  16. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.

  17. Star polymers rupture induced by constant forces.

    PubMed

    García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the rupture process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of rupture times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the rupture time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the rupture time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341

  18. Self-Diffusion of Symmetric Star Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischknecht, Amalie; Milner, Scott T.

    2000-03-01

    We use a recent theory of arm retraction in star polymers, which successfully describes their distinctive rheology, to calculate the self-diffusion constant of symmetric stars. Star polymers can only take a diffusive step when an arm fully retracts to the center. Due to the wide separation of relaxation times along the star arms, star polymers obey dynamic dilution, in which the effective entanglement network dilutes as portions of the star arms relax. This implies a picture of self-diffusion in which the junction point hops a distance of order the dilated tube diameter ad associated with the diluted network, rather than a distance of order the original ``skinny'' tube diameter a0 defined by the entanglement molecular weight. The difference is substantial, since ad scales with arm length N as a_0N^2/7. However, comparing our results to self-diffusion data of Bartels et. al.,(C. R. Bartels, B. Crist, Jr., L. J. Fetters, and W. W. Graessley, Macromolecules 19), 785, 1986. we find that the data is more consistent with diffusive hops of a length scale a0 rather than a_d.

  19. Barrier crossing by a star polymer.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ananya; Sebastian, K L

    2007-11-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a star polymer of F arms trapped in a double well potential. Initially the molecule is confined to one of the minima and can cross over the barrier to the other side. We use the continuum version of the Rouse-Ham model and calculate the rate of crossing using the multidimensional approach due to Langer [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 54, 258 (1969)]. Finding the transition state for the process is shown to be equivalent to the solution of Newton's equations for F independent particles, moving in an inverted potential. For each star polymer, there is a critical barrier top curvature, below which the star crosses over in coiled conformation. The value of the critical curvature is determined by the first Rouse mode of the star. If the curvature is greater than this critical value, the saddle point for the crossing is a stretched conformation of the star. For the coiled transition state, the activation energy is proportional to the total arm length of the star. For the stretched transition state, as one increases the length of an arm of the star, the activation energy at first increases and then decreases. This results from the fact that in the stretched state, only one arm of the polymer is stretched across the top of the barrier, while others need not be. We calculate the rate by expanding the energy around the saddle up to second order in the fluctuations. As we use the continuum model, there are infinite modes for the polymer and, consequently, the prefactor has infinite products. We show that these infinite products can be reduced to a simple expression, and evaluated easily. However, the rate diverges near NTc due to the multifurcation, which results in more than one unstable mode. The cure for this divergence is to keep terms up to fourth order in the expansion of energy for these modes. Performing this, we have calculated the rate as a function of the length of the star. It is found that the rate has a nonmonotonic dependence on the length, suggesting that longer stars may actually cross over the barrier faster. PMID:18233677

  20. Influence of Molecular Solvation on the Conformation of Star Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We have used neutron scattering to investigate the influence of concentration on the conformation of a star polymer. By varying the contrast between the solvent and isotopically labeled stars, we obtain the distributions of polymer and solvent within a star polymer from analysis of scattering data. A correlation between the local desolvation and the inward folding of star branches is discovered. From the perspective of thermodynamics, we find an analogy between the mechanism of polymer localization driven by solvent depletion and that of the hydrophobic collapse of polymers in solutions.

  1. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Quanz, Sascha P. [Institute for Astronomy-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Alves, Joao [University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G., E-mail: schmalzl@mpia.d [Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman/Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia, S/N, Granada 18008 (Spain)

    2010-12-10

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M{sub line} = 17 M{sub sun} pc{sup -1}, reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M{sub sun} and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent {Gamma} = 1.2 {+-} 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  2. Interfacial Micellar Structures from Novel Amphiphilic Star Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Genson, Kirsten L.; Hoffman, Joshua; Teng, Jing; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Vaknin, David; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. (Iowa State)

    2010-11-10

    An amphiphilic heteroarm star polymer containing 12 alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic arms of polystyrene (PS) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) connected to a well-defined rigid aromatic core was studied at the air-water and the air-solid interfaces. At the air-water interface, the molecules spontaneously form pancakelike micellar aggregates which measure up to several microns in diameter and 5 nm in thickness. Upon reduction of the surface area per molecule to 7 nm2, the two-dimensional micelles merged into a dense monolayer. We suggest that confined phase separation of dissimilar polymer arms occurred upon their segregation on the opposite sides of the rigid disklike aromatic core, forcing the rigid cores to adopt a face-on orientation with respect to the interface. Upon transfer onto solid supports the PS chains face the air-film interface making it completely hydrophobic, and the PAA chains were found to collapse and form a thin flattened underlayer. This study points toward new strategies to create large 2D microstructures with facial amphiphilicity and suggests a profound influence of star molecular architecture on the self-assembly of amphiphiles at the air-water interface.

  3. Compatibility of Medical-Grade Polymers with Dense CO2

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, A; Thompson, G L; Matthews, M A; Davis, T A; Crocker, K; Lyons, J S; Trapotsis, A

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the effect of exposure to liquid carbon dioxide on the mechanical properties of selected medical polymers. The tensile strengths and moduli of fourteen polymers are reported. Materials were exposed to liquid CO2, or CO2 + trace amounts of aqueous H2O2, at 6.5 MPa and ambient temperature. Carbon dioxide uptake, swelling, and distortion were observed for the more amorphous polymers while polymers with higher crystallinity showed little effect from CO2 exposure. Changes in tensile strength were not statistically significant for most plastics, and most indicated good tolerance to liquid CO2. These results are relevant to evaluating the potential of liquid CO2-based sterilization technology. PMID:19756235

  4. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  5. Computer simulation of the rheology of concentrated star polymer suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan T. Padding; Evelyne van Ruymbeke; Dimitris Vlassopoulos; Wim J. Briels

    2010-01-01

    We use particle-based computer simulations to study the rheology of suspensions of high-functionality star polymers with long\\u000a entangled arms. Such particles have properties which are intermediate between those of soft colloidal particles and entangled\\u000a polymer chains. In the simulations, each star polymer is coarse-grained to a single particle. In order to faithfully reproduce\\u000a dynamical properties, it is very important to

  6. Mechanical properties of a fully dense polymer derived ceramic made by a novel pressure casting process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandeep R Shah; Rishi Raj

    2002-01-01

    A new process has been developed for obtaining fully dense samples of silicon carbonitride (SiCN) from polymers. The process consists of two simple steps: cross-linking the liquid organic precursor under pressure, followed by controlled pyrolysis. Net shape processing is possible by casting the liquid into a mold before polymerization. The entire process is completed below 1000 °C. Basic mechanical properties

  7. Compatibilization of polymer blends with star polymers containing a gamma-cyclodextrin core and polystyrene arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik, C. M.; Tonelli, A. E.; Libert, Ryan

    2012-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules having a hollow central cavity which can be threaded by a polymer to form an inclusion compound. This characteristic is exploited in a new type of compatibilizer: a star polymer with a gamma-CD (g-CD) core and polystyrene (PS) arms (CD-star). The mechanism of compatibilization involves threading of the CD core by a second polymer and solubilization of the threading polymer into a PS matrix by the PS star arms. In principle, the same CD-star polymer can be used to compatibilize blends of several different polymers with PS, provided that the second polymer is able to thread the CD core. We have taken the first step toward demonstrating the generality of this approach by producing compatibilized blends of PS with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using the same CD-star polymer. Thin spun-cast films of these blends exhibit a nanoscale level of mixing, while spun-cast films of the same blends without CD-star exhibit large-scale phase separation. The number of CD-star molecules that must be threaded onto the polymer chain to achieve compatibilization is larger for PMMA than for PDMS.

  8. Entropy-induced separation of star polymers in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Blavats'ka, V. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Ferber, C. von [Theoretische Polymerphysik, Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Complex Systems Research Center, Jagiellonian University, 31007 Cracow (Poland); Holovatch, Yu. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, 4040, Linz (Austria); Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2006-09-15

    We present a quantitative picture of the separation of star polymers in a solution where part of the volume is influenced by a porous medium. To this end, we study the impact of long-range-correlated quenched disorder on the entropy and scaling properties of f-arm star polymers in a good solvent. We assume that the disorder is correlated on the polymer length scale with a power-law decay of the pair correlation function g(r){approx}r{sup -a}. Applying the field-theoretical renormalization group approach we show in a double expansion in {epsilon}=4-d and {delta}=4-a that there is a range of correlation strengths {delta} for which the disorder changes the scaling behavior of star polymers. In a second approach we calculate for fixed space dimension d=3 and different values of the correlation parameter a the corresponding scaling exponents {gamma}{sub f} that govern entropic effects. We find that {gamma}{sub f}-1, the deviation of {gamma}{sub f} from its mean field value is amplified by the disorder once we increase {delta} beyond a threshold. The consequences for a solution of diluted chain and star polymers of equal molecular weight inside a porous medium are that star polymers exert a higher osmotic pressure than chain polymers and in general higher branched star polymers are expelled more strongly from the correlated porous medium. Surprisingly, polymer chains will prefer a stronger correlated medium to a less or uncorrelated medium of the same density while the opposite is the case for star polymers.

  9. A new numerical approach to dense polymer brushes and surface instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeis, D.; Merlitz, H.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical self-consistent field (SCF) method which describes freely jointed chains of spherical monomers applied to densely grafted polymer brushes. We discuss both the Flory-Huggins model and the Carnahan-Starling equation of state and show the latter being preferable within our model at polymer volume fractions above 10%. We compare the results of our numerical method with data from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [G.-L. He, H. Merlitz, J.-U. Sommer, and C.-X. Wu, Macromolecules 40, 6721 (2007)] and analytical SCF calculations [P. M. Biesheuvel, W. M. de Vos, and V. M. Amoskov, Macromolecules 41, 6254 (2008)] and obtain close agreement between the density profiles up to high grafting densities. In contrast to prior numerical and analytical studies of densely grafted polymer brushes our method provides detailed information about chain configurations including fluctuation, depletion, and packing effects. Using our model we could study the recently discovered instability of densely grafted polymer brushes with respect to slight variations of individual chain lengths, driven by fluctuation effects [H. Merlitz, G.-L. He, C.-X. Wu, and J.-U. Sommer, Macromolecules 41, 5070 (2008)]. The obtained results are in very close agreement with corresponding MD simulations.

  10. Neutrinos from Protoneutron Stars: A Probe of Hot and Dense matter

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy; Madappa Prakash

    1995-08-03

    Neutrino processes in dense matter play a key role in the dynamics, deleptonization and early cooling of hot protoneutron stars formed in the gravitational collapse of massive stars. Here we calculate neutrino mean free paths from neutrino-hyperon interactions in dense matter containing hyperons. Significant contributions to the neutrino opacity arise from scattering and absorption reactions involving the sigma minus particle. The estimates given here emphasise the need for (a) opacities which incoparate many-body effects in a multi-component mixture, and (b) new calculations of thermal and leptonic evolution of protoneutron stars with neutrino transport and equations of state with strangeness-rich matter.

  11. Dense cores in dark clouds - Young embedded stars at 2 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, P. J.; Myers, P. C.; Wright, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five visually opaque regions which contain strong sources of NH3 (1,1) line emission (dense cores) have been surveyed for evidence of associated stars at two microns. Five such stars have been found, of which three - in B5, L1489, and L1582 - are optically invisible and probably embedded in their associated cores. The stars in B5 and L1489 have 2-100 micron spectra and luminosity similar to those of HL Tau, a very young T Tauri star. These stars probably formed in the cores where they are now seen. These results tend to confirm earlier suggestions that low-mass stars form in dense cores.

  12. The densely fluorinated nanospace of a porous coordination polymer composed of perfluorobutyl-functionalized ligands.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyung Joon; Matsuda, Ryotaro; Kanoo, Prakash; Kajiro, Hiroshi; Li, Liangchun; Sato, Hiroshi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-09-25

    A perfluorobutyl-functionalized two-dimensional porous coordination polymer (PCP), {[Cu(bpbtp)(L)(DMF)]·(DMF)}n (H2bpbtp = 2,5-bis(perfluorobutyl)terephthalic acid, L = 2,5-bis(perfluorobutyl)-1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The pore surface of the PCP is decorated with pendant perfluorobutyl groups which fabricate a densely fluorinated nanospace resulting in unique gas sorption properties. PMID:25089888

  13. Deposition of zwitterionic polymer brushes in a dense gas medium.

    PubMed

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Yeo, Tin Wei; Guo, Shifeng; Quintana, Robert; Ja?czewski, Dominik; Srinivasan, M P

    2015-06-15

    Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) films known for their resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption, cell/bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation were produced by surface initiated polymerization on a silicon surface via a batch reaction system in CO2 expanded liquid (CO2-EL) medium. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was carried out using 2,2'-bipyridyl as ligand and CuBr as a catalyst in water/methanol mixture with trichloro[4-(chloromethyl)phenyl]silane (CMPS) used as the initiating species. The films were grown in the CO2-EL environment at a range of conditions and thickness up to 10nm. In contrast to films produced by conventional solvent systems at atmospheric pressure, the polymer films grown by the CO2-EL process showed uniform thickness and pin-hole free topography. Most importantly, the CO2-EL processed PSBMA films showed no trace of copper (used as the catalyst), thus obviating the need for post-deposition processing and avoiding adverse effects of the metal leaching during service. Finally, PSBMA films from both the conventional and CO2-EL processes were exposed to Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the results showed that, while in both the cases the cell proliferation rate was inhibited by the charged polymeric brush surface, the CO2-EL-processed brush exhibited inhibition to a larger extent due to the reduced occurrence of pinholes. The process can be easily exploited effectively when carrying out surface initiated polymerization on non-flat topographies, such as in trenches and nanostructured features with high aspect ratios. PMID:25728486

  14. Variations in the Star Formation Efficiency of the Dense Molecular Gas across the Disks of Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Usero, Antonio; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; García-Burillo, Santiago; Sandstrom, Karin; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; de Blok, W J G

    2015-01-01

    We present a new survey of HCN(1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, focused on the little-explored regime of normal star-forming galaxy disks. Combining HCN, CO, and infrared (IR) emission, we investigate the role of dense gas in Star Formation (SF), finding systematic variations in both the apparent dense gas fraction and the apparent SF efficiency (SFE) of dense gas. The latter may be unexpected, given the popularity of gas density threshold models to explain SF scaling relations. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to observe HCN(1-0) across 29 nearby disk galaxies whose CO(2-1) emission has previously been mapped by the HERACLES survey. Because our observations span a range of galactocentric radii, we are able to investigate the properties of the dense gas as a function of local conditions. We focus on how the IR/CO, HCN/CO, and IR/HCN ratios (observational cognates of the SFE, dense gas fraction, and dense gas SFE) depend on the stellar surface density and the molecular/atomic ratio. The HCN/CO ra...

  15. The formation and evolution of very massive stars in dense stellar systems

    E-print Network

    H. Belkus; J. Van Bever; D. Vanbeveren

    2007-10-09

    The early evolution of dense stellar systems is governed by massive single star and binary evolution. Core collapse of dense massive star clusters can lead to the formation of very massive objects through stellar collisions ($M\\geq$ 1000 \\msun). Stellar wind mass loss determines the evolution and final fate of these objects, and decides upon whether they form black holes (with stellar or intermediate mass) or explode as pair instability supernovae, leaving no remnant. We present a computationaly inexpensive evolutionary scheme for very massive stars that can readily be implemented in an N-body code. Using our new N-body code 'Youngbody' which includes a detailed treatment of massive stars as well as this new scheme for very massive stars, we discuss the formation of intermediate mass and stellar mass black holes in young starburst regions. A more detailed account of these results can be found in Belkus et al. 2007.

  16. The Melt Rheology of Bimodal Blends of Star Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottiere, B.; McLeish, T. C. B.; Young, R.; Hakiki, A.; Milner, S. T.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments on solution-cast blends of two anionically synthesised monodisperse star-shaped polyisoprene molecules of widely different molecular weight exhibit very rich rheological behaviour. The time-dependent moduli are exponentially dependent on the relative volume fraction of each species. Our works aim to model these new features by extending existing tube model theories for monodisperse melts of star polymers to blends of two monodisperse star polymers with two different molecular weight, keeping the same chemistry. We treat the tube model with constraint release for star polymers in both an approximate (Ball-McLeish) and then a more exact level (McLeish-Milner). The latter, with its treatment of non-activated breathing modes, is able to account quantitatively for the huge range of blend rheologies.

  17. Properties of Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, H.; Wang, Y. N.; Wen, W. [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-08-12

    We study the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter at finite temperature density with various proton fractions for use in supernova simulations. The properties of nuclear matter with both uniform and non-uniform distributions are studied consistently. We also discuss the EOS of neutron star matter at zero temperature in a wide density range including hyperons antikaons quarks. The EOS of neutron star matter could be softened by incorporating these new degrees of freedom.

  18. Life and Death of Young Dense Star Clusters near the Galactic Center

    E-print Network

    Simon Portegies Zwart; Stephen McMillan; Holger Baumgardt

    2004-03-05

    We discuss the structural change and degree of mass segregation of young dense star clusters within about 100pc of the Galactic center. In our calculations, which are performed with GRAPE-6, the equations of motion of all stars and binaries are calculated accurately but the external potential of the Galaxy is solved (semi)analytically. The simulations are preformed to model the Arches star cluster. We find that star clusters with are less strongly perturbed by the tidal field and dynamical friction are much stronger affected by mass segregation; resulting in a significant pile-up of massive stars in the cluster center. At an age of about 3.5Myr more than 90 per cent of the stars more massive than ~10Msun are concentrated within the half-mass radius of the surviving cluster. Star clusters which are strongly perturbed by the tidal field of the parent Galaxy are much less affected by mass segregation.

  19. Thermodynamics of linear and star polymers at fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Taddese, Tseden; Carbone, Paola; Cheung, David L

    2015-01-01

    Performing molecular dynamics simulations on model systems we study the structural changes and thermodynamic stability of polymers of varying topology (linear and star-shaped) at interface between two liquids. We find that homopolymers are attracted to the interface in both good and poor solvent conditions showing that they are surface active molecules even though not amphiphilic. In most cases changing polymer topology had only a minor effect on the desorption free energy. A noticeable dependence on polymer topology is only seen for relatively high molecular weight polymers at interface between two good solvents. Examining separately the enthalpic and entropic components of the desorption free energy suggests that its largest contribution is the decrease in the enthalpic part of interfacial free energy caused by the adsorption of the polymer at the interface. Finally we propose a simple method to qualitatively predict the trend of the interfacial free energy as a function of the polymer molecular weight. PMID:25366497

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Wong, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thompson, K. L., E-mail: ladd@bucknell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star formation activity.

  1. Dense matter in neutron stars and their envelopes

    E-print Network

    a very small radius and an extremely high density." Crab nebula ­ remnant of the supernova, which exploded on July 4, 1054 (according to Chinese chronicles). Discovered in 1731 by amateur astronomer John Bavis. Link between the nebula and the archival Chinese "Guest star" was supposed by K.Lundmark in 1921

  2. Structure, Motion, and Evolution of Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    We have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas.

  3. Are superluminous supernovae and long GRBs the products of dynamical processes in young dense star clusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Heuvel, E. P. J. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Portegies Zwart, S. F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-20

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed 'metal aversion' of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  4. Tacticity control in the synthesis of poly(lactic acid) polymer stars with dipentaerythritol cores.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Cameron, Donald J A

    2010-12-13

    The synthesis of a family of polymer stars with arms of varied tacticities is discussed. The effect of polymer tacticity on the physical properties of these polymer stars is presented. Dipentaerythritol cores support six poly(lactic acid) (PLA) arms. Lewis acidic tin and aluminum catalysts control the polymerization to afford polymer stars of variable tacticity. The analysis of these polymers by NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry reveals the effects of tacticity control on the physical properties of the polymer stars. Preliminary decomposition studies suggest that the biodegradation profile of a polymer star may also be tuned by stereochemical control. This is the first systematic altering of tacticity in PLA polymer stars, showing that polymer tacticity can have a great impact on star properties. PMID:21033736

  5. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hell; Wolfram Weise

    2014-09-24

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless additional strongly repulsive correlations, e.g. through vector current interactions between quarks, are introduced. The extent to which strangeness can accumulate in the equation of state is also discussed.

  6. Cyclic motion and inversion of surface flow direction in a dense polymer brush under shear

    E-print Network

    M. Müller; C. Pastorino

    2007-08-30

    Using molecular simulations, we study the properties of a polymer brush in contact with an explicit solvent under Couette and Poiseuille flow. The solvent is comprised of chemically identical chains. We present evidence that individual, unentangled chains in the dense brush exhibit cyclic, tumbling motion and non-Gaussian fluctuations of the molecular orientations similar to the behaviour of isolated tethered chains in shear flow. The collective molecular motion gives rise to an inversion of hydrodynamic flow direction in the vicinity of the brush-coated surface. Utilising Couette and Poiseuille flow, we investigate to what extend the effect of a brush-coated surface can be described by a Navier slip condition.

  7. The dynamical evolution of dense clusters of compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Clusters of compact stars (neutron stars or black holes) were suggested as an explanation for dark matter in the centers of nearby galaxies, as sources of gravitational radiation, as accretion-models for quasars, and as a possible origin for massive black holes in galactic nuclei. The results of an investigation into the dynamical evolution of such clusters, starting from initial densities and velocities not far removed from those observed in normal galactic nuclei, are presented. The evolution is first analyzed using an approximate model based on a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the cluster core. This model identifies dissipative binary formation resulting from the emission of gravitational radiation as being the most important physical process modifying the evolution from what would result if only conservative gravitational interactions were included. The binaries decay by gravitational radiation and merge on a time-scale short compared with the cluster evolution time-scale and are not effective in heating the cluster. The model predicts a dramatic rise in the binary formation and merger rates prior to the catastrophic collapse of the cluster core to a massive black hole through the relativistic Zel'dovich-Podurets instability. The compact binary systems that form during the evolution are promising sources of gravitational radiation for detection by large ground-based laser interferometers. The cluster evolution is re-examined by numerically solving the Newtonian Fokker-Planck equation, modified to include dissipation by gravitational radiation and dissipative binary formation. The late stages of the cluster evolution in the Fokker-Planck calculations differ considerably from the predictions of the approximate model, because this model did not allow for the effects of mass segregation.

  8. Phase Transitions in Dense Baryonic Matter and Cooling of Rotating Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Fridolin Weber; Rodrigo Negreiros

    2009-11-26

    New astrophysical instruments such as skA (square kilometer Array) and IXO (formerly Constellation X) promise the discovery of tens of thousands of new isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars), neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs). Many of these neutron stars will experience dramatic density changes over their active lifetimes, driven by either stellar spin-up or spin-down, which may trigger phase transitions in their dense baryonic cores. More than that, accretion of matter onto neutron stars in LMXBs is believed to cause pycno-nuclear fusion reactions in the inner crusts of neutron stars. The associated reaction rates may be drastically altered if strange quark matter would be absolutely stable. This paper outlines the investigative steps that need to be performed in order to explore the thermal response of neutron stars to rotationally-driven phase transitions in their cores as well as to nuclear burning scenarios in their crusts. Such research complements the exploration of the phase diagram of dense baryonic matter through particle collider experiments, as performed at RHIC in the USA and as planned at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany.

  9. Responsive and recognitive hydrogels using star polymers Ebru Oral,1,

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    . Using mo- lecular imprinting with D-glucose and crosslinking with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate with an ethylene glycol chain of nominal molecular weight 600, we prepared star polymer networks, which exhibited in their environment, are the next generation of materials in drug delivery and biosensing. Poly(eth- ylene glycol

  10. Star/Linear polymer topology transformation facilitated by mechanical linking of polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Daisuke; Uchida, Satoshi; Takata, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    Topology transformation of a star polymer to a linear polymer is demonstrated for the first time. A three-armed star polymer possessing a mechanical linking of two polymer chains was synthesized by the living ring-opening polymerization of ?-valerolactone initiated by a pseudo[2]rotaxane having three hydroxy groups as the initiator sites on the wheel component and at both axle termini. The polymerization was followed by the propagation end-capping reaction with a bulky isocyanate not only to prevent the wheel component deslippage but also to introduce the urethane moiety at the axle terminal. The resulting rotaxane-linked star polymer with a fixed rotaxane linkage based on the ammonium/crown ether interaction was subjected to N-acetylation of the ammonium moiety, which liberated the components from the interaction to move the wheel component to the urethane terminal as the interaction site, eventually affording the linear polymer. The physical property change caused by the present topology transformation was confirmed by the hydrodynamic volume and viscosity. PMID:25892579

  11. Glassy structural relaxation of star-shaped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieberg, Bradley; Glynos, Emmanouil; Sakellariou, Georgios; Green, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Time-dependent changes of thermodynamic properties due to structural relaxations, physical aging, occur in all glasses. In the case of linear polymers, the aging rate is independent of the degree of polymerization at a given aging temperature, relative to the average glass transition temperature. In contrast, we demonstrate that star-shaped macromolecules exhibit average structural relaxations that are dependent on both the number of arms, f, and the degree of polymerization of each arm, Narm. In particular, while increasing f, and/or decreasing Narm, the average segmental relaxation rate decreases, and can be up to a factor of two times lower for star-shaped molecules compared to their linear analogs. We reconcile these differences in terms of the free volume diffusion and its relation to the segmental motions in the glass state. We propose that this ideal class of polymeric materials, star-shaped molecules, can be used in order to tailor the physical properties on a molecular level, by simply changing the polymer architecture. National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of Material Research, Polymer Program.

  12. Measuring the neutron star radius to constrain the dense-matter equation of state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2014-08-01

    A physical understanding of the behaviour of cold ultra-dense matter - at and above nuclear density - can only be achieved by the study of neutron stars, and the thermal emission from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries inside globular clusters have proven very useful for that purpose. The recent ~2M? mass measurements suggest that strange quark matter and hyperons/kaons condensate equations of states (EoS) are disfavoured, in favour of hadronic "normal matter" EoSs. Over much of the neutron star mass-radius parameter space, "normal matter" EoSs produce lines of quasi-constant radii (within the measurement uncertainties, of about 10%). We present a simultaneous spectral analysis of several globular cluster quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries where we require the radius to be the same among all neutron stars analyzed. The Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method and the Bayesian approach developed in this analysis permits including uncertainties in the distance, in the hydrogen column density, and possible contributions to the spectra due to un-modelled spectrally hard components. Our results suggest a neutron star radius much smaller than previously reported, with a value RNS = 9.1±1.4 km, at 90% confidence, using conservative assumptions, which suggests that neutron star matter is best described by the softest "normal matter" equations of state.

  13. Transport properties and neutrino emissivity of dense neutron-star matter with localized protons

    E-print Network

    D. A. Baiko; P. Haensel

    1999-06-18

    As pointed out by Kutschera and W{\\'o}jcik, very low concentration of protons combined with a specific density dependence of effective neutron-proton interaction could lead to a localization of ``proton impurities'' in neutron medium at densities exceeding four times normal nuclear matter density. We study consequences of the localization of protons for transport processes in dense neutron star cores, assuming random distribution of proton impurities. Kinetic equations, relevant for the transport of charge, heat and momentum, are solved using variational method. Localization of protons removes a T^{-2} factor from the transport coefficients, which leads, at lower temperatures, to a strong decrease of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and shear viscosity of neutron star matter, as compared to the standard case, where protons form a Fermi liquid. Due to the localization of protons a number of conventional neutrino emission processes (including modified URCA process) become inoperative in neutron star cores. On the other hand, the energy loss rate from neutrino-antineutrino pair bremsstrahlung due to electron and neutron scattering off (localized) protons, will have a specific T^6 dependence, which could modify the cooling of the neutron star core, as compared to the standard case. Possible astrophysical implications of the localization of protons for neutron star evolution and dynamics are discussed.

  14. The Physics of Mergers: Theoretical and Statistical Techniques Applied to Stellar Mergers in Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan

    2011-08-01

    (abridged) This thesis presents theoretical and statistical techniques broadly related to systems of dynamically-interacting particles composed of several different types of populations. They are applied to observations of dense star clusters (SCs) in order to study gravitational interactions between stars. We present a new analytic method of quantifying the frequency of encounters involving single, binary and triple stars. With this technique, we have shown that dynamical encounters involving triple stars occur commonly in at least some SCs, and that they are likely to be an important dynamical channel for stellar mergers to occur. We have also used our techniques to analyze observational data for a large sample of SCs taken from the ACS Survey for Globular Clusters. The results of this analysis are as follows: (1) We have compiled a homogeneous catalogue of stellar populations for every cluster in our sample, including main-sequence (MS), red giant branch, horizontal branch and blue straggler (BS) stars. (2) With this catalogue, we have quantified the effects of the cluster dynamics in determining the relative sizes and spatial distributions of these stellar populations. (3) These results are particularly interesting for BSs since they provide compelling evidence that they are descended from binary stars. (4) Our analysis of the MS populations is consistent with a remarkably universal initial stellar mass function in old massive SCs in the Milky Way. This is a new result with important implications for our understanding of star formation in the early Universe and, more generally, the history of our Galaxy. Finally, we describe how our techniques are ideally suited for application to a number of other outstanding puzzles of modern astrophysics, including chemical reactions in the interstellar medium and mergers between galaxies in galaxy clusters.

  15. Collapse of dense star clusters to supermassive black holes - binaries and gravitational radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, G.D.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    The formation of binaries as a result of normal stellar-dynamic processes in dense clusters of compact stars is investigated analytically. The results of numerical simulations based on a simple homological model for the evolution of a cluster up to the point of catastrophic collapse are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that gravitational radiation begins to have a significant effect long before the onset of the high-redshift state. In the later stages, radiative dissipation from binary captures and flyby orbits acts to increase the final core mass that can undergo catastrophic collapse. Realistic initial conditions are found to lead to final cores of 100-100,000 solar masses, which can then collapse in a few dynamical time scales to form black holes 10-150 times larger. It is suggested that gravitational radiation from compact-star binaries may be detectable by ground-based interferometers. 55 references.

  16. The origin of IRS 16: dynamically driven inspiral of a dense star cluster to the Galactic center?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon F. Portegies Zwart; Stephen L. W. McMillan; Ortwin Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We use direct N-body simulations to study the inspiral and internal evolution\\u000aof dense star clusters near the Galactic center. These clusters sink toward the\\u000acenter due to dynamical friction with the stellar background, and may go into\\u000acore collapse before being disrupted by the Galactic tidal field. If a cluster\\u000areaches core collapse before disruption, its dense core, which

  17. Rapid cellular internalization of multifunctional star polymers prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong Y; Gao, Haifeng; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Hong, Joanna; Bencherif, Sidi A; Siegwart, Daniel J; Paik, Hyun-Jong; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2010-09-13

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) star polymers containing GRGDS (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide sequences on the star periphery were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), GRGDS modified poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (GRGDS-PEG-Acryl), fluorescein o-methacrylate (FMA), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) via an "arm-first" method. Star polymers were approximately 20 nm in diameter, as measured by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. Conjugation of FMA to the stars was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, and successful attachment of GRGDS segments to the star periphery was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both fluorescent PEG star polymers with and without peripheral GRGDS peptide segments were cultured with MC3T3-E1.4 cells. These star polymers were biocompatible with ? 90% cell viability after 24 h of incubation. Cellular uptake of PEG star polymers in MC3T3-E1.4 cells was observed by confocal microscopy. Rapid uptake of PEG star polymers with GRGDS peptides (? 100% of FITC-positive cells in 15 min measured by flow cytometry) was observed, suggesting enhanced delivery potential of these functional star polymers. PMID:20831270

  18. Elemental compositions of hyper-metal-poor stars formed in dust-enriched dense shells of population III supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Umeda, Hideyuki; Habe, Asao

    2012-09-01

    We describe the evolution of dust within Population III supernova remnants (SNRs) and investigate the chemical compositions of the dust piled up in their dense shells. We show that the resulting abundance patterns of the major elements in the dense shells are in good agreement with that observed for a Galactic halo star, SDSS J102915+172927. This allows us to propose that SDSS J102915+172927 might be the second-generation star formed in the dust-enriched dense shell of a Population III SNR. We conclude that the segregation of dust from the metal-rich ejecta gas can be an important process in determining the abundance patterns of primitive low-mass stars.

  19. Stable emulsions with thermally responsive microstructure and rheology using poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers as emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Trishna; Yoshikawa, Alex; Kloss, Dennis; Kato, Masanari; Golas, Patricia Lynn; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tilton, Robert D

    2013-03-15

    Poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers (PEO stars) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization of 2000 molecular weight PEO methacrylate macromonomer with divinylbenzene as a crosslinking co-monomer. With an average of 460 arms per star, these PEO stars had a 12 nm radius of gyration that is consistent with a dense polymer core surrounded by an extended PEO corona. The PEO stars were extremely efficient emulsifiers, stabilizing cyclohexane-in-water or xylene-in-water emulsions against coalescence for several months at aqueous phase concentrations as low as 0.008 wt% or 0.01 wt%, respectively. Consistent with their emulsifying performance, PEO star adsorption decreased interfacial tension by approximately 22 mN/m and imparted significant dilatational elasticity to the xylene/water interface. PEO stars were thermally responsive, displaying a cloud point upon heating in water that was tuned by addition of kosmotropic electrolytes, and they in turn produced xylene-in-water emulsions that were thermally responsive in terms of the dispersion state of the emulsion droplets and the emulsion rheology. Emulsions prepared at room temperature mainly had non-flocculated droplets. Heating such an emulsion above the cloud point temperature triggered droplet flocculation, but not coalescence, that in turn was associated with increased viscous and elastic moduli of the emulsion measured after cooling back to room temperature. Emulsions that initially were homogenized above the cloud point temperature and then cooled showed neither droplet flocculation nor rheological thickening relative to emulsions that were prepared and held at room temperature. A mechanism based on the bridging behavior of PEO stars adsorbed at the droplet/water interface is postulated to explain this thermal response of the emulsion microstructure. PMID:23266031

  20. Role of hydrophilicity and length of diblock arms for determining star polymer physical properties.

    PubMed

    Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Rice, Julia E; Swope, William C

    2015-01-22

    We present a molecular simulation study of star polymers consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core by varying both arm length and the outer hydrophilic block when attached to the same hydrophobic block of poly-?-valerolactone. Here we consider two biocompatible star polymers in which the hydrophilic block is composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polymethyloxazoline (POXA) in addition to a polycarbonate-based polymer with a pendant hydrophilic group (PC1). We find that the different hydrophilic blocks of the star polymers show qualitatively different trends in their interactions with aqueous solvent, orientational time correlation functions, and orientational correlation between pairs of monomers of their polymeric arms in solution, in which we find that the PEG polymers are more thermosensitive compared with the POXA and PC1 star polymers over the physiological temperature range we have investigated. PMID:25254622

  1. Star polymers with a cationic core prepared by ATRP for cellular nucleic acids delivery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong Y; Averick, Saadyah E; Paredes, Eduardo; Wegner, Katarzyna; Averick, Amram; Jurga, Stefan; Das, Subha R; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2013-05-13

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based star polymers with a cationic core were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for in vitro nucleic acid (NA) delivery. The star polymers were synthesized by ATRP of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). Star polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. These star polymers were combined with either plasmid DNA (pDNA) or short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes to form polyplexes for intracellular delivery. These polyplexes with either siRNA or pDNA were highly effective in NA delivery, particularly at relatively low star polymer weight or molar ratios, highlighting the importance of NA release in efficient delivery systems. PMID:23560989

  2. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An [Department of Astronomical Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wong, Tony [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Ryder, Stuart, E-mail: pan.h.a@nao.ac.jp [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  3. Star Polymers and the Failure of Time-Temperature Superposition Alex J. Levine* and Scott T. Milner

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    Star Polymers and the Failure of Time-Temperature Superposition Alex J. Levine* and Scott T. Milner; Revised Manuscript Received August 27, 1998 ABSTRACT: We model the arm of a star polymer as an anchored. For melts of star polymers, however, the assumption of thermorheological simplicity can lead

  4. Polydisperse star polymer solutions C. von Ferber, A. Jusufi, M. Watzlawek,* C. N. Likos, and H. Lowen

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    Polydisperse star polymer solutions C. von Ferber, A. Jusufi, M. Watzlawek,* C. N. Likos, and H. Lo number on the effective interactions, structural correla- tions, and phase behavior of star polymers in a good solvent. The effective interaction potential between two star polymers with different arm numbers

  5. Jets and high $p_T$ hadrons in dense matter: recent results from STAR

    E-print Network

    Peter Jacobs; Jennifer Klay

    2003-08-22

    We review recent measurements of high transverse momentum (high $p_T$) hadron production in nuclear collisions by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC. The previously observed suppression in central Au+Au collisions has been extended to much higher $p_T$. New measurements from d+Au collisions are presented which help disentangle the mechanisms responsible for the suppression. Inclusive single hadron spectra are enhanced in d+Au relative to p+p, while two-particle azimuthal distributions are observed to be similar in p+p, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. The large suppression of inclusive hadron production and absence of the away-side jet-like correlations in central Au+Au collisions are shown to be due to interactions of the jets with the very dense medium produced in these collisions.

  6. Properties of hadron matter. II - Dense baryon matter and neutron stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Y. C.; Wang, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    In this article we have provided certain details of a nuclear-matter computation, based on the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory of nuclear reaction, which leads to an equation of state for matter in the density region of 10 to 500 trillion g/cu cm. We also explore the possibilities that at very high baryon densities or for very short baryon separations, the net baryon-baryon interaction may be negligible so that the results of dynamical models, like the statistical bootstrap model and the dual-resonance model, may be applicable to the study of dense baryon matter. Several plausible equations of state are constructed, and their effect on the limiting mass of the neutron star is examined.

  7. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION IN MAGNETIC CLOUDS: PROPERTIES OF DENSE CORES FORMED IN OUTFLOW-DRIVEN TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Li Zhiyun, E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2011-10-10

    We investigate the physical properties of dense cores formed in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds, using three-dimensional numerical simulations that include protostellar outflow feedback. The dense cores are identified in the simulated density data cube through a clumpfind algorithm. We find that the core velocity dispersion does not show any clear dependence on the core size, in contrast to Larson's linewidth-size relation, but consistent with recent observations. In the absence of a magnetic field, the majority of the cores have supersonic velocity dispersions. A moderately strong magnetic field reduces the dispersion to a subsonic or at most transonic value typically. Most of the cores are out of virial equilibrium, with the external pressure dominating the self-gravity. The implication is that the core evolution is largely controlled by the outflow-driven turbulence. Even an initially weak magnetic field can retard star formation significantly, because the field is amplified by the outflow-driven turbulence to an equipartition strength, with the distorted field component dominating the uniform one. In contrast, for a moderately strong field, the uniform component remains dominant. Such a difference in the magnetic structure is evident in our simulated polarization maps of dust thermal emission; it provides a handle on the field strength. Recent polarization measurements show that the field lines in cluster-forming clumps are spatially well ordered. It is indicative of a moderately strong, dynamically important field which, in combination with outflow feedback, can keep the rate of star formation in embedded clusters at the observationally inferred, relatively slow rate of several percent per free-fall time.

  8. Investigation of star polymer nanoshells for use in diagnostic imaging and photothermal cancer therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Lizabeth

    Gold nanoshells can be designed to possess high light scattering and strong absorption of near-infrared light. Thus, they have the potential to be used in biological applications as contrast agents for diagnostic imaging as well as for thermal ablation of tumor cells in future cancer treatments. In this study, gold nanoshells with dye-loaded star polymer cores were investigated. Uniform near-infrared gold nanoshells with 100 nm diameters were successfully generated using different batches of star polymer templates and were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The star polymers used were block copolymer structures with a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) core and a hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethracrylate) (DMAEMA) outer shell. Within this work, a general procedure was established in order to achieve a desired gold nanoshell size regardless of the star polymer batch used, since the synthesis process conditions can cause star polymers to vary in size as well in the number and length of amino-functionalized arms. Control of the gold nanoshell diameter was optimized after an in-depth analysis of the synthesis parameters that affected the formation and final size of the dye-loaded star polymer gold nanoshells. The main parameters examined were pH of the gold seeds used to nucleate the templates and the ratio of star polymer to gold hydroxide used during the growth of the outer gold shell.

  9. Supramolecular Polymers Formed by ABC Miktoarm Star Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-An; Ou, Yu-Chuan; Cheetham, Andrew G.; Cui, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    We report here the design and synthesis of an ABC miktoarm star peptide connecting through a lysine junction a short peptide sequence and two hydrophobic but immiscible blocks (a hydrocarbon and a fluorocarbon). The designed molecule can self-assemble into one-dimensional nanostructures with a great diversity of kinetically evolving morphologies in aqueous solution, while molecules that contain only one of the two hydrophobic blocks form structurally similar filaments. We believe the rich assembly behavior and morphological evolution are a direct reflection of the molecular frustration present within the filament core as a result of the in-compatibility of the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon segments. Our finding opens new opportunities for creating complex supramolecular polymers through the architecture design of small molecular building units. PMID:24490124

  10. Structure and dynamical intra-molecular heterogeneity of star polymer melts above glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Chremos, Alexandros; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F

    2015-01-28

    Structural and dynamical properties of star melts have been investigated with molecular dynamics simulations of a bead-spring model. Star polymers are known to be heterogeneous, but a systematic simulation study of their properties in melt conditions near the glass transition temperature was lacking. To probe their properties, we have expanded from linear to star polymers the applicability of Dobkowski's chain-length dependence correlation function [Z. Dobkowski, Eur. Polym. J. 18, 563 (1982)]. The density and the isokinetic temperature, based on the canonical definition of the laboratory glass-transition, can be described well by the correlation function and a subtle behavior manifests as the architecture becomes more complex. For linear polymer chains and low functionality star polymers, we find that an increase of the arm length would result in an increase of the density and the isokinetic temperature, but high functionality star polymers have the opposite behavior. The effect between low and high functionalities is more pronounced for short arm lengths. Complementary results such as the specific volume and number of neighbors in contact provide further insights on the subtle relation between structure and dynamics. The findings would be valuable to polymer, colloidal, and nanocomposites fields for the design of materials in absence of solution with the desired properties. PMID:25638003

  11. Structure and dynamical intra-molecular heterogeneity of star polymer melts above glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of star melts have been investigated with molecular dynamics simulations of a bead-spring model. Star polymers are known to be heterogeneous, but a systematic simulation study of their properties in melt conditions near the glass transition temperature was lacking. To probe their properties, we have expanded from linear to star polymers the applicability of Dobkowski's chain-length dependence correlation function [Z. Dobkowski, Eur. Polym. J. 18, 563 (1982)]. The density and the isokinetic temperature, based on the canonical definition of the laboratory glass-transition, can be described well by the correlation function and a subtle behavior manifests as the architecture becomes more complex. For linear polymer chains and low functionality star polymers, we find that an increase of the arm length would result in an increase of the density and the isokinetic temperature, but high functionality star polymers have the opposite behavior. The effect between low and high functionalities is more pronounced for short arm lengths. Complementary results such as the specific volume and number of neighbors in contact provide further insights on the subtle relation between structure and dynamics. The findings would be valuable to polymer, colloidal, and nanocomposites fields for the design of materials in absence of solution with the desired properties.

  12. Third virial coefficient for 4-arm and 6-arm star polymers

    E-print Network

    Sergio Caracciolo; Bortolo Matteo Mognetti; Andrea Pelissetto

    2008-02-15

    We discuss the computation of the third virial coefficient in polymer systems, focusing on an additional contribution absent in the case of monoatomic fluids. We determine the interpenetration ratio and several quantities that involve the third virial coefficient for star polymers with 4 and 6 arms in the good-solvent regime, in the limit of a large degree of polymerization.

  13. Phase behavior of rigid, amphiphilic star polymers Christian Koch,*a

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    Phase behavior of rigid, amphiphilic star polymers Christian Koch,*a Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos,b Federica Lo Versoc and Christos N. Likosa We determine the phase behavior of rigid, amphiphilic diblock polymers that feature amphiphilicity and high rigidity are a manifestation of the character of these hybrid

  14. Polymer-mediated spatial organization of nanoparticles in dense melts: Transferability and an effective one-component approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2010-10-01

    We study two problems in the framework of the integral equation theory of polymer-mediated spatial organization of nanoparticles in dense melts motivated by multiscale simulation and many body physics issues. How nonspherical nanoparticle shape modifies polymer-induced interactions under dilute nanoparticle conditions is investigated over a range of primary particle sizes and interfacial cohesion strengths. Nonuniversal consequences of nonspherical shape are found for the pair-correlation function on local scales and some qualitative differences on larger scales due primarily to intraparticle connectivity constraints. For a large enough nanoparticle site diameter, the potentials of mean force (PMF) for all shapes studied (sphere, rod, disk, compact tetrahedral cluster) exhibit linear scaling with the size ratio of nanoparticle to polymer monomer site diameter and quite good "transferability." The ability of a simple effective one-component approach, based on the dilute nanoparticle PMF as an effective pair-decomposable potential, to describe interparticle structure at nonzero volume fractions is also studied. Although not generally quantitatively accurate due to neglect of many body correlation effects, especially at high nanoparticle loadings and near contact separations, the simple approach captures rather well many aspects of the real space structure. The errors incurred depend systematically on whether interfacial cohesion strength results in contact aggregation, steric stabilization, or bridging. For the filler collective static structure factor, many body effects are weakest for local cage scale correlations and grow significantly at smaller wavevectors under depletion or bridging conditions.

  15. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  16. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    SciTech Connect

    Geach, James E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Papadopoulos, Padelis P., E-mail: jimgeach@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

  17. Osmotic pressure and virial coefficients of star and comb polymer solutions: Dissipative particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tzu-Yu; Fang, Che-Ming; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-03-01

    The effects of macromolecular architecture on the osmotic pressure ? and virial coefficients (B2 and B3) of star and comb polymers in good solvents are studied by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for both dilute and semiconcentrated regimes. The dependence of the osmotic pressure on polymer concentration is directly calculated by considering two reservoirs separated by a semipermeable, fictitious membrane. Our simulation results show that the ratios An +1?Bn +1/R?g3n are essentially constant and A2 and A3 are arm number (f) dependent, where R?g is zero-density radius of gyration. The value of dimensionless virial ratio g =A3/A22 increases with arm number of stars whereas it is essentially arm number independent for comb polymers. In semiconcentrated regime the scaling relation between osmotic pressure and volume fraction, ? ???, still holds for both star and comb polymers. For comb polymers, the exponent ? is close to ?? (?2.73 for linear chains) and is independent of the arm number. However, for star polymers, the exponent ? deviates from ?? and actually grows with increasing the arm number. This may be attributed to the significant ternary interactions near the star core in the many-arm systems.

  18. The relationship of dense gas to star formation in the Monoceros OB1 dark cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Walker, Christopher K.; Lada, Charles J.

    1995-03-01

    We have conducted a CS survey of the 10 outflows and 30 IRAS sources identified by Margulis, Lada, & Snell (1988) and Margulis, Lada, & Young (1989), in the Mon OB1 dark cloud to study the relationship between outflows, young stellar objects, and dense cores in this cloud. We detected the CS J = 2 to 1 transition in the vicinity of 20 of the 30 IRAS sources, six of which are associated with the six most massive outflows in this cloud. We did not detect CS emission toward the four remaining outflows; three of these outflows are not associated with IRAS sources. The brightest CS J = 2 to 1 emission is concentrated in two spatially extended regions encompassing five of the 10 outflows and eight of the IRAS sources. Within the extended regions, CS line widths are approximately 30% broader near outflows lobes than on the line of sight toward IRAS sources. There is a strong correlation of CS antenna temperature with IRAS source luminosity and a weaker correlation of CS line width with IRAS source luminosity for IRAS sources associated with outflows in Mon OB1. There is no apparent correlation of either CS antenna temperature or line width IRAS source luminosity for IRAS sources not associated with outflows (quiescent sources). We have detected the CS J = 5 to 4 transition in the vicinity of four outflows sources in this cloud and around none of the quiescent IRAS sources. The CS J = 5 to 4 emission is extended around the two most massive outlfows in the cloud and has been mapped in these regions. CS J = 7 to 6 emission has been detected and mapped about the brightest outflow source in this cloud (Allen's star; Allen 1972). The J = 7 to 6 emission peaks at the position of the IRAS source. The morphology of the J = 7 to 6 emission differs from that of the J = 5 to 4 emission.

  19. Deuterium chemistry of dense gas in the vicinity of low-mass and massive star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Zainab; Viti, Serena; Bayet, Estelle; Caselli, Paola

    2014-09-01

    The standard interstellar ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) atoms is ˜1.5 × 10-5. However, the deuterium fractionation is in fact found to be enhanced, to different degrees, in cold, dark cores, hot cores around massive star-forming regions, lukewarm cores, and warm cores (hereafter hot corinos) around low-mass star-forming regions. In this paper, we investigate the overall differences in the deuterium chemistry between hot cores and hot corinos. We have modelled the chemistry of dense gas around low-mass and massive star-forming regions using a gas-grain chemical model. We investigate the influence of varying the core density, the depletion efficiency of gaseous species on to dust grains, the collapse mode and the final mass of the protostar on the chemical evolution of star-forming regions. We find that the deuterium chemistry is, in general, most sensitive to variations of the depletion efficiency on to grain surfaces, in agreement with observations. In addition, the results showed that the chemistry is more sensitive to changes in the final density of the collapsing core in hot cores than in hot corinos. Finally, we find that ratios of deuterated sulphur bearing species in dense gas around hot cores and corinos may be good evolutionary indicators in a similar way as their non-deuterated counterparts.

  20. Dense branched growth of (SCN)x and ion transport in the poly(ethyleneoxide) NH4SCN polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Neelam; Chandra, Amita; Chandra, Suresh

    1995-07-01

    Poly(ethyleneoxide) complexed with NH4SCN (NH4SCN wt. % varying from 0 to 20% corresponding to [NH+4]/[ethyleneoxide] 0 to 0.146) have been studied as a possible ion conducting polymer. Good quality films could be obtained only for low salt concentration (NH4SCN wt. %=0-5 % or [NH+4]/[ethyleneoxide] is 0 to <=0.031), on which detailed ion transport studies have been carried out. These studies showed that H+ as well as SCN- ions are mobile. However, films were rubbery (partly liquidus) for higher salt concentration. It is shown that SCN- aggregation plays a dominant role. Special conditions were created to obtain dense branched structure of the size 5-10 mm of (SCN)x in the PEO:NH4SCN film for 20 wt. % NH4 SCN.

  1. Shock compression of dense polymer and foam systems using molecular dynamics and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Grest, Gary S.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2011-06-01

    Organic polymers and nanocomposites are increasingly being subjected to extreme environments. Molecular scale modeling of these materials offers insight into failure mechanisms and response. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) MD simulations of the principal shock Hugoniot will be presented for two hydrocarbon polymers, polyethylene (PE) and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP). We studied two reactive and two non-reactive classical MD interaction potentials. We will show the exp-6 interaction of Borodin et al. has much better agreement with experiment than OPLS. Futher, that ReaxFF displayed decidedly better agreement than AIREBO. DFT were in excellent agreement with experiment. NEMD studies of low-density foam materials will be discussed. Qualitative response will be characterized. Quantitative comparison will be made with experiment.

  2. Preparation of a Multiarm Star Polymer as Encapsulation and Release Carrier for Guest Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Jiang; Jiebing Ren

    2010-01-01

    A multiarm star polymer, poly(3-ethyl-3-oxetanemethanol)-graft-poly(2-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate) (PEOM-g-PDMAEMA), with a three-dimensional structure was synthesized via cationic ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The polymer, consisting of a hydrophobic hyperbranched polyether (PEOM) inner core and hydrophilic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) multiarm shell, was used as the host for molecular encapsulations, and water-soluble dye (Congo Red) was selected as the corresponding

  3. Synthesis of an Amphiphilic Multiarm Star Polymer as Encapsulation and Release Carrier for Guest Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Jiang; Jiebing Ren

    2010-01-01

    A multiarm star amphiphilic polymer with a three-dimensional structure was synthesized via melt polycondensation and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The polymer, consisting of a hydrophobic hyperbranched polyester (HPE) inner core and hydrophilic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) multiarm shell, was used as the host for molecular encapsulation, and water-soluble dye (Congo Red) was selected as the corresponding guest molecule. Due to

  4. "Brush-First" Method for the Parallel Synthesis of Photocleavable, Nitroxide-Labeled Poly(ethylene glycol) Star Polymers

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    -pot synthesis of core-photocleavable, poly(norbornene)-co-poly(ethylene gly- col) (PEG) brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) via a route that combines the "graft-through" and "arm-first" methodologies for brush polymer of bottle-brush,7-9 bivalent-bottle-brush,10-13 and dendronized polymers14 via a "graft-through" strategy

  5. Predicting water sorption and volume swelling in dense polymer systems via computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Hörstermann, Henning; Hentschke, Reinhard; Amkreutz, Marc; Hoffmann, Michael; Wirts-Rütters, Martin

    2010-12-30

    Atomistic model structures of amorphous polyamide 6 (PA-6) and of an adhesive system consisting of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as epoxy resin and isophorone diamine (IPD) as a curing agent are generated. For the adhesive, we use a new approach for the generation of the cross-linked polymer networks. It takes into account the chemical reaction kinetics of the curing reaction and, therefore, results in more realistic network structures. On the basis of the corresponding model structures, the equilibrium water content and the swelling ratio of amorphous PA-6 and of the DGEBA+IPD networks are calculated via computer simulation for different thermodynamic conditions. A hybrid method is used combining the molecular dynamics technique with an accelerated test particle insertion method. The results are in reasonable agreement with experiments and, in the case of the PA-6 system, with results obtained via other computer simulation methods. PMID:21141921

  6. Nanoparticle (star polymer) delivery of nitric oxide effectively negates Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hien T T; Jung, Kenward; Kutty, Samuel K; Agustina, Sri; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Basuki, Johan S; Kumar, Naresh; Davis, Thomas P; Barraud, Nicolas; Boyer, Cyrille

    2014-07-14

    Biofilms are increasingly recognized as playing a major role in human infectious diseases, as they can form on both living tissues and abiotic surfaces, with serious implications for applications that rely on prolonged exposure to the body such as implantable biomedical devices or catheters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutics to effectively eradicate unwanted biofilms. Recently, the biological signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) was identified as a key regulator of dispersal events in biofilms. In this paper, we report a new class of core cross-linked star polymers designed to store and release nitric oxide, in a controlled way, for the dispersion of biofilms. First, core cross-linked star polymers were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) via an arm first approach. Poly(oligoethylene methoxy acrylate) chains were synthesized by RAFT polymerization, and then chain extended in the presence of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-5-oxazolone monomer (VDM) with N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) employed as a cross-linker to yield functional core cross-linked star polymers. Spermine was successfully attached to the star core by reaction with VDM. Finally, the secondary amine groups were reacted with NO gas to yield NO-core cross-linked star polymers. The core cross-linked star polymers were found to release NO in a controlled, slow delivery in bacterial cultures showing great efficacy in preventing both cell attachment and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa over time via a nontoxic mechanism, confining bacterial growth to the suspended liquid. PMID:24915286

  7. A unified equation of state of dense matter and neutron star structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Douchin; P. Haensel

    2001-01-01

    An equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter, describing both the neutron star crust and the liquid core, is calculated. It is based on the effective nuclear interaction SLy of the Skyrme type, which is particularly suitable for the application to the calculation of the properties of very neutron rich matter (Chabanat et al. 1997, 1998). The structure of

  8. From Filamentary Networks to Dense Cores in Molecular Clouds: Toward a New Paradigm for Star Formation

    E-print Network

    André, Philippe; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Pudritz, Ralph E; Pineda, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of the nearest star-forming clouds of the Galaxy at submillimeter wavelengths with the Herschel Space Observatory have provided us with unprecedented images of the initial and boundary conditions of the star formation process. The Herschel results emphasize the role of interstellar filaments in the star formation process and connect remarkably well with nearly a decade's worth of numerical simulations and theory that have consistently shown that the ISM should be highly filamentary on all scales and star formation is intimately related to self-gravitating filaments. In this review, we trace how the apparent complexity of cloud structure and star formation is governed by relatively simple universal processes - from filamentary clumps to galactic scales. We emphasize two crucial and complementary aspects: (i) the key observational results obtained with Herschel over the past three years, along with relevant new results obtained from the ground on the kinematics of interstellar structures, and (ii...

  9. HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60 light-years wide. The image was taken in June 1995 by the Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Case Western Reserve University's Warner and Swasey Observatory on Kitt Peak in Arizona. This release is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, Kailash Sahu, Stefano Casertano, Mario Livio, Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute), Nino Panagia (European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute), Michael Albrow and Mike Potter (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: Nigel A.Sharp, REU program/AURA/NOAO/NSF

  10. An arm-first approach to cleavable mikto-arm star polymers by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohu; Moad, Graeme; Muir, Benjamin W; Rizzardo, Ezio; Rosselgong, Julien; Yang, Wantai; Thang, San H

    2014-04-01

    Redox-cleavable mikto-arm star polymers are prepared by an "arm-first" approach involving copolymerization of a dimethacrylate mediated by a mixture of macroRAFT agents. Thus, RAFT copolymerization of the monomers BMA, DMAEMA, and OEGMA, with the disulfide dimethacrylate cross-linker (DSDMA), bis(2-methacryloyl)oxyethyl disulfide, mediated by a 1:1:1 mixture of three macroRAFT agents with markedly different properties [hydrophilic, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate]-P(OEGMA)8-9 ; cationizable, poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-P(DMAEMA); hydrophobic, poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-P(BMA)] provides low dispersity mikto-arm star polymers. Good control (? < 1.3) is observed for the target P(DMAEMA)/P(OEGMA)/P(BMA) (3:3:1) mikto-arm star, a double hydrophilic P(DMAEMA)/P(OEGMA) (3:3) mikto-arm star and a hydrophobic P(BMA) homo-arm star. However, ? for the target mikto-arm stars increases with an increase in either the ratio [DSDMA]:[total macroRAFT] or the fraction of hydrophobic P(BMA) macroRAFT agent. The quaternized mikto-arm star in dilute aqueous solution shows a monomodal particle size distribution and an average size of ?145 nm. PMID:24504709

  11. Equation of State of Dense Matter and Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Haensel

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical models of the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-star matter (starting with the crust and ending at the densest region of the stellar core) are reviewed. Apart from a broad set of baryonic EOSs, strange quark matter, and even more exotic (abnormal and Q-matter) EOSs are considered. Results of calculations of M_max for non-rotating neutron stars and exotic compact

  12. A Unified Equation for the Reaction Rate in Dense Matter Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wiescher, M. [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Yakovlev, D. G. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Poliekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-26

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear reaction rates in multi-component dense stellar plasma. First we describe calculations of the astrophysical S-factor at low energies using the Sao Paulo potential on the basis of the barrier penetration model. Then we present a simple phenomenological expression for a reaction rate. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature.

  13. Gravitational Conundrum? Dynamical Mass Segregation versus Disruption of Binary Stars in Dense Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Zheng, Yong; Deng, Licai; Hu, Yi; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Wicker, James E.

    2013-03-01

    Upon their formation, dynamically cool (collapsing) star clusters will, within only a few million years, achieve stellar mass segregation for stars down to a few solar masses, simply because of gravitational two-body encounters. Since binary systems are, on average, more massive than single stars, one would expect them to also rapidly mass segregate dynamically. Contrary to these expectations and based on high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations, we show that the compact, 15-30 Myr old Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1818 exhibits tantalizing hints at the >~ 2? level of significance (>3? if we assume a power-law secondary-to-primary mass-ratio distribution) of an increasing fraction of F-star binary systems (with combined masses of 1.3-1.6 M ?) with increasing distance from the cluster center, specifically between the inner 10''-20'' (approximately equivalent to the cluster's core and half-mass radii) and the outer 60''-80''. If confirmed, then this will offer support for the theoretically predicted but thus far unobserved dynamical disruption processes of the significant population of "soft" binary systems—with relatively low binding energies compared to the kinetic energy of their stellar members—in star clusters, which we have access to here by virtue of the cluster's unique combination of youth and high stellar density.

  14. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A Triggered by Neutron Superfluidity in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the P23 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ?0.5×109K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star.

  15. Structural Arrest in Dense Star-Polymer Solutions F. Sciortino,1

    E-print Network

    Sciortino, Francesco

    . Zaccarelli,1 F. Lo Verso,2 L. Reatto,2 K. A. Dawson,3 and C. N. Likos4 1 Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM-00185 Rome, Italy 2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita

  16. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in dense stars. V. Partially degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, H.; Kohyama, Y.; Itoh, N.

    1987-05-01

    The neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung rate is calculated in the framework of the Weinberg-Salam theory for the dense matter relevant to the interior of hot white dwarfs, where electrons are partially degenerate. Dielectric screening of the Coulomb interaction due to electrons is accurately taken into account through the use of the Fermi-Thomas model for general temperatures. The neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung rate of the present calculation is shown to be significantly lower than that of Cazzola, De Zotti, and Saggion. The results of the numerical calculation are fitted by accurate analytic formulas in order to facilitate applications. 20 references.

  17. Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and $\\mathbb{Z}_4$ fermions

    E-print Network

    Paul A. Pearce; Jorgen Rasmussen; Ilya Yu. Tipunin

    2014-10-28

    For general Temperley-Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models ${\\cal LM}(p,p')$ with $p,p'$ coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang-Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member ${\\cal LM}(1,2)$ of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity $\\beta=0$ and central charge $c=-2$. Specializing to ${\\cal LM}(1,2)$ with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size $N$ and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler-Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is established directly in the Temperley-Lieb algebra. We classify the eigenvalues of the double row transfer matrices using the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral parameter plane and obtain finitized characters related to spaces of coinvariants of $\\mathbb{Z}_4$ fermions. In the continuum scaling limit, the Robin boundary conditions are associated with irreducible Virasoro Verma modules with conformal weights $\\Delta_{r,s-\\frac{1}{2}}=\\frac{1}{32}(L^2-4)$ where $L=2s-1-4r$, $r\\in\\mathbb{Z}$, $s\\in\\mathbb{N}$. These conformal weights populate a Kac table with half-integer Kac labels. Fusion of the corresponding modules with the generators of the Kac fusion algebra is examined and general fusion rules are proposed.

  18. Conformational properties of complex polymers: rosette versus star-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blavatska, V.; Metzler, R.

    2015-04-01

    Multiple loop formation in polymer macromolecules is an important feature of the chromatin organization and DNA compactification in the nuclei. We analyse the size and shape characteristics of complex polymer structures, containing in general f1 loops (petals) and f2 linear chains (branches). Within the frames of continuous model of Gaussian macromolecule, we apply the path integration method and obtain the estimates for gyration radius Rg and asphericity \\hat{A} of typical conformation as functions of parameters f1, f2. In particular, our results qualitatively reveal the extent of anisotropy of star-like topologies as compared to the rosette structures of the same total molecular weight.

  19. The Dense Matter Equation of State from Neutron Star Radius and Mass Measurements

    E-print Network

    Feryal Ozel; Dimitrios Psaltis; Tolga Guver; Gordon Baym; Craig Heinke; Sebastien Guillot

    2015-05-19

    We present a comprehensive study of spectroscopic radius measurements of twelve neutron stars obtained during thermonuclear bursts or in quiescence. We incorporate, for the first time, a large number of systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the apparent angular sizes, Eddington fluxes, and distances, in the composition of the interstellar medium, and in the flux calibration of X-ray detectors. We also take into account the results of recent theoretical calculations of rotational effects on neutron star radii, of atmospheric effects on surface spectra, and of relativistic corrections to the Eddington critical flux. We employ Bayesian statistical frameworks to obtain neutron star radii from the spectroscopic measurements as well as to infer the equation of state from the radius measurements. Combining these with the results of experiments in the vicinity of nuclear saturation density and the observations of ~2 Msun neutron stars, we place strong and quantitative constraints on the properties of the equation of state between ~2-8 times the nuclear saturation density. We find that around M=1.5 Msun, the preferred equation of state predicts a radius of 10.8-0.4+0.5 km. When interpreting the pressure constraints in the context of high density equations of state based on interacting nucleons, our results suggest a weaker contribution of the three-body interaction potential than previously considered.

  20. Ferromagnetic neutron stars: axial anomaly, dense neutron matter, and pionic wall

    E-print Network

    Minoru Eto; Koji Hashimoto; Tetsuo Hatsuda

    2012-09-21

    We show that a chiral nonlinear sigma model coupled to degenerate neutrons exhibits a ferromagnetic phase at high density. The magnetization is due to the axial anomaly acting on the parallel layers of neutral pion domain walls spontaneously formed at high density. The emergent magnetic field would reach the QCD scale ~ 10^19 [G], which suggests that the quantum anomaly can be a microscopic origin of the magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars).

  1. Six Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design and Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A.

    1999-03-01

    The control of polymer properties through the synthesis of complex macromolecular architectures is central to many areas of research and advanced technological applications. properties of novel materials are altered mainly through modification of their constitution. Examples of constitutional changes include the use of different monomers, variable molecular weights, block structures, grafted branching and so on. Living polymerization techniques has facilitated the preparation of these structures. The use of new multifunctional initiators has enhanced the availability of for example star polymers, which are believed to have smaller hydrodynamic volume and lower melt viscosity than their linear counterparts. Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are other classes of macromolecules which have received a lot of attention due to their unique architectures.

  2. Simultaneous Nano- and Microscale Control of Nanofibrous Microspheres Self-Assembled from Star-Shaped Polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Marson, Ryan L; Ge, Zhishen; Glotzer, Sharon C; Ma, Peter X

    2015-07-01

    Star-shaped polymers with varying arm numbers and arm lengths are synthesized, and self-assembled into microspheres, which are either smooth or fibrous on the nanoscale, and either nonhollow, hollow, or spongy on the microscale. The molecular architecture and functional groups determine the structure on both length scales. This exciting mechanistic discovery guides simultaneous control of both the nano- and microfeatures of the microspheres. PMID:26009995

  3. HATS-4b: A dense hot Jupiter transiting a super metal-rich G star

    SciTech Connect

    Jordán, Andrés; Brahm, Rafael; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Espinoza, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Bhatti, W.; De Val Borro, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Mancini, L.; Mohler-Fischer, M.; Ciceri, S.; Csák, B.; Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Sato, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Buchhave, L. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University (Denmark); and others

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-4b, an extrasolar planet transiting a V = 13.46 mag G star. HATS-4b has a period of P ? 2.5167 days, mass of M{sub p} ? 1.32 M {sub Jup}, radius of R{sub p} ? 1.02 R {sub Jup}, and density of ? {sub p} = 1.55 ± 0.16 g cm{sup –3} ?1.24 ?{sub Jup}. The host star has a mass of 1.00 M {sub ?}, a radius of 0.92 R {sub ?}, and a very high metallicity [Fe/H]=0.43 ± 0.08. HATS-4b is among the densest known planets with masses between 1 and 2 M {sub J} and is thus likely to have a significant content of heavy elements of the order of 75 M {sub ?}. In this paper we present the data reduction, radial velocity measurements, and stellar classification techniques adopted by the HATSouth survey for the CORALIE spectrograph. We also detail a technique for simultaneously estimating vsin i and macroturbulence using high resolution spectra.

  4. Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, N.K.

    1989-06-01

    We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 ? 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  6. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DENSE GAS IN SERPENS MAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Katherine I.; Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kauffmann, Jens [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121, Bonn Germany (Germany); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Volgenau, N. H. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tassis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ijlee9@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0), HCO{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0), and HCN (J = 1 ? 0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 arcmin{sup 2} of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of ?7''. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified six filaments in the SE subcluster. These filaments have lengths of ?0.2 pc and widths of ?0.03 pc, which is smaller than a characteristic width of 0.1 pc suggested by Herschel observations. The filaments can be classified into two types based on their properties. The first type, located in the northeast of the SE subcluster, has larger velocity gradients, smaller masses, and nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios. The other type, located in the southwest of the SE subcluster, has the opposite properties. Several YSOs are formed along two filaments which have supercritical mass per unit length ratios, while filaments with nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios are not associated with YSOs, suggesting that stars are formed on gravitationally unstable filaments.

  7. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Structure and Kinematics of Dense Gas in Serpens Main

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Storm, Shaye; Looney, Leslie W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Kwon, Woojin; Kauffmann, Jens; Tobin, John J.; Plunkett, Adele L.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, N. H.; Chen, Che-Yu; Tassis, Konstantinos; Isella, Andrea; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of N2H+ (J = 1 ? 0), HCO+ (J = 1 ? 0), and HCN (J = 1 ? 0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 arcmin2 of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of ~7''. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N2H+(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified six filaments in the SE subcluster. These filaments have lengths of ~0.2 pc and widths of ~0.03 pc, which is smaller than a characteristic width of 0.1 pc suggested by Herschel observations. The filaments can be classified into two types based on their properties. The first type, located in the northeast of the SE subcluster, has larger velocity gradients, smaller masses, and nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios. The other type, located in the southwest of the SE subcluster, has the opposite properties. Several YSOs are formed along two filaments which have supercritical mass per unit length ratios, while filaments with nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios are not associated with YSOs, suggesting that stars are formed on gravitationally unstable filaments.

  8. HATS-4b: A Dense Hot Jupiter Transiting a Super Metal-rich G star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Andrés; Brahm, Rafael; Bakos, G. Á.; Bayliss, D.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Mohler-Fischer, M.; Ciceri, S.; Sato, B.; Csubry, Z.; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Espinoza, N.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Buchhave, L.; Csák, B.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Tan, T. G.; Noyes, R. W.; Béky, B.; Butler, R. P.; Shectman, S.; Crane, J.; Thompson, I.; Williams, A.; Martin, R.; Contreras, C.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-4b, an extrasolar planet transiting a V = 13.46 mag G star. HATS-4b has a period of P ? 2.5167 days, mass of Mp ? 1.32 M Jup, radius of Rp ? 1.02 R Jup, and density of ? p = 1.55 ± 0.16 g cm-3 ?1.24 ?Jup. The host star has a mass of 1.00 M ?, a radius of 0.92 R ?, and a very high metallicity [Fe/H]=0.43 ± 0.08. HATS-4b is among the densest known planets with masses between 1 and 2 M J and is thus likely to have a significant content of heavy elements of the order of 75 M ?. In this paper we present the data reduction, radial velocity measurements, and stellar classification techniques adopted by the HATSouth survey for the CORALIE spectrograph. We also detail a technique for simultaneously estimating vsin i and macroturbulence using high resolution spectra. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), and the Australian National University (ANU). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institution is operated by PU in conjunction with collaborators at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at LCO, Chile. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations made with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m Telescope at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper uses observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  9. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Structure and Kinematics of Dense Gas in Serpens Main

    E-print Network

    Lee, Katherine I; Storm, Shaye; Looney, Leslie W; Mundy, Lee G; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Hector G; Ostriker, Eve C; Shirley, Yancy L; Kwon, Woojin; Kauffmann, Jens; Tobin, John J; Plunkett, Adele L; Pound, Marc W; Salter, Demerese M; Volgenau, N H; Chen, Che-Yu; Tassis, Konstantinos; Isella, Andrea; Crutcher, Richard M; Gammie, Charles F; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of N2H+(1-0), HCO+(1-0), and HCN(1-0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 square arcminutes of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of 7 arcsecs. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N2H+(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified s...

  10. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    E-print Network

    Storm, S; Fernández-López, M; Lee, K I; Looney, L W; Teuben, P J; Rosolowsky, E; Arce, H G; Ostriker, E C; Segura-Cox, D; Pound, M W; Salter, D M; Volgenau, N H; Shirley, Y L; Chen, C; Gong, H; Plunkett, A L; Tobin, J J; Kwon, W; Isella, A; Kauffmann, J; Tassis, K; Crutcher, R M; Gammie, C F; Testi, L

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J=1-0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7" and spectral resolution near 0.16 km/s. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05-0.50 km/s across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position...

  11. Star Polymers Confined in a Nanoslit: A Simulation Test of Scaling and Self-Consistent Field Theories

    E-print Network

    J. Paturej; A. Milchev; S. A. Egorov; K. Binder

    2013-07-08

    The free energy cost of confining a star polymer where $f$ flexible polymer chains containing $N$ monomeric units are tethered to a central unit in a slit with two parallel repulsive walls a distance $D$ apart is considered, for good solvent conditions. Also the parallel and perpendicular components of the gyration radius of the star polymer, and the monomer density profile across the slit are obtained. Theoretical descriptions via Flory theory and scaling treatments are outlined, and compared to numerical self-consistent field calculations (applying the Scheutjens-Fleer lattice theory) and to Molecular Dynamics results for a bead-spring model. It is shown that Flory theory and self-consistent field (SCF) theory yield the correct scaling of the parallel linear dimension of the star with $N$, $f$ and $D$, but cannot be used for estimating the free energy cost reliably. We demonstrate that the same problem occurs already for the confinement of chains in cylindrical tubes. We also briefly discuss the problem of a free or grafted star polymer interacting with a single wall, and show that the dependence of confining force on the functionality of the star is different for a star confined in a nanoslit and a star interacting with a single wall, which is due to the absence of a symmetry plane in the latter case.

  12. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  13. Dilution Exponent in the Dynamic Dilution Theory of Star and Linear Polymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Joon; Larson, Ronald G.

    2002-03-01

    The dynamic dilution concept has been widely used to explain constraint release in the relaxation of polymer melts (Milner and McLeish, 1997). The idea that an entanglement can be thought of as an interaction of two chains implies that the dilution exponent (alpha) is 1, but Colby and Rubinstein (1990) obtained alpha=4/3 using a scaling argument. Although these two values have been used for predicting the linear viscoelastic properties of numerous polymers, the alpha values have not been tested thoroughly using a consistent set of values for the entanglement spacing Me, equilibration time tau_e, and plateau modulus Gn. In this work, we compare the theoretical predictions using the Milner-McLeish theory with experimental data for linear, star, and star-linear blends of polybutadiene using both alpha=1 and 4/3 with the same value of Me, tau_e, and Gn. We find that alpha=1 gives good agreement with all data sets, while alpha=4/3 fails, especially for star-linear blends. [1] Milner, S.T. and McLeish, T.C.B., Macromolecules, 2159 (1997). [2] Colby, R.H. and Rubinstein, M., Macromolecules, 2753 (1990).

  14. Arm retraction and escape transition in semi-flexible star polymer under cylindrical confinement.

    PubMed

    Ra?ko, Dušan; Cifra, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We studied the structure and dynamics of star-shaped polymers by means of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and analysis of structural transitions of semi-flexible macromolecules confined in nano-channels. The conformation of star arms in narrow channels is given by the channel width, arm flexibility and number of arms aligned together in the given region along the channel. We focused on the conformation transition, where all arms are initially stretched in one direction of the narrow channel and were interested in the process of how individual arms escape into a free volume region of channel. We found that the escape transition does not proceed from arm ends but progresses by extension of a loop starting from the branch point; the arms escape in individual steps and the extension of arms depends on how many arms align in parallel in the channel. Graphical abstract Indexes of the most distant beads in a star-shaped polymer during transition. The chain is indexed from the connecting point as I = 1 to the chain's end with I = 100 as computed for semi-flexible molecules with b = 20, in a narrow channel with D = 10. Dashed line Process of arm retraction if it proceeded from arm end (opposite to what is observed). PMID:26141790

  15. Compatibilization of polystyrene and poly(dimethyl siloxane) with a star polymer having a ?tcyclodextrin core and polystyrene arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik, C. M.; Tonelli, A. E.; Busche, Brad

    2010-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules having a hollow central cavity which can be threaded by a polymer to form an inclusion compound. This characteristic is exploited in a new type of compatibilizer: a star polymer with a ?tCD core and polystyrene (PS) arms. Atom transfer radical polymerization is used to grow and control the size of the PS arms from brominated initiator sites on ?tCD. Solutions and thin films of PS and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) are compatibilized by this CD-star. The mechanism of compatibilization involves threading of the CD core by PDMS and solubilization of the resulting ``slip-ring graft copolymer'' via the PS star arms. Compatibilization of PS/PDMS in chloroform is visually observed when the initially turbid suspensions become clear solutions after addition of CD-star. Thin films spin-cast from these solutions exhibit a high degree of homogeneity and a nanoscale level of mixing. The solutions are characterized with NMR, dynamic light scattering and intrinsic viscosity measurements, and the thin films are characterized with optical and atomic force microscopy. Many different polymers are capable of threading the CD core, thus the same CD-star molecule could be used to compatibilize several different threading polymers with the same matrix polymer.

  16. STAR-FORMING DENSE CLOUD CORES IN THE TeV GAMMA-RAY SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Moribe, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Matsumoto, H. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Maezawa, H.; Mizuno, A. [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Inoue, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, MC 4060, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogawa, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Stutzki, J. [KOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Straesse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Bertoldi, F., E-mail: sano@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.j [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-11-20

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X-rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C, and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1) transitions at an angular resolution of 90''. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J = 4-3) transition at an angular resolution of 38''. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source, and has a steep gradient with a r {sup -2.2{+-}0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X-rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X-rays are physically associated with the molecular gas. We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since the shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to enhanced synchrotron X-rays around dense cores.

  17. Probing the neutron star interior and the Equation of State of cold dense matter with the SKA

    E-print Network

    Anna Watts; Renxin Xu; Cristobal Espinoza; Nils Andersson; John Antoniadis; Danai Antonopoulou; Sarah Buchner; Shi Dai; Paul Demorest; Paulo Freire; Jason Hessels; Jerome Margueron; Micaela Oertel; Alessandro Patruno; Andrea Possenti; Scott Ransom; Ingrid Stairs; Ben Stappers

    2014-12-30

    With an average density higher than the nuclear density, neutron stars (NS) provide a unique test-ground for nuclear physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and nuclear superfluidity. Determination of the fundamental interactions that govern matter under such extreme conditions is one of the major unsolved problems of modern physics, and -- since it is impossible to replicate these conditions on Earth -- a major scientific motivation for SKA. The most stringent observational constraints come from measurements of NS bulk properties: each model for the microscopic behaviour of matter predicts a specific density-pressure relation (its `Equation of state', EOS). This generates a unique mass-radius relation which predicts a characteristic radius for a large range of masses and a maximum mass above which NS collapse to black holes. It also uniquely predicts other bulk quantities, like maximum spin frequency and moment of inertia. The SKA, in Phase 1 and particularly in Phase 2 will, thanks to the exquisite timing precision enabled by its raw sensitivity, and surveys that dramatically increase the number of sources: 1) Provide many more precise NS mass measurements (high mass NS measurements are particularly important for ruling out EOS models); 2) Allow the measurement of the NS moment of inertia in highly relativistic binaries such as the Double Pulsar; 3) Greatly increase the number of fast-spinning NS, with the potential discovery of spin frequencies above those allowed by some EOS models; 4) Improve our knowledge of new classes of binary pulsars such as black widows and redbacks (which may be massive as a class) through sensitive broad-band radio observations; and 5) Improve our understanding of dense matter superfluidity and the state of matter in the interior through the study of rotational glitches, provided that an ad-hoc campaign is developed.

  18. Electrophoretic mobility of linear and star-branched DNA in semidilute polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sourav; Heuer, Daniel M; Archer, Lynden A

    2006-08-01

    Electrophoresis of large linear T2 (162 kbp) and 3-arm star-branched (N(Arm) = 48.5 kbp) DNA in linear polyacrylamide (LPA) solutions above the overlap concentration c* has been investigated using a fluorescence visualization technique that allows both the conformation and mobility mu of the DNA to be determined. LPA solutions of moderate polydispersity index (PI approximately 1.7-2.1) and variable polymer molecular weight Mw (0.59-2.05 MDa) are used as the sieving media. In unentangled semidilute solutions (c* < c < c(e)), we find that the conformational dynamics of linear and star-branched DNA in electric fields are strikingly different; the former migrating in predominantly U- or I-shaped conformations, depending on electric field strength E, and the latter migrating in a squid-like profile with the star-arms outstretched in the direction opposite to E and dragging the branch point through the sieving medium. Despite these visual differences, mu for linear and star-branched DNA of comparable size are found to be nearly identical in semidilute, unentangled LPA solutions. For LPA concentrations above the entanglement threshold (c > c(e)), the conformation of migrating linear and star-shaped DNA manifest only subtle changes from their unentangled solution features, but mu for the stars decreases strongly with increasing LPA concentration and molecular weight, while mu for linear DNA becomes nearly independent of c and Mw. These findings are discussed in the context of current theories for electrophoresis of large polyelectrolytes. PMID:16850503

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel acid-sensitive tert-butyl methacrylate and isobutyl methacrylate containing star-shaped polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Long; Lars Kilian; Zhen-He Wang; Alan R. Esker

    2001-01-01

    Star-shaped polymers containing poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (iBMA) and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (t-BMA) arms coupled to a 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexanediol dimethacrylate (DHDMA) core were synthesized using arm-first living anionic polymerization. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that coupling efficiencies were high and coupled products exhibited a monomodal molecular weight distribution. The star-shaped polymer number--average molecular weights were 8-10 times higher than the precursor arm molecular weights.

  20. Dense branched growth of (SCN)x and ion transport in the poly(ethyleneoxide) NH4SCN polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelam Srivastava; Amita Chandra; Suresh Chandra

    1995-01-01

    Poly(ethyleneoxide) complexed with NH4SCN (NH4SCN wt. % varying from 0 to 20% corresponding to [NH+4]\\/[ethyleneoxide] 0 to 0.146) have been studied as a possible ion conducting polymer. Good quality films could be obtained only for low salt concentration (NH4SCN wt. %=0-5 % or [NH+4]\\/[ethyleneoxide] is 0 to <=0.031), on which detailed ion transport studies have been carried out. These studies

  1. Folic acid modified cationic ?-cyclodextrin-oligoethylenimine star polymer with bioreducible disulfide linker for efficient targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Yin, Hui; Zhang, Zhongxing; Li, Jun

    2013-02-11

    For an efficient folate-targeted delivery, while the interaction between the folate on the carriers and the folate receptor (FR) on the cells is necessary, the recovering and recycling of FR to maintain a high density level of FR on the cellular membrane is also important. Herein, we demonstrate a design and synthesis of a new star-shaped cationic polymer containing a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) core and multiple oligoethylenimine (OEI) arms with folic acid (FA) linked by a bioreducible disulfide bond for efficient targeted gene delivery. The newly synthesized cationic polymer, named ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA, could be cleaved efficiently, and FA was readily released under reductive condition similar to intracellular environment. The ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA polymer was well-characterized and studied in terms of its gene delivery properties in FR-positive KB cells and FR-negative A549 cells under various conditions, in comparison with cationic polymers such as high molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI), ?-CD-OEI star-shaped cationic polymer, ?-CD-OEI-FA polymer where FA was directed linked to the star polymer without disulfide linker. Our data have demonstrated that the new ?-CD-OEI-SS-FA gene carrier had low cytotoxicity and possessed capacity to target and deliver DNA to specific tumor cells that overexpress FRs, as well as functions to recover and recycle FRs onto cellular membranes to facilitate continuous FR-mediated endocytosis to achieve very high levels of gene expression. This study has expanded the strategy of FA-targeted delivery by combining the smart FR-recycling function to achieve the significant enhancement of gene expression. The new FA-targeted and bioreducible carrier may be a promising efficient gene delivery system for potential cancer gene therapy. PMID:23323627

  2. Miktoarm star polymer based multifunctional traceable nanocarriers for efficient delivery of poorly water soluble pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Redon, Rocio; Sharma, Anjali; Mejía, Diana; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2014-09-01

    A versatile methodology to develop an inherently fluorescent and thus traceable multifunctional nanodelivery platform based on miktoarm polymers is reported. Miktoarm stars containing covalently linked tetraiodofluorescein dye, polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone self-assemble into micelles, and integrate multiple functions including fluorescent tags for imaging, a hydrophobic core for drug incorporation, and a hydrophilic corona for micelle stabilization. Curcumin, a pleiotropic but very poorly water-soluble drug, is loaded into these micelles with an efficiency of 25-60?wt%. It leads to a 25?000-fold increase in its aqueous solubility, and a sustained release over a period of 7 d. These micelles are rapidly internalized into murine J774A.1 macrophages, and accumulated into discrete cellular compartments, whereas the free and physically encapsulated dye is diffused in the cytoplasm. Curcumin-loaded micelles reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide release. The studies establish miktoarm star based nanocarriers as highly efficient in tracking their fate and expanding the scope of pharmacological agents with limited utility in experimental medicine. PMID:24903981

  3. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  4. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in dense stars. III - Low-temperature quantum corrections in the liquid metal phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Itoh; Y. Kohyama; N. Matsumoto; M. Seki

    1984-01-01

    Low-temperature quantum corrections to the neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung rate are calculated for dense stellar matter in the liquid metal phase. The corrections arise from the quantum nature of semiclassical ions. The numerical results are parameterized in the form of analytic formulae in order to facilitate applications. The typical corrections are on the order of 5 % or less in the density-temperature

  5. Star polymers with random number of temperature sensitive arms and crosslinked poly(EGDMA)-core and their application to drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Alvarez-Sánchez; Angel Licea-Claveríe; José M. Cornejo-Bravo; Curt W. Frank

    2011-01-01

    A simple methodology is described for the preparation of temperature sensitive star polymers with random number of arms and crosslinked core. In the first step, well defined, monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAAm polymers were prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT-polymerization) by using 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate as chain transfer agent (CTA). In the second step, the PNIPAAm polymers were used as

  6. Poly(ethylene oxide) star polymer adsorption at the silica/aqueous interface and displacement by linear poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Saigal, Trishna; Riley, John K; Golas, Patricia Lynn; Bodvik, Rasmus; Claesson, Per M; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tilton, Robert D

    2013-03-26

    Multiarm star copolymers with approximately 460 poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) arms that have a degree of polymerization N = 45 were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of PEO-methacrylate macromonomers in the presence of divinyl benzene cross-linkers. These are an example of molecular or nanoparticulate brushes that are of interest as steric stabilizers or boundary lubrication agents when adsorbed from solution to a solid/aqueous interface. We use ellipsometry to measure adsorption isotherms at the silica/aqueous interface for PEO star polymers and linear PEO chains having molecular weights comparable either to the star polymer or to the individual arms. The compactness of the PEO star polymers (molecular weight 1.2 × 10(6)) yields a saturation surface excess concentration that is approximately 3.5 times greater than that of the high molecular weight (1 × 10(6)) linear PEO. Adsorption of low molecular weight (6000) linear PEO was below the detection limit. Competitive adsorption experiments were conducted with ellipsometry, complemented by independent quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements. Linear PEO (high molecular weight) displaced preadsorbed PEO star polymers over the course of approximately 1.5 h, to form a mixed adsorbed layer having not only a significantly lower overall polymer surface excess concentration, but also a significantly greater amount of hydrodynamically entrapped water. Challenging a preadsorbed linear PEO (high molecular weight) layer with PEO star polymers produced no measurable change in the overall polymer surface excess concentration, but changes in the QCM-D energy dissipation and resonance frequency suggested that the introduction of PEO star polymers caused a slight swelling of the layer with a correspondingly small increase in entrapped water content. PMID:23448185

  7. ALMA Resolves the Properties of Star-forming Regions in a Dense Gas Disk at z ? 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Dye, S.; Nightingale, J. W.; Furlanetto, C.; Smail, Ian; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Gavazzi, R.; Hunter, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Negrello, M.; Oteo-Gomez, I.; Smit, R.; van der Werf, P.; Vlahakis, C.

    2015-06-01

    We exploit long baseline ALMA submillimeter observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z = 3.042 to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) on scales of 50–100 pc. The kinematics of the 12CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, {{v}rot} = 320 ± 20 km s?1, and a dynamical mass of {{M}dyn} = (3.5 ± 1.0)× 1010 {{M}? } within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas-rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q = 0.30 ± 0.10, and so into star-forming regions with Jeans length {{L}J} ? 130 pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line widths, and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local galaxies (Larson’s relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the ISM, {{P}tot}/{{k}B}? 40-20+30 × 107 K cm?3, which is ?104× higher than the typical ISM pressure in the Milky Way. The physical conditions of the star-forming ISM and giant molecular clouds appear to be similar to those found in the densest environments in the local universe, such as those in the Galactic center.

  8. Coarse graining of star-polymer colloid nanocomposites Daniela Marzi, Christos N. Likos, and Barbara Capone

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    as the colloidal particles, is usually adopted.5­9 As a result, an entropic depletion at- traction emerges between­polymer (CP) mixtures is the size ratio q Rg/Rc between the polymers and the colloids, whereby Rg

  9. Charged-Current Weak Interaction Processes in Hot and Dense Matter and its Impact on the Spectra of Neutrinos Emitted from Protoneutron Star Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Fischer, T.; Lohs, A.; Huther, L.

    2012-12-01

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)PRVDAQ0556-2821] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  10. Telechelic star polymers as self-assembling units from the molecular to the macroscopic scaleBarbara Capone

    E-print Network

    Barbara Capone; Ivan Coluzza; Federica Lo verso; Christos N. Likos; Ronald Blaak

    2012-09-24

    By means of multiscale molecular simulations, we show that telechelic-star polymers are a simple, robust and tunable system, which hierarchically self-assembles first into soft-patchy particles and then into targeted crystalline structures. The self-aggregating patchy behavior can be fully controlled by the number of arms per star and by the fraction of attractive monomeric units at the free ends of the arms. Such self-assembled soft-patchy particles while forming, upon augmenting density, gel-like percolating networks and stable ordered structures, preserve properties as particle size, number and arrangement of patches per particle. In particular, we demonstrate that the flexibility inherent in the soft-patchy particles brings forward a novel mechanism that leads to the stabilisation of diamond and simple cubic crystals over a wide range of densities, and for molecular sizes ranging from about 10 nm up to the micrometer scale.

  11. CO J = 2-1 LINE EMISSION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1: FUELING STAR FORMATION IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, Jeff [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Armus, Lee; Desai, Vandana [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Bussmann, Robert S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Le Floc'h, Emeric [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Melbourne, Jason [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: jwagg@eso.org [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We present observations of CO J = 2-1 line emission in infrared-luminous cluster galaxies at z {approx} 1 using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our two primary targets are optically faint, dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) found to lie within 2 Mpc of the centers of two massive (>10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) galaxy clusters. CO line emission is not detected in either DOG. We calculate 3{sigma} upper limits to the CO J = 2-1 line luminosities, L'{sub CO} < 6.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and <6.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. Assuming a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor derived for ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the local universe, this translates to limits on the cold molecular gas mass of M{sub H{sub 2}}< 4.86 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and M{sub H{sub 2}}< 5.30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. Both DOGs exhibit mid-infrared continuum emission that follows a power law, suggesting that an active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes to the dust heating. As such, estimates of the star formation efficiencies in these DOGs are uncertain. A third cluster member with an infrared luminosity, L{sub IR} < 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }, is serendipitously detected in CO J = 2-1 line emission in the field of one of the DOGs located roughly two virial radii away from the cluster center. The optical spectrum of this object suggests that it is likely an obscured AGN, and the measured CO line luminosity is L'{sub CO} = (1.94 {+-} 0.35) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, which leads to an estimated cold molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}}= (1.55{+-}0.28) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. A significant reservoir of molecular gas in a z {approx} 1 galaxy located away from the cluster center demonstrates that the fuel can exist to drive an increase in star formation and AGN activity at the outskirts of high-redshift clusters.

  12. WASP-5b: a dense, very-hot Jupiter transiting a 12th-mag Southern-hemisphere star

    E-print Network

    D. R. Anderson; M. Gillon; C. Hellier; P. F. L. Maxted; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; D. M. Wilson; A. Collier Cameron; B. Smalley; T. A. Lister; S. J. Bentley; A. Blecha; D. J. Christian; B. Enoch; L. Hebb; K. Horne; J. Irwin; Y. C. Joshi; S. R. Kane; M. Marmier; M. Mayor; N. R. Parley; D. L. Pollacco; F. Pont; R. Ryans; D. Ségransan; I. Skillen; R. A. Street; S. Udry; R. G. West; P. J. Wheatley

    2008-02-22

    We report the discovery of WASP-5b, a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting a 12th-mag G-type star in the Southern hemisphere. The 1.6-d orbital period places WASP-5b in the class of very-hot Jupiters and leads to a predicted equilibrium temperature of 1750 K. WASP-5b is the densest of any known Jovian-mass planet, being a factor seven denser than TrES-4, which is subject to similar stellar insolation, and a factor three denser than WASP-4b, which has a similar orbital period. We present transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements of WASP-5 (= USNO-B1 0487-0799749), from which we derive the mass, radius and density of the planet: M_P = 1.58 +0.13 -0.08 M_J, R_P = 1.090 +0.094 -0.058 R_J and Rho_P = 1.22 +0.19 -0.24 Rho_J. The orbital period is P = 1.6284296 +0.0000048 -0.0000037 d and the mid-transit epoch is T_C (HJD) = 2454375.62466 +0.00026 -0.00025.

  13. Gas Giants in Hot Water: Inhibiting Giant Planet Formation and Planet Habitability in Dense Star Clusters Through Cosmic Time

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Todd A

    2012-01-01

    I show that the temperature of nuclear star clusters, starburst clusters in M82, compact high-z galaxies, and some globular clusters of the Galaxy likely exceeded the ice line temperature (T_Ice ~ 150-170 K) during formation for a time comparable to the planet formation timescale. The protoplanetary disks within these systems will thus not have an ice line, decreasing the total material available for building protoplanetary embryos, inhibiting the formation of gas- and ice-giants if they form by core accretion, and prohibiting habitability. Planet formation by gravitational instability is similarly suppressed because Toomre's Q > 1 in all but the most massive disks. I discuss these results in the context of the observed lack of planets in 47 Tuc. I predict that a similar search for planets in the globular cluster NGC 6366 ([Fe/H] = -0.82) should yield detections, whereas (counterintuitively) the relatively metal-rich globular clusters NGC 6440, 6441, and 6388 should be devoid of giant planets. The characteris...

  14. Mid-infrared diagnostics of starburst galaxies: clumpy, dense structures in star-forming regions in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039)

    E-print Network

    Leonie Snijders; Lisa J. Kewley; Paul P. van der Werf

    2007-07-10

    Recently, mid-infrared instruments have become available on several large ground-based telescopes, resulting in data sets with unprecedented spatial resolution at these long wavelengths. In this paper we examine 'ground-based-only' diagnostics, which can be used in the study of star-forming regions in starburst galaxies. By combining output from the stellar population synthesis code Starburst 99 with the photoionization code Mappings, we model stellar clusters and their surrounding interstellar medium, focusing on the evolution of emission lines in the N- and Q-band atmospheric windows (8-13 and 16.5-24.5 micron respectively) and those in the near-infrared. We address the detailed sensitivity of various emission line diagnostics to stellar population age, metallicity, nebular density, and ionization parameter. Using our model results, we analyze observations of two stellar clusters in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies obtained with VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid Infrared (VISIR). We find evidence for clumpy, high density, ionized gas. The two clusters are young (younger than 2.5 and 3 Myr respectively), the surrounding interstellar matter is dense (10^4 cm^-3 or larger) and can be characterized by a high ionization parameter (logU > -1.53). Detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectral features shows that a (near-)homogeneous medium cannot account for the observations, and that complex structure on scales below the resolution limit, containing several young stellar clusters embedded in clumpy gas, is more likely.

  15. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from proto-neutron star cooling

    E-print Network

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-01-01

    We have performed three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrino and antineutrino are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at sub-nuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on the nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they d...

  16. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liang; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first step is RAFT polymerization of 2-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)methacrylate (DMAEMA) and p-(methacryloxyethoxy) benzaldehyde (MAEBA) in the presence of divinyl monomer, 2,2?-dithiodiethoxyl dimethacrylate (DTDMA). The resultant branched polymers were used as a macro-RAFT agent in the subsequent RAFT polymerization. After hydrolysis of the BSPs to form BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAGP)ns (BSP-H), the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was covalently linked to branched polymer chains by reaction of primary amine of DOX and aldehyde groups in the polymer chains. Their compositions, structures, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions were respectively characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and gel permeation chromatography measurements. The DOX-loaded micelles were fabricated by self-assembly of DOX-containing BSPs in water, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Aromatic imine linkage is stable in neutral water, but is acid-labile; controlled release of DOX from the BSP-H-DOX micelles was realized at pH values of 5 and 6, and at higher acidic solution, fast release of DOX was observed. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment results revealed low cytotoxicity of the BSPs and release of DOX from micelles in HepG2 and HeLa cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy observations showed that DOX-loaded micelles have specific interaction with HepG2 cells. Thus, this type of BSP micelle is an efficient drug delivery system.

  17. Nanoparticles based on star polymers as theranostic vectors: endosomal-triggered drug release combined with MRI sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Duong, Hien T T; Laurent, Sophie; MacMillan, Alexandre; Whan, Renee Megan; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N; Hu, Jinming; Lowe, Andrew; Boyer, Cyrille; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Dual-functional star polymers (diameters 15 nm) are synthesized producing nanoparticles with excellent colloidal stability in both water and serum. The nanoparticles are built with aldehyde groups in the core and activated esters in the arms. The different reactivity of the two functional groups to sequentially react with different amino compounds is exploited; doxorubicin (DOX) and 1-(5-amino-3-aza-2-oxypentyl)-4,7,10-tris(tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (DO3A-tBu-NH2 )-a chelating agent effective for the complexation of Gadolinium ions (Gd). The activated ester group is employed to attach the DO3A chelating agent, while the aldehyde groups are exploited for DOX conjugation, providing a controlled release mechanism for DOX in acidic environments. DOX/Gd-loaded nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by MCF-7 breast cancer cells, subsequently releasing DOX as demonstrated using in vitro fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Endosomal, DOX release is observed, using a phasor plot representation of the fluorescence lifetime data, showing an increase of native DOX with time. The MRI properties of the stars are assessed and the relaxivity of Gd loaded in stars is three times higher than conventional organic Gd/DO3A complexes. The DOX/Gd-conjugated nanoparticles yield a similar IC50 to native DOX for breast cancer cell lines, confirming that DOX integrity is conserved during nanoparticle attachment and release. PMID:24985790

  18. Application of binary interaction theory to linear and nonlinear rheology of star-branched polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Wen Chen

    2001-01-01

    The binary interaction (BI) theory recently developed by David W. Mead, Ronald G. Larson, and Masao Doi (1998) is based on two fundamental postulates strongly supported by experimental data: (1)stress-optic rule, (2)binary interaction principle. The BI theory is general and in principle applies to all entangled flexible polymers regardless of molecular architecture. Three parameters are required in the BI theory

  19. Star-like polymer click-functionalized with small capping molecules: an initial investigation into

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    -cyclodextrin (b-CD) core. The inner star-like PtBA blocks were hydrolyzed into poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), yielding and nature.3,4 The anisotropy of LC systems, and non-uniform property variations are what make them distribution, and spatial arrangement greatly affect how NPs respond due to properties such as local surface

  20. Aggregation phenomena in telechelic star polymer solutions Federica Lo Verso,1,* Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos,2

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    the phase behavior of trifunctional telechelic stars as a function of the fraction of attractive terminal recently shown to assemble into interpenetrating networks, featuring mul- tiple critical points 5, and the properties of soft matter. Composite materials that combine colloids with telechelic chains have been studied

  1. Properties of polystyrene/poly(dimethyl siloxane) blends partially compatibilized with star polymers containing a gamma-cyclodextrin core and polystyrene arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik, C. Maurice; Busche, Brad J.; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2011-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules having a hollow central cavity which can be threaded by a polymer to form an inclusion compound. This characteristic is exploited in a new type of compatibilizer: a star polymer with a gamma-CD (g-CD) core and polystyrene (PS) arms (CD-star). Spun-cast thin films of PS containing up 20 weight percent poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) are compatibilized by CD-star. The mechanism of compatibilization involves threading of the CD core by PDMS and solubilization of the resulting slip-ring graft copolymer via the PS star arms. Thin spun-cast films of these blends exhibit a a nanoscale level of mixing and remain well-mixed after annealing at 125 C for three days. In contrast, thicker solution-cast films of these blends exhibit larger-scale phase separation since the film solidification process occurs over a period of days rather than seconds. This allows some of the PDMS to de-thread from the CD-star and phase separate. However, DSC, DMA and PDMS leaching data show that PS and PDMS remain partially compatibilized in the solution-cast films.

  2. Biomaterials: Simultaneous Nano- and Microscale Control of Nanofibrous Microspheres Self-Assembled from Star-Shaped Polymers (Adv. Mater. 26/2015).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Marson, Ryan L; Ge, Zhishen; Glotzer, Sharon C; Ma, Peter X

    2015-07-01

    Star polymers can self-assemble into microspheres, which are either smooth or fibrous on the nanoscale, and either nonhollow, hollow, or spongy on the microscale. The molecular architecture and functional groups dictate the structure on both length scales. This discovery guides the control of both the nano- and microscale features of the microspheres, as described by P. X. Ma and co-workers on page 3947. PMID:26149365

  3. Mechanisms of the self-organization of star-shaped polymers with a varied structure of branching center based on fullerene C{sub 60} in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V. T., E-mail: vlebedev@pnpi.spb.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Toeroek, Gy. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary); Vinogradova, L. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The self-organization of star-shaped polymers in toluene has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Polystyrene stars with a mono-C{sub 60} branching center are ordered into globular clusters ({approx}1700 nm in diameter), whereas stars with a double (C{sub 60}-C{sub 60}) center are ordered into anisotropic structures (superchains), which are linked (depending on the concentration) into triads (chain clusters {approx}2500 nm in diameter). On the contrary, heteroarm polystyrene and poly-2-vinylpyridine stars with a C{sub 60} center are weakly associated into dimers. Moderately polar stars with arms composed of polystyrene and diblock copolymer (poly-2-vinylpyridine-poly-tret-butyl methacrylate) form short chains composed of four macromolecules, while stars of higher polarity based on polystyrene and poly-tret-butyl methacrylate form clusters containing {approx}12 macromolecules {approx}50 nm in diameter. Thus, by varying the structure of the center and the arm polarity, one can control the modes of star structuring.

  4. Looped star polymers show conformational transition from spherical to flat toroidal shapes.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Pascal; Fritsche, Miriam; Heermann, Dieter W

    2011-11-01

    Inspired by the topological organization of the circular Escherichia coli chromosome, which is compacted by separate domains, we study a polymer architecture consisting of a central ring to which either looped or linear side chains are grafted. A shape change from a spherical to a toroidal organization takes place as soon as the inner ring becomes large enough for the attached arms to fit within its circumference. Building up a torus, the system flattens, depending on the effective bending rigidity of the chain induced by entropic repulsion of the attached loops and, to a lesser extent, linear arms. Our results suggest that the natural formation of a toroidal structure with a decreased amount of writhe induced by a specific underlying topology could be one driving force, among others, that nature exploits to ensure proper packaging of the genetic material within a rod-shaped, bacterial envelope. PMID:22181447

  5. Nanofibrous hollow microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped polymers as injectable cell carriers for knee repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2011-05-01

    To repair complexly shaped tissue defects, an injectable cell carrier is desirable to achieve an accurate fit and to minimize surgical intervention. However, the injectable carriers available at present have limitations, and are not used clinically for cartilage regeneration. Here, we report nanofibrous hollow microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped biodegradable polymers as an injectable cell carrier. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres, integrating the extracellular-matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, were shown to efficiently accommodate cells and enhance cartilage regeneration, compared with control microspheres. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres also supported a significantly larger amount of, and higher-quality, cartilage regeneration than the chondrocytes-alone group in an ectopic implantation model. In a critical-size rabbit osteochondral defect-repair model, the nanofibrous hollow microspheres/chondrocytes group achieved substantially better cartilage repair than the chondrocytes-alone group that simulates the clinically available autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure. These results indicate that the nanofibrous hollow microspheres are an excellent injectable cell carrier for cartilage regeneration.

  6. Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about stars including star statistics, and a star gallery. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  7. Biodegradable recombinant human erythropoietin loaded microspheres prepared from linear and star-branched block copolymers: influence of encapsulation technique and polymer composition on particle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pistel, K F; Bittner, B; Koll, H; Winter, G; Kissel, T

    1999-06-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dextran) loaded microspheres were prepared by a modified W/O/W double-emulsion technique. Biodegradable linear ABA block copolymers consisting of poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) A blocks attached to central poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) B blocks and star-branched AB block copolymers containing A blocks of poly(L-lactide) or poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) and star-branched poly(ethyleneoxide) B blocks were investigated for their potential as sustained release drug delivery systems. Microsphere characteristics were strongly influenced by the polymer composition. In the case of the linear block copolymers, a reduced lactic acid content in a linear block copolymer yielded smaller particles, a lower encapsulation efficiency, and a higher initial drug release both in the case of EPO and FITC-dextran. The investigation of the effects of several manufacturing parameters on microsphere formation showed that the process temperature plays an important role. Microsphere formation in a +1 degrees C environment resulted in higher drug loadings without increasing the amount of residual dichloromethane inside the particles. Other parameters such as the homogenization of the primary W/O emulsion and of the W/O/W double-emulsion have less impact on microsphere characteristics. Branched block copolymers containing star-shaped PEO also showed potential for the preparation of drug loaded microspheres. A certain amount of glycolic acid in the copolymer was necessary for the successful preparation of non-aggregating microspheres at room temperature. Again, the processing temperature strongly affected particle characteristics. Microsphere preparation at +1 degrees C allows the formation of microspheres from a polymer not containing glycolic acid, a result which could not be achieved at room temperature. Moreover, compared to microsphere formation at room temperature, the effective FITC-dextran loading was increased. Concerning the EPO loaded microspheres, the amount of EPO aggregated was comparable to that using the linear ABA polymers. A continuous release of the protein from these star-shaped polymers could not be achieved. In conclusion, apart from microsphere preparation in a +1 degrees C environment the choice of the polymer represents the main factor for a successful entrapment of proteins into biodegradable microspheres. PMID:10332063

  8. Effects of capillary pressure and use of polymer solutions on dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid retention and mobilization in a rough-walled fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Longino, B.L.; Kueper, B.H. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1999-07-15

    In this laboratory study, perchloroethylene (PCE) was permitted to migrate through a horizontal rough-walled limestone fracture under controlled conditions to assess fracture retention capacity. Retention of immiscible-phase PCE in the absence of an applied wetting-phase hydraulic gradient varied between 11% and 26% of the fracture volume. A portion of this residual could be removed through water flooding; however, even at the maximum applied hydraulic gradient of 1.0, residual PCE remained in the fracture. The observed correlation of reduced residual saturation with capillary number (N[sub c]) demonstrated that this rough-walled fracture exhibited behavior similar to that of a porous medium under water-flooding conditions. For a given hydraulic gradient, polymer-enhanced floods (using xanthan gum) were not as successful as conventional water flooding at removing residual from the fracture. The traditional form of the capillary number became an increasingly poor predictor of mobilization behavior as the viscosity of the displacing phase was increased. Incorporation of ([mu][sub w]/[mu][sub nw])[sup [minus]0.5] into the traditional capillary number provided a more appropriate dimensionless group with which to correlate residual PCE saturation in the fracture as [mu][sub w] increased.

  9. The Dense Gas in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G.; Salter, D.; Bolatto, A.; Herrera-Camus, R.

    2014-10-01

    Galactic winds are responsible of carrying energy and matter from the inner regions of galaxies to the outer regions, even reaching the intergalactic medium. This process removes gas from the inner regions, the available material to form stars. How and in which amount these winds remove gas from galaxies plays an important role in galaxy evolution. To study this effect we have obtained 3 mm maps of dense gas (n_{{crit}}>10^{4} cm^{-3}) in the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. We detect line emission from the dense molecular gas tracers HCN, HCO^{+}, HNC, CS, HC_{3}N and C_{6}H. Our maps reveal a considerable amount of HCO^{+} emission extending above and bellow the central star-forming disk, indicating that the dense gas is entangled in the outflow. The mass of molecular Hydrogen outside the central starburst is M_{{out}}? 3 ± 1× 10^{6} M_{odot}, while in the central starburst is M_{{disk}}? 8 ± 2× 10^{6} M_{odot}. These maps also show variations of the amount of dense gas over the starburst disk, revealing that the gas is more concentrated towards the center of the starburst and less towards the edges. It is the average amount of dense gas what drives the observed star formation law between dense gas and star formation rate on galactic scales.

  10. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la [Department of Physics, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  11. A computational and experimental study of the linear and nonlinear response of a star polymer melt with a moderate number of unentangled arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Lentzakis, Helen; Sakellariou, Georgios; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Briels, Wim J.

    2014-09-01

    We present from simulations and experiments results on the linear and nonlinear rheology of a moderate functionality, low molecular weight unentangled polystyrene (PS) star melt. The PS samples were anionically synthesized and close to monodisperse while their moderate functionality ensures that they do not display a pronounced core effect. We employ a highly coarse-grained model known as Responsive Particle Dynamics where each star polymer is approximated as a point particle. The eliminated degrees of freedom are used in the definition of an appropriate free energy as well as describing the transient pair-wise potential between particles that accounts for the viscoelastic response. First we reproduce very satisfactorily the experimental moduli using simulation. We then consider the nonlinear response of the same polymer melts by implementing a start-up shear protocol for a wide range of shear rates. As in experiments, we observe the development of a stress overshoot with increasing shear rate followed by a steady-state shear stress. We also recover the shear-thinning nature of the melt, although we slightly overestimate the extent of shear-thinning with simulations. In addition, we study relaxations upon the removal of shear where we find encouraging agreement between experiments and simulations, a finding that corroborates our agreement for the linear rheology.

  12. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  13. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  14. A z = 2.5 protocluster associated with the radio galaxy MRC 2104-242: star formation and differing mass functions in dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, E. A.; Hatch, N. A.; Muldrew, S. I.; Rigby, E. E.; Kurk, J. D.

    2014-06-01

    We present results from a narrow-band survey of the field around the high-redshift radio galaxy MRC 2104-242. We have selected H? emitters in a 7 arcmin2 field and compared the measured number density with that of a field sample at similar redshift. We find that MRC 2104-242 lies in an overdensity of galaxies that is 8.0 ± 0.8 times the average density of a blank field, suggesting it resides in a large-scale structure that may eventually collapse to form a massive cluster. We find that there is more dust obscured star formation in the protocluster galaxies than in similarly selected control field galaxies and there is tentative evidence of a higher fraction of starbursting galaxies in the denser environment. However, on average we do not find a difference between the star formation rate (SFR)-mass relations of the protocluster and field galaxies and so conclude that the SFR of these galaxies at z ˜ 2.5 is governed predominantly by galaxy mass and not the host environment. We also find that the stellar mass distribution of the protocluster galaxies is skewed towards higher masses and there is a significant lack of galaxies at M < 1010 M? within our small field of view. Based on the level of overdensity we expect to find ˜22 star-forming galaxies below 1010 M? in the protocluster and do not detect any. This lack of low-mass galaxies affects the level of overdensity which we detect. If we only consider high-mass (M > 1010.5 M?) galaxies, the density of the protocluster field increases to ˜55 times the control field density.

  15. Dense gas in normal and active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Tosaki, Tomoka; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Miura, Rie; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2008-01-01

    Dense molecular medium plays essential roles in galaxies. As demonstrated by the tight and linear correlation between HCN(1 0) and FIR luminosities among star-forming galaxies, from very nearby to high-z ones, the observation of a dense molecular component is indispensable to understand the star formation laws in galaxies. In order to obtain a general picture of the global distributions of dense molecular medium in normal star-forming galaxies, we have conducted an extragalactic CO(3 2) imaging survey of nearby spiral galaxies using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). From the survey (ADIoS; ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Star-forming galaxies), CO(3 2) images of M 83 and NGC 986 are presented. Emphasis is placed on the correlation between the CO(3 2)/CO(1 0) ratio and the star formation efficiency in galaxies. In the central regions of some active galaxies, on the other hand, we often find enhanced or overluminous HCN(1 0) emission. The HCN(1 0)/CO(1 0) and HCN(1 0)/HCO+(1 0) intensities are often enhanced up to ˜0.2 0.3 and ˜2 3, respectively. Such elevated ratios have never been observed in the nuclear starburst regions. One possible explanation for these high HCN(1 0)/CO(1 0) and HCN(1 0)/HCO+(1 0) ratios is X-ray induced chemistry in X-ray dominated regions (XDRs), i.e., the overabundance of the HCN molecule in the X-ray irradiated dense molecular tori. If this view is true, the known tight correlation between HCN(1 0) and the star-formation rate breaks in the vicinity of active nuclei. Although the interpretation of these ratios is still an open question, these ratios have a great potential for a new diagnostic tool for the energy sources of dusty galaxies in the ALMA era because these molecular lines are free from dust extinction.

  16. Star formation Simon Goodwin

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Star formation Simon Goodwin Dept Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK. s.goodwin@sheffield.ac.uk 1 Abstract Stars are one of the most important consituents of the Universe, and understanding their formation is crucial to many areas of astrophysics. Stars form from dense

  17. White Dwarf Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Kawaler; Michael Dahlstrom

    2000-01-01

    A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience \\

  18. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  19. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  20. Modeling anisotropic charged neutron star in isotropic coordinates

    E-print Network

    Ksh. Newton Singh; Narendra Pradhan; Manuel Malaver

    2015-02-03

    We present a spherically symmetric solution of the general relativistic field equations in isotropic coordinates for charged fluid with pressure anisotropy, compatible with a super dense star modeling. Further, we have constructed an anisotropic model of super dense star with all degree of suitability. We also observed that by increasing anisotropy, the maximum mass of super dense stars also decreases.

  1. Neutrinos from Protoneutron Stars

    E-print Network

    S. Reddy; J. Pons; M. Prakash; J. M. Lattimer

    1998-02-24

    We study the diffusive transport of neutrinos in a newly born neutron star to explore its sensitivity to dense matter properties. Energy and lepton number which are trapped during the catastrophic implosion diffuse out on the time scale of a few tens of seconds. Results for different dense matter models are presented.

  2. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  3. Neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars are laboratories for dense matter and gravitational physics. Observations of neutron stars from sources such as radio pulsars, low-mass X-ray binaries, X-ray bursts and thermally-emitting neutron stars are setting bounds to neutron star masses, radii, rotation rates, temperatures and ages. Mass measurements constrain the equation of state at the highest densities and set firm bounds to the highest possible density of cold matter. Radii constrain the equation of state in the vicinity of the nuclear saturation density and yield information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are in remarkable agreement with observational bounds.

  4. Drug-loaded pseudo-block copolymer micelles with a multi-armed star polymer as the micellar exterior.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhengkui; Yang, Chenchen; Zhang, Jialiang; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Xiqun

    2015-08-01

    Supramolecular constructed pseudo block copolymer micelles based on ?-cyclodextrin terminated 4 and 7 armed star poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and adamantane terminated linear poly(?-caprolactone) were prepared. The size, morphology, stability and protein adsorption were experimentally examined. The micelles with 7 armed PVP chains as the micellar exterior showed the lowest amount of protein adsorption and the best stability in media. When cabazitaxel, a new taxane, was loaded into the micelles, 14.4% drug loading content and 85% encapsulation efficacy were achieved. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the cabazitaxel-loaded micelles show significant cytotoxicity against drug-resistant A2780/T cell lines. Biodistribution studies showed that the micelles can almost double the content of cargo in tumor sites compared with the free cargo. In vivo antitumor activity examinations indicated that cabazitaxel-loaded micelles show superior antitumor activity over free paclitaxel and free cabazitaxel. PMID:26144838

  5. Relaxation dynamics of branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arnav

    The Rouse model for star polymers was successfully derived by solving the differential equations governing the net force acting on each bead in a star polymer chain. As opposed to a linear polymer, where we have N unique roots for N beads, in the case of star polymers, there are only 2 Na+1 unique roots and all odd unique roots (except the last root corresponding to the branch point) starting with the first root have a multiplicity of f-1. The relaxation time of the pth unique Rouse mode of a star polymer varies as (2Na + 1)2/p2. Since alternate Rouse modes in a star polymer have a multiplicity of f-1, they add to the terminal modulus of the star polymers and the terminal modulus, G(tau) ends up being proportional to f-1 (besides being inversely proportional to N, which is also the case with linear polymers). A self-consistent theory for the relaxation of entangled star polymers was developed based on the work done by Colby and Rubinstein on linear blends. This theory considers the duality of relaxation dynamics (direct stress relaxation and indirect relaxation by release of constraints) and models the relaxation due to constraint release R(t) based on Dean's approach in solving the vibration frequencies of glassy chains with random spring constants. In our case, the mobilities of beads were considered to be random and based on the relative weight of the prefactor of a Maxwell function, a group of which was fitted to the stress relaxation function mu(t) of a star polymer (proposed and derived by Doi). The tube dilation model for star and comb polymers was investigated in detail and predictions compared to rheological data from polypropylene, polybutadiene and polystyrene comb polymers along with PEP star polymers. The relaxation time from the Tube Dilation Model was compared with the classical Tube Model and was shown to have an extra power dependence on the fraction of the comb backbone.

  6. Time-dependent models of dense PDRs with complex molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Morata; Eric Herbst

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the chemistry of a dense photon-dominated region (PDR) using a time-dependent chemical model. Our major interest is to study the spatial distribution of complex molecules such as hydrocarbons and cyanopolyynes in the cool dense material bordering regions where star formation has taken place. Our standard model uses a homogeneous cloud of density 2 × 104cm-3

  7. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  8. Neutrino plasma coupling in dense astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Silva, L. O.; Mendonça, J. T.; Shukla, P. K.; Mori, W. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the propagation dynamics of intense neutrino beams in a background dispersive medium such as dense plasmas, particularly in the search for a mechanism to explain the dynamics of type II supernovae. Neutrino interactions with matter are usually considered as single particle interactions. All the single particle mechanisms describing the dynamical properties of neutrinos in matter are analogous with the processes involving single electron interactions with a medium such as Compton scattering, Cerenkov radiation, etc. However, it is well known that beams of electrons moving through a plasma give rise to a new class of processes known as collective interactions, such as two stream instabilities, which result in either the absorption or generation of plasma waves. Employing the relativistic kinetic equations for neutrinos interacting with dense plasmas via the weak force, we explore collective plasma streaming instabilities driven by neutrino beams. We examine the anomalous transfer between neutrinos and dense plasma via excitation of electron plasma waves. The nonlinear coupling between an intense neutrino beam and a plasma reveals the presence of two regimes, a hydrodynamic regime and a kinetic regime. The latter is responsible for Landau damping or growth of electron plasma waves. In dense fusion stellar plasmas neutrino Landau damping can play a significant role as an additional stellar plasma cooling process. Another interesting result is an asymmetry in the momentum balance imported by the neutrinos to the core of the exploding star due to symmetry breaking by the collapsed star's magnetic fields. This results in a directed velocity of the resulting neutron star or pulsar, explaining the so called 'birth' velocity.

  9. Microporous polymer films and methods of their production

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing thin microporous polymeric films for a variety of uses. The process utilizes a dense gas (liquified gas or supercritical fluid) selected to combine with a solvent-containing polymeric film so that the solvent is dissolved in the dense gas, the polymer is substantially insoluble in the dense gas, and two phases are formed. A microporous film is obtained by removal of a dense gas-solvent phase.

  10. Microporous polymer films and methods of their production

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A process is described for producing thin microporous polymeric films for a variety of uses. The process utilizes a dense gas (liquefied gas or supercritical fluid) selected to combine with a solvent-containing polymeric film so that the solvent is dissolved in the dense gas, the polymer is substantially insoluble in the dense gas, and two phases are formed. A microporous film is obtained by removal of a dense gas-solvent phase. 9 figs.

  11. Novel polymers and method of preparing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshfield, S. M. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Polymers are prepared with terminal functional groups by reacting a compound selected from the group consisting of lithium p-lithiophenoxide and tetrabutylammonium p-lithiophenoxide as an initiator with material such as butadiene. The resulting functionally terminated new polymers are then capable of reacting with coupling agents to form star polymers.

  12. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. PMID:24700484

  13. Mechanics of large-strain deformation of particle-modified polymers

    E-print Network

    Parsons, Ethan M. (Ethan Moore), 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several decades, engineering polymers have become increasingly prevalent in the manufacture of virtually all types of products. Polymers are substantially less dense than metals, easy to machine, and readily ...

  14. Quark Stars: Features and Findings

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar

    2007-01-25

    Under extreme conditions of temperature and/or density, quarks and gluons are expected to undergo a deconfinement phase transition. While this is an ephemeral phenomenon at the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collider (BNL-RHIC), quark matter may exist naturally in the dense interior of neutron stars. Herein, we present an appraisal of the possible phase structure of dense quark matter inside neutron stars, and the likelihood of its existence given the current status of neutron star observations. We conclude that quark matter inside neutron stars cannot be dismissed as a possibility, although recent observational evidence rules out most soft equations of state.

  15. Polyelectrolyte Stars and Cylindrical Brushes Made by ATRP: New Building Blocks in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamper, Felix; Xu, Youyong; Yuan, Jiayin; Ballauff, Matthias; Müller, Axel H. E.

    Star polymers and cylindrical polymer brushes (CPBs), i.e. polymers possessing side groups densely grafted from a linear main chain, have attracted considerable experimental and theoretical interest over the past decade, owing to their peculiar solution and bulk properties. We have used the grafting-from approach via ATRP to synthesize well-defined star polymers and core—shell CPBs with homopolymer and block copolymer side chains. The diblock copolymer side chains may include combinations of soft-hard, hydrophilic-hydrophobic and crystalline-amorphous block segments. In particular, we have been interested in polyelectrolyte blocks; then the polymers resemble intramolecular spherical and cylindrical micelles, respectively. Star polymers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (DMAEMA) were made using sugar- or silsesquioxane-based ATRP initiators. Their LCST and UCST phase behaviour depends on pH, counterion charge, temperature, and light. PDMAEMA CPBs react in a similar way, and on addition of trivalent counterions they even form helical structures. We have also synthesized hybrid nanowires of semiconducting CdS and CdSe or nanomagnets of ?-Fe2O3 inside the PAA core of CPBs. Here, we present novel water-soluble and biocompatible silica nanowires based on CPBs. They have a core consisting of a silsesquioxane network of crosslinked poly(3-acryloylpropyl trimethoxysilane) (PAPTS) and a shell of poly(oligoe-thyleneglycol methacrylate) (POEGMA). Sequential ATRP of APTS and OEGMA initiated by a polyinitiator backbone (DP = 3,200) was carried out in benzene. Due to the cylindrical shape of the brushes the functional TMS moieties were arranged into a 1D manner and then crosslinked via alkaline condensation, rendering the rigid core—shell hybrid CPBs. Finally, uniform silica nanowires were achieved by the simultaneous removal of the hybrid CPB template via pyrolysis. The length as well as the diameter of silica nanowires are well-defined.

  16. Dense suspension splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Schaarsberg, Martin H. Klein; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2013-11-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes when liquid-coated particles are ejected from the plug bulk. We use discrete-particle simulations to examine the momentum transfers responsible for splash formation. We find that a simulation using a densely packed plug containing dry, noncohesive, inelastic grains reproduces the unexpected experimental finding that mixing larger particles into a suspension of small particles creates a bigger splash. We also find that with increasing impact speed, the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles tends toward the result from the dry-grains-only simulation. These results support the idea that the splash from a low-viscosity solvent suspension is created by inertia-dominated collisions between particles. In this regime, viscous drag from the interstitial fluid is negligible. In future work, we will examine splash formation in simulations where particles approaching contact do experience viscous drag. Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes when liquid-coated particles are ejected from the plug bulk. We use discrete-particle simulations to examine the momentum transfers responsible for splash formation. We find that a simulation using a densely packed plug containing dry, noncohesive, inelastic grains reproduces the unexpected experimental finding that mixing larger particles into a suspension of small particles creates a bigger splash. We also find that with increasing impact speed, the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles tends toward the result from the dry-grains-only simulation. These results support the idea that the splash from a low-viscosity solvent suspension is created by inertia-dominated collisions between particles. In this regime, viscous drag from the interstitial fluid is negligible. In future work, we will examine splash formation in simulations where particles approaching contact do experience viscous drag. Current Address: Physics of Fluids Group, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

  17. Determination of the Equation of State of Dense Matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawel Danielewicz; Roy Lacey; William G. Lynch

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear collisions can compress nuclear matter to densities achieved within neutron stars and within core-collapse supernovae. These dense states of matter exist momentarily before expanding. We analyzed the flow of matter to extract pressures in excess of 1034 pascals, the highest recorded under laboratory-controlled conditions. Using these analyses, we rule out strongly repulsive nuclear equations of state from relativistic mean

  18. Dense molecular thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Shaw, M.S.; Holian, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    We are examining the thermodynamics of dense molecular fluids from the theoretical view. Our interests range from modeling single-species, spherically symmetric, atomic systems, through adding the complication of nonspherical molecular potentials, to mixing various molecular species with the inclusion of chemistry. We discuss what has been accomplished and evaluate the directions to be taken in attacking the unsolved problems. The various theoretical approaches, both analytic and numerical, are presented. We finish with a discussion of the recent advance in treating nonspherical molecular potentials with effective spherical potentials in the calculation of thermodynamics.

  19. Type Ia supernovae in dense circumstellar gas

    E-print Network

    N. N. Chugai; L. R. Yungelson

    2003-08-18

    We propose a simple model for the bolometric light curve of type Ia supernova exploding in a dense circumstellar (CS) envelope to describe the light curves of supernovae 2002ic and 1997cy. The modeling shows that at the radius $\\sim7\\times10^{15}$ cm the density of CS envelopes around both supernovae is similar. The mass of the CS envelope around SN 1997cy is close to $5 M_{\\odot}$, while the characteristic time of the ejection of this envelope does not exceed 600 yr. We analyze two possible evolutionary scenarios which might lead to the explosion of type Ia supernova inside a dense CS envelope: accretion on CO white dwarf in the symbiotic binary and evolution of a single star with the initial mass of about $8 M_{\\odot}$. If the conjecture about the explosion of type Ia supernova in a dense CS envelope is correct in the case of SN 2002ic and SN 1997cy then the rapid loss of the red supergiant envelope and the subsequent explosion of the CO white dwarf are synchronized by certain mechanism. This mechanism might be related to the contraction of the white dwarf as it approaches the Chandrasekhar limit. We show that formation of a (super)Chandrasekhar mass due to the merger of a CO white dwarf and CO core of a red supergiant with consequent explosion is unlikely, since it does not provide the required synchronization of the rapid mass loss and explosion.

  20. Dense stellar systems as laboratories for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Piet

    2010-03-01

    Galactic nuclei and globular clusters act as laboratories in which nature experiments with normal stars, neutron stars and black holes, through collisions and through the formation of bound states, in the form of binaries. The main difference with the usual Earth-based laboratories is that we cannot control the experiments. Instead, we have no choice but to create virtual laboratories on Earth, in order to simulate all the relevant physics in large-scale computational experiments. This implies a realistic treatment of stellar dynamics, stellar evolution, and stellar hydrodynamics. Each of these three fields has its own legacy codes, workhorses that are routinely used to simulate star clusters, stars, and stellar collisions, respectively. I outline the main steps that need to be taken in order to embed and where needed transform these legacy codes in order to produce a far more modular and robust environment for modeling dense stellar systems. The time is right to do so: within a few years computers will reach the required speed, in the Petaflops range, to follow a star cluster with a million stars for 10 billion years, while resolving the internal binary and multiple star motions. By that time simulation software will be the main bottleneck in our ability to analyze dense stellar systems. Only through full-scale simulations will we be able to critically test our understanding of the 'microphysics' of stellar collisions and their aftermath, in a direct comparison with observations.

  1. Star Formation in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Palla; Steven W. Stahler

    1999-01-01

    We study the record of star formation activity within the dense cluster associated with the Orion Nebula. The bolometric luminosity function of 900 visible members is well matched by a simplified theoretical model for cluster formation. This model assumes that stars are produced at a constant rate and distributed according to the field-star initial mass function. Our best-fit age for

  2. Neutrino Interactions in Hot and Dense Matter

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy; Madappa Prakash; James M Lattimer

    1997-10-10

    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star.

  3. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  4. Dense Suspension Splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  5. Fluctuation studies in STAR

    E-print Network

    Supriya Das

    2006-12-08

    Study of event by event fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities offer us more insight about the hot and dense matter created in the relativistic heavy ion collisions. In this review the recent results on these studies carried out by the STAR collaboration are presented.

  6. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  7. Dense Molecular Gas in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Eckart, Andreas

    1999-10-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the closest radio galaxy, and its molecular interstellar medium has been studied extensively in recent years. However, these studies used mostly molecular lines tracing low to medium density gas (see e.g. Eckart et al. 1990. Wild et al. 1997). The amount and distribution of the dense component remained largely unknown. We present spectra of the HCN(1-0) emission - which traces dense (n(H2) > 104 cm-3) molecular gas - at the center and along the prominent dust lane at offset positions +/- 60" and +/- 100", as well as single CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) spectra, observed with the SEST on La Silla, Chile. At the central position, the integrated intensity ratio I(HCN)/I(CO) peaks at 0.064, and decreases to somewhat equal to 0.02 to 0.04 in the dust lane. Based on the line luminosity ratio L(HCN)/L(CO) we estimate that there is a significant amount of dense gas in Centaurus A. The fraction of dense molecular gas as well as the star formation efficiency LFIR/LCO towards the center of Cen A is comparable to ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, and falls in between the values for ULIRGs and normal galaxies for positions in the dust lane. Details will be published in Wild & Eckart (A&A, in prep.). Eckart et al. 1990, ApJ 363, 451 Rydbeck et al. 1993, Astr.Ap. (Letters) 270, L13. Wild, W., Eckart, A. & Wiklind, T. 1997, Astr.Ap. 322, 419.

  8. Polymers Presentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 15 page PowerPoint contains the presentation for the polymers module from Nano-Link. This lesson requires a background in eight grade science. Various details of polymers are discussed including molecular structures, cross-linked polymers, and ringed polymers. Lastly, an activity to explore cross-linked polymers is included. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

  9. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  10. Weakly dissipative solitons in dense relativistic-degenerate plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Ata-ur-Rahman; Khan, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the features of weakly nonlinear waves in a collisional dense plasma consisting of ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons and non-relativistic degenerate ions. In weak dissipation limit, the dynamics of low frequency nonlinear ion (solitary) wave is described by solving a damped Korteweg-deVries equation. The analytical and numerical analysis shows the existence of weakly dissipative solitons evolving with time. The characteristics of soliton evolution with plasma number density and slow ion-neutral collision rate are discussed with some detail. The relevance of the study with degenerate plasmas in ultra-dense astrophysical objects, particularly white dwarf stars is also pointed out.

  11. Dense Probabilistic Encryption Josh Benaloh

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    Dense Probabilistic Encryption Josh Benaloh Clarkson University Abstract This paper describes a method of dense probabilistic encryption. Previous probabilistic encryption methods require large numbers of random bits and produce large amounts of ciphertext for the encryption of each bit of plaintext

  12. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in Star Clusters: Implications for Stars, Disks, and Planets

    E-print Network

    Throop, Henry

    Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in Star Clusters: Implications for Stars, Disks, and Planets Henry Throop of forming star clusters may occasionally pass through associated dense molecular gas and experience Bondi significantly affect the planetesimal and planet-formation process. The Bondi-Hoyle accretion rates are lower

  13. Non-equilibrium in adsorbed polymer layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben O’Shaughnessy; Dimitrios Vavylonis

    2005-01-01

    High molecular weight polymer solutions have a powerful tendency to deposit adsorbed layers when exposed to even mildly attractive surfaces. The equilibrium properties of these dense interfacial layers have been extensively studied theoretically. A large body of experimental evidence, however, indicates that non-equilibrium effects are dominant whenever monomer-surface sticking energies are somewhat larger than kT, a common case. Polymer relaxation

  14. Global star formation in the L1630 molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    The first systematic and coordinated surveys for both dense gas and young stellar objects within a single molecular cloud, the L1630 molecular cloud are compared. It is found that (1) star formation in the L1630 molecular cloud occurs almost exclusively within the dense gas; (2) star formation does not occur uniformly throughout the dense gas and is strongly favored in a few very massive dense cores, where efficient conversion of molecular gas into stars has resulted in the production of rich stellar clusters; and (3) high gas densities and high gas mass may be necessary but not sufficient conditions for the formation of star clusters since two of the five most massive dense cores in the cloud have very low levels of star formation activity.

  15. Biodegradable recombinant human erythropoietin loaded microspheres prepared from linear and star-branched block copolymers: Influence of encapsulation technique and polymer composition on particle characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F Pistel; B Bittner; H Koll; G Winter; T Kissel

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dextran) loaded microspheres were prepared by a modified W\\/O\\/W double-emulsion technique. Biodegradable linear ABA block copolymers consisting of poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) A blocks attached to central poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) B blocks and star-branched AB block copolymers containing A blocks of poly(L-lactide) or poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) and star-branched poly(ethyleneoxide) B blocks were investigated for their potential as

  16. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  17. Numerical study of a slip-link model for polymer melts Diego Del Biondo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of dense polymer melts. After reviewing the technical aspects associated with the implementationNumerical study of a slip-link model for polymer melts Diego Del Biondo , Elian M. Masnada , Samy and generic model of a polymer melt, that can be used as an alternative to molecular dynamics for coarse

  18. Polymer brushes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. MILNER

    1991-01-01

    Polymers attached by one end to an interface at relatively high coverage stretch away from the interface to avoid overlapping, forming a polymer brush. This simple picture may serve as the basis for models in diverse interfacial systems in polymer science, such as polymeric surfactants, stabilized suspensions of colloidal particles, and structures formed by block copolymers. The structure and dynamics

  19. Dense stellar matter with trapped neutrinos under strong magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    A. Rabhi; C. Providencia

    2009-09-06

    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of dense stellar neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped matter. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings (NLW) and with density dependent parameters (DDRH) and including hyperons are considered . It is shown that at low densities neutrinos are suppressed in the presence of the magnetic field. The magnetic field reduces the strangeness fraction of neutrino-free matter and increases the strangeness fraction of neutrino-trapped matter. The mass-radius relation of stars described by these equations of state are determined. The magnetic field makes the overall equation of state stiffer and the stronger the field the larger the mass of maximum mass star and the smaller the baryon density at the center of the star. As a consequence in the presence of strong magnetic fields the possibility that a protoneutron star evolves to a blackhole is smaller.

  20. Simulations of Polymer Translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-07-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze -- i.e., translocate -- themselves through the pores. DNA, RNA and proteins are such naturally occuring long molecules in a variety of biological processes. Understandably, the process of translocation has been an active topic of current research: not only because it is a cornerstone of many biological processes, but also due to its relevance for practical applications. Translocation is a complicated process in living organisms -- the presence of chaperone molecules, pH, chemical potential gradients, and assisting molecular motors strongly influence its dynamics. Consequently, the translocation process has been empirically studied in great variety in biological literature. Study of translocation as a biophysical process is more recent. Herein, the polymer is simplified to a sequentially connected string of N monomers as it passes through a narrow pore on a membrane. The quantities of interest are the typical time scale for the polymer to leave a confining cell (the ``escape of a polymer from a vesicle'' time scale), and the typical time scale the polymer spends in the pore (the ``dwell'' time scale) as a function of N and other parameters like membrane thickness, membrane adsorption, electrochemical potential gradient, etc. Our research is focused on computer simulations of translocation. Since our main interest is in the scaling properties, we use a highly simplified description of the translocation process. The polymer is described as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and its dynamics consists of single-monomer jumps from one lattice site to another neighboring one. Since we have a very efficient program to simulate such polymer dynamics, which we decribe in Chapter 2, we can perform long simulations in which long polymers creep through tiny pores. In Chapter 3 we study pore blockage times for a translocating polymer of length N, driven by a field E across te pore. In three dimensions we find that the typical time the pore remains blocked during a translocation event scales as N^{1.37}/E We show that the scaling behavior stems from the polymer dynamics at the immediate vicinity of the pore -- in particular, the memory effects in the polymer chain tension imbalance across the pore. Chapter 4 studies the unbiased translocation of a polymer with length N, surrounded by equally long polymers, through a narrow pore in a membrane. We show that in dense polymeric systems a relaxation time exists that scales as N^{2.65}, much longer than the Rouse time N^2. If the polymers are well entangled, we find that the mean dwell times scales as N^{3.3}, while for shorter, less entangled polymers, we measure dwell times scaling as N^{2.7}. In Chapter 5 we study the translocation of an RNA molecule, pulled through a nanopore by an optical tweezer, as a method to determine its secondary structure. The resolution with which the elements of the secondary structure can be determined is limited by thermal fluctuations, ruling out single-nucleotide resolution under normal experimental conditions.

  1. Unified approach to dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2005-04-01

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large Nc limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

  2. Diffusion and Coulomb separation of ions in dense matter.

    PubMed

    Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

    2013-10-18

    We analyze diffusion equations in strongly coupled Coulomb mixtures of ions in dense stellar matter. Strong coupling of ions in the presence of gravitational forces and electric fields (induced by plasma polarization in the presence of gravity) produces a specific diffusion current which can separate ions with the same A/Z (mass to charge number) ratios but different Z. This Coulomb separation of ions can be important for the evolution of white dwarfs and neutron stars. PMID:24182248

  3. Origin of Warm High-Velocity Dense Gas in ULIRGs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Wada

    2007-01-01

    Possible origins of the molecular absorption discovered in some ULIRGs are investigated, based on a 3-D hydrodynamic model of star-forming interstellar gas in a galactic central region. The blue-shifted, warm ($\\\\sim 200-300$ K), dense ($>10^6$ cm$^{-3}$) molecular gas suggested by CO absorption in IRAS 08752+3915 could be caused by the innermost region of the inhomogeneous inter-stellar medium (ISM) around a

  4. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  5. Polymer brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, S.T. (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States))

    1991-02-22

    Polymers attached by one end to an interface at relatively high coverage stretch away from the interface to avoid overlapping, forming a polymer brush. This simple picture may serve as the basis for models in diverse interfacial systems in polymer science, such as polymeric surfactants, stabilized suspensions of colloidal particles, and structures formed by block copolymers. The structure and dynamics of polymer brushes have been the subject of considerable theoretical and experimental activity in recent years. An account is given of recent advances in theoretical understanding of stretched polymers at interfaces, and the diverse experimental probes of systems modeled by brushes are briefly reviewed.

  6. Introduction to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  7. DENSE GAS DISPERSION MODEL (DEGADIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dense Gas Dispersion Model (DEGADIS) is a mathematical dispersion model that can be used to model the transport of toxic chemical releases into the atmosphere. Its range of applicability includes continuous, instantaneous, finite duration, and time- variant releases; negative...

  8. Unusual Features of Depletion Interactions in Soft Polymer-Based Colloids Mixed with Linear Homopolymers

    E-print Network

    Likos, Christos N.

    to the size of the depletant polymer. The physical origin of this and the associated effects, as wellUnusual Features of Depletion Interactions in Soft Polymer-Based Colloids Mixed with Linear the influence of the addition of polymer chains on the effective interaction between star polymers, as a model

  9. Shocks in Dense Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant: FUSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have obtained 8 LWRS FUSE spectra to study a recently identified interaction of the Vela supernova remnant with a dense cloud region along its western edge. The goal is to quantify the temperature, ionization, density, and abundance characteristics associated with this shock/dense cloud interface by means of UV absorption line studies. Our detection of high-velocity absorption line C I at +90 to +130 km/s with IUE toward a narrow region interior to the Vela SNR strongly suggests the Vela supernova remnant is interacting with a dense ISM or molecular cloud. The shock/dense cloud interface is suggested by (1) the rarity of detection of high-velocity C I seen in IUE spectra, (2) its very limited spatial distribution in the remnant, and (3) a marked decrease in X-ray emission in the region immediately west of the position of these stars where one also finds a 100 micron emission ridge in IRAS images. We have investigated the shock physics and general properties of this interaction region through a focussed UV absorption line study using FUSE spectra. We have FUSE data on OVI absorption lines observed toward 8 stars behind the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). We compare the OVI observations with IUE observations of CIV absorption toward the same stars. Most of the stars, which are all B stars, have complex continua making the extraction of absorption lines difficult. Three of the stars, HD 72088, HD 72089 and HD 72350, however, are rapid rotators (v sin i less than 100 km/s) making the derivation of absorption column densities much easier. We have measured OVI and CIV column densities for the "main component" (i.e. the low velocity component) for these stars. In addition, by removing the H2 line at 1032.35A (121.6 km/s relative to OVI), we find high velocity components of OVI at approximately 150 km/s that we attribute to the shock in the Vela SNR. The column density ratios and magnitudes are compared to both steady shock models and results of hydrodynamical SNR modeling. We find that the models require the shock to be relatively slow (approximately 100 - 170 km/s) to match the FUSE data. We discuss the implications of our results for models of the evolution of the Vela SNR.

  10. The structure factor of dense two-dimensional polymer solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Meyer; N. Schulmann; J. E. Zabel; J. P. Wittmer

    2011-01-01

    According to the generalized Porod law the intramolecular structure factor F(q) of compact objects with surface dimension ds scales as F(q)\\/N?1\\/(R(N)q)2d?ds in the intermediate range of the wave vector q with d being the dimension of the embedding space, N the mass of the objects and R(N)?N1\\/d their typical size. By means of molecular-dynamics simulations of a bead-spring model with

  11. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  12. Local Instability Signatures in ALMA Observations of Dense Gas in NGC 7469

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Kambiz; Izumi, Takuma; Romeo, Alessandro B.; Martín, Sergio; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Kohno, Kotaro; Krips, Melanie; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa; Terashima, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    We present an unprecedented measurement of the disk stability and local instability scales in the luminous infrared Seyfert 1 host, NGC 7469, based on ALMA observations of dense gas tracers and with a synthesized beam of 165 × 132 pc. While we confirm that non-circular motions are not significant in redistributing the dense interstellar gas in this galaxy, we find compelling evidence that the dense gas is a suitable tracer for studying the origin of its intensely high-mass star-forming ringlike structure. Our derived disk stability parameter Q accounts for a thick disk structure, and its value falls below unity at the radii in which intense star formation is found. Furthermore, we derive the characteristic instability scale {? }c and find a striking agreement between our measured scale of ?180 pc and the typical sizes of individual complexes of young and massive star clusters seen in high-resolution images.

  13. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  14. Energy of neutron-star matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Moszkowski

    1974-01-01

    It is generally believed that the interior of some neutron stars is dense enough that the neutron-star matter (NSM) contains not only neutrons, but also protons, electrons, and various hyperons. In the present paper we calculate the effect of some hyperons on the composition and energy of the NSM. We calculate the energy per baryon and the fractions of the

  15. The evolution of very massive stars

    E-print Network

    H. Belkus; J. Van Bever; D. Vanbeveren

    2007-01-11

    Core collapse of dense massive star clusters is unavoidable and this leads to the formation of massive objects, with a mass up to 1000 $\\msun$ and even larger. When these objects become stars, stellar wind mass loss determines their evolution and final fate, and decides upon whether they form black holes (with normal mass or with intermediate mass) or explode as a pair instability supernova. In the present paper, we discuss the evolution of very massive stars and we present a convenient evolution recipe that can be implemented in a gravitational N-body code to study the dynamics of dense massive clusters.

  16. Electroluminescent polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leni Akcelrud

    2003-01-01

    Electroluminescent polymers are reviewed in terms of synthesis and relationships between structure and light emission properties.The main concepts, problems and ideas related to the subject as a whole and to each class of electroluminescence (EL) polymer, have been systematically addressed. The elements of device architecture were considered, such as electrode characteristics and transport layers. The main mechanisms for light emission

  17. Polymers Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 21 page document contains an instructor guide for the polymers module from Nano-Link. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. The document includes background information on polymers, a hands-on learning activity, questions to check understanding, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

  18. The dense gas mass fraction in the W51 cloud and its protoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Youngblood, Allison; Darling, Jeremy; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor; Lebrón Santos, Mayra E.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The density structure of molecular clouds determines how they will evolve. Aims: We map the velocity-resolved density structure of the most vigorously star-forming molecular cloud in the Galactic disk, the W51 giant molecular cloud. Methods: We present new 2 cm and 6 cm maps of H2CO, radio recombination lines, and the radio continuum in the W51 star forming complex acquired with Arecibo and the Green Bank Telescope at ~ 50? resolution. We use H2CO absorption to determine the relative line-of-sight positions of molecular and ionized gas. We measure gas densities using the H2CO densitometer, including continuous measurements of the dense gas mass fraction (DGMF) over the range 104cm-3dense gas mass fraction has been measured over a range of densities with a single data set. Results: The DGMF in W51 A is high, f ? 70% above n> 104cm-3, while it is low, f< 20%, in W51 B. We did not detect any H2CO emission throughout the W51 GMC; all gas dense enough to emit under normal conditions is in front of bright continuum sources and therefore is seen in absorption instead. Conclusions: (1) The dense gas fraction in the W51 A and B clouds shows that W51 A will continue to form stars vigorously, while star formation has mostly ended in W51 B. The lack of dense, star-forming gas around W51 C indicates that collect-and-collapse is not acting or is inefficient in W51. (2) Ongoing high-mass star formation is correlated with n ? 1 × 105cm-3 gas. Gas with n> 104cm-3 is weakly correlated with low and moderate mass star formation, but does not strongly correlate with high-mass star formation. (3) The nondetection of H2CO emission implies that the emission detected in other galaxies, e.g. Arp 220, comes from high-density gas that is not directly affiliated with already-formed massive stars. Either the non-star-forming ISM of these galaxies is very dense, implying the star formation density threshold is higher, or H ii regions have their emission suppressed. The data set has been made public at http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/26818Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S. (Sanjay)

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro-physical issues that directly affect the latter.

  20. Dynamics of Dense Cores in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    E-print Network

    Helen Kirk; Doug Johnstone; Mario Tafalla

    2007-07-18

    We survey the kinematics of over one hundred and fifty candidate (and potentially star-forming) dense cores in the Perseus molecular cloud with pointed N2H+(1-0) and simultaneous C18O(2-1) observations. Our detection rate of N2H+ is 62%, rising to 84% for JCMT SCUBA-selected targets. In agreement with previous observations, we find that the dense N2H+ targets tend to display nearly thermal linewidths, particularly those which appear to be starless (using Spitzer data), indicating turbulent support on the small scales of molecular clouds is minimal. For those N2H+ targets which have an associated SCUBA dense core, we find their internal motions are more than sufficient to provide support against the gravitational force on the cores. Comparison of the N2H+ integrated intensity and SCUBA flux reveals fractional N2H+ abundances between 10^-10 and 10^-9. We demonstrate that the relative motion of the dense N2H+ gas and the surrounding C18O gas is less than the sound speed in the vast majority of cases (~90%). The point-to-point motions we observe within larger extinction regions appear to be insufficient to provide support against gravity, although we sparsely sample these regions.

  1. Complex Nanoscopic Objects from Well-defined Polymers that Contain Functional Units 

    E-print Network

    Li, Ang 1982-

    2012-08-29

    of macromonomers through covalent bond formation and self-assembly of block copolymers via non-covalent interactions are two typical strategies to afford nanoscopic structures. Molecular brush polymers are composed of densely-grafted side chains along a polymeric...

  2. Simulations of dense planetary rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuji Morishima; Heikki Salo

    2006-01-01

    Previous self-gravitating simulations of dense planetary rings are extended to include particle spins. Both identical particles as well as systems with a modest range of particle sizes are examined. For a ring of identical particles, we find that mutual impact velocity is always close to the escape velocity of the particles, even if the total rms velocity dispersion of the

  3. Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars

    E-print Network

    Ulrich Heber

    2008-04-03

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, or low mass main sequence stars. Systems with sufficiently massive WD companions may qualify as SN Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite, in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched sdO stars because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre. (abridged)

  4. Polymer Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masayoshi

    In this special volume on polymer particles, recent trends and developments in the synthesis of nano- to micron-sized polymer particles by radical polymerization (Emulsion, Miniemulsion, Microemulsion, and Dispersion Polymerizations) of vinyl monomers in environmentally friendly heterogeneous aqueous and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid media are reviewed by prominent worldwide researchers. In addition to the important challenges and possibilities with regards to design and preparation of functionalized polymer particles of controlled size, the topics described are of great current interest due to the increased awareness of environmental issues.

  5. Ion-temperature-gradient driven modes in very dense magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, Arshad M.; Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany) and School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 4000 Durban (South Africa)

    2008-02-15

    By employing the quantum magnetohydrodynamic-Poisson model, a general dispersion relation for low-frequency electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes in a very dense Fermi plasma is derived. The growth rate is found to be higher in the presence of ion-temperature gradients and electron corrections due to quantum fluctuations. Two new ITG driven modes in the Fermi plasma are found. These ITG modes are associated with an electron density response that differs from the Boltzmann law. It is expected that newly found ITG modes can play an important role in anomalous cross-field ion energy transport in the next-generation laser-solid density plasma experiments as well as in dense astrophysical bodies (e.g., neutron stars and the interior of white dwarfs)

  6. Anomalous axion interactions and topological currents in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Metlitski, Max A.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2005-08-15

    Recently an effective Lagrangian for the interactions of photons, Nambu-Goldstone bosons and superfluid phonons in dense quark matter has been derived using anomaly matching arguments. In this paper we illuminate the nature of certain anomalous terms in this Lagrangian by an explicit microscopic calculation. We also generalize the corresponding construction to introduce the axion field. We derive an anomalous axion effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of axions with photons and superfluid phonons in the dense matter background. This effective Lagrangian, among other things, implies that an axion current will be induced in the presence of magnetic field. We speculate that this current may be responsible for the explanation of neutron star kicks.

  7. Field theoretic simulations of polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Jason; Chao, Huikuan; Riggleman, Robert A.

    2013-12-01

    Polymer field theory has emerged as a powerful tool for describing the equilibrium phase behavior of complex polymer formulations, particularly when one is interested in the thermodynamics of dense polymer melts and solutions where the polymer chains can be accurately described using Gaussian models. However, there are many systems of interest where polymer field theory cannot be applied in such a straightforward manner, such as polymer nanocomposites. Current approaches for incorporating nanoparticles have been restricted to the mean-field level and often require approximations where it is unclear how to improve their accuracy. In this paper, we present a unified framework that enables the description of polymer nanocomposites using a field theoretic approach. This method enables straightforward simulations of the fully fluctuating field theory for polymer formulations containing spherical or anisotropic nanoparticles. We demonstrate our approach captures the correlations between particle positions, present results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles, and we explore the effect of the numerical parameters on the performance of our approach.

  8. Nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized dense plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)] [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.

  9. Holographic renormalization in dense medium

    E-print Network

    Chanyong Park

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. We show that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordstrom AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with non-conformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space.

  10. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  11. Thermophoresis of linear polymer chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringuier, Eric

    2011-05-01

    The thermophoresis of a linear polymer chain in a solvent is examined theoretically and is shown to be due to the action of two forces. The first one is Waldmann's thermophoretic force (stemming from the departure of the molecular-velocity distribution from Maxwell's equilibrium distribution), which here is extrapolated to a dense medium by using scaling considerations. The second force is due to the fact that the viscous friction varies with position owing to the temperature gradient, which brings a zeroth-order correction to the Stokes law of friction. The present scaling theory is compared with recent experiments and is found to account for: (i) the existence of both signs of the thermodiffusion coefficient; (ii) the absolute magnitude of the coefficient; (iii) the fact that it is independent of the chain length in the high-polymer limit; and (iv) the dependence on solvent viscosity. The variation of the coefficient for short chains is also examined.

  12. The mass function of dense molecular cores and the origin of the IMF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Alves; M. Lombardi; C. J. Lada

    2007-01-01

    Context: Stars form in the cold dense cores of interstellar molecular clouds and the detailed knowledge of the spectrum of masses of such cores is clearly a key for the understanding of the origin of the IMF. To date, observations have presented somewhat contradictory evidence relating to this issue. Aims: In this paper we propose to derive the mass function

  13. A submillisecond pulsar and the equation of state of dense matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Haensel; J. L. Zdunik

    1989-01-01

    If the submillisecond pulsar in the remnant of SN 1987A really is rotating stably with a period of 0.508 ms, its existence can be used to rule out nearly all 'realistic' equations of state for dense nuclear matter. A simple equation of state is presented here that yields, in the nonrotating case, maximally compact models of neutron stars, and it

  14. Dense periodic packings of tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Dense packings of nonoverlapping bodies in three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 are useful models of the structure of a variety of many-particle systems that arise in the physical and biological sciences. Here we investigate the packing behavior of congruent ring tori in R3, which are multiply connected nonconvex bodies of genus 1, as well as horn and spindle tori. Specifically, we analytically construct a family of dense periodic packings of unlinked tori guided by the organizing principles originally devised for simply connected solid bodies [22 Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. E 86, 011102 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.011102]. We find that the horn tori as well as certain spindle and ring tori can achieve a packing density not only higher than that of spheres (i.e., ? /?18 =0.7404...) but also higher than the densest known ellipsoid packings (i.e., 0.7707...). In addition, we study dense packings of clusters of pair-linked ring tori (i.e., Hopf links), which can possess much higher densities than corresponding packings consisting of unlinked tori.

  15. Observational characteristics of dense cores with deeply embedded young protostars

    E-print Network

    D. Stamatellos; A. P. Whitworth; S. P. Goodwin

    2005-11-03

    Class 0 objects, which are thought to be the youngest protostars, are identified in terms of NIR or radio emission and/or the presence of molecular outflows. We present combined hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations of the collapse of a star-forming molecular core, which suggest two criteria for identifying dense cores with deeply embedded very young protostars that may not be observable in the NIR or radio with current telescopes. We find that cores with protostars are relatively warm (T>15K) with their SEDs peaking at wavelengths <170 micron, and they tend to appear circular.

  16. HNCO in massive galactic dense cores

    E-print Network

    I. Zinchenko; C. Henkel; R. Q. Mao

    2000-07-07

    We surveyed 81 dense molecular cores associated with regions of massive star formation and Sgr A in the 5_{05}-4_{04} and 10_{010}-9_{09} lines of HNCO. Line emission was detected towards 57 objects. Selected subsamples were also observed in other HNCO lines covering a frequency range from 22 to 461 GHz. HNCO lines from the K_{-1} = 2,3 ladders were detected in several sources. Towards Orion-KL, K_{-1} = 5 transitions with upper state energies E_u/k ~ 1100 and 1300 K could be observed. Five HNCO cores were mapped. The sources remain spatially unresolved at 220 and 461 GHz with beam sizes of 24" and 18", respectively. Typical HNCO abundances relative to H_2 as derived from a population diagram analysis are ~ 10^{-9}. The rotational temperatures reach ~ 500 K. The gas densities in regions of HNCO $K_{-1}=0$ emission should be n > 10^6 cm^{-3} and in regions of K_{-1}>0 emission about an order of magnitude higher even for radiative excitation. HNCO abundances are found to be enhanced in high-velocity gas. HNCO integrated line intensities correlate well with those of thermal SiO emission. This indicates a spatial coexistence of the two species and may hint at a common production mechanism, presumably based on shock chemistry.

  17. Fusion reactions in multicomponent dense matter

    E-print Network

    D. G. Yakovlev; L. R. Gasques; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; A. V. Afanasjev

    2006-08-23

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear fusion reactions in dense matter containing atomic nuclei of different types. We extend a phenomenological expression for the reaction rate, proposed recently by Gasques et al. (2005) for the one-component plasma of nuclei, to the multi-component plasma. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature. Furthermore, we show that pycnonuclear burning is drastically affected by an (unknown) structure of the multi-component matter (a regular lattice, a uniform mix, etc.). We apply the results to study nuclear burning in a carbon_12-oxygen_16 mixture. In this context we present new calculations of the astrophysical S-factors for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-oxygen fusion reactions. We show that the presence of a CO lattice can strongly suppress carbon ignition in white dwarf cores and neutron star crusts at densities > 3e9 g cm^{-3} and temperatures T<1e8 K.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Transfection Reagents of Double-Hydrophilic Star Copolymers:  Effect of Star Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theoni K. Georgiou; Maria Vamvakaki; Leonidas A. Phylactou; Costas S. Patrickios

    2005-01-01

    Five star polymers of the ionizable hydrophilic 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and the nonionic hydrophilic methoxy hexa(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (HEGMA) were prepared by group transfer polymerization (GTP) using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as coupling agent. In particular, four isomeric star copolymers, one heteroarm, two star block and one statistical star, with 90% mol DMAEMA and 10% mol HEGMA, plus one star

  19. Radio continuum observations of IRAS sources associated with dense cores

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, L.F.; Myers, P.C.; Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Terebey, S. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Toronto Univ. (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Using the VLA, the continuum emission associated with IRAS sources embedded in dense cores was searched for at 6 cm. Two new sources, 04016 + 2610 in L1489 and 19243 + 2350 in L778, were detected. The embedded sources have low luminosity (L less than about 10 solar luminosities). As in other similar sources, if the emission is free-free, the stellar radiation cannot account for the observed ionization rate. Two models that have been proposed to explain the radio continuum emission from low-luminosity stars are those of (partially) ionized winds and shock-induced ionization. For the two new sources and a previously reported one (HL Tau), the associated molecular outflow is of modest power. It is shown that, under these conditions, these models, at least in their simplest versions, do not provide sufficient ionized gas. The nature of the radio continuum emission from low-luminosity young stars remains unexplained. 46 refs.

  20. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  1. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Pervaporation properties of dense polyamide-6 membranes in separation of water-ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, W.; Waczynski, M.; Lasota, M. [Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland)

    1996-04-01

    Several dense polyamide-6 membranes were prepared by casting 7 wt% and/or 10 wt% solutions of polymer in trifluoroethanol. The cast membranes were dried at different temperatures from 25 to 80{degrees}C. Sorption and pervaporation properties of PA-6 membranes in water-ethanol mixtures were obtained. The data obtained showed that water was preferentially sorbed into the membrane and transported through the membrane; however, the pervaporation selectivity factor {alpha}{sup PV} was close to unity at higher concentrations. The selectivity parameters in pervaporation were improved for membranes obtained from 10 wt% polymer and dried at higher temperatures.

  3. Dense arrays of uniform submicron pores in silicon and their applications.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, Daniel; Elnathan, Roey; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Delalat, Bahman; Guinan, Taryn; Kroner, Elmar; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Kraus, Tobias

    2015-01-21

    We report a versatile particle-based route to dense arrays of parallel submicron pores with high aspect ratio in silicon and explore the application of these arrays in sensors, optics, and polymer micropatterning. Polystyrene (PS) spheres are convectively assembled on gold-coated silicon wafers and sputter-etched, resulting in well-defined gold disc arrays with excellent long-range order. The gold discs act as catalysts in metal-assisted chemical etching, yielding uniform pores with straight walls, flat bottoms, and high aspect ratio. The resulting pore arrays can be used as robust antireflective surfaces, in biosensing applications, and as templates for polymer replica molding. PMID:25493543

  4. Glue Polymer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    What is a polymer, and what are some of its properties? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. In this discovery activity students use white glue, water, and borax to make a vinyl polymer and study its properties. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  5. Neutron star matter in an effective model

    E-print Network

    T. K. Jha; P. K. Raina; P. K. Panda; S. K. Patra

    2007-11-13

    We study the equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of the compact star with hyperons and calculate the star structure in an effective model in the mean field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyse the resulting EOS with hyperons in beta equilibrium and its underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of the compact star lies in the range $1.21-1.96 ~M_{\\odot}$ for the different EOS obtained, in the model.

  6. A Maximum Stellar Surface Density in Dense Stellar Systems

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, Philip F; Quataert, Eliot; Thompson, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    We compile observations of the surface mass density profiles of dense stellar systems, including globular clusters in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, massive star clusters in nearby starbursts, nuclear star clusters in dwarf spheroidals and late-type disks, ultra-compact dwarfs, and galaxy spheroids spanning the range from low-mass cusp bulges and ellipticals to massive core ellipticals. We show that in all cases the maximum stellar surface density attained in the central regions of these systems is similar, Sigma_max ~ 10^11 M_sun/kpc^2 (~20 g/cm^2), despite the fact that the systems span 7 orders of magnitude in total stellar mass M_star, 5 in effective radius R_e, and have a wide range in effective surface density M_star/R_e^2. The surface density limit is reached on a wide variety of physical scales in different systems and is thus not a limit on three-dimensional stellar density. Given the very different formation mechanisms involved in these different classes of objects, we argue that a single piece ...

  7. The Milky Way nuclear star cluster beyond 1 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, A.; Neumayer, N.; Seth, A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Schödel, R.; Lützgendorf, N.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Nishiyama, S.; Walcher, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Within the central 10 pc of our Galaxy lies a dense cluster of stars, the nuclear star cluster, forming a distinct component of our Galaxy. Nuclear star clusters are common objects and are detected in ˜75% of nearby galaxies. It is, however, not fully understood how nuclear clusters form. Because the Milky Way nuclear star cluster is at a distance of only 8 kpc, we can spatially resolve its stellar populations and kinematics much better than in external galaxies. This makes the Milky Way nuclear star cluster a reference object for understanding the structure and assembly history of all nuclear star clusters.

  8. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich (Bremen, DE); Miller, Kevin Michael (West Dundee, IL)

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  9. Dense molecular cloud cores as a source of micrometer-sized grains in galaxies

    E-print Network

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya; Li, Zhi-Yun; Liu, Ming-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Coreshine in dense molecular cloud cores (dense cores) is interpreted as evidence for micrometer-sized grains (referred to as very large grains, VLGs). VLGs may have a significant influence on the total dust amount and the extinction curve. We estimate the total abundance of VLGs in the Galaxy, assuming that dense cores are the site of VLG formation. We find that the VLG abundance relative to the total dust mass is roughly $\\phi_\\mathrm{VLG}\\sim 0.01(1-\\epsilon )/\\epsilon (\\tau_\\mathrm{SF}/5\\times 10^9~\\mathrm{yr})^{-1} (f_\\mathrm{VLG}/0.5)(t_\\mathrm{shat}/10^8~\\mathrm{yr})$, where $\\epsilon$ is the star formation efficiency in dense cores, $\\tau_\\mathrm{SF}$ the timescale of gas consumption by star formation, $f_\\mathrm{VLG}$ the fraction of dust mass eventually coagulated into VLGs in dense cores, and $t_\\mathrm{shat}$ the lifetime of VLGs (determined by shattering). Adopting their typical values for the Galaxy, we obtain $\\phi_\\mathrm{VLG}\\sim 0.02$--0.09. This abundance is well below the value detected in...

  10. Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore R. Podgornik, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States ABSTRACT: We investigate polymer partitioning from polymer

  11. New Word-Based Adaptive Dense Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Petr; Holub, Jan

    In the last two decades the natural language compression made a great progress. The main step in this evolution was the introduction of word-based compression by Moffat. The word-based statistical compression algorithms are able to achieve 35% improvement in the compression ratio in comparison with character-based ones. We present two new word-based statistical compression algorithms based on dense coding idea: Two Byte Dense Code (TBDC) and Self-Tuning Dense Code (SCDC). TBDC uses the codewords with maximal size 2 bytes and must be implemented with some pruning technique. STDC is able to tune its code space during the compression process and so achieve better compression. Our algorithms improve the compression ratio and are considerate to smaller files which are very often omitted. We present also a generalized concept of dense coding called Open Dense Code (ODC) which provides a frame for definition of these two and many other dense code schemas.

  12. Type IIn superluminous supernovae from collision of supernova ejecta and dense circumstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, T. J.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Tominaga, N.; Yoshida, N.; Tanaka, M.; Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    First stars are suggested to be dominated by massive stars. Some massive stars are now known to die as superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Especially, Type IIn SLSNe show narrow emission lines which are believed to come from dense circumstellar medium (CSM) and the interaction between SN ejecta and dense CSM is presumed to be the reason for the high luminosity. Thanks to the deceleration of SN ejecta by dense CSM, the kinetic energy of SN ejecta is efficiently converted to thermal energy which is eventually emitted as radiation. We show the results of our LC modeling of Type IIn SLSNe performed by using a one-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We show that the LCs of Type IIn SLSNe can be actually explained by the interaction between SN ejecta and dense CSM. In addition, we show that the spectra of Type IIn SLSNe tend to be bluer than other kinds of SNe because of the interaction and future NIR satellites like JWST or WISH can potentially detect Type IIn SLSNe appeared at z=10 or higher.

  13. Super Star Clusters Versus OB Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Carsten; Bonnell, Ian A.; Zinnecker, Hans

    2010-12-01

    Super star clusters (M ecl > 105 M sun) are the largest stellar nurseries in our local Universe, containing hundreds of thousands to millions of young stars within a few light years. Many of these systems are found in external galaxies, especially in pairs of interacting galaxies, and in some dwarf galaxies, but relatively few in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. We show that a possible explanation for this difference is the presence of shear in normal spiral galaxies which impedes the formation of the very large and dense super star clusters but prefers the formation of loose OB associations possibly with a less massive cluster at the center. In contrast, in interacting galaxies and in dwarf galaxies, regions can collapse without having a large-scale sense of rotation. This lack of rotational support allows the giant clouds of gas and stars to concentrate into a single, dense, and gravitationally bound system.

  14. SUPER STAR CLUSTERS VERSUS OB ASSOCIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, Carsten; Bonnell, Ian A. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Zinnecker, Hans, E-mail: cw60@st-andrews.ac.u, E-mail: iab1@st-andrews.ac.u, E-mail: hzinnecker@aip.d [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    Super star clusters (M{sub ecl} > 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}) are the largest stellar nurseries in our local Universe, containing hundreds of thousands to millions of young stars within a few light years. Many of these systems are found in external galaxies, especially in pairs of interacting galaxies, and in some dwarf galaxies, but relatively few in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. We show that a possible explanation for this difference is the presence of shear in normal spiral galaxies which impedes the formation of the very large and dense super star clusters but prefers the formation of loose OB associations possibly with a less massive cluster at the center. In contrast, in interacting galaxies and in dwarf galaxies, regions can collapse without having a large-scale sense of rotation. This lack of rotational support allows the giant clouds of gas and stars to concentrate into a single, dense, and gravitationally bound system.

  15. DPIS for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  16. Transport properties of dense matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Flowers; N. Itoh

    1976-01-01

    Using theoretical techniques that have proven useful in solid-state physics, Fermi-liquid theory, and the theory of liquid metals, the electron contribution to the electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity, and the viscosity of neutron-star matter in the absence of magnetic fields is calculated for densities less than 2 by 10 to the 14th power g\\/cu cm (regions where there is solid

  17. Evolution of Ultra-Massive Stars and its Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Yungelson

    2006-01-01

    One of the common scenarios for the formation of Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources implies the formation of an accreting black hole from an ultramassive object created by a hierarchical runaway merger of stars in a young dense stellar cluster during or after core collapse. Very massive stars are found in young Galactic clusters. We find that the upper limit of masses

  18. A road less traveled to functional polymers: epoxide termination in living carbanionic polymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tonhauser, Christoph; Frey, Holger

    2010-11-15

    Functional polymers possess tremendous potential both in academia and in industry. In particular, oxiranes offer manifold possibilities for the introduction of single hydroxyl or multiple orthogonal functionalities in carbanionic polymerization. Here, we present a brief overview of the fascinating possibilities arising from the employment of common as well as individually designed epoxide derivatives for the synthesis of end-functional polymers. Continuous flow techniques can be utilized for the rapid generation and screening of precisely defined hydroxyl-modified polymers. The utilization of functionalized polymers as precursors for the formation of complex macromolecular architectures (e.g., miktoarm star polymers) is summarized and potential applications as well as future perspectives are discussed. PMID:21567615

  19. Polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Swift, G. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Polymers, because of the unique properties offered by them, are being employed to larger extents as additives. Polymeric additives may offer incentives such as cost, performance and unique properties. Polymeric additives have been used for years as viscosity modifiers in motor oils, plastisols, antifoaming agents and fillers. New uses are quickly emerging as permanent coloring agent, antibacterial agents and as delivery aids for metals and metal oxides.

  20. Scaling theory of polymer thermodiffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringuier, E.

    2010-11-01

    The motion of a linear polymer chain in a good solvent under a temperature gradient is examined theoretically by breaking up the flexible chain into Brownian rigid rods, and writing down an equation of motion for each rod. The motion is driven by two forces. The first one is Waldmann’s thermophoretic force (stemming from the departure of the solvent’s molecular-velocity distribution from Maxwell’s equilibrium distribution) which here is extrapolated to a dense medium. The second force is due to the fact that the viscous friction varies with position owing to the temperature gradient, which brings an important correction to the Stokes law of friction. We use scaling considerations relying upon disparate length scales and omitting non-universal numerical prefactors. The present scaling theory is compared with recent experiments on the thermodiffusion of polymers and is shown to account for (i) the existence of both signs of the thermodiffusion coefficient of long chains, (ii) the order of magnitude of the coefficient, (iii) its independence of the chain length in the high-polymer limit and (iv) its dependence on the solvent viscosity.

  1. Polymer-Defined Semiconductor Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonke, Klaus

    Semiconductor nanostructures with sizes down to a few nanometers can be defined in different, highly parallel processes with the aid of polymers. In a "top-down" approach, either micelles formed by diblock-copolymers or other self-assembled patterns like "breath figures" or imprints of colloids in polymer films are used for the formation of metal masks of different sizes on semiconductors in a first preparation step. These metal masks are then used in an anisotropic dry-etching process for the shaping of pillars in the semiconductor material. After additional evaporation and etching steps, dense patterns of nano-holes in metal films can be produced. In a "bottom-up" approach, micelles act as nano-reactors for the formation of metal clusters of Zn, Cd, Mg or Cu which then can be oxidized so as to form nanocrystals of the oxidic semiconductors ZnO, CdO, MgO, and CuO. When Au salts are added to the micelles, Au dots remain after removal of the organic compounds. These can be used as catalysts for the growth of ZnO nanopillars with high aspect ratio. Even ring-shaped (Zn,Cd)O semiconductor patterns can be formed starting with nanoporous polymer membranes, which are loaded by appropriate metal salts and then removed in an oxygen plasma, leaving "donut"-like (Zn,Cd)O rings. Production, structure and optical properties of these nanostructures are discussed.

  2. pH-sensitive micelles self-assembled from multi-arm star triblock co-polymers poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) for controlled anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, You Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Li, Zhen Dong; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Can Yang; Guo, Xin Dong; Wang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Li Juan

    2013-08-01

    A series of amphiphilic 4- and 6-armed star triblock co-polymers poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA) were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization. The critical micelle concentration values of the star co-polymers in aqueous solution were extremely low (2.2-4.0mgl(-1)), depending on the architecture of the co-polymers. The self-assembled blank and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded three layer micelles were spherical in shape with an average size of 60-220nm determined by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The in vitro release behavior of DOX from the three layer micelles exhibited pH-dependent properties. The DOX release rate was significantly accelerated by decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, due to swelling of the micelles at lower pH values caused by the protonation of tertiary amine groups in DEAEMA in the middle layer of the micelles. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles to HepG2 cells suggested that the 4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA micelles could provide equivalent or even enhanced anticancer activity and bioavailability of DOX and thus a lower dosage is sufficient for the same therapeutic efficacy. The results demonstrate that the pH-sensitive multilayer micelles could have great potential application in delivering hydrophobic anticancer drugs for improved cancer therapy. PMID:23669619

  3. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  4. Method of Preparing Polymers with Low Melt Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention is an improvement in standard polymerizations procedures, i.e., addition-type and step-growth type polymerizations, wherein monomers are reacted to form a growing polymer chain. The improvement includes employing an effective amount of a trifunctional monomer (such as a trifunctional amine anhydride, or phenol) in the polymerization procedure to form a mixture of polymeric materials consisting of branced polymers, star-shaped polymers, and linear polymers. This mixture of polymeric materials has a lower melt temperature and a lower melt viscosity than corresponding linear polymeric materials of equivalent molecular weight.

  5. The Rheology of Ferrosilicon Dense Medium Suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. DUNGLISON; T. J. NAPIER-MUNN; F. N. SHI

    2000-01-01

    Medium rheology is important to the efficiency of dense medium separation processes. An impediment to the selection of appropriate ferrosilicon products for a given DMS process in the past has been the lack of a consistent and comprehensive set of data describing the rheology of the range of manufactured ferrosilicon products.Rheological tests have therefore been conducted using Samancor ferrosilicon dense

  6. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-print Network

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  7. Approximating edge dominating set in dense graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Schmied; Claus Viehmann

    We study the approximation complexity of the Minimum Edge Dominating Set problem in everywhere ?-dense and average ??-dense graphs. More precisely, we consider the computational complexity of approximating a generalization of the Minimum Edge Dominating Set problem, the so called Minimum Subset Edge Dominating Set problem. As a direct result, we obtain for the special case of the Minimum Edge

  8. Robotic aided dense medium target fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Porco; J. W. Bredow; B. L. Huff

    1994-01-01

    A method for fabricating dense medium targets with known distributions and scatterer locations has been developed. The technique involves the use of a robot for accurate scatterer positioning. Performing measurements on these targets will give a better understanding of dense medium scattering mechanisms

  9. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  10. Dilepton Measurements at STAR

    E-print Network

    F. Geurts

    2013-05-23

    In the study of hot and dense nuclear matter, created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, dilepton measurements play an essential role. Leptons, when compared to hadrons, have only little interaction with the strongly interacting system. Thus, dileptons provide ideal penetrating probes that allow the study of such a system throughout its space-time evolution. In the low mass range ($M_{ll}3.0$ GeV/$c^2$), dilepton measurements are expected to see contributions from primordial processes involving heavy quarks, and Drell-Yan production. With the introduction of the Time-of-Flight detector, the STAR detector has been able to perform large acceptance, high purity electron identification. In this contribution, we will present STAR's recent dielectron measurements in the low and intermediate mass range for RHIC beam energies ranging between 19.6 and 200 GeV. Compared to electrons, muon measurements have the advantage of reduced bremsstrahlung radiation in the surrounding detector materials. With the upcoming detector upgrades, specifically the muon detector (MTD), STAR will be able to include such measurements in its (di-)lepton studies. We will discuss the future dilepton program at STAR and the physics cases for these upgrades.

  11. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  12. Novel Phases at High Density and their Roles in the Structure and Evolution of Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy

    2002-11-14

    We present a pedagogic discussion on the role of novel phases of dense baryonic matter in ``neutron'' stars. Qualitative aspects of the physics that drives phase transitions and some of its astrophysical consequences are discussed. Observable aspects of neutron star structure and early evolution of the newly born neutron star are discussed in some detail.

  13. Open Cluster Open Cluster Open Cluster A group of several thousand stars

    E-print Network

    Bechtold, Jill

    the gravitational pull of the cluster and the most massive are pulled toward the center. Mass:100,000-10 Million SM gravitational pull. Mass: 3 - 20 SM StarPower Points: 8 Dense spinning core of material left after the collapse of the largest stars. The gravitational pull compacts the material to infinite density. Mass: 3 - 20 SM Star

  14. Molecular cloud evolution and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the relationship between molecular clouds and young stars is reviewed. The determination of physical parameters from molecular line observations is summarized, and evidence for fragmentation of molecular clouds is discussed. Hierarchical fragmentation is reviewed, minimum fragment scales are derived, and the stability against fragmentation of both spherically and anisotropically collapsing clouds is discussed. Observational evidence for high-velocity flows in clouds is summarized, and the effects of winds from pre-main sequence stars on molecular gas are discussed. The triggering of cloud collapse by enhanced pressure is addressed, as is the formation of dense shells by spherical outflows and their subsequent breakup. A model for low-mass star formation is presented, and constraints on star formation from the initial mass function are examined. The properties of giant molecular clouds and massive star formation are described. The implications of magnetic fields for cloud evolution and star formation are addressed.

  15. Two-dimensional dense gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brady Polk

    Certain polyatomic fluids with large molecular weights referred to as dense gases exhibit unusual thermodynamic and flow properties in the region of the thermodynamic critical point. A computer program developed to solve two-dimensional flow fields is used to analyze non- classical dense gas phenomena in the single-phase gas region. A two-step, flux-limited, total variation diminishing scheme solves the time-dependent Euler equations for supersonic steady flow fields and mixed subsonic and supersonic transient flow fields. Two non- ideal gas models are incorporated into the numerical scheme in order to simulate dense gas effects. The van der Waals model, which is the simplest gas model that will show dense gas behavior, is employed to economically demonstrate qualitative trends in dense gas flows. The more complex Martin-Hou model is incorporated for cases where quantitative accuracy becomes more important. Simulated flows over simple geometries such as wedges, arcs, ramps, and steps using both the van der Waals gas model and the perfect gas model demonstrate significant differences in wave field configurations between dense gases and ideal gases. Results are also computed using the Martin-Hou equation of state which is more conservative in predicting dense gas effects than the van der Waals model. In addition to exploring the basic nature of dense gas flows for simple geometries, the utilization of dense gas properties to improve the efficiency of organic Rankine- cycle engines is investigated. Simulations of supersonic dense gas flows through impulse turbine cascades demonstrate improvements in flow quality through the cascades by reducing losses due to shock waves.

  16. Variable Stars Pulsating Stars: periodic

    E-print Network

    Basu, Shantanu

    Variable Stars · Pulsating Stars: periodic expansion and contraction, e.g., Cepheids, RR Lyrae increases . Why? #12;Pulsating Stars Cepheid variables: giant stars, very luminous Type II Cepheids: lower Z's · Catacylsmic and Eruptive Variables: sudden large changes, e.g., novae and supernovae · Others: changes

  17. TESTING 24 {mu}m AND INFRARED LUMINOSITY AS STAR FORMATION TRACERS FOR GALACTIC STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans, Neal J. II [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We have tested some relations for star formation rates used in extragalactic studies for regions within the Galaxy. In nearby molecular clouds, where the initial mass function is not fully sampled, the dust emission at 24 {mu}m greatly underestimates star formation rates (by a factor of 100 on average) when compared to star formation rates determined from counting young stellar objects. The total infrared emission does no better. In contrast, the total far-infrared method agrees within a factor of two on average with star formation rates based on radio continuum emission for massive, dense clumps that are forming enough massive stars to have L{sub TIR} exceed 10{sup 4.5} L{sub Sun }. The total infrared and 24 {mu}m also agree well with each other for both nearby, low-mass star-forming regions and the massive, dense clump regions.

  18. An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties

    E-print Network

    J. Di Francesco; N. J. Evans II; P. Caselli; P. C. Myers; Y. Shirley; A. Aikawa; M. Tafalla

    2006-02-17

    Low-mass dense cores represent the state of molecular gas associated with the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Such cores are called "protostellar" or "starless," depending on whether they do or do not contain compact sources of luminosity. In this chapter, the first half of the review of low-mass dense cores, we describe the numerous inferences made about the nature of starless cores as a result of recent observations, since these reveal the initial conditions of star formation. We focus on the identification of isolated starless cores and their internal physical and chemical properties, including morphologies, densities, temperatures, kinematics, and molecular abundances. These objects display a wide range of properties since they are each at different points on evolutionary paths from ambient molecular cloud material to cold, contracting, and centrally concentrated configurations with significant molecular depletions and, in rare cases, enhancements.

  19. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  20. Young stars and clouds in Camelopardalis

    E-print Network

    V. Straizys; V. Laugalys

    2008-11-18

    Star formation in the Local spiral arm in the direction of the Galactic longitudes 132--158 deg is reviewed. Recent star-forming activity in this Milky Way direction is evidenced by the presence here of the Cam OB1 association and dense dust and molecular clouds containing H$\\alpha$ emission stars, young irregular variables and infrared stellar objects. The clouds of the Local arm concentrate in two layers at 150-300 pc and at about 900 pc from the Sun. The Perseus arm objects in this direction are at a distance of about 2 kpc.

  1. Dynamical Capture Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-11-01

    We study dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers as may arise in dense stellar regions such as globular clusters. Using general-relativistic hydrodynamics, we find that these mergers can result in the prompt collapse to a black hole or in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star, depending not only on the neutron star equation of state but also on impact parameter. We also find that these mergers can produce accretion disks of up to a tenth of a solar mass and unbound ejected material of up to a few percent of a solar mass. We comment on the gravitational radiation and electromagnetic transients that these sources may produce.

  2. Topological Structure of Dense Hadronic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Vento, Vicente; Kim, Joon-Il; Min, Dong-Pil; Rho, Mannque

    2004-08-01

    We present a summary of work done on dense hadronic matter, based on the Skyrme model, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large Nc limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

  3. Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: from F-actin to polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nariya; Grest, Gary S; Everaers, Ralf

    2008-01-28

    We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide range of reduced polymer densities: (i) semidilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semiflexible (bio)polymers such as F-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together, these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts. PMID:18247995

  4. Viscoelasticity and primitive path analysis of entangled polymer liquids: From F-actin to polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Nariya; Grest, Gary S.; Everaers, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    We combine computer simulations and scaling arguments to develop a unified view of polymer entanglement based on the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state. Our results agree with experimentally measured plateau moduli for three different polymer classes over a wide range of reduced polymer densities: (i) semidilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, (ii) the corresponding dense melts above the glass transition or crystallization temperature, and (iii) solutions of semiflexible (bio)polymers such as F-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. Together, these systems cover the entire range from loosely to tightly entangled polymers. In particular, we argue that the primitive path analysis renormalizes a loosely to a tightly entangled system and provide a new explanation of the successful Lin-Noolandi packing conjecture for polymer melts.

  5. Cyanoacetylene in IC 342: An Evolving Dense Gas Component with Starburst Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Meier; Jean L. Turner; Eva Schinnerer

    2011-01-01

    We present the first images of the J = 5-4 and J = 16-15 lines of the dense gas tracer, cyanoacetylene, HC3N, in an external galaxy. The central 200 pc of the nearby star-forming spiral galaxy, IC 342, was mapped using the Very Large Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. HC3N(5-4) line emission is found across the nuclear mini-spiral,

  6. ON THE FORMATION OF GLYCOLALDEHYDE IN DENSE MOLECULAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Paul M.; Kelly, George; Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Slater, Ben; Brown, Wendy A.; Puletti, Fabrizio; Burke, Daren J.; Raza, Zamaan, E-mail: paul.woods@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    Glycolaldehyde is a simple monosaccharide sugar linked to prebiotic chemistry. Recently, it was detected in a molecular core in the star-forming region G31.41+0.31 at a reasonably high abundance. We investigate the formation of glycolaldehyde at 10 K to determine whether it can form efficiently under typical dense core conditions. Using an astrochemical model, we test five different reaction mechanisms that have been proposed in the astrophysical literature, finding that a gas-phase formation route is unlikely. Of the grain-surface formation routes, only two are efficient enough at very low temperatures to produce sufficient glycolaldehyde to match the observational estimates, with the mechanism culminating in CH{sub 3}OH + HCO being favored. However, when we consider the feasibility of these mechanisms from a reaction chemistry perspective, the second grain-surface route looks more promising, H{sub 3}CO + HCO.

  7. Time-dependent models of dense PDRs with complex molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, Oscar; Herbst, Eric

    2008-11-01

    We present a study of the chemistry of a dense photon-dominated region (PDR) using a time-dependent chemical model. Our major interest is to study the spatial distribution of complex molecules such as hydrocarbons and cyanopolyynes in the cool dense material bordering regions where star formation has taken place. Our standard model uses a homogeneous cloud of density 2 × 104cm-3 and temperature T = 40 K, which is irradiated by a far-ultraviolet radiation field of intermediate intensity, given by ? = 100. We find that over a range of times unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. C2H, C4H, C3H2) have relatively high fractional abundances in the more external layers of the PDR, whereas their abundances in the innermost layers are several orders of magnitudes lower. On the other hand, molecules that are typical of late-time chemistry are usually more abundant in the inner parts of the PDR. We also present results for models with different density, temperature, intensity of the radiation field and initial fractional abundances. Our results are compared with both high and moderate angular resolution observations of the Horsehead nebula. Our standard model is partially successful in reproducing the observations. Additional models run with different physical parameters are able to reproduce the abundance of many of the observed molecules, but we do not find a single model that fits all the observations at the same time. We discuss the suitability of a time-dependent model of a dense PDR such as ours as an estimator of the age of a PDR, provided that enough observational data exist.

  8. Time-dependent models of dense PDRs with complex molecules

    E-print Network

    O. Morata; E. Herbst

    2008-09-22

    We present a study of the chemistry of a dense photon-dominated region (PDR) using a time-dependent chemical model. Our major interest is to study the spatial distribution of complex molecules such as hydrocarbons and cyanopolyynes in the cool dense material bordering regions where star formation has taken place. Our standard model uses a homogeneous cloud of density 2x10e4 cm-3 and temperature T=40 K, which is irradiated by a far-ultraviolet radiation field of intermediate intensity, given by X=100. We find that over a range of times unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g., C2H, C4H, C3H2) have relatively high fractional abundances in the more external layers of the PDR, whereas their abundances in the innermost layers are several orders of magnitudes lower. On the other hand, molecules that are typical of late-time chemistry are usually more abundant in the inner parts of the PDR. We also present results for models with different density, temperature, intensity of the radiation field and initial fractional abundances. Our results are compared with both high- and moderate-angular resolution observations of the Horsehead nebula. Our standard model is partially successful in reproducing the observations. Additional models run with different physical parameters are able to reproduce the abundance of many of the observed molecules, but we do not find a single model that fits all the observations at the same time. We discuss the suitability of a time-dependent model of a dense PDR such as ours as an estimator of the age of a PDR, provided that enough observational data exist.

  9. Chemistry and radiative transfer of water in cold, dense clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keto, Eric; Rawlings, Jonathan; Caselli, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's recent detections of water vapour in the cold, dense cloud L1544 allow a direct comparison between observations and chemical models for oxygen species in conditions just before star formation. We explain a chemical model for gas-phase water, simplified for the limited number of reactions or processes that are active in extreme cold (<15 K). In this model, water is removed from the gas phase by freezing on to grains and by photodissociation. Water is formed as ice on the surface of dust grains from O and OH and released into the gas phase by photodesorption. The reactions are fast enough with respect to the slow dynamical evolution of L1544 that the gas-phase water is in equilibrium for the local conditions throughout the cloud. We explain the paradoxical radiative transfer of the H2O (110-101) line. Despite discouragingly high optical depth caused by the large Einstein A coefficient, the subcritical excitation in the cold, rarefied H2 causes the line brightness to scale linearly with column density. Thus, the water line can provide information on the chemical and dynamical processes in the darkest region in the centre of a cold, dense cloud. The inverse P-Cygni profile of the observed water line generally indicates a contracting cloud. This profile is reproduced with a dynamical model of slow contraction from unstable quasi-static hydrodynamic equilibrium (an unstable Bonnor-Ebert sphere).

  10. Origin of Warm High-Velocity Dense Gas in ULIRGs

    E-print Network

    Wada, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    Possible origins of the molecular absorption discovered in some ULIRGs are investigated, based on a 3-D hydrodynamic model of star-forming interstellar gas in a galactic central region. The blue-shifted, warm ($\\sim 200-300$ K), dense ($>10^6$ cm$^{-3}$) molecular gas suggested by CO absorption in IRAS 08752+3915 could be caused by the innermost region of the inhomogeneous inter-stellar medium (ISM) around a supermassive black hole. The infrequent observations of the dense gas with absorption in ULIRGs and Seyfert 2 galaxies could simply suggest that the high-density regions occupy only a very small volume fraction of the obscuring material. This is naturally expected if the inhomogeneous structure of the ISM is caused by non-linear development of instabilities. The model predicts a turbulent velocity field in the obscuring material, therefore blue- and red-shifted gases should be observable with nearly the same probability for the large enough statistical samples.

  11. Origin of Warm High-Velocity Dense Gas in ULIRGs

    E-print Network

    Keiichi Wada

    2007-06-19

    Possible origins of the molecular absorption discovered in some ULIRGs are investigated, based on a 3-D hydrodynamic model of star-forming interstellar gas in a galactic central region. The blue-shifted, warm ($\\sim 200-300$ K), dense ($>10^6$ cm$^{-3}$) molecular gas suggested by CO absorption in IRAS 08752+3915 could be caused by the innermost region of the inhomogeneous inter-stellar medium (ISM) around a supermassive black hole. The infrequent observations of the dense gas with absorption in ULIRGs and Seyfert 2 galaxies could simply suggest that the high-density regions occupy only a very small volume fraction of the obscuring material. This is naturally expected if the inhomogeneous structure of the ISM is caused by non-linear development of instabilities. The model predicts a turbulent velocity field in the obscuring material, therefore blue- and red-shifted gases should be observable with nearly the same probability for the large enough statistical samples.

  12. Testing Gravity Theories Using Stars

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Sakstein; Bhuvnesh Jain; Vinu Vikram

    2014-09-12

    Modified theories of gravity have received a renewed interest due to their ability to account for the cosmic acceleration. In order to satisfy the solar system tests of gravity, these theories need to include a screening mechanism that hides the modifications on small scales. One popular and well-studied theory is chameleon gravity. Our own galaxy is necessarily screened, but less dense dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and their constituent stars can exhibit novel features. In particular, unscreened stars are brighter, hotter and more ephemeral than screened stars in our own galaxy. They also pulsate with a shorter period. In this essay, we exploit these new features to constrain chameleon gravity to levels three orders of magnitude lower the previous measurements. These constraints are currently the strongest in the literature.

  13. Aperture Synthesis Images of Dense Molecular Gas in Nearby Galaxies with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array

    E-print Network

    Kotaro Kohno; Ryohei Kawabe; Toshihito Shibatsuka; Satoki Matsushita

    1999-09-24

    In order to study the distribution of dense molecular gas and its relation to the central activities (starburst and AGN) in galaxies, we have conducted an imaging survey of HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) emissions from nearby spiral galaxies with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. In starburst galaxies, we find that there is good spatial coincidence between dense molecular gas and star-forming regions. The ratios of HCN to CO integrated intensities on the brightness temperature scale, R(HCN/CO), are as high as 0.1 to 0.2 in the starburst regions, and quickly decrease outside of these regions. In contrast, we find a remarkable decrease of the HCN emission in the post-starburst nuclei, despite the strong CO concentrations there. The R(HCN/CO) values in the central a few 100 pc regions of these quiescent galaxies are very low, 0.02 to 0.04. A rough correlation between R(HCN/CO) and Ha/CO ratios, which is an indicator of star formation efficiency, is found at a few 100 pc scale. The fraction of dense molecular gas in the total molecular gas, measured from R(HCN/CO), may be an important parameter that controls star formation. In some Seyfert galaxies we find extremely high R(HCN/CO) exceeding 0.3. These very high ratios are never observed even in strong starburst regions, implying a physical link between extremely high R(HCN/CO) and Seyfert activity.

  14. From Commodity Polymers to Functional Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Tao; Wang, Ling-Ren; Ma, Lang; Han, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Rui; Cheng, Chong; Xia, Yi; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Functional polymers bear specified chemical groups, and have specified physical, chemical, biological, pharmacological, or other uses. To adjust the properties while keeping material usage low, a method for direct synthesis of functional polymers is indispensable. Here we show that various functional polymers can be synthesized by in situ cross-linked polymerization/copolymerization. We demonstrate that the polymers synthesized by the facile method using different functional monomers own outstanding pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility, antifouling property, antibacterial, and anticoagulant property. Our study opens a route for the functionalization of commodity polymers, which lead to important advances in polymeric materials applications. PMID:24710333

  15. Dynamics and evolution of dense stellar systems

    E-print Network

    Fregeau, John M. (John Michael), 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis comprises a theoretical study of several aspects relating to the dynamics and evolution of dense stellar systems such as globular clusters. First, I present the results of a study of ...

  16. Architecture of nanostructured polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Ishizu; Keiichiro Tsubaki; Akihide Mori; Satoshi Uchida

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the synthesis and properties of nanostructural polymers with different macromolecular architecture. Special emphasis is placed on hyperbranched polymers, rod-like macromolecules and polymer brushes. Hyperbranched polymers were prepared by various types of living radical mechanisms of functionalized vinyl monomers and showed hard sphere-like behavior in dilute solution with increasing degree of branching. This reflected on the compact nature

  17. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  18. Electron scattering in hot-dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Hot-dense plasmas have direct industrial applications in inertial confinement fusion. We have used the convergent close-coupling (CCC) method to investigate electron scattering off hydrogen and helium atoms in a hot-dense weakly coupled (Debye) plasma. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hückel potential has been used to describe the plasma screening effects. Integrated excitation, total ionization and total cross sections have been calculated over a broad range of energies and various Debye lengths, D.

  19. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  20. Approximating Edge Dominating Set in Dense Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Schmiedand; Claus Viehmann

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a We study the approximation complexity of the Minimum Edge Dominating Set problem in everywhere ?-dense and average [`<\\/font\\u000a>(e<\\/font\\u000a>)]\\\\bar{\\\\epsilon}-dense graphs. More precisely, we consider the computational complexity of approximating a generalization of the Minimum Edge\\u000a Dominating Set problem, the so called Minimum Subset Edge Dominating Set problem. As a direct result, we obtain for the special case of the

  1. THE DYNAMICS OF DENSE CORES IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD. II. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DENSE CORES AND THE CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Helen; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa, E-mail: hkirk@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    We utilize the extensive data sets available for the Perseus molecular cloud to analyze the relationship between the kinematics of small-scale dense cores and the larger structures in which they are embedded. The kinematic measures presented here can be used in conjunction with those discussed in our previous work as strong observational constraints that numerical simulations (or analytic models) of star formation should match. We find that dense cores have small motions with respect to the {sup 13}CO gas, about one third of the {sup 13}CO velocity dispersion along the same line of sight. Within each extinction region, the core-to-core velocity dispersion is about half of the total ({sup 13}CO) velocity dispersion seen in the region. Large-scale velocity gradients account for roughly half of the total velocity dispersion in each region, similar to what is predicted from large-scale turbulent modes following a power spectrum of P(k) {proportional_to} k {sup -4}.

  2. Quark Matter in Neutron Stars: An apercu

    E-print Network

    Prashanth Jaikumar; Sanjay Reddy; Andrew W. Steiner

    2006-08-16

    The existence of deconfined quark matter in the superdense interior of neutron stars is a key question that has drawn considerable attention over the past few decades. Quark matter can comprise an arbitrary fraction of the star, from 0 for a pure neutron star to 1 for a pure quark star, depending on the equation of state of matter at high density. From an astrophysical viewpoint, these two extreme cases are generally expected to manifest different observational signatures. An intermediate fraction implies a hybrid star, where the interior consists of mixed or homogeneous phases of quark and nuclear matter, depending on surface and Coulomb energy costs, as well as other finite size and screening effects. In this brief review article, we discuss what we can deduce about quark matter in neutron stars in light of recent exciting developments in neutron star observations. We state the theoretical ideas underlying the equation of state of dense quark matter, including color superconducting quark matter. We also highlight recent advances stemming from re-examination of an old paradigm for the surface structure of quark stars and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios from neutron stars to quark stars, with emphasis on astrophysical observations.

  3. Molecular Dynamics for Dense Matter

    E-print Network

    Toshiki Maruyama; Gentaro Watanabe; Satoshi Chiba

    2012-07-05

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to the neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions on the nuclear structure. First we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that the pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With increase of density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei change to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss the fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  4. Magnetar oscillations pose challenges for strange stars

    E-print Network

    Anna L. Watts; Sanjay Reddy

    2007-05-04

    Compact relativistic stars allow us to study the nature of matter under extreme conditions, probing regions of parameter space that are otherwise inaccessible. Nuclear theory in this regime is not well constrained: one key issue is whether neutron stars are in fact composed primarily of strange quark matter. Distinguishing the two possibilities, however, has been difficult. The recent detection of seismic vibrations in the aftermath of giant flares from two magnetars (highly magnetized compact stars) is a major breakthrough. The oscillations excited seem likely to involve the stellar crust, the properties of which differ dramatically for strange stars. We show that the resulting mode frequencies cannot be reconciled with the observations for reasonable magnetar parameters. Ruling out strange star models would place a strong constraint on models of dense quark matter.

  5. The Equation of State in Neutron Star Matter James M. Lattimer

    E-print Network

    Lattimer, James M.

    The Equation of State in Neutron Star Matter James M. Lattimer Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences constrain these parameters. 1. INTRODUCTION The equation of state of dense matter is crucial, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA Some effects of the equation of state of dense

  6. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  7. Hydrogen cyanide polymers: from laboratory to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Clifford N.

    1995-02-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers - heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to red to black - may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the solar system The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley for example, may consist largely of such polymers. It seems likely. too, that HCN polymers are a major constituent of the dark. C?N bearing solids identified tentatively by IR spectra in the dust of some other comets. HCN polymerization could also account for some of the yellow-orange-red coloration of Jupiter and Saturn, and perhaps for the orange haze high in Titan's atmosphere. Studies of these polymers show that a yellow-brown powder can be extracted by water and further hydrolyzed to vield ?-amino acids. Several instrumental methods used for the separation and identification of these intriguing materials. including pyrolysis mass spectrometry, Fourier transform IR photoacoustic spectroscopy and supercritical fluid extraction chromatography, reveal fragmentation patterns and chemical functionalities consistent with the presence of polymeric peptide precursors - polyamidines - in HCN polymers. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers and other organic products through bolide bombardment or terrestrial synthesis, producing a proteinaceous matrix able to bring about the molecular interactions leading to the emergence or life. Cyanide polymerization could also he a preferred pathway beyond Earth and the solar system, on planetary bodies and satellites around other stars and in the dusty molecular clouds of spiral galaxies.

  8. Manipulating the backbone structure of semiconducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscombe, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Pi-Conjugated polymers are being used in the fabrication of a wide variety of organic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The advances made in organic electronics have been driven by the syntheses of pi-conjugated polymers with increasingly complex structures but have heavily relied on an Edisonian approach. Despite these advances, there are many contradictory reports in the literature about our understanding of the performance of ?-conjugated polymers in many applications. Our group has been studying and developing techniques to grow semiconducting polymers using a living polymerization method. This has allowed us to synthesize polymer architectures that we haven't been able to access till now including polythiophene brushes, star-shaped P3HT, as well as hyperbranched P3HT. It also allows us to accurately control the molecular weights of P3HT and produce materials with a narrow molecular weight distribution. In this presentation, our work towards creating brush polymers will be presented where a series of fully conjugated graft copolymers containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) side chains and a p-type carbazole-diketopyrrolopyrrole donor-acceptor backbone were synthesized via a graft through Suzuki polymerization.

  9. Aqueous phase deposition of dense tin oxide films with nano-structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Yoshitake, E-mail: masuda-y@aist.go.jp; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-06-01

    Dense tin oxide films were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. The pH of the solutions was controlled to pH 1.3 by addition of HCl. Precise control of solution condition and crystal growth allowed us to obtain dense tin oxide films. Concave–convex surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was entirely-covered with the continuous films. The films were about 65 nm in thickness and had nano-structured surfaces. Morphology of the films was strikingly different from our previous reported nano-sheet assembled structures. The films were not removed from the substrates by strong water flow or air blow to show strong adhesion strength. The aqueous solution process can be applied to surface coating of various materials such as nano/micro-structured surfaces, particles, fibers, polymers, metals or biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. They had nano-structured surfaces. Concave-convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films. - Highlights: • Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. • They had nano-structured surfaces. • Concave–convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films.

  10. Spatial distribution of dust from cirrus to dense clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abergel, A.; Andr'e, P.; Bacmann, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bontemps, S.; Boulanger, F.; Coulais, A.; Desert, F. X.; Falgarone, E.; Kaas, A. A.; Huldtgren, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M. A.; Nordh, L.; Olofsson, G.; Perault, M.; Puget, J. L.

    1999-03-01

    Large scale mapping of several star forming regions in the interstellar medium has been conducted with ISOCAM in two broad-band filters (5-8.5 and 12-18 ?m). The small scale (3-6 arcsec) extended mid-IR emission of dust at different stages of evolution and in a wide range of illuminations and densities has been revealed. The structure of the infra-red emission of illuminated edges of nearby molecular clouds gives strong constraints on the penetration of UV radiations through these clouds and on their small scale density structure. For both the Horsehead nebula and the interface of the main cloud of ? Ophiuchi, the edges of the molecular clouds strongly illuminated by B stars present extremely steep increases of column density, while the extinction of incident radiation inside the clouds appears compatible with homogeneous matter at small scale (typically below ~ 0.01 pc). Dense cores are seen as deep absorption structures against a diffuse background emission. The density profiles derived from the extinction profiles depart from a r-2 law due to a central flattening (typically for r < 0.02 pc). The steepest gradients in outer regions can be modelled with density profiles at least as steep as a r-2 law. Finally ISOCAM data also allow to extend the statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium down to a few arcsec scales.

  11. Microporous polyvinylidene fluoride film with dense surface enables efficient piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dajing; Zhang, John X. J.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that asymmetric porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film, with pores mostly distributed in the bulk but not at the surfaces, can be used as a highly efficient piezoelectric energy generation device. For such microporous PVDF film with dense or pore-free surface, piezoelectric theory shows the efficiency of energy conversion by piezoelectric device depends upon the structure compressibility. Film mechanical properties can be controlled by dispersing micro-scale pores in a polymer matrix with a dense top layer. Piezoelectric output is enhanced by optimization of PVDF micro-structure and electromechanical coupling efficiency. The power output increased three folds with a designed three-dimensional asymmetric porous structure as compared to solid film.

  12. Thermal properties of hot and dense matter with finite range interactions

    E-print Network

    Constantinos Constantinou; Brian Muccioli; Madappa Prakash; James M. Lattimer

    2015-04-15

    We explore the thermal properties of hot and dense matter using a model that reproduces the empirical properties of isospin symmetric and asymmetric bulk nuclear matter, optical model fits to nucleon-nucleus scattering data, heavy-ion flow data in the energy range 0.5-2 GeV/A, and the largest well-measured neutron star mass of 2 $\\rm{M}_\\odot$. Results of this model which incorporates finite range interactions through Yukawa type forces are contrasted with those of a zero-range Skyrme model that yields nearly identical zero-temperature properties at all densities for symmetric and asymmetric nucleonic matter and the maximum neutron star mass, but fails to account for heavy-ion flow data due to the lack of an appropriate momentum dependence in its mean field. Similarities and differences in the thermal state variables and the specific heats between the two models are highlighted. Checks of our exact numerical calculations are performed from formulas derived in the strongly degenerate and non-degenerate limits. Our studies of the thermal and adiabatic indices, and the speed of sound in hot and dense matter for conditions of relevance to core-collapse supernovae, the thermal evolution of neutron stars from their birth and mergers of compact binary stars reveal that substantial variations begin to occur at sub-saturation densities before asymptotic values are reached at supra-nuclear densities.

  13. ZIENKIEWICZ et al.: DENSE, AUTO-CALIBRATING VISUAL ODOMETRY 1 Dense, Auto-Calibrating Visual Odometry

    E-print Network

    Davison, Andrew

    ZIENKIEWICZ et al.: DENSE, AUTO-CALIBRATING VISUAL ODOMETRY 1 Dense, Auto-Calibrating Visual is now widely considered a suitable technology for mobile robot naviga- tion, but few practical mass-market relative to the robot is known accurately. We therefore present an accurate, rapid and fully automatic auto

  14. Universe: Birth, Life, and Death of Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of five Science Objects in the Universe SciPack. It explores the life cycle of stars and the variables that determine eventual characteristics of stars. The formation of a star begins with an immense cloud, containing molecules of the lightest elements, collapses under the influence of gravity. The molecules in the cloud heat (up as the cloud becomes more dense) until light elements consistently fuse into heavier ones, producing large amounts of energy. Eventually, the most massive of stars explode, producing new clouds that contain heavier elements. These new clouds of material set the stage for the formation of other stars and planets, in a cycle that repeatedly continues even today. The speed of this process and ultimate fate of a star depends primarily on its initial mass. Stars can differ from each other in size, temperature, and age, but they all behave according to the same physical principles. Learning Outcomes:? Recount key aspects of the stellar life cycle. ? Recognize the variables and conditions that would be needed to make predictions about the life cycle of a star, including the prominent role of initial mass. ? Determine whether a reasonable prediction can be made, given certain knowns and unknowns.? Explain how the elements that compose our planet and solar system (and the rest of the universe) were formed.? Explain where the energy released by our Sun and other stars comes from.

  15. Simplified tube models for entangled supramolecular polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudara, Victor; Read, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This presentation describes current efforts investigating non-linear rheology of entangled, supramolecular polymeric materials. We describe two recently developed models: 1) We have developed a simplified model for the rheology of entangled telechelic star polymers. This is based on a pre-averaged orientation tensor, a stretch equation, and stretch-dependant probability of detachment of the sticker. In both linear and non-linear regimes, we produce maps of the whole parameter space, indicating the parameter values for which qualitative changes in response to flow are predicted. Results in the linear rheology regime are consistent with previous more detailed models and are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. 2) Using the same modelling framework, we investigate entangled linear polymers with stickers along the backbone. We use a set of coupled equations to describe the stretch between each stickers, and use equations similar to our star model for attachment/detachment of the sticky groups. This model is applicable to industrial polymers such as entangled thermoplastic elasomers, or functionalised model linear polymers. The work leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement No. 607937 (SUPOLEN).

  16. Sea Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  17. Self-regulated star formation in galaxies via momentum input from massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2011-10-01

    Feedback from massive stars is believed to play a critical role in shaping the galaxy mass function, the structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the low efficiency of star formation, but the exact form of the feedback is uncertain. In this paper, the first in a series, we present and test a novel numerical implementation of stellar feedback resulting from momentum imparted to the ISM by radiation, supernovae and stellar winds. We employ a realistic cooling function, and find that a large fraction of the gas cools to ?100 K, so that the ISM becomes highly inhomogeneous. Despite this, our simulated galaxies reach an approximate steady state, in which gas gravitationally collapses to form giant 'molecular' clouds (GMCs), dense clumps and stars; subsequently, stellar feedback disperses the GMCs, repopulating the diffuse ISM. This collapse and dispersal cycle is seen in models of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-like dwarfs, the Milky Way and z˜ 2 clumpy disc analogues. The simulated global star formation efficiencies are consistent with the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Moreover, the star formation rates are nearly independent of the numerically imposed high-density star formation efficiency, density threshold and density scaling. This is a consequence of the fact that, in our simulations, star formation is regulated by stellar feedback limiting the amount of very dense gas available for forming stars. In contrast, in simulations without stellar feedback, i.e. under the action of only gravity and gravitationally induced turbulence, the ISM experiences runaway collapse to very high densities. In these simulations without feedback, the global star formation rates exceed observed galactic star formation rates by 1-2 orders of magnitude, demonstrating that stellar feedback is crucial to the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  18. SUBMILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF DENSE CLUMPS IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G049.40-00.01

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Miju; Choi, Minho [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Bieging, John H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SOFIA Science Center, USRA/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Tsai, Chao-Wei, E-mail: mjkang@kasi.re.kr [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We obtained 350 and 850 {mu}m continuum maps of the infrared dark cloud G049.40-00.01. Twenty-one dense clumps were identified within G049.40-00.01 based on the 350 {mu}m continuum map with an angular resolution of about 9.''6. We present submillimeter continuum maps and report physical properties of the clumps. The masses of clumps range from 50 to 600 M{sub Sun }. About 70% of the clumps are associated with bright 24 {mu}m emission sources, and they may contain protostars. The two most massive clumps show extended, enhanced 4.5 {mu}m emission indicating vigorous star-forming activity. The clump-size-mass distribution suggests that many of them are forming high-mass stars. G049.40-00.01 contains numerous objects in various evolutionary stages of star formation, from pre-protostellar clumps to H II regions.

  19. Facile fabrication of microsphere-polymer brush hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) substrates for immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiao; Luan, Shifang; Song, Lingjie; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Yan, Shunjie; Jin, Jing; Yin, Jinghua

    2015-04-21

    We propose a facile UV strategy to construct a hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) substrate that comprises a polystyrene (PS) microsphere layer on the cycloolefin polymer (COP) substrate and densely packed hydrophilic polymer brushes grafting from this 3D backbone. This hierarchical substrate gives a high antibody loading capacity and 3D manner of analyte capture, therefore enhancing detection signal while reducing background noise. PMID:25787107

  20. Capillary electrophoresis of DNA restriction fragments: effect of polymer properties.

    PubMed

    Braun, B; Blanch, H W; Prausnitz, J M

    1997-10-01

    The mechanism of DNA separation by dilute polymer solutions in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood. To provide information on the effect of polymer properties on DNA separations, four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness were examined. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23,130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp; star-poly(ethylene oxide) and linear poly(ethylene oxide) provide separation of fragments to 1353 bp. PMID:9420158

  1. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-01

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. The surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter. PMID:25583640

  2. Scintillating Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Riddle

    2003-02-01

    Often, a bright planet that is visible over the horizon will be mistaken for a star. Some believe they can tell the difference between a star and a planet because stars twinkle, or scintillate , and planets do not. In actuality however, both will twinkle because any light that passes through our atmosphere, whether it be reflected from a planet or generated by a star, will be interfered with by the atmospheric elements. This month's column sheds light on this "scintillating" subject and engages students in a research activity that revolves around the question: Is Pluto a planet?

  3. The dense gas mass fraction of molecular clouds in the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, Andrew J.; Heyer, Mark H., E-mail: abattist@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: heyer@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The mass fraction of dense gas within giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of the Milky Way is investigated using {sup 13}CO data from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Plane Surveys and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) of 1.1 mm dust continuum emission. A sample of 860 compact dust sources are selected from the BGPS catalog and kinematically linked to 344 clouds of extended (>3') {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 emission. Gas masses are tabulated for the full dust source and subregions within the dust sources with mass surface densities greater than 200 M {sub ?} pc{sup –2}, which are assumed to be regions of enhanced volume density. Masses of the parent GMCs are calculated assuming optically thin {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The mean fractional mass of dust sources to host GMC mass is 0.11{sub ?0.06}{sup +0.12}. The high column density subregions comprise 0.07{sub ?0.05}{sup +0.13} of the mass of the cloud. Owing to our assumptions, these values are upper limits to the true mass fractions. The fractional mass of dense gas is independent of GMC mass and gas surface density. The low dense gas mass fraction suggests that the formation of dense structures within GMCs is the primary bottleneck for star formation. The distribution of velocity differences between the dense gas and the low density material along the line of sight is also examined. We find a strong, centrally peaked distribution centered on zero velocity displacement. This distribution of velocity differences is modeled with radially converging flows toward the dense gas position that are randomly oriented with respect to the observed line of sight. These models constrain the infall velocities to be 2-4 km s{sup –1} for various flow configurations.

  4. Engineering fibrin polymers through engagement of alternative polymerization mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.; Gourley, Merek; Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Hoying, James B.; Barker, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin is an attractive material for regenerative medicine applications. It not only forms a polymer but also contains cryptic matrikines that are released upon its activation/degradation and enhance the regenerative process. Despite this advantageous biology associated with fibrin, commercially available systems (e.g. TISSEEL) display limited regenerative capacity. This limitation is in part due to formulations that are optimized for tissue sealant applications and result in dense fibrous networks that limit cell infiltration. Recent evidence suggests that polymerization knob ‘B’ engagement of polymerization hole ‘b’ activates an alternative polymerization mechanism in fibrin, which may result in altered single fiber mechanical properties. We hypothesized that augmenting fibrin polymerization through the addition of PEGylated knob peptides with specificity to hole ‘b’ (AHRPYAAC-PEG) would result in distinct fibrin polymer architectures with grossly different physical properties. Polymerization dynamics, polymer architecture, diffusivity, viscoelasticity, and degradation dynamics were analyzed. Results indicate that specific engagement of hole ‘b’ with PEGylated knob ‘B’ conjugates during polymerization significantly enhances the porosity of and subsequent diffusivity through fibrin polymers. Paradoxically, these polymers also display increased viscoelastic properties and decreased susceptibility to degradation. As a result, fibrin polymer strength was significantly augmented without any adverse effects on angiogenesis within the modified polymers. PMID:22018389

  5. Dense packing: surgical indications and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer

    2013-08-01

    Dense packing is the philosophy of fitting more than 30 to 35 follicular unit grafts per square centimeter in one operation. The aim is to produce a more even, consistent, and natural looking flow of hair after just one procedure. Although desirable in principle, not all patients are suitable candidates nor is it possible to achieve in certain patients (eg, coarse or curly hair). Patients who have sufficient donor availability, reasonably stable hair loss, and high hair-to-skin color ratios are the ideal candidates. The authors highlight their philosophies and strategies for dense packing. PMID:24017984

  6. Mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers via stable free radical polymerization

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    efficiency. The nema- tic phase of these polymers was determined to be stable over the temperature range spanning the polymer glass transition temperature up to the temperature for thermal decomposition for styrene and its deriva- tives1­5) . As an example of the diversity of materials so far produced, star

  7. STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lombardi, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: clada@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: marco.lombardi@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

  8. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    E-print Network

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-12-17

    Engineering Polymer Informatics Nico Adams, Jen Ryder, Nicholas England, David Jessop, Peter Corbett, Peter Murray-Rust Our mission is to develop an informatics toolbox, which will take into account the special computational needs of polymers...

  9. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  10. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  11. Study of iso/dense bias of BARCs and gap-fill materials on via wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Runhui

    2006-03-01

    The topography of a back-end wafer contains high-aspect vias that are unevenly distributed on a wafer with pitches ranging from 1:1 dense to isolated. The difference in via density causes thickness bias across the wafer, which causes the shift of resist depth of focus and critical dimension swing. The bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) topography is formed basically after spin coating and reshaped through thermal reflowing when the coating is baked at high temperature to cure the film. In this paper, we discuss the thicknesess at isolated and dense via patterned areas in the spin-coating process and the baking process. Spin coating is a method commonly used to cast BARC and gap-fill materials on silicon wafers. The first stage of spin coating is the deposition of the coating liquid onto the wafer. The second stage is when the substrate is accelerated up to its final, desired rotation speed. The third stage is when the substrate is spinning at a constant rate and fluid viscous forces dominate the fluid thinning behavior. The fourth stage is when the substrate is spinning at a constant rate and solvent evaporation dominates the coating thinning behavior. Viscous flow and solvent evaporation occur throughout all stages. After spin coating, high-temperature baking cures the film and makes it insoluble in organic solvents that are used in the next spin-coating step. However, this step also gives the polymer a chance to undergo thermal flow because the bake temperature is much higher than the polymer's glass transition temperature (T g). A chemical reaction occurs at the same time to form a polymer network that stops the thermal flow. The study of how far material can flow before the gel point of the polymer has been reached is presented in this paper. The calculation of the material transformation due to solvent evaporation and polymer rheometry is based on dynamic and kinetic effects. The work described in this paper showed how the parameters related to material properties and to the chemical reaction of crosslinking affected iso/dense bias. This work gives us guidance regarding what kind of materials and process conditions are good for planarization.

  12. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes as a supernova at the end of its life. The pulsars in Terzan 5 are the product of a complex history. The stars in the cluster formed about 10 billion years ago, the astronomers say. Some of the most massive stars in the cluster exploded and left the neutron stars as their remnants after only a few million years. Normally, these neutron stars would no longer be seen as swiftly-rotating pulsars: their spin would have slowed because of the "drag" of their intense magnetic fields until the "lighthouse" effect is no longer observable. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) However, the dense concentration of stars in the cluster gave new life to the pulsars. In the core of a globular cluster, as many as a million stars may be packed into a volume that would fit easily between the Sun and our nearest neighbor star. In such close quarters, stars can pass near enough to form new binary pairs, split apart such pairs, and binary systems even can trade partners, like an elaborate cosmic square dance. When a neutron star pairs up with a "normal" companion star, its strong gravitational pull can draw material off the companion onto the neutron star. This also transfers some of the companion's spin, or angular momentum, to the neutron star, thereby "recycling" the neutron star into a rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsar. In Terzan 5, all the pulsars discovered are rotating rapidly as a result of this process. Astronomers previously had discovered three pulsars in Terzan 5, some 28,000 light-years distant in the constellation Sagittarius, but suspected there were more. On July 17, 2004, Ransom and his colleagues used the GBT, and, in a 6-hour observation, found 14 new pulsars, the most ever found in a single observation. "This was possible because of the great sensitivity of the GBT and the new capabilities of our backend processor," said Ingrid Stairs, a professor at the Univer

  13. Core-Clickable PEG-Branch-Azide Bivalent-Bottle-Brush Polymers by ROMP: Grafting-Through and Clicking-To

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Core-Clickable PEG-Branch-Azide Bivalent-Bottle-Brush Polymers by ROMP: Grafting)-branch-azide bivalent-brush polymers, facilitated by "graft-through" ring-opening metathesis polymerization time.10-12 Branched polymeric structures such as dendrimers, star poly- mers, bottle-brush polymers

  14. Polymer Hydrogels: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waham Ashaier Laftah; Shahrir Hashim; Akos N. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This review encompasses definitions, classification, main properties, and application of polymer hydrogels. Raw materials and preparation techniques of polymer hydrogels were described. The factors that affect absorption capacity and swelling properties of polymer hydrogels were reviewed. PHG materials are defined as a viscoelastic network structure, swellable and not soluble in water with high absorbent capacity, which may reach 1000 g\\/g of

  15. Responsive Polymer Brushes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergiy Minko

    2006-01-01

    The review focuses on responsive\\/switching behavior of polymer brushes. The structure of the polymer brushes is analyzed in terms of the constitution and conformation of polymer chains. Responsive properties are widely discussed based on phase transition mechanisms in a controlled environment when changes are induced by solvent quality, temperature, concentration of ions, and interactions with liquids and solids. Potential applications

  16. Polymer supply chain management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukran Kadipasaoglu; Jennifer Captain; Mark James

    2008-01-01

    A typical polymer supply chain network includes multiple plants, large number of storage terminals, customers and consignment locations, and complex distribution requirements. Here, we describe the complexity of polymer supply chain from 'logical positivist\\/empiricist' viewpoint based on in-depth interviews with supply chain managers of four major polymer manufacturers and on our experience in the industry. We begin by defining marketplace

  17. Polymers for engineering applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the world of engineering plastics. It discusses the polymers, their properties strengths and limitations. There are 11 chapters, organized so that each chapter builds on the knowledge of the previous material. Coverage includes important polymer concepts, such as molecular structure, bonding, morphology and molecular weight, and polymer properties, such as thermal expansion, thermal transition,

  18. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  19. Pair diffusion, hydrodynamic interactions, and available volume in dense fluids.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Jeetain; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-07-21

    We calculate the pair diffusion coefficient D(r) as a function of the distance r between two hard sphere particles in a dense monodisperse fluid. The distance-dependent pair diffusion coefficient describes the hydrodynamic interactions between particles in a fluid that are central to theories of polymer and colloid dynamics. We determine D(r) from the propagators (Green's functions) of particle pairs obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. At distances exceeding ~3 molecular diameters, the calculated pair diffusion coefficients are in excellent agreement with predictions from exact macroscopic hydrodynamic theory for large Brownian particles suspended in a solvent bath, as well as the Oseen approximation. However, the asymptotic 1/r distance dependence of D(r) associated with hydrodynamic effects emerges only after the pair distance dynamics has been followed for relatively long times, indicating non-negligible memory effects in the pair diffusion at short times. Deviations of the calculated D(r) from the hydrodynamic models at short distances r reflect the underlying many-body fluid structure, and are found to be correlated to differences in the local available volume. The procedure used here to determine the pair diffusion coefficients can also be used for single-particle diffusion in confinement with spherical symmetry. PMID:22830686

  20. Pair diffusion, hydrodynamic interactions, and available volume in dense fluids

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Jeetain; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the pair diffusion coefficient D(r) as a function of the distance r between two hard sphere particles in a dense monodisperse fluid. The distance-dependent pair diffusion coefficient describes the hydrodynamic interactions between particles in a fluid that are central to theories of polymer and colloid dynamics. We determine D(r) from the propagators (Green's functions) of particle pairs obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. At distances exceeding ?3 molecular diameters, the calculated pair diffusion coefficients are in excellent agreement with predictions from exact macroscopic hydrodynamic theory for large Brownian particles suspended in a solvent bath, as well as the Oseen approximation. However, the asymptotic 1/r distance dependence of D(r) associated with hydrodynamic effects emerges only after the pair distance dynamics has been followed for relatively long times, indicating non-negligible memory effects in the pair diffusion at short times. Deviations of the calculated D(r) from the hydrodynamic models at short distances r reflect the underlying many-body fluid structure, and are found to be correlated to differences in the local available volume. The procedure used here to determine the pair diffusion coefficients can also be used for single-particle diffusion in confinement with spherical symmetry. PMID:22830686

  1. Pair diffusion, hydrodynamic interactions, and available volume in dense fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Jeetain; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    We calculate the pair diffusion coefficient D(r) as a function of the distance r between two hard sphere particles in a dense monodisperse fluid. The distance-dependent pair diffusion coefficient describes the hydrodynamic interactions between particles in a fluid that are central to theories of polymer and colloid dynamics. We determine D(r) from the propagators (Green's functions) of particle pairs obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. At distances exceeding ˜3 molecular diameters, the calculated pair diffusion coefficients are in excellent agreement with predictions from exact macroscopic hydrodynamic theory for large Brownian particles suspended in a solvent bath, as well as the Oseen approximation. However, the asymptotic 1/r distance dependence of D(r) associated with hydrodynamic effects emerges only after the pair distance dynamics has been followed for relatively long times, indicating non-negligible memory effects in the pair diffusion at short times. Deviations of the calculated D(r) from the hydrodynamic models at short distances r reflect the underlying many-body fluid structure, and are found to be correlated to differences in the local available volume. The procedure used here to determine the pair diffusion coefficients can also be used for single-particle diffusion in confinement with spherical symmetry.

  2. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  3. Star Journey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn Anderson

    This National Geographic web-site contains information about the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) along with a star chart and facts about objects in the night sky. The HST section contains details about the building and structure of the HST, how it captures light, positioning the HST to targets, instruments used to record and measure infrared through UV wavelengths, how the HST is powered and communicates with the Earth. Star Attractions discusses properties of constellations, the Milky Way galaxy, other galaxies, star clusters and nebulae. This information is then put together on the National Geographic Star Chart. This chart contains maps of the heavens for the northern and southern hemispheres. The chart contains constellation names, location of stars and other objects, and links to HST images of various galaxies and objects on the chart with names and detailed descriptions. There is an image index to find HST images from the site, details about chart symbol meanings, and links for more information.

  4. Star dust.

    PubMed

    Ney, E P

    1977-02-11

    Infrared astronomy has shown that certain classes of stars are abundant producers of refractory grains, which condense in their atmospheres and are blown into interstellar space by the radiation pressure of these stars. Metallic silicates of the kind that produce terrestrial planets are injected by the oxygen-rich stars and carbon and its refractories by carbon stars. Much of the interstellar dust may be produced by this mechanism. A number of "infrared stars" are completely surrounded by their own dust, and a few of these exhibit a unique morphology that suggests the formation of a planetary system or a stage in the evolution of a planetary nebula. Certain novae also condense grains, which are blown out in their shells. In our own solar system, comets are found to contain the same silicates that are present elsewhere in the galaxy, suggesting that these constituents were present in the primeval solar nebula. PMID:17732279

  5. Coherence in Dense Cores. II. The Transition to Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1998-09-01

    After studying how line width depends on spatial scale in low-mass star-forming regions, we propose that ``dense cores'' (Myers & Benson 1983) represent an inner scale of a self-similar process that characterizes larger scale molecular clouds. In the process of coming to this conclusion, we define four distinct types of line width-size relation (?v~Rai), which have power-law slopes a1, a2, a3, and a4, as follows: Type 1--multitracer, multicloud intercomparison; Type 2--single-tracer, multicloud intercomparison; Type 3--multitracer study of a single cloud; and Type 4--single-tracer study of a single cloud. Type 1 studies (of which Larson 1981 is the seminal example) are compendia of Type 3 studies which illustrate the range of variation in the line width-size relation from one region to another. Using new measurements of the OH and C18O emission emanating from the environs of several of the dense cores studied in NH3 by Barranco & Goodman (1998; Paper I), we show that line width increases with size outside the cores with a4 ~ 0.2. On scales larger than those traced by C18O or OH, 12CO and 13CO observations indicate that a4 increases to ~0.5 (Heyer & Schloerb 1997). By contrast, within the half-power contour of the NH3 emission from the cores, line width is virtually constant, with a4 ~ 0. We interpret the correlation between increasing density and decreasing Type 4 power-law slope as a ``transition to coherence.'' Our data indicate that the radius Rcoh at which the gas becomes coherent (i.e., a4 --> 0) is of order 0.1 pc in regions forming primarily low-mass stars. The value of the nonthermal line width at which ``coherence'' is established is always less than but still of order of the thermal line width of H2. Thus coherent cores are similar to, but not exactly the same as, isothermal balls of gas. Two other results bolster our proposal that a transition to coherence takes place at ~0.1 pc. First, the OH, C18O, and NH3 maps show that the dependence of column density on size is much steeper (N ~ R-0.9) inside Rcoh than outside of it (N ~ R-0.2), which implies that the volume filling factor of coherent cores is much larger than in their surroundings. Second, Larson (1995) has recently found a break in the power law characterizing the clustering of stars in Taurus at 0.04 pc, just inside of Rcoh. Larson and we interpret this break in slope as the point at which stellar clustering properties change from being determined by the (fractal) gas distribution (on scales greater than 0.04 pc) to being determined by fragmentation processes within coherent cores (on scales less than 0.04 pc). We speculate that the transition to coherence takes place when a dissipation threshold for the MHD turbulence that characterizes the larger scale medium is crossed at the critical inner scale Rcoh. We suggest that the most likely explanation for this threshold is the marked decline in the coupling of the magnetic field to gas motions due to a decreased ion/neutral ratio in dense, high filling factor gas.

  6. Dense diffusion barrier limiting current oxygen sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Garzon; Ian Raistrick; Eric Brosha; Robert Houlton; Brandon W. Chung

    1998-01-01

    A new type of miniature amperometric oxygen sensor has been developed. The sensors are high temperature micro-electrochemical devices that use a dense diffusion barrier of a metal oxide that readily transports oxygen and conduct electrons. The diffusion barrier is deposited in thin film form on top of a zirconia-based electrochemical pump. When a voltage is applied to the pump, oxygen

  7. Nonmagnetic containment of a dense plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Vekshtein; D. D. Ryutov; M. D. Spektor; P. Z. Chebotaev

    1974-01-01

    A study is made of the possibility of confining a thermonuclear plasma with temperature T ~ 104 eV and density n ~ 1018 cm-3, not by magnetic field pressure, but by hard walls of a chamber (nonmagnetic containment). This method of plasma containment has some specific features: the occurrence of plasma flow, formation of a dense layer at the wall,

  8. Magnetism in Compact Ultra Dense Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Efrain J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the recent results on magnetism in high dense mediums, where the phenomenon of color superconductivity can be present, and its possible implications for the astrophysics of compact objects. The presentation will be organized through the answers to three fundamental questions.

  9. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  10. Visual Tracking System for Dense Traffic Intersections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Rostamianfar; F. Janabi-sharifi; I. Hassanzadeh

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a real-time visual tracking system for dense traffic intersections is presented. The system structure is based on background estimation and subtraction method. A novel method for background estimation based on statistical video background extraction (SVBE) is presented. A moving object detection algorithm for performing background subtraction from original image has been improved. To reduce noise, to improve

  11. Rho Meson in Dense Hadronic Matter 

    E-print Network

    Asakawa, M.; Ko, Che Ming; Levai, P.; Qiu, X. J.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral function of a rho meson that is at rest in dense hadronic matter and couples strongly to the pion is studied in the vector dominance model by including the effect of the delta-hole polarization on the pion. With the free rho-meson mass...

  12. Confined magnetic monopoles in dense QCD

    E-print Network

    Gorsky, A.

    Non-Abelian strings exist in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We show that kinks appearing in the world-sheet theory on these strings, in the form of the kink-antikink bound pairs, are the magnetic monopoles—descendants ...

  13. Dense flows of cohesive granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIERRE G. ROGNON; JEAN-NOËL ROUX; Mohamed Naa; FRANÇOIS CHEVOIR

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular dynamic simulations, we investigate the characteristics of dense flows of model cohesive grains. We describe their rheological behavior and its origin at the scale of the grains and of their organization. Homogeneous plane shear flows give access to the constitutive law of cohesive grains which can be expressed by a simple friction law similar to the case of

  14. Fitting smooth surfaces to dense polygon meshes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkat Krishnamurthy; Marc Levoy

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in acquiring shape from range data permits the ac- quisition of seamless million-polygon meshes from physical mod- els. In this paper, we present an algorithm and system for con vert- ing dense irregular polygon meshes of arbitrary topology in to ten- sor product B-spline surface patches with accompanying displace- ment maps. This choice of representation yields a coarse

  15. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Jason (Los Alamos, NM); Chen, Ching-Fong (Los Alamos, NM); Alexander, David (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  16. Dense-Core Secretory Granule Biogenesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Taeyoon Kim (National Institutes of Health Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)

    2006-04-01

    The dense-core secretory granule is a key organelle for secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in endocrine cells and neurons, in response to stimulation. Cholesterol and granins are critical for the assembly of these organelles at the trans-Golgi network, and their biogenesis is regulated quantitatively by posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms.

  17. Convex-dense Bivariate Polynomial Factorization

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    over K that we want to factor. At the present time, the best known complexity bounds for the squarefree and irreducible factorization problems are essentially obtained in terms of the dense size of F. This is relevant complexity result on support reduction, and then corollaries on factorizations. 1.1. Sizes of polynomials

  18. Review of Atomic Physics of Dense Plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. More

    2003-01-01

    Atomic physics of dense plasmas is a fascinating, complex and often difficult topic in plasma physics that draws from many scientific disciplines and is an integral part of the description of high energy-density plasmas, magnetic fusion plasmas, laser-plasma interactions and the science of warm condensed matter. In this talk, characteristic \\

  19. The Milky Way as a Star Formation Engine

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Sergio; Glover, Simon; Moore, Toby; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Plume, René; Testi, Leonardo; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Zavagno, Annie; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cycling of material from the interstellar medium (ISM) into stars and the return of stellar ejecta into the ISM is the engine that drives the ``galactic ecology'' in normal spirals, a cornerstone in the formation and evolution of galaxies through cosmic time. Major observational and theoretical challenges need to be addressed in determining the processes responsible for converting the low-density ISM into dense molecular clouds, forming dense filaments and clumps, fragmenting them into stars, OB associations and bound clusters, and characterizing the feedback that limits the rate and efficiency of star formation. This formidable task can be now effectively attacked thanks to the combination of new global-scale surveys of the Milky Way Galactic Plane from infrared to radio wavelengths, offering the possibility of bridging the gap between local and extragalactic star formation studies. The Herschel, Spitzer and WISE mid to far infrared continuum surveys, complemented by analogue surveys from ground-based fa...

  20. Star Formation in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, W.

    2008-12-01

    A review of work on the small, compact, nearby young cluster IC 348 is given. This region is particularly important because it is well surveyed at a variety of wavelengths and intermediate in nature between dense clusters and loose associations. Its earliest type star is B5 and it contains a few hundred stellar members as well as some brown dwarfs, protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and starless sub-mm cores. The total mass of its components is ˜90 M_?, most of which is in the form of pre-main sequence stars. Perhaps the biggest challenge to work on the cluster is the relatively high and variable extinction (A_v=3D1-7 mag). Studies to date have provided particularly valuable insights into the initial mass function, disk lifetimes, stellar rotation properties, X-ray properties, outflows and substructure of the cluster. Results on the stellar component include the following: 1) the initial mass function matches that for field stars in the stellar and brown dwarf regimes, 2) the fraction of stars with disks is probably normal for the cluster's age, 3) the rotation properties match those of the Orion Nebula Cluster and are significantly different, in the sense of slower rotation, than NGC 2264, 4) the X-ray properties of the stars appear normal for T Tauri stars. There is a ridge of high extinction that lies ˜10 arcmin (0.9 pc in projection) to the southwest of IC 348 and contains about a dozen Class 0 and I protostars as well as some Herbig Haro objects and sub-mm cores. This region, which also contains the "Flying Ghost Nebula" and the well-studied object HH 211, clearly signals that star formation in this part of the Perseus dark clouds is not yet finished. An extensive kinematical study involving both proper motions and radial velocities for the 400 members of the cluster would be most desirable.

  1. Magnetic neutron stars in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars with strong magnetic fields are considered in the framework of f( R) gravity. In order to describe dense matter in magnetic field, the model with baryon octet interacting through ???-fields is used. The hyperonization process results in softening the equation of state (EoS) and in decreasing the maximal mass. We investigate the effect of strong magnetic field in models involving quadratic and cubic corrections in the Ricci scalar R to the Hilbert-Einstein action. For large fields, the Mass-Radius relation differs considerably from that of General Relativity only for stars with masses close to the maximal one. Another interesting feature is the possible existence of more compact stable stars with extremely large magnetic fields (˜6×1018 G instead of ˜4×1018 G as in GR) in the central regions of the stars. Due to cubic terms, a significant increasing of the maximal mass is possible.

  2. Flexure modelling at seamounts with dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The lithospheric response to seamounts and ocean islands has been successfully described by deformation of an elastic plate induced by a given volcanic load. If the shape and mass of a seamount are known, the lithospheric flexure due to the seamount is determined by the thickness of an elastic plate, Te, which depends on the load density and the age of the plate at the time of seamount construction. We can thus infer important thermomechanical properties of the lithosphere from Te estimates at seamounts and their correlation with other geophysical inferences, such as cooling of the plate. Whereas the bathymetry (i.e. shape) of a seamount is directly observable, the total mass often requires an assumption of the internal seamount structure. The conventional approach considers the seamount to have a uniform density (e.g. density of the crust). This choice, however, tends to bias the total mass acting on an elastic plate. In this study, we will explore a simple approximation to the seamount's internal structure that considers a dense core and a less dense outer edifice. Although the existence of a core is supported by various gravity and seismic studies, the role of such volcanic cores in flexure modelling has not been fully addressed. Here, we present new analytic solutions for plate flexure due to axisymmetric dense core loads, and use them to examine the effects of dense cores in flexure calculations for a variety of synthetic cases. Comparing analytic solutions with and without a core indicates that the flexure model with uniform density underestimates Te by at least 25 per cent. This bias increases when the uniform density is taken to be equal to the crustal density. We also propose a practical application of the dense core model by constructing a uniform density load of same mass as the dense core load. This approximation allows us to compute the flexural deflection and gravity anomaly of a seamount in the wavenumber domain and minimize the limitations recognized from the analytic tests. Then, the dense core model is applied to predict the lithospheric flexure beneath Howland Island in the Tokelau seamount chain; these results are compared with the predictions of the uniform density model. Based on age dating of Howland and the age of the seafloor, traditional Te versus age curves predict the elastic plate thickness beneath the seamount to be around 20 km, which is comparable to the best dense core model of Te = 26 km. However, the best uniform density model is found at Te = 12 km, which is significantly less than the predicted. From our investigations of synthetic and real seamount cases, we conclude that the dense core model approximates the true mass distribution of a seamount better than the uniform density model. Finally, we suggest that the role of underplating in flexure modelling may need to be reexamined because the dense core model predicts substantially less deflections than the uniform density model without requiring additional buoyancy caused by underplated material.

  3. Quantum network dense coding via continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahao; He, Guangqiang

    2014-08-01

    We present a dense coding network based on continuous-variable graph state along with its corresponding protocol. A scheme to distill bipartite entanglement between two arbitrary modes in a graph state is provided in order to realize the dense coding network. We also analyze the capacity of network dense coding and provide a method to calculate its maximum mutual information. As an application, we analyze the performance of dense coding in a square lattice graph state network. The result showed that the mutual information of the dense coding is not largely affected by the complexity of the network. We conclude that the performance of dense coding network is very optimistic.

  4. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Spies Band of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's ultraviolet eyes have captured a globular star cluster, called NGC 362, in our own Milky Way galaxy. In this new image, the cluster appears next to stars from a more distant neighboring galaxy, known as the Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Globular clusters are densely packed bunches of old stars scattered in galaxies throughout the universe. NGC 362, located 30,000 light-years away, can be spotted as the dense collection of mostly yellow-tinted stars surrounding a large white-yellow spot toward the top-right of this image. The white spot is actually the core of the cluster, which is made up of stars so closely packed together that the Galaxy Evolution Explorer cannot see them individually.

    The light blue dots surrounding the cluster core are called extreme horizontal branch stars. These stars used to be very similar to our sun and are nearing the end of their lives. They are very hot, with temperatures reaching up to about four times that of the surface of our sun (25,000 Kelvin or 45,500 degrees Fahrenheit).

    A star like our sun spends most of its life fusing hydrogen atoms in its core into helium. When the star runs out of hydrogen in its core, its outer envelope will expand. The star then becomes a red giant, which burns hydrogen in a shell surrounding its inner core. Throughout its life as a red giant, the star loses a lot of mass, then begins to burn helium at its core. Some stars will have lost so much mass at the end of this process, up to 85 percent of their envelopes, that most of the envelope is gone. What is left is a very hot ultraviolet-bright core, or extreme horizontal branch star.

    Blue dots scattered throughout the image are hot, young stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way located approximately 200,000 light-years away. The stars in this galaxy are much brighter intrinsically than extreme horizontal branch stars, but they appear just as bright because they are farther away. The blue stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud are only about a few tens of millions of years old, much younger than the approximately 10-million-year-old stars in NGC 362.

    Because NGC 362 sits on the northern edge of the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy, the blue stars are denser toward the south, or bottom, of the image.

    Some of the yellow spots in this image are stars in the Milky Way galaxy that are along this line of sight. Astronomers believe that some of the other spots, particularly those closer to NGC 362, might actually be a relatively ultraviolet-dim family of stars called 'blue stragglers.' These stars are formed from collisions or close encounters between two closely orbiting stars in a globular cluster.

    This image is a false-color composite, where light detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far-ultraviolet detector is colored blue, and light from the telescope's near-ultraviolet detector is red.

  5. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  6. Pair Potential of Charged Colloidal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Addas, K.; Ward, A.; Flynn, N. T.; Velasco, E.; Hagan, M. F.; Dogic, Z.; Fraden, S.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the construction of colloidal stars: 1?m polystyrene beads grafted with a dense brush of 1?m long and 10 nm wide charged semiflexible filamentous viruses. The pair interaction potentials of colloidal stars are measured using an experimental implementation of umbrella sampling, a technique originally developed in computer simulations in order to probe rare events. The influence of ionic strength and grafting density on the interaction is measured. Good agreements are found between the measured interactions and theoretical predictions based upon the osmotic pressure of counterions.

  7. Accretion at a magnetic pole of a neutron star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K.

    1973-01-01

    As accreted material falls to the surface of a magnetized neutron star like Cen X-3 or Her X-1, it is arrested by radiation pressure in such a manner that a hot, dense mound of nearly stationary gas protrudes above each magnetic pole. Energy released above the mound diffuses out as moderately hard X rays; but that released within the mound emerges as soft X rays from the whole surface of the neutron star.

  8. Neutron star properties with in-medium vector mesons

    E-print Network

    F. Weber; Gy. Wolf; T. Maruyama; S. Chiba

    2002-02-21

    We explore the impact of in-medium modification of the properties of vector mesons on the nuclear equation of state and neutron star properties. It is found that in-medium modifications stiffen the nuclear equation of state considerably. If this feature has its correspondence in the full treatment of dense hadronic matter, then very little room is left for the existence of exotic phases like quark matter or boson condensates in the centers of neutron stars of canonical mass.

  9. Image restoration of R136 - The dense core of NGC 2070

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, N.; Djorgovski, S.; Meylan, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present results from the application of a new seeing deconvolution technique to images of the dense core of NGC 2070 = 30 Doradus (the controversial object R136a). We utilize a new maximum entropy algorithm capable of restoring images to very high resolution, even to subpixel accuracy. Images of the object in different colors, as well as comparisons with previous speckle results, have been used to check the validity of the results. Our images of R136 have an angular resolution approaching 0.2 arcsec, better than any direct images of this object published to date, and corroborate evidence that R136a is a dense star cluster core, rather than a single ultraluminous object.

  10. Shock waves and double layers in electron degenerate dense plasma with viscous ion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar (Bangladesh)] [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar (Bangladesh); Zobaer, M. S. [Department of Applied Science, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tejgaon (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Science, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Tejgaon (Bangladesh)

    2014-02-15

    The properties of ion-acoustic shock waves and double layers propagating in a viscous degenerate dense plasma (containing inertial viscous ion fluid, non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electron fluid, and negatively charged stationary heavy element) is investigated. A new nonlinear equation (viz. Gardner equation with additional dissipative term) is derived by the reductive perturbation method. The properties of the ion-acoustic shock waves and double layers are examined by the analysis of the shock and double layer solutions of this new equation (we would like to call it “M-Z equation”). It is found that the properties of these shock and double layer structures obtained from this analysis are significantly different from those obtained from the analysis of standard Gardner or Burgers’ equation. The implications of our results to dense plasmas in astrophysical objects (e.g., non-rotating white dwarf stars) are briefly discussed.

  11. Numerical study of ion acoustic shock waves in dense quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hanif, M.; Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)] [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ali, S.; Mukhtar, Q., E-mail: qaisarm@ncp.edu.pk [National Center for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15

    Two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to investigate the propagation characteristics of ion acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized dense quantum plasma, whose constituents are the electrons and ions. For this purpose, we employ the standard finite difference Lax Wendroff and relaxation methods, to examine the quantum effects on the profiles of shock potential, the electron/ion number densities, and velocity even for quantum parameter at H?=?2. The effects of the latter vanish in a weakly non-linear limit while obeying the KdV theory. It is shown that the evolution of the wave depends sensitively on the plasma density and the quantum parameter. Numerical results reveal that the kinks or oscillations are pronounced for large values of quantum parameter, especially at H?=?2. Our results should be important to understand the shock wave excitations in dense quantum plasmas, white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.

  12. Submillimeter CO observations of warm gas around T-Tauri stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Schuster; A. I. Harris; N. E. Anderson; A. P. G. Russell

    1992-01-01

    The first observations of T-Tauri stars in the (12)CO (6 to 5) line are reported. The observations trace the dynamics of warm and dense gas in a scale below 10 arcseconds. The CO submillimeter emission probably originates in the interaction of a stellar wind with a high column density of molecular material close to the stars. Additional CO data show

  13. PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12

    E-print Network

    Zijlstra, Albert

    PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12 M. Matsuura1 , A. Koike8 , L.P. Keller10 ABSTRACT IRAS 16279-4757 belongs to a group of post-AGB stars showing both PAH with PAHs and crystalline silicates. A two-component model and images suggest a dense oxygen-rich torus

  14. Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model

    E-print Network

    Neutron star moment-of-inertia in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract We revisit the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski (EZM) model of dense neutron observations of neutron stars (NSs) in RX J1856-3754 [2] and EXO 0748-676 [3] favor a sti¤ EOS. We are however

  15. New High Proper Motion Stars from the Digitized Sky Survey. IV. Completion of the Southern Survey and 170 Additional Stars with pm>0.45 arcsec/yr

    E-print Network

    Sebastien Lepine

    2008-05-30

    Completion of the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey in the southern celestial hemisphere has turned up 170 new stars with proper motion 0.45 arcsec/yr 170 new stars, along with finder charts. Most of the new discoveries are found in densely populated fields along the Milky Way, towards the Galactic bulge/center. The list of new discoveries includes 4 stars with proper motion pm >1.0 arcsec/yr. The total list of high proper motion stars recovered by SUPERBLINK in the southern sky now includes 2,228 stars with proper motions 0.45 arcsec/yr < pm <2.0 arcsec/yr.

  16. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ? several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular shells typical of luminous blue variable and late WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars.

  17. The similar emission-line spectra of the young star LkH-alpha 101 and the hypergiant MWC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Persson, S. E.

    1989-12-01

    High-resolution spectra from 0.63 to 1.75 microns are presented, showing that the luminous young star LkH-alpha 101 and the post-main-sequence hypergiant MWC 300 have very similar emission-line properties. Tables are given of line measurements and identifications. It is found that, in spite of their different histories, these stars have similar conditions of density, temperature, kinematics, and possibly geometry in their line-emitting envelopes. The results support models of hypergiants and luminous young stars which both invoke dense equatorial disks and suggest that disk structures around some evolved hot young stars are created by dense equatorial winds.

  18. The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; D'Orazi, V.; Lucatello, S.; Sollima, A.; Momany, Y.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analysed in this way for this cluster. From high-resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H] = -1.791 ± 0.006 ± 0.076 (±statistical ±systematic error) with ? = 0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star-to-star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anti-correlation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass; (ii) horizontal branch morphology; and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a representative of halo globular clusters concerning the pattern of ?-capture and Fe-group elements. However we found that a significant contribution from the s-process is required to account for the distribution of neutron-capture elements. A minority of stars in M 80 seem to exhibit slightly enhanced abundances of s-process species, compatible with those observed in M 22 and NGC 1851, although further confirmation from larger samples is required. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 083.D-0208.Full Tables 2, 3, 5-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A116Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Collapse of a semiflexible polymer in poor solvent Alberto Montesi,1,2

    E-print Network

    MacKintosh, F.C.

    the formation of a pearl necklace and the gradual diffusion of large pearls from the chain ends 8,9 . An early an initial fast crumpling of the unknotted polymer chain, with the for- mation of pearls of collapsed, dense phase connected by un- collapsed bridges, and a subsequent slow rearrangement of these pearls to form

  20. INCORPORATING FLUCTUATIONS AND DYNAMICS IN SELF-CONSISTENT FIELD THEORIES FOR POLYMER

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Friederike

    and the dynamics of collective compositi- on fluctuations in dense polymer mixtures within fluctuating approach solves the integrals over the fluctuating fields in saddle-point approximation. Generalized random phase approximations allow to incorporate Gaussian fluc- tuations around the saddle point. Field

  1. Laser direct exposure of photodefinable polymer masks using shaped-beam optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Corbett; Jeff Strole; Kyle Johnston; E. J. Swenson; Weixiong Lu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore laser direct-write photolithography and ablation processes to finely pattern polymer resists, enabling the creation of densely patterned circuit substrates. The exposure dynamics are first modeled followed by presentation of data. For the exposure experiments, a tripled-YAG ultraviolet (UV) laser drilling system with highly attenuated output was used to directly expose a photodefinable resist followed by

  2. Laser direct exposure of photodefinable polymer masks using shaped-beam optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Corbett; Jeff Strole; K. Johnston; E. Swenson

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore laser direct-write photolithography and ablation processes to finely pattern polymer resists, enabling the creation of densely patterned circuit substrates. For the exposure experiments, a UV laser drilling system (Electro Scientific Industries Model 5330) with highly attenuated output, was used to directly expose a photodefinable resist, followed by chemical developing. To improve the exposure process, special

  3. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    to selective dissolution of (001) planes of the chemical bath deposited dense ZnO rods. The morphologyGrowth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells Zhiqiang Liang a a c t This paper reports a facile fabrication of vertical ZnO nanowalls on ITO coated glass substrates

  4. Carbon-Nantube-Reinforced Polymer-Derived Ceramic Composites (Not props related)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; An, Linan [ORNL; Xu, Weixing [ORNL; Rajagopalan, Sudhir [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, C. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Fan, Y. [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics; Zhang, Lfigong [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics; Jiang, Dapeng [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics; Kapat, Jay [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Chow, Louis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Guo, Baohua [Tsinghua University; Liang, Ji [Tsinghua University; Vaidyanathan, Raj [University of Central Florida, Orlando

    2004-01-01

    Fully dense ceramic-carbon-nanotube composites with homogeneously distributed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by a unique method, which uses a polymer-derived ceramic as the composite matrix. Composites with an MWCNT fraction of 6.4 vol.-% had significantly increased Young's moduli, hardness, and damage resistance, compared to the values for the pure ceramic matrix.

  5. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  6. Discriminating strange star mergers from neutron star mergers by gravitational-wave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauswein, A.; Oechslin, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We perform three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of the coalescence of strange stars and explore the possibility to decide on the strange matter hypothesis by means of gravitational-wave measurements. Self-binding of strange quark matter and the generally more compact stars yield features that clearly distinguish strange star from neutron star mergers, e.g. hampering tidal disruption during the plunge of quark stars. Furthermore, instead of forming dilute halo structures around the remnant as in the case of neutron star mergers, the coalescence of strange stars results in a differentially rotating hypermassive object with a sharp surface layer surrounded by a geometrically thin, clumpy high-density strange quark matter disk. We also investigate the importance of including nonzero temperature equations of state in neutron star and strange star merger simulations. In both cases we find a crucial sensitivity of the dynamics and outcome of the coalescence to thermal effects, e.g. the outer remnant structure and the delay time of the dense remnant core to black hole collapse depend on the inclusion of nonzero temperature effects. For comparing and classifying the gravitational-wave signals, we use a number of characteristic quantities like the maximum frequency during inspiral or the dominant frequency of oscillations of the postmerger remnant. In general, these frequencies are higher for strange star mergers. Only for particular choices of the equation of state the frequencies of neutron star and strange star mergers are similar. In such cases additional features of the gravitational-wave luminosity spectrum like the ratio of energy emitted during the inspiral phase to the energy radiated away in the postmerger stage may help to discriminate coalescence events of the different types. If such characteristic quantities could be extracted from gravitational-wave signals, for instance with the upcoming gravitational-wave detectors, a decision on the strange matter hypothesis and the existence of strange stars should be possible.

  7. Polymer brush under flow as an anchored microswimmer

    E-print Network

    Biagi, Sofia; Sciortino, Francesco; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Polymer brushes are increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for various applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices, etc. We perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behavior of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as boundary condition (the famous Taylor's swimmer).

  8. Formation and Equilibrium Properties of Living Polymer Brushes

    E-print Network

    A. Milchev; J. P. Wittmer; D. P. Landau

    1999-11-29

    Polydisperse brushes obtained by reversible radical chain polymerization reaction onto a solid substrate with surface-attached initiators, are studied by means of an off-lattice Monte Carlo algorithm of living polymers (LP). Various properties of such brushes, like the average chain length and the conformational orientation of the polymers, or the force exerted by the brush on the opposite container wall, reveal power-law dependence on the relevant parameters. The observed molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the grafted LP decays much more slowly than the corresponding LP bulk system due to the gradient of the monomer density within the dense pseudo-brush which favors longer chains. Both MWD and the density profiles of grafted polymers and chain ends are well fitted by effective power laws whereby the different exponents turn out to be mutually self-consistent for a pseudo-brush in the strong-stretching regime.

  9. Polymer brush under flow as an anchored microswimmer

    E-print Network

    Sofia Biagi; Lorenzo Rovigatti; Francesco Sciortino; Chaouqi Misbah

    2015-01-27

    Polymer brushes are increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for various applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices, etc. We perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behavior of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as boundary condition (the famous Taylor's swimmer).

  10. Stars equilibrium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    What causes the fusion reaction in a star's core? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to processes inside a star. Students read about the equilibrium process in a star, in which outward gas pressure equals inward gravitational pressure. Then, an interactive lab activity offers students the opportunity to predict temperature, pressure, and gravity changes that occur during equilibrium. The chemical reactions of the fusion process are presented, and more specific detailed reactions are available in a pop-up box. Student practice quizzes about the equilibrium process and pressure and gravity interactions inside the star are included, as are answers. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Subrata Pal; Debades Bandyopadhyay; Walter Greiner

    2000-03-08

    We investigate the condensation of charged $K^-$ meson and neutral $\\bar K^0$ meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that $\\bar K^0$ condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain $\\bar K^0$ meson. The critical density of $\\bar K^0$ condensation is always higher than that of $K^-$ condensation. With the appearance of $K^-$ and $\\bar K^0$ condensates, pairs of $p-K^-$ and $n-\\bar K^0$ are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with $K^-$ condensate, $\\bar K^0$ condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller maximum mass stars compared to the case without any condensate.

  12. Tycho's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A supernova remnant in Cassiopeia, 7.7° north of ? Cas, which suddenly appeared as a brilliant naked-eye star in November 1572 and reached a maximum apparent magnitude of -3.5. Until its disappearance 16 months later, it was extensively studied by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), who described its early appearance as follows: `Initially, the new star was brighter than any other fixe...

  13. Tycho's Star

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A supernova remnant in Cassiopeia, 7.7° north of alpha Cas, which suddenly appeared as a brilliant naked-eye star in November 1572 and reached a maximum apparent magnitude of -3.5. Until its disappearance 16 months later, it was extensively studied by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), who described its early appearance as follows: `Initially, the new star was brighter than

  14. Mechanics of amorphous polymers and polymer gels

    E-print Network

    Chester, Shawn Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Many applications of amorphous polymers require a thermo-mechanically coupled large-deformation elasto-viscoplasticity theory which models the strain rate and temperature dependent response of amorphous polymeric materials ...

  15. Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremey; Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2012-03-01

    We propose to search for nuclear density or greater compact ultra dense objects (CUDOs), which could constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter [1]. Considering their high density, the gravitational tidal forces are significant and atomic-density matter cannot stop an impacting CUDO, which punctures the surface of the target body, pulverizing, heating and entraining material near its trajectory through the target [2]. Because impact features endure over geologic timescales, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Mercury and large asteroids are well-suited to act as time-integrating CUDO detectors. There are several potential candidates for CUDO structure such as strangelet fragments or more generally dark matter if mechanisms exist for it to form compact objects. [4pt] [1] B. J. Carr, K. Kohri, Y. Sendouda, & J.'i. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. D81, 104019 (2010). [0pt] [2] L. Labun, J. Birrell, J. Rafelski, Solar System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects, arXiv:1104.4572.

  16. Hopping conductivity in dense hydrogen fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Redmer, Ronald; Ropke, Gerd; Kuhlbrodt, Sandra; Reinholz, Heidi

    2001-06-15

    A transition from semiconducting behavior to conductivities typical for simple metals was observed in dense hydrogen fluid at 1.4 Mbar and 3000 K in multiple shock-compression experiments [S. T. Weir, A. C. Mitchell, and W. J. Nellis, Phys. Rev. Lett. >76, 1860 (1996)]. Various mechanisms such as band gap closure, self-doping, or thermally activated transport have been proposed to explain this nonmetal-to-metal transition. We perform an exploratory calculation of the hopping conductivity in dense hydrogen fluid which is considered as a partially dissociated system of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules. It is shown that hopping processes between H atoms play an important role in this nonmetal-to-metal transition.

  17. Static dielectric properties of dense ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarubin, Grigory; Bier, Markus

    2015-05-01

    The static dielectric properties of dense ionic fluids, e.g., room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and inorganic fused salts, are investigated on different length scales by means of grandcanonical Monte Carlo simulations. A generally applicable scheme is developed which allows one to approximately decompose the electric susceptibility of dense ionic fluids into the orientation and the distortion polarization contribution. It is shown that at long range, the well-known plasma-like perfect screening behavior occurs, which corresponds to a diverging distortion susceptibility, whereas at short range, orientation polarization dominates, which coincides with that of a dipolar fluid of attached cation-anion pairs. This observation suggests that the recently debated interpretation of RTILs as dilute electrolyte solutions might not be simply a yes-no-question but it might depend on the considered length scale.

  18. Dense silica coatings on ceramic powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, J.F.A.; Mayr, W. [Philips GmbH Forschungslaboratorien, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Dense silica coatings on the surface of inorganic powders particles are prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alcoholic suspensions. In a first reaction step, the TEOS is pre-hydrolysed in acidic solution and afterwards, a suspension of powder particles in this reaction solution is treated with ammonia which results in a dense silica coating of typically 10 - 100 nm thickness. Different luminescent powders which are used in the manufacture of cathode-ray tubes or fluorescent lamps have been coated by this procedure. The silica coating forms a transparent layer and the suspension properties of the coated powders are determined by the silica layer. The silica coating also protects sulfidic luminescent powders from being attacked by oxidizing agents like dichromate ions which are used in the suspension formulations for TV tube fabrication.

  19. Dense hadronic matter in holographic QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Sin, Sang-Jin; Zahed, Ismail

    2013-10-01

    We provide a method to study hadronic matter at finite density in the context of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce the baryon chemical potential through the external U(1) v gauge field in the induced (DBI plus CS) action on the D8-probe-brane, where baryons are skyrmions. Vector dominance is manifest at finite density. We derive the effect of the baryon density on the energy density, and on the dispersion relations of pions and vector mesons at large N c . The energy density asymptotes are constant at large density, suggesting that dense matter at large N c freezes, with the pion velocity dropping to zero. Holographic dense matter enforces exactly the tenets of vector dominance and efficiently screens vector mesons. At the freezing point, the ? — ?? coupling vanishes with a finite rho mass of about 20% its vacuum value.

  20. Dense packing crystal structures of physical tetrahedra

    E-print Network

    Kallus, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for discovering dense packings of general convex hard particles and apply it to study the dense packing behavior of a one-parameter family of particles with tetrahedral symmetry representing a deformation of the ideal mathematical tetrahedron into a less ideal, physical, tetrahedron and all the way to the sphere. Thus, we also connect the two well studied problems of sphere packing and tetrahedron packing on a single axis. Our numerical results uncover a rich optimal-packing behavior, compared to that of other continuous families of particles previously studied. We present four structures as candidates for the optimal packing at different values of the parameter, providing an atlas of crystal structures which might be observed in systems of nano-particles with tetrahedral symmetry.

  1. Dense Deposit Disease and C3 Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Thomas D.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Terence Cook, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary C3 glomerulopathy refers to those renal lesions characterized histologically by predominant C3 accumulation within the glomerulus, and pathogenetically by aberrant regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dense deposit disease is distinguished from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy by its characteristic appearance on electron microscopy. The extent to which dense deposit disease also differs from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy in terms of clinical features, natural history, and outcomes of treatment including renal transplantation is less clear. We discuss the pathophysiology of C3 glomerulopathy, with evidence for alternative pathway dysregulation obtained from affected individuals and complement factor H (Cfh)-deficient animal models. Recent linkage studies in familial C3 glomerulopathy have shown genomic rearrangements in the Cfh-related genes, for which the novel pathophysiologic concept of Cfh deregulation has been proposed. PMID:24161036

  2. DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Byron

    DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE GEOMECHANICS GROUP THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA #12;Driven Pipe Piles in Dense Sand Byron Byrne Geomechanics Group The University of Western Australia Page 1 ABSTRACT: Piles are often driven open ended into dense sand with the aim of increasing the ease

  3. Dense water formation and circulation in the Barents Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Årthun; R. B. Ingvaldsen; L. H. Smedsrud; C. Schrum

    2011-01-01

    Dense water masses from Arctic shelf seas are an important part of the Arctic thermohaline system. We present previously unpublished observations from shallow banks in the Barents Sea, which reveal large interannual variability in dense water temperature and salinity. To examine the formation and circulation of dense water, and the processes governing interannual variability, a regional coupled ice-ocean model is

  4. Chromosomal "Fingerprints" of Prior Exposure to Densely Ionizing Radiation

    E-print Network

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    COMMENTARY Chromosomal "Fingerprints" of Prior Exposure to Densely Ionizing Radiation D. J. Brenner. Chromosomal "Fingerprints" of Prior Exposure to Densely Ionizing Radiation. Radiat. Res. 140,134-142 (1994 interest in finding a detectable biological "fingerprint" preferentially produced by densely ionizing

  5. DISPERSION OF DENSE GAS RELEASES IN A WIND TUNNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper documents two dense gas projects undertaken at the US EPA Fluid Modeling Facility. The study investigated the basic nature of the transport and dispersion of a dense gas plume in a simulated neutral atmospheric boundary layer. The two dense gas releases were CO2 and SF6...

  6. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  7. Computer codes for dispersion of dense gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.; Watts, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    Two models for describing the behavior of dense gases have been adapted for specific applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and have been programmed on the IBM computer. One of the models has been used to predict the effect of a ruptured H/sub 2/S storage tank at the 400 Area. The other model has been used to simulate the effect of an unignited release of H/sub 2/S from the 400-Area flare tower.

  8. Composing and Refining Dense Temporal Logic Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Cau

    2000-01-01

    .   A dense temporal logic development method for the specification, refinement, composition and verification of reactive systems\\u000a is introduced. A reactive system is specified by a pair consisting of a machine and a condition that indicate the valid computations\\u000a of this machine. Compositionality is achieved by indicating whether each step is an environment step, a system step, or a\\u000a communication

  9. Properties of holographic mesons on dense medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Nam, Siyoung

    2015-05-01

    We study the energy dispersions of holographic light mesons and their decay constants on dense nuclear medium. As the spatial momenta of mesons along the boundary direction increase, both observables of the mesons not only increase but also split according to the isospin charges. The decay constant of the negative meson is more large than that of the positive meson of the same type due to the chemical potentials of the background nucleons.

  10. Shocks in dense clouds. I. Dust dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Guillet; G. Pineau Des Forêts; A. P. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Aims:A new multi-fluid approach to the dust dynamics in transverse shocks in dense clouds is presented with the aim of modelling the dust processing in C- and J-type shocks. Methods: We have augmented an existing steady-state shock code to include the effects of an MRN size distribution of grain cores with icy mantles. The dust charge distribution and its evolution

  11. Fast Algorithm to Estimate Dense Disparity Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kardouchia; E. Hervet

    This paper describes a method to compute dense correspondences (disparity map) between two images in a stereo pair in case of significant displacements. In order to deal with large amplitude disparity fields, a multi-resolution technique called block match ing have been used in the past(1,2). Although quite successful, this technique cann ot easily cope with disparity discontinuities as it does

  12. Turbulence characteristics within sparse and dense canopies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Pietri; Alexandre Petroff; Muriel Amielh; Fabien Anselmet

    2009-01-01

    Boundary layer interactions with canopies control various environmental processes. In the case of dense and homogeneous canopies,\\u000a the so-called mixing layer analogy is most generally used. When the canopy becomes sparser, a transition occurs between the\\u000a mixing layer and the boundary layer perturbed by interactions between element wakes. This transition has still to be fully\\u000a understood and characterized. The experimental

  13. Gluon Vortices and Induced Magnetic Field in Compact Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Efrain J. [Department of Physics, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2007-10-26

    The natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of compact stars, many of which have very large magnetic fields, especially the so called magnetars. In this paper we discuss how a color superconducting core can serve to generate and enhance the stellar magnetic field without appealing to a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo mechanism.

  14. Inhomogeneous seeding of quark bubbles in Neutron Stars

    E-print Network

    Perez-Garcia, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution we briefly discuss about the consequences of the presence of Majorana dark matter in a dense neutron star environment focusing on a particularly interesting possible indirect effect, namely that of bubble nucleation. This is somewhat similar to current techniques developed for direct detection using bubble chamber or superheated droplet detectors.

  15. Tuning polymer architecture to manipulate the relative stability of different colloid crystal morphologies.

    PubMed

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Kumar, Sanat K; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-06-17

    Polymers dilutely adsorbed in colloidal crystals play an underappreciated role in determining the stability of the crystal phase. Recent work has shown that tailoring the size and shape of the adsorbing polymer can help tune the relative thermodynamic stability of the face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) polymorphs [N. A. Mahynski, A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, D. Meng, and S. K. Kumar, Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4472]. This is a consequence of how different polymorphs uniquely distribute their interstitial voids. By engineering an adsorbent's morphology to be complementary to the interstices in a desired crystal form, other competing forms may be thermodynamically suppressed. Previous investigations into this effect focused solely on linear polymers, while here we investigate the effects of more complex polymer architectures, namely that of star polymers. We find that even small perturbations to an adsorbing polymer's architecture lead to significant, qualitative changes in the relative stability of close-packed colloidal crystal polymorphs. In contrast to the linear homopolymer case, the FCC phase may be re-stabilized over the HCP with sufficiently large star polymers, and as a result, solvent quality may be used as a polymorphic "switch" between the two forms. This suggests that star polymers can be engineered to stabilize certain crystal phases at will using experimentally accessible parameters such as temperature. PMID:26041452

  16. Confined magnetic monopoles in dense QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A. [Theory Department, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Shifman, M. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yung, A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    Non-Abelian strings exist in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We show that kinks appearing in the world-sheet theory on these strings, in the form of the kink-antikink bound pairs, are the magnetic monopoles-descendants of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles surviving in such a special form in dense QCD. Our consideration is heavily based on analogies and inspiration coming from certain supersymmetric non-Abelian theories. This is the first ever analytic demonstration that objects unambiguously identifiable as the magnetic monopoles are native to non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories (albeit our analysis extends only to the phase of the monopole confinement and has nothing to say about their condensation). Technically, our demonstration becomes possible due to the fact that low-energy dynamics of the non-Abelian strings in dense QCD is that of the orientational zero modes. It is described by an effective two-dimensional CP(2) model on the string world sheet. The kinks in this model representing confined magnetic monopoles are in a highly quantum regime.

  17. The effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems

    E-print Network

    H. Belkus; J. Van Bever; D. Vanbeveren

    2004-10-21

    In the present paper we report on first results of a project in Brussels where we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using the 3 decades expertise in massive star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass loss formalism on the formation of intermediate mass black holes.

  18. Neutrino scattering from hydrodynamic modes in hot and dense neutron matter

    E-print Network

    Gang Shen; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-11-26

    We calculate the scattering rate of low energy neutrinos in hot and dense neutron matter encountered in neutrons stars and supernova in the hydrodynamic regime. We find that the Brillouin peak, associated with the sound mode, and the Rayleigh peak, associated with the thermal diffusion mode, dominate the dynamic structure factor. Although the total scattering cross section is constrained by the compressibility sum rule, the differential cross-section calculated using the hydrodynamic response function differs from results obtained in approximate treatments often used in astrophysics such as random phase approximations (RPA). We identified these differences and discuss its implications for neutrino transport in supernova.

  19. Frontiers of the physics of dense plasmas and planetary interiors: Experiments, theory, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064, California (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-399, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Koenig, M. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR7605, CNRS-CEA-Universite Paris-VI, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Saumon, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS F663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Valencia, D. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Recent developments of dynamic x-ray characterization experiments of dense matter are reviewed, with particular emphasis on conditions relevant to interiors of terrestrial and gas giant planets. These studies include characterization of compressed states of matter in light elements by x-ray scattering and imaging of shocked iron by radiography. Several applications of this work are examined. These include the structure of massive ''super-Earth'' terrestrial planets around other stars, the 40 known extrasolar gas giants with measured masses and radii, and Jupiter itself, which serves as the benchmark for giant planets.

  20. High thermal conductivity in amorphous polymer blends by engineered interchain interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Ho; Lee, Dongwook; Shanker, Apoorv; Shao, Lei; Kwon, Min Sang; Gidley, David; Kim, Jinsang; Pipe, Kevin P

    2015-03-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important property for polymers, as it often affects product reliability (for example, electronics packaging), functionality (for example, thermal interface materials) and/or manufacturing cost. However, polymer thermal conductivities primarily fall within a relatively narrow range (0.1-0.5 W m(-1) K(-1)) and are largely unexplored. Here, we show that a blend of two polymers with high miscibility and appropriately chosen linker structure can yield a dense and homogeneously distributed thermal network. A sharp increase in cross-plane thermal conductivity is observed under these conditions, reaching over 1.5 W m(-1) K(-1) in typical spin-cast polymer blend films of nanoscale thickness, which is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of other amorphous polymers. PMID:25419813

  1. High thermal conductivity in amorphous polymer blends by engineered interchain interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gun-Ho; Lee, Dongwook; Shanker, Apoorv; Shao, Lei; Kwon, Min Sang; Gidley, David; Kim, Jinsang; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important property for polymers, as it often affects product reliability (for example, electronics packaging), functionality (for example, thermal interface materials) and/or manufacturing cost. However, polymer thermal conductivities primarily fall within a relatively narrow range (0.1–0.5 W m?1 K?1) and are largely unexplored. Here, we show that a blend of two polymers with high miscibility and appropriately chosen linker structure can yield a dense and homogeneously distributed thermal network. A sharp increase in cross-plane thermal conductivity is observed under these conditions, reaching over 1.5 W m?1 K?1 in typical spin-cast polymer blend films of nanoscale thickness, which is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of other amorphous polymers.

  2. DR 21(OH): A Highly Fragmented, Magnetized, Turbulent Dense Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girart, J. M.; Frau, P.; Zhang, Q.; Koch, P. M.; Qiu, K.; Tang, Y.-W.; Lai, S.-P.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2013-07-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the massive star-forming core DR21(OH) at 880 ?m using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The dense core exhibits an overall velocity gradient in a Keplerian-like pattern, which breaks at the center of the core where SMA 6 and SMA 7 are located. The dust polarization shows a complex magnetic field, compatible with a toroidal configuration. This is in contrast with the large, parsec-scale filament that surrounds the core, where there is a smooth magnetic field. The total magnetic field strengths in the filament and in the core are 0.9 and 2.1 mG, respectively. We found evidence of magnetic field diffusion at the core scales, far beyond the expected value for ambipolar diffusion. It is possible that the diffusion arises from fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence. The dynamics of the DR 21(OH) core appear to be controlled energetically in equal parts by the magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and the angular momentum. The effect of the angular momentum (this is a fast rotating core) is probably causing the observed toroidal field configuration. Yet, gravitation overwhelms all the forces, making this a clear supercritical core with a mass-to-flux ratio of ~= 6 times the critical value. However, simulations show that this is not enough for the high level of fragmentation observed at 1000 AU scales. Thus, rotation and outflow feedback are probably the main causes of the observed fragmentation.

  3. Synthesis and Properties of Star HPMA Copolymer Nanocarriers Synthesised by RAFT Polymerisation Designed for Selective Anticancer Drug Delivery and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Janoušková, Olga; Kostka, Libor; Ulbrich, Karel; Etrych, Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    High-molecular-weight star polymer drug nanocarriers intended for the treatment and/or visualisation of solid tumours were synthesised, and their physico-chemical and preliminary in vitro biological properties were determined. The water-soluble star polymer carriers were prepared by the grafting of poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers by hetero-telechelic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers, synthesised by the controlled radical Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerisation. The well-defined star copolymers with Mw values ranging from 2?·?10(5) to 6?·?10(5) showing a low dispersity (approximately 1.2) were prepared in a high yield. A model anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was bound to the star polymer through a hydrazone bond, enabling the pH-controlled drug release in the target tumour tissue. The activated polymer arm ends of the star copolymer carrier enable a one-point attachment for the targeting ligands and/or a labelling moiety. In this study, the model TAMRA fluorescent dye was used to prove the feasibility of the polymer carrier visualisation by optical imaging in vitro. The tailor-made structure of the star polymer carriers should facilitate the synthesis of targeted polymer-drug conjugates, even polymer theranostics, for simultaneous tumour drug delivery and imaging. PMID:25731143

  4. Frontiers in polymer chemistry.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, A Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article shows how the initial concept of Staudinger on linear macromolecules was expanded topologically by increasing the cross-section diameter of polymer chains and by introducing sheet polymers with planar rather than the commonly known linear repeat units. The two concrete projects addressed are the synthesis of dendronized and of two-dimensional polymers. It is explained how these novel macromolecules were achieved and which obstacles had to be overcome but also where these frontiers in polymer chemistry might lead to new insights in polymer science in general and novel applications in particular. The article also provides insights into analytical issues because both target macromolecules are in an extraordinarily high molar mass range and contrast/sensitivity issues can turn rather serious in particular for the two-dimensional polymers. PMID:24388233

  5. GHRS observations and theoretical modeling of early type stars in R136a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Koter; S. Heap; I. Hubeny; T. Lanz; J. Hutchings; S. Maran; W. Schmutz

    1994-01-01

    We present the first spectroscopic observations of individual stars in R136a, the most dense part of the starburst cluster 30 Doradus in the LMC. Spectra of two stars are scheduled to be obtained with the GHRS on board the HST: R136a5, the brightest of the complex and R136a2, a Wolf-Rayet star of type WN. The 30 Doradus cluster is the

  6. Numerical study of the properties of compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanco

    2009-10-01

    Compact stars are formed in catastrophic astrophysical events such as supernova explosions and binary stellar collisions. These objects permanently harbor compressed ultra-dense nuclear matter in their interiors. This key feature, together with the ongoing progress in observational astrophysics, make compact stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a wide range of intriguing physicals studies. Several such studies are performed in this thesis. The first activity concerns the widely unknown nuclear equation of state and the core composition of compact stars. Particular attention is paid to the possible presence of hyperons in the cores of neutron stars as well as to stars made of unconfined up, down and strange quarks (strange quark stars). The effects of ultra-strong electric fields on the surfaces of the latter is explored. The second activity aims at investigating the structure and stability of rapidly rotating compact stars. Special attention is paid to the maximal stable rotational frequencies of rotating compact stars. The third activity focuses on the thermal evolution of compact stars, driven by neutrino emission from their cores and by photon emission from the surfaces. It is show that the thermal behavior depends very strongly on the stellar core composition. Moreover, it is found that the thermal evolution of neutron stars is significantly different to that of strange quark stars. The studies performed in this thesis are key for our understanding of the thermal evolution of isolated rotating neutron stars, anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, and provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric ultra-dense nuclear matter which can not be probed in high-energy collision experiments.

  7. Thermally conductive polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (inventors)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  8. Polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Rui Zhu; Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of polymer solar cells has improved power-conversion efficiencies from 3% to almost 9%. Based on semiconducting polymers, these solar cells are fabricated from solution-processing techniques and have unique prospects for achieving low-cost solar energy harvesting, owing to their material and manufacturing advantages. The potential applications of polymer solar cells are broad, ranging from flexible solar

  9. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  10. GPU-Enabled Particle-Particle Particle-Tree Scheme for Simulating Dense Stellar Cluster System

    E-print Network

    Iwasawa, Masaki; Makino, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    We describe the implementation and performance of the ${\\rm P^3T}$ (Particle-Particle Particle-Tree) scheme for simulating dense stellar systems. In ${\\rm P^3T}$, the force experienced by a particle is split into short-range and long-range contributions. Short-range forces are evaluated by direct summation and integrated with the fourth order Hermite predictor-corrector method with the block timesteps. For long-range forces, we use a combination of the Barnes-Hut tree code and the leapfrog integrator. The tree part of our simulation environment is accelerated using graphical processing units (GPU), whereas the direct summation is carried out on the host CPU. Our code gives excellent performance and accuracy for star cluster simulations with a large number of particles even when the core size of the star cluster is small.

  11. Synthesis of Biomimetic Branched Polymer Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciel, Amanda; Mai, Danielle; Schroeder, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Development of sequence-defined or structurally-precise polymers as high-performance materials is a major challenge in materials science. In this work, we report a facile synthesis platform to produce monodisperse and stereochemically precise nucleotidomimetic polymers. Based on a top-down approach, we are able to precisely incorporate a wide-variety of functional group modifications in a simple two-step process. First, we utilize the natural ability of DNA polymerase to enzymatically incorporate chemically-modified monomers (e.g., C5-dibenzocyclooctyl dUTP) in a template-directed fashion. Second, we employ copper-free click chemistry to integrate the desired chemical functionality at precise locations along the polymer chain. In this way, we produced a variety of branched DNA homopolymer architectures including 3-arm star, symmetric H, and block-brush. Overall, this synthetic strategy allows for the systematic variation of oligomer length, stoichiometry, concentration, and environmental conditions to rapidly explore nucleotidomimetic polymer phase behavior for materials discovery.

  12. Monolayers and multilayers of conjugated polymers as nanosized electronic components.

    PubMed

    Zotti, Gianni; Vercelli, Barbara; Berlin, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are interesting materials for preparing devices based on nanoscopic molecular architectures because they exhibit electrical, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties similar to those of metals or semiconductors while maintaining the flexibility and ease of processing of polymers. The production of well-defined mono- and multilayers of CPs on electrodes with nanometer-scale, one-dimensional resolution remains, however, an important challenge. In this Account, we describe the preparation and conductive properties of nanometer-sized CP molecular structures formed on electrode surfaces--namely, self-assembled monolayer (SAM), brush-type, and self-assembled multilayer CPs--and in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We have electrochemically polymerized SAMs of carboxyalkyl-functionalized terthiophenes aligned either perpendicular or parallel to the electrode surface. Anodic coupling of various pyrrole- and thiophene-based monomers in solution with the oligothiophene-based SAMs produced brush-like films. Microcontact printing of these SAMs produced patterns that, after heterocoupling, exhibited large height enhancements, as measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have employed layer-by-layer self-assembly of water-soluble polythiophene-based polyelectrolytes to form self-assembled multilayers. The combination of isostructural polycationic and polyanionic polythiophenes produced layers of chains aligned parallel to the substrate plane. These stable, robust, and dense layers formed with high regularity on the preformed monolayers, with minimal interchain penetration. Infrared reflection/adsorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed unprecedented degrees of order. Deposition of soluble polypyrroles produced molecular layers that, when analyzed using a gold-coated AFM tip, formed gold-polymer-gold junctions that were either ohmic or rectifying, depending of the layer sequence. We also describe the electronic conduction of model alpha,omega-capped sexithiophenes featuring a range of electron donor/acceptor units and lengths of additional conjugation. The sexithiophene cores exhibit redox-type conductivity, developing at the neutral/cation and cation/dication levels with values depending the nature of the substitution and the redox system. Extending the conjugation beyond the sexithiophene frame introduces further oxidation processes displaying enhanced conductivity. Finally, we discuss the ability of CP-based monolayers to coordinate AuNPs. Although thiophene- and pyrrole-based oligomers aggregate toluene-soluble AuNPs, alkyl substitution inhibits the aggregation process through steric restraint. Consequently, we investigated the interactions between AuNPs and polypyrrole or polythiophene monolayers, including those formed from star-shaped molecules. The hindered aggregation provided by alkyl substituents allowed us to adsorb thiol-functionalized oligothiophenes and oligopyrroles directly onto preformed AuNPs. Novel materials incorporating AuNPs of the same size but bearing different conjugated ends or bridges have great promise for applications in electrocatalysis, electroanalysis, and organic electronics. PMID:18570441

  13. Nanoparticles of well-defined 4-arm stars made using nanoreactors in water.

    PubMed

    Sebakhy, Khaled O; Gavrilov, Mikhail; Valade, David; Jia, Zhongfan; Monteiro, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the use of a nanoreactor is demonstrated to rapidly prepare monodisperse polymer nanoparticles in water-based dispersion consisting of 4-arm star polymer via the R-group RAFT approach. It is shown that by heating a nanoparticle assembler above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), stabilized nanoparticles are formed that act as a template for the 4-arm star RAFT-mediated polymerization of styrene. Monodisperse nanoparticles of size (between 40 and 90 nm) containing monodisperse polymer of desired molecular weight (30-95 k) are obtained with little star-star coupling due to compartmentalization. The nanoreactor technique allows independent control over the size and molecular weight with a 4-arm star topology. PMID:24288277

  14. Effects of Strong and Electromagnetic Correlations on Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter

    E-print Network

    Sanjay Reddy; Madappa Prakash; James M. Lattimer; Jose A. Pons

    1998-11-19

    An extensive study of the effects of correlations on both charged and neutral current weak interaction rates in dense matter is performed. Both strong and electromagnetic correlations are considered.The propagation of particle-hole interactions in the medium plays an important role in determining the neutrino mean free paths. The effects due to Pauli-Blocking and density, spin, and isospin correlations in the medium significantly reduce the neutrino cross sections. Due to the lack of experimental information at high density, these correlations are necessarily model dependent. For example, spin correlations in nonrelativistic models are found to lead to larger suppressions of neutrino cross sections compared to those of relativistic models. This is due to the tendency of the nonrelativistic models to develop spin instabilities. Notwithstanding the above caveats, and the differences between nonrelativistic and relativistic approaches such as the spin- and isospin-dependent interactions and the nucleon effective masses, suppressions of order 2--3, relative to the case in which correlations are ignored, are obtained. Neutrino interactions in dense matter are especially important for supernova and early neutron star evolution calculations. The effects of correlations for protoneutron star evolution are calculated. Large effects on the internal thermodynamic properties of protoneutron stars, such as the temperature, are found. These translate into significant early enhancements in the emitted neutrino energies and fluxes, especially after a few seconds. At late times, beyond about 10 seconds, the emitted neutrino fluxes decrease more rapidly compared to simulations without the effects of correlations, due to the more rapid onset of neutrino transparency in the protoneutron star

  15. Dense gas in IRAS 20343+4129: an ultracompact H II region caught in the act of creating a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Palau, Aina; Busquet, G.; Isella, A.; Estalella, R.; Sanchez-Monge, Á.; Caselli, P.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The intermediate- to high-mass star-forming region IRAS 20343+4129 is an excellent laboratory to study the influence of high- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects on nearby starless dense cores, and investigate for possible implications in the clustered star formation process. We present 3 mm observations of continuum and rotational transitions of several molecular species (C2H, c-C3H2, N2H+, NH2D) obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimetre-wave Astronomy, as well as 1.3 cm continuum and NH3 observations carried out with the Very Large Array, to reveal the properties of the dense gas. We confirm undoubtedly previous claims of an expanding cavity created by an ultracompact H II region associated with a young B2 zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) star. The dense gas surrounding the cavity is distributed in a filament that seems squeezed in between the cavity and a collimated outflow associated with an intermediate-mass protostar. We have identified 5 mm continuum condensations in the filament. All of them show column densities consistent with potentially being the birthplace of intermediate- to high-mass objects. These cores appear different from those observed in low-mass clustered environments in several observational aspects (kinematics, temperature, chemical gradients), indicating a strong influence of the most massive and evolved members of the protocluster. We suggest a possible scenario in which the B2 ZAMS star driving the cavity has compressed the surrounding gas, perturbed its properties and induced the star formation in its immediate surroundings.

  16. Massively Parallel Simulations of Diffusion in Dense Polymeric Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup, Wilcox, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)], Hobbs, J.D. [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Geochemistry], Ford, D.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-11-01

    An original computational technique to generate close-to-equilibrium dense polymeric structures is proposed. Diffusion of small gases are studied on the equilibrated structures using massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations running on the Intel Teraflops (9216 Pentium Pro processors) and Intel Paragon(1840 processors). Compared to the current state-of-the-art equilibration methods this new technique appears to be faster by some orders of magnitude.The main advantage of the technique is that one can circumvent the bottlenecks in configuration space that inhibit relaxation in molecular dynamics simulations. The technique is based on the fact that tetravalent atoms (such as carbon and silicon) fit in the center of a regular tetrahedron and that regular tetrahedrons can be used to mesh the three-dimensional space. Thus, the problem of polymer equilibration described by continuous equations in molecular dynamics is reduced to a discrete problem where solutions are approximated by simple algorithms. Practical modeling applications include the constructing of butyl rubber and ethylene-propylene-dimer-monomer (EPDM) models for oxygen and water diffusion calculations. Butyl and EPDM are used in O-ring systems and serve as sealing joints in many manufactured objects. Diffusion coefficients of small gases have been measured experimentally on both polymeric systems, and in general the diffusion coefficients in EPDM are an order of magnitude larger than in butyl. In order to better understand the diffusion phenomena, 10, 000 atoms models were generated and equilibrated for butyl and EPDM. The models were submitted to a massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation to monitor the trajectories of the diffusing species.

  17. A Review of Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymers with PERM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter

    2011-08-01

    In this review, we describe applications of the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm with resampling, to various problems in polymer physics. PERM produces samples according to any given prescribed weight distribution, by growing configurations step by step with controlled bias, and correcting "bad" configurations by "population control". The latter is implemented, in contrast to other population based algorithms like e.g. genetic algorithms, by depth-first recursion which avoids storing all members of the population at the same time in computer memory. The problems we discuss all concern single polymers (with one exception), but under various conditions: Homopolymers in good solvents and at the ? point, semi-stiff polymers, polymers in confining geometries, stretched polymers undergoing a forced globule-linear transition, star polymers, bottle brushes, lattice animals as a model for randomly branched polymers, DNA melting, and finally—as the only system at low temperatures, lattice heteropolymers as simple models for protein folding. PERM is for some of these problems the method of choice, but it can also fail. We discuss how to recognize when a result is reliable, and we discuss also some types of bias that can be crucial in guiding the growth into the right directions.

  18. Energy Star 

    E-print Network

    Reihl, K.; Tullos, A.

    2012-01-01

    to design, track, and report energy use of projects ESL-KT-12-10-08 CATEE 2012: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Source: 2006 Lunch & Learn Workshop. ?Energy Star ? New Building Design.? Karen P. Butler.... US Environmental Protection Agency. ESL-KT-12-10-08 CATEE 2012: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Source: 2006 Lunch & Learn Workshop. ?Energy Star ? New Building Design.? Karen P. Butler. US...

  19. Star struck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closer to home, astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope recently took a close-up photograph of the red supergiant star Betelgeuse, providing astronomers with their first direct look at the surface of a star besides the Sun.Andrea Dupree of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute presented pictures of Betelgeuse revealing an extended atmosphere and a surface marked by a bright spot more than 10 Earths wide and as much as 2000 K warmer than the rest of the surface.

  20. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; Whittet, D.

    2006-06-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well mixed. In the diffuse ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233, 321), but the scatter was large.We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  1. Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobyakov, D.; Pethick, C. J.

    2015-04-01

    Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28 per cent.

  2. Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter

    E-print Network

    Kobyakov, D

    2015-01-01

    Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28%.

  3. Goldstone modes in the neutron star core

    E-print Network

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Sanjay Reddy

    2013-07-31

    We formulate a theory of Goldstone bosons and their interactions in the superfluid and superconducting phase of dense nucleonic matter at densities of relevance to the neutron star core. For typical neutron star temperatures in the range T = 10^6 to 10^9 K, the Goldstone mode associated with rotational symmetry, called angulons, couple weakly to each other and to electrons. Consequently, these modes have anomalously large mean free paths and can contribute to both diffusive and ballistic transport of heat and momentum. In contrast, the two Goldstone bosons associated with density oscillations of the neutron and electron + proton fluids, called superfluid phonons, mix and couple strongly to electrons. They have shorter mean free paths, and their contribution to transport is negligible. Long-wavelength superfluid phonons and angulons can play a role in neutron star seismology, and lead to interesting phenomenology as angulons couple to magnetic fields and have anisotropic dispersion relations.

  4. Detecting modified gravity in the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu

    2014-07-01

    Modified theories of gravity have received a renewed interest due to their ability to account for the cosmic acceleration. In order to satisfy the solar system tests of gravity, these theories need to include a screening mechanism that hides the modifications on small scales. One popular and well-studied theory is chameleon gravity. Our own galaxy is necessarily screened, but less dense dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and their constituent stars can exhibit novel features. In particular, unscreened stars are brighter, hotter and more ephemeral than screened stars in our own galaxy. They also pulsate with a shorter period. In this paper, we exploit these new features to constrain chameleon gravity to level three orders of magnitude lower the previous measurements. These constraints are currently the strongest in the literature.

  5. Dense, vertical jet in stagnant homogeneous fluid

    E-print Network

    Vergara, Ignacio

    1977-01-01

    in the absence of currents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of three diffuser design parameters: port or nozzle diameter; jet velocity at the nozzle; and riser height, on the resulting brine concentration at the bottom, near... of ejected brine = 1Os O/Tank capacity Jet or nozzle diamter Total water depth [in model is tank depth (l. 22 m)] Thickness of the dense layer a L the bottom Water depth at the nozzle F2 Fr Negative b Densimetri Accelerati (9. 8 m/sec xDz uoyancy...

  6. Highly charged ions in hot, dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Osterheld, A.L.; Walling, R.S.; Young, B.K.F.; Goldstein, W.H.; Shimkaveg, G.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Keane, C.; Hammel, B.; London, R.; Stewart, R.E.

    1992-09-01

    Highly-charged ions play a critical role in hot, dense plasmas. They affect the energy balance and hydrodynamic evolution of transient plasmas. The radiation emitted by highly charged ions may be used in several practical applications, such as inertial confinement fusion, short wavelength lasers, and x-ray sources for lithography and microscopy applications. This radiation may also be used to diagnose the conditions in plasmas. In recent years, models have been developed to describe the atomic kinetics of complex ionization states of highly charged ions in plasmas. However, reliable atomic calculations and careful experiments which test both the fundamental atomic physics and the assumptions of the plasma emission models are required.

  7. Highly charged ions in hot, dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Osterheld, A.L.; Walling, R.S.; Young, B.K.F.; Goldstein, W.H.; Shimkaveg, G.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.; Keane, C.; Hammel, B.; London, R.; Stewart, R.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-59, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-06-05

    Highly-charged ions play a critical role in hot, dense plasmas. They affect the energy balance and hydrodynamic evolution of transient plasmas. The radiation emitted by highly charged ions may be used in several practical applications, such as inertial confinement fusion, short wavelength lasers, and x-ray sources for lithography and microscopy applications. This radiation may also be used to diagnose the conditions in plasmas, In recent years, models have been developed to describe the atomic kinetics of complex ionization states of highly charged ions in plasmas. However, reliable atomic calculations and careful experiments which test both the fundamental atomic physics and the assumptions of the plasma emission models are required.

  8. Signal propagation through dense granular systems

    E-print Network

    L. Kondic; O. M. Dybenko; R. P. Behringer

    2008-05-14

    The manner in which signals propagate through dense granular systems in both space and time is not well understood. In order to learn more about this process, we carry out discrete element simulations of the system response to excitations where we control the driving frequency and wavelength independently. Fourier analysis shows that properties of the signal depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales introduced by the perturbation. The features of the response provide a test-bed for any continuum theory attempting to predict signal properties. We illustrate this connection between micro-scale physics and macro-scale behavior by comparing the system response to a simple elastic model with damping.

  9. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ?300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  10. Ionization rate coefficients in warm dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2015-06-01

    We recast the atomic processes in a warm, dense plasma using Fermi-Dirac statistics and compare them to the rates of the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approach of many collisional-radiative models. Population calculations show insignificant differences to calculations assuming nondegenerate free electrons of plasmas at solid density close to local thermodynamic equilibrium, but show departures in average ionization in the presence of strong photoionization. For example, we show that electron degeneracy affects the evolution of plasmas created by ultraviolet free electron laser interaction with solid targets.

  11. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  12. Fluorocarbon associative polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Berret; Damien Calvet; André Collet; Michel Viguier

    2003-01-01

    Fluorocarbon associative polymers modified along the backbone or at the extremities by hydrophobic groups are reviewed with respect to their association and rheological properties in aqueous solutions. Above a threshold concentration corresponding to the formation of a reversible network structure, the solutions behave as physical gels. In this review, it is shown that the viscoelasticity of fluorocarbon associative polymer gels

  13. Shape Memory Polymer Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Mather; Xiaofan Luo; Ingrid A. Rousseau

    2009-01-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in the field of shape memory polymers (SMPs) with the elucidation of new compositions for property tuning, the discovery of new mechanisms for shape fixing and recovery, and the initiation of phenomenological modeling. We critically review research findings on new shape memory polymers along these lines, emphasizing exciting progress in the areas

  14. Shape memory polymer nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Gall; Martin L. Dunn; Yiping Liu; Dudley Finch; Mark Lake; Naseem A. Munshi

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of composites with a shape memory polymer matrix and SiC nanoparticulate reinforcements. Composites based on a SMP matrix are active materials capable of recovering relatively large mechanical strains due to the application of heat. The composites were synthesized from a commercial shape memory polymer resin system and particulate SiC with an average diameter

  15. Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Friend; R. W. Gymer; A. B. Holmes; J. H. Burroughes; R. N. Marks; C. Taliani; D. D. C. Bradley; D. A. Dos Santos; J. L. Brédas; M. Lögdlund; W. R. Salaneck

    1999-01-01

    Research in the use of organic polymers as the active semiconductors in light-emitting diodes has advanced rapidly, and prototype devices now meet realistic specifications for applications. These achievements have provided insight into many aspects of the background science, from design and synthesis of materials, through materials fabrication issues, to the semiconductor physics of these polymers.

  16. Radioluminescent polymer lights

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1990-09-01

    The preparation of radioluminescent light sources where the tritium is located on the aryl-ring in a polymer has been demonstrated with deuterium/tritium substitution. This report discusses tests, results, and future applications of radioluminescent polymers. 10 refs. (FI)

  17. METAL COMPLEXING SILOXANE POLYMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel silicone polymers containing pendant phosphonate groups have been synthesized. A new silicone monomer, (CH3O)2CH3Si(CH2)3P=O(OCH2CH3)2 has been copolymerized with dimethyldimethoxysilane to form polymers capable of binding metal salts. The viscous liquids can complex a variety of metals, inc...

  18. Imine Oligomers and Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mircea Grigoras; Carmen Otilia Catanescu

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years, polymers with highly conjugated chains have attracted much attention because of their wide variety of applications in the field of electronics, opto?electronics, and photonics. Polyimines (PIs) (polymeric Schiff bases) is a class of polymer family, which has been less reviewed. In this paper, we focus on the synthesis methods of PIs by polycondensation, using diamines

  19. Polymer optical motherboard technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Keil; H. Yao; C. Zawadzki; N. Grote; M. Schell

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, different hybridly integrated optical devices including optical multiplexer\\/ demultiplexer and optical transceivers are described. The devices were made using polymer planar light wave circuit (P2LC) technology. Laser diodes, photodiodes, and thin-film filters have been integrated. Key issues involved in this technology, in particular the coupling between laser diodes and polymer waveguides, and between waveguides and photodiodes and

  20. Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Argyros

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication, materials, properties and applications of microstructured polymer optical fibers are reviewed. Microstructured polymer optical fibers formed the basis of extensive work on the physics of microstructured fibers, and an outline of the contribution to the wider field of microstructured fibers is also presented.

  1. Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Paul; L. M. Robeson

    2008-01-01

    In the large field of nanotechnology, polymer matrix based nanocomposites have become a prominent area of current research and development. Exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites have dominated the polymer literature but there are a large number of other significant areas of current and emerging interest. This review will detail the technology involved with exfoliated clay-based nanocomposites and also include other important areas

  2. Polymer-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Maheshwari, Ronak; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric materials have been applied in therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration, for decades owing to their biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties. In addition, select polymer–drug conjugates have been used as bioactive pharmaceuticals owing to their increased drug efficacy, solubility, and target specificity compared with small-molecule drugs. Increased synthetic control of polymer properties has permitted the production of polymer assemblies for the targeted and controlled delivery of drugs, and polymeric sequestrants take advantage of their lack of solubility for the sequestration of target molecules in vivo. In more recent studies reviewed in greater detail here, the properties of polymers that distinguish them from small-molecule drugs, such as their high molecular weight and their ability to display multiple pendant moieties, have been specifically exploited for activating cellular targets or inhibiting the binding of pathogens. The elucidation of relevant structure–function relationships in investigations of this kind has relied on the combination of living polymerization methods with chemical conjugation methods, and protein engineering methods have shown increasing potential in the manipulation of architectural features of such polymer therapeutics. Garnering a detailed understanding of the various mechanisms by which multivalent polymers engage biological targets is certain to expand the role of polymers as therapeutics, by enabling highly specific activities of designed polymers in the biological environment. PMID:21494423

  3. Dense Molecular Gas and H2O Maser Emission in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Zhang, J. S.; Li, R. M.; Li, H. K.

    2014-09-01

    Extragalactic H2O masers have been found in dense gas circumstance in off-nuclear star formation regions or within parsecs of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). HCN molecular (one of the best dense gas tracers) emission has been detected in more than 60 galaxies. For HCN-detected galaxy sample, the relation of maser and gas emission was investigated here to identify physical observable properties that differentiate maser and non-maser galaxies. Our analysis results show that there is no significant difference on the infrared and gas emission between maser galaxies and galaxies without maser detection. For maser host HCN-galaxies, maser luminosity is found to be correlated to CO luminosity (a proxy of the total molecular gas) and HCN luminosity, i.e., kilomasers ( < 10 L ?) with low maser luminosity having low gas emission luminosity, with respect to megamasers ( > 10 L ?). For normalized maser and HCN luminosity (for removing distance effect), the correlation is still apparent. However, for normalized maser and CO luminosity, the correlation disappeared completely. Thus one proposition that the amount of dense molecular gas should be a good tracer of H2O maser emission can be made.

  4. A Complete Census of Dense Cores in Chamaeleon I: Results from an ALMA Cycle 1 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael; Schnee, Scott; Pineda, Jaime E.; Offner, Stella; Price, Daniel; Arce, Hector G.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug I.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Tobin, John J.; Chen, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cloud cores, yet many details relating to the onset of collapse and fragmentation into multiple systems remain unknown. I will present the results of an ALMA cycle 1 survey of all known dense cores (starless and protostellar) in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud complex (d~170pc). The goals of this survey are to provide a complete census of protostars, including those too young, too low in luminosity, and/or too deeply embedded to detect in previous infrared and (sub)millimeter surveys, and to characterize when and how dense cores fragment into multiple systems. With these results we will report new detections of protostellar multiplicity and provide updated constraints on the fraction of starless cores that are truly starless, the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core phase, and the relative durations of the starless and protostellar core populations. We will also report a lack of detections among the starless cores and discuss implications of these results.

  5. Polymer electrolyte reviews. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Callum, J.R.; Vincent, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of polymer electrolytes which have potential applications in battery technology has resulted in an escalation of research into the synthesis of new macromolecular supports and the mechanisms of ionic transport within the solid matrix. Investigation of the properties of polymer electrolytes has brought together polymer chemists and electrochemists, and the understanding of the solubility and transport of electrolytes in organic polymers is now developing from this pooled experience. This book deals with experimental, theoretical and applied aspects of solid solutions of electrolytes used in coordinating polymer matrices. Attention is focused on the synthesis and properties of these new materials, the mechanisms of conduction processes and practical applications, especially with regard to battery technology.

  6. Fluctuations in polymer translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, K.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate a model of chaperone-assisted polymer translocation through a nanopore in a membrane. Translocation is driven by irreversible random sequential absorption of chaperone proteins that bind to the polymer on one side of the membrane. The proteins are larger than the pore and hence the backward motion of the polymer is inhibited. This mechanism rectifies Brownian fluctuations and results in an effective force that drags the polymer in a preferred direction. The translocated polymer undergoes an effective biased random walk and we compute the corresponding diffusion constant. Our methods allow us to determine the large deviation function which, in addition to velocity and diffusion constant, contains the entire statistics of the translocated length.

  7. Unexplained Brightening of Unusual Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have documented an unexpected and rapid, seven-fold brightening of an unusual double star at the centre of the impressive 47 Tucanae globular cluster in the southern sky. This is the first HST observation of such a rare phenomenon. The astronomers [1] who are involved in this observational program find that this event cannot be explained by any of the common processes known to occur in such stars. The cores of globular clusters Globular clusters are like huge swarms of stars, containing about one million suns, which move around in their common gravitational field. Most galaxies contain globular clusters; around 150 are known within the confines of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. Globular clusters change with time. In particular, at some stage in the life of a globular cluster, its central region will contract whereby the stars there move closer to each other. This phenomenon is referred to as core collapse [2]. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have revealed enormous central densities of the order of 30,000 stars per cubic light-year in clusters with fully collapsed cores; this is to be compared with the stellar density in the solar neighborhood of only 0.003 stars per cubic light-year [3]. Binary stars in globular clusters Binary (i.e., double) stars play an important role in the evolution of globular clusters: they can delay, halt, or even reverse the process of core collapse. In this dense stellar environment, close encounters between passing stars and binaries are relatively frequent. Such events may leave the binary stars more tightly bound, and at the same time speed up the motion of the stars involved, thereby counteracting the contraction of the core. The same close stellar encounters may also produce a diverse progeny of exotic objects. The centers of globular clusters contain blue stragglers (stars that ``look'' younger than they really are), millisecond pulsars (rapidly rotating, very compact objects), both high- and low-luminosity X-ray sources , and cataclysmic variables (double stars whose light `flickers'). The kinds and numbers of these objects in cluster cores constrain the complex and as yet incompletely understood formation channels, most of which involve encounters with binaries. Many of the above exotic objects are strong emitters of ultraviolet light. The globular cluster 47 Tucanae 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the naked eye from the southern hemisphere. It is one of the closest (distance 15,000 lightyears) and heaviest (total mass about 1 million solar masses) in our Galaxy. It contains about 1 million stars and the member stars have been intensively studied for decades. The observed structure of 47 Tucanae indicates that it is now approaching its ultimate fate during a core collapse phase. There are five known low-luminosity X-ray sources in the core of this cluster, eleven millisecond pulsars, many blue stragglers, and a centrally concentrated population of eclipsing binary stars. The observations support the idea that the population of primordial binaries in this cluster has been heavily modified by stellar encounters. The HST observations In late 1996, the group of astronomers obtained time to observe the central area of 47 Tucanae with the Hubble Space Telescope and the second Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2). During a period of more than 4 hours, a total of 15 CCD exposures were obtained through an ultraviolet filter (transmission near 3000 A), showing the thousands of individual stars in this densely populated region. Caption to ESO PR Photo 03/97 [GIF, 57k] When inspecting this material, it immediately became clear that one of the stars had undergone a substantial brightening in the course of these observations. In fact, its brightness increased by as much as 2.1 magnitudes, that is a factor of seven, in less than one hour; see the photos that accompany this Press Release. By the end of the observations, it had become the brightest star in the core of the cluster. Caption to ESO

  8. Interfacial properties of hydrosoluble polymers. Final report, June 15, 1993--June 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    During this period, the authors treated a myriad of problems associated with the interfacial properties of macromolecules. Many of them concerned indirect interactions between surfaces engendered by intervening species. The issues ranged from colloidal forces to membrane induced coupling between embedded macromolecules (membrane-bound proteins). This report presents summaries of the following papers published as a result of this study: membrane interactions with polymers and colloids; escape transitions and force laws for compressed polymer mushrooms; interaction between finite-sized particles and end grafted polymers; one long chain among shorter chains--the Flory approach revisited; conformation of star polymers in high molecular weight solvents; membrane-induced interactions between inclusions; filled polymer brushes--a hydrodynamic analogy; polymer adsorption at liquid/air interfaces under lateral pressure; flow induced instability of the interface between a fluid and a gel at low Reynolds number; and fluctuation-induced forces in stacked fluid membranes.

  9. STAR Highlights

    E-print Network

    Hiroshi Masui; for the STAR Collaboration

    2011-06-29

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  10. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  11. Star Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners create a star show and discover how they can prevent light pollution. Using simple materials, learners first design constellation boxes. Next, learners use their constellation boxes and desk lamps to explore how city lights impact the visibility of constellations. Finally, learners design shields to reduce light pollution and increase the visibility of constellations.

  12. Brittle Star

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tiny brittle star (the central disc is smaller than a dime) clings to the branches of a soft coral in a sample bucket brought into the shipboard laboratory from a submersible dive. This creature makes its home on the deep, dark ocean floor. ...

  13. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  14. Equation of state of neutron star matter, limiting, rotational periods of fast pulsars, and the properties of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Glendenning, N.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-10-25

    In this paper the following items will be treated: The present status of dense nuclear matter calculations and constraints on the behavior of the associated equation of state at high densities from data on rapidly rotating pulsars. Recent finding of the likely existence of a mixed phase of baryons and quarks forming a coulomb lattice in the dense cores of neutron stars. Review of important findings of recently performed calculations of rapidly rotating compact stars. These are constructed in the framework of general relativity theory for a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. Establish the minimum-possible rotational periods of gravitationally bound neutron stars and self-bound strange stars. Its knowledge is of fundamental importance for the decision between pulsars that can be understood as rotating neutron stars and those that cannot (signature of hypothetical self-bound matter of which strange stars are the likely stellar candidates. Investigate the properties of sequences of strange stars. Specifically, we answer the question whether such objects can give rise to the observed phenomena of pulsar glitches, which is at the present time the only astrophysical test of the strange-quark-matter hypothesis.

  15. Half-Skyrmions, tensor forces, and symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Kyu; Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque

    2011-02-01

    In a previous article, the four-dimensional (4D) half-Skyrmion (or five-dimensional dyonic salt) structure of dense baryonic matter described in crystalline configuration in the large Nc limit was shown to have nontrivial consequences on how antikaons behave in compressed nuclear matter with a possible implication for the “ice-9” phenomenon of deeply bound kaonic matter and condensed kaons in compact stars. We extend the analysis to make a further prediction on the scaling properties of hadrons that have a surprising effect on the nuclear tensor forces, the symmetry energy, and hence on the phase structure at high density. We treat this problem, relying on certain topological structures of chiral solitons. Combined with what can be deduced from hidden local symmetry for hadrons in a dense medium and the “soft” dilatonic degree of freedom associated with the trace anomaly of QCD, we uncover a novel structure of chiral symmetry in the “supersoft” symmetry energy that can influence the structure of neutron stars.

  16. Simulation studies on architecture dependence of unentangled polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolei; Chen, Jizhong; An, Lijia

    2015-02-21

    The dependences of the properties of linear, ring, star, and H-shaped polymer melts on architecture are investigated by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that zero-shear viscosities ?0 for various architectures follow a universal relation, ?0=C??Rg0 (2)?, where C? is a constant and ?Rg0 (2)? the equilibrium mean-square radius of gyration, in the unentangled regime. This law is also found valid for asymmetrical polymers but invalid for polymers with a hard core, such as stars with many arms and short arm lengths. In the unentangled regime, from the point of view of polymer size, the relaxation times show weak dependences on architecture, but the architecture dependence of the diffusion coefficient is still apparent. Then, we examine unentangled melts of various architectures having the same size over a wide range of shear rates covering linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes and find that the rheological quantities, namely, viscosity, first and second normal stress differences, are independent of architecture. In contrast, the polymer deformation shows an apparent dependence on architecture in the nonlinear regime. These findings shall shed significant light on the nature of rheological behaviors of unentangled melts. PMID:25702027

  17. Polymer topology revealed by ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morsa, Denis; Defize, Thomas; Dehareng, Dominique; Jérôme, Christine; De Pauw, Edwin

    2014-10-01

    Hyperbranched and star shaped polymers have raised tremendous interest because of their unusual structural and photochemical properties, which provide them potent applications in various domains, namely in the biomedical field. In this context, the development of adequate tools aiming to probe particular three-dimensional features of such polymers is of crucial importance. In this present work, ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry was used to experimentally derive structural information related to cationized linear and star shaped poly-?-caprolactones as a function of their charge state and chain length. Two major conformations were observed and identified using theoretical modeling: (1) near spherical conformations whose sizes are invariant with the polymer topology for long and lightly charged chains and (2) elongated conformations whose sizes vary with the polymer topology for short and highly charged chains. These conformations were further confirmed by collisional activation experiments based on the ejection thresholds of the coordinated cations that vary according to the elongation amplitude of the polymer chains. Finally, a comparison between solution and gas-phase conformations highlights a compaction of the structure with a loss of specific chain arrangements during the ionization and desolvation steps of the electrospray process, fueling the long-time debated question related to the preservation of the analyte structure during the transfer into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25188877

  18. Astrochemistry of dense protostellar and protoplanetary environments

    E-print Network

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    . At the same time, these chemical changes can also be used as diagnotics of the physical processes. Tracing chemical composition, with more than 130 different species identified in the gas, ranging from the simplest to the large changes in physical conditions during star- and planet formation, where temperatures vary from

  19. Transport properties of dense matter. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Flowers; N. Itoh

    1979-01-01

    Exact solutions for the transport coefficients of a multicomponent system of several interacting Fermi liquids are given in the low temperature limit. The transport coefficients are found by solving a set of coupled Boltzmann transport equations. These solutions for the transport coefficients are used to evaluate the thermal conductivity and viscosity of neutron star matter in the density regime where

  20. SIMS depth profiling of deuterium labeled polymers in polymer multilayers

    E-print Network

    [7]. With polymers, problems associated with charge neutralization arise with low impact energies [6SIMS depth profiling of deuterium labeled polymers in polymer multilayers Shane E. Harton a,*, Fred February 2006 Available online 19 May 2006 Abstract Thin planar polymer films are model systems for probing

  1. A variational approach to charged polymer chains: Polymer mediated interactions

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    A variational approach to charged polymer chains: Polymer mediated interactions R. Podgornika charged polymer, considered as a model of polyelectrolyte-macroion interactions. The quadratic variational generalized to include polymer self-interactions.Conditions for chain localization in the field of a point

  2. Origins of shear strength of polymers and reinforced polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Ka Yan Liu

    1997-01-01

    In tests on neat polymers, it was shown that for most of the polymers, the tensile strength was approximately the same as the shear strength measured by the punch test. Classical shear sliding off failure appeared to be rare, and instead most of the polymers seemed to be failing in tension. The polymers giving anomalous results were brittle ones with

  3. The symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    E-print Network

    Kie Sang Jeong; Su Houng Lee

    2015-06-09

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  4. The symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    E-print Network

    Jeong, Kie Sang

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case ...

  5. Trajectory entanglement in dense granular materials

    E-print Network

    James G. Puckett; Frédéric Lechenault; Karen E. Daniels; Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    2012-02-23

    The particle-scale dynamics of granular materials have commonly been characterized by the self-diffusion coefficient $D$. However, this measure discards the collective and topological information known to be an important characteristic of particle trajectories in dense systems. Direct measurement of the entanglement of particle space-time trajectories can be obtained via the topological braid entropy $\\Sbraid$, which has previously been used to quantify mixing efficiency in fluid systems. Here, we investigate the utility of $\\Sbraid$ in characterizing the dynamics of a dense, driven granular material at packing densities near the static jamming point $\\phi_J$. From particle trajectories measured within a two-dimensional granular material, we typically observe that $\\Sbraid$ is well-defined and extensive. However, for systems where $\\phi \\gtrsim 0.79$, we find that $\\Sbraid$ (like $D$) is not well-defined, signifying that these systems are not ergodic on the experimental timescale. Both $\\Sbraid$ and $D$ decrease with either increasing packing density or confining pressure, independent of the applied boundary condition. The related braiding factor provides a means to identify multi-particle phenomena such as collective rearrangements. We discuss possible uses for this measure in characterizing granular systems.

  6. Nuclear quantum dynamics in dense hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Dai, Jiayu; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Zengxiu; Hou, Yong; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dense hydrogen, which is determined by the key physics of large-angle scattering or many-body collisions between particles, is crucial for the dynamics of planet's evolution and hydrodynamical processes in inertial confinement confusion. Here, using improved ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the nuclear quantum dynamics regarding transport behaviors of dense hydrogen up to the temperatures of 1?eV. With the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), the ionic diffusions are largely higher than the classical treatment by the magnitude from 20% to 146% as the temperature is decreased from 1?eV to 0.3?eV at 10?g/cm3, meanwhile, electrical and thermal conductivities are significantly lowered. In particular, the ionic diffusion is found much larger than that without NQEs even when both the ionic distributions are the same at 1?eV. The significant quantum delocalization of ions introduces remarkably different scattering cross section between protons compared with classical particle treatments, which explains the large difference of transport properties induced by NQEs. The Stokes-Einstein relation, Wiedemann-Franz law, and isotope effects are re-examined, showing different behaviors in nuclear quantum dynamics. PMID:24968754

  7. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  8. Nitrogen superfractionation in dense cloud cores

    E-print Network

    S. D. Rodgers; S. B. Charnley

    2008-02-13

    We report new calculations of interstellar 15N fractionation. Previously, we have shown that large enhancements of 15N/14N can occur in cold, dense gas where CO is frozen out, but that the existence of an NH + N channel in the dissociative recombination of N2H+ severely curtails the fractionation. In the light of recent experimental evidence that this channel is in fact negligible, we have reassessed the 15N chemistry in dense cloud cores. We consider the effects of temperatures below 10 K, and of the presence of large amounts of atomic nitrogen. We also show how the temporal evolution of gas-phase isotope ratios is preserved as spatial heterogeneity in ammonia ice mantles, as monolayers deposited at different times have different isotopic compositions. We demonstrate that the upper layers of this ice may have 15N/14N ratios an order of magnitude larger than the underlying elemental value. Converting our ratios to delta-values, we obtain delta(15N) > 3,000 per mil in the uppermost layer, with values as high as 10,000 per mil in some models. We suggest that this material is the precursor to the 15N `hotspots' recently discovered in meteorites and IDPs

  9. An Overview of STAR Experimental Results

    E-print Network

    N. Xu

    2014-08-15

    With large acceptance and excellent particle identification, STAR is one of the best mid-rapidity collider experiments for studying high-energy nuclear collisions. The STAR experiment provides full information on initial conditions, properties of the hot and dense medium as well as the properties at freeze-out. In Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV, STAR's focus is on the nature of the sQGP produced at RHIC. In order to explore the properties of the QCD phase diagram, since 2010, the experiment has collected sizable data sets of Au+Au collisions at the lower collision energy region where the net-baryon density is large. At the 2014 Quark Matter Conference, the STAR experiment made 16 presentations that cover physics topics including {\\it collective dynamics}, {\\it electromagnetic probes}, {\\it heavy flavor}, {\\it initial state physics}, {\\it jets}, {\\it QCD phase diagram}, {\\it thermodynamics and hadron chemistry}, and {\\it future experimental facilities, upgrades, and instrumentation} [1-16]. In this overview we will highlight a few results from the STAR experiment, especially those from the recent measurements of the RHIC beam energy scan program. At the end, instead of a summary, we will discuss STAR's near future physics programs at RHIC.

  10. The sun, our star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  11. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  12. QUARK MATTER IN NEUTRON STARS Abstract.-A semi-phenomenological model for quark matter is given and applied to

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUARK MATTER IN NEUTRON STARS Abstract.- A semi-phenomenological model for quark matter is given and applied to dense stars (and also to a possible quark era in cosmology). In this model, the con- finement of quarks occurs via the use of color singlets as physical states. Also, quarks interact via the exchange

  13. Conformational properties of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Namkyoung

    In this thesis, I study the conformational properties of polymers in non-stationary and stationary states. In the first part of my thesis, I study the conformations of polymers in non-stationary state. I consider two cases: (1) the motion of a polymer penetrating a membrane and (2) the dynamics of DNA molecules in a gel. In the first case, I assume that a polymer crosses a membrane several times during the process of penetration. The polymer reptates along its own contour. The mobility of the polymer chain is related to its configurations which are characterized by the number of crossings with the membrane. I find the configurations which give the main contribution to the transport and calculate the overall permeability in the case of both Zimm and Rouse dynamics. As a second system, I consider the motion of a long DNA molecule confined in a gel. When a strong electric field is applied, the electric field forces the DNA into a tree-like structure. The dynamics of large segments of DNA is almost deterministic and can be described by a set of simple mechanical equations. This allows the numerical study of gel electrophoresis of DNA. I confirm the hypothesis of the statistical self-similarity of a moving polymer. In the second part of the thesis, there are three major sections all dealing with configurational properties of a single isolated charged polymer. (1) I study the configurational statistics of a ring polyampholyte chain. In addition to the cascade like transitions similar to that in a linear chain, I found that a ring polyampholyte has a metastable phase where the configurations are controlled by the randomness in the charge distribution. (2) I study new exact solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation describing counterion condensation on a strongly charged polymer in the dilute regime. The counterion has to be brought from three-dimensional space and the entropy loss is 3/2 times larger than in the picture of Manning. The condensation occurs at a critical line charge density lambda=3/2, which is 3/2 times larger than in Manning's theory. (3) I study the rigidity of the charged polymer in the presence of counterion condensation. I show that the condensation of counterions changes the local structure of the charged polymer more than in the Debye-Huckel approximation. By solving the Poisson Boltzmann equation in cylindrical coordinates in the vicinity of charged polymer, I show that the persistence length lsb{p} of a strongly charged polymer is proportional to the Debye radius lsb{p}˜ Rsb{d}.

  14. ASTE CO(3--2) Observations of the Southern Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 986: a Large Gaseous Bar Filled with Dense Molecular Medium

    E-print Network

    Kohno, K; Miura, R; Muraoka, K; Sawada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kuno, N; Sakai, T; Sorai, K; Kamegai, K; Tanaka, K; Okuda, T; Endo, A; Hatsukade, B; Sameshima, M; Ezawa, H; Sakamoto, S; Kamazaki, T; Cortés, J; Tamura, Y; Fukuhara, M; Iono, D; Kawabe, R

    2008-01-01

    We present CO(3-2) emission observations toward the 3'x3' (or 20x20kpc at a distance of 23Mpc) region of the southern barred spiral galaxy NGC 986 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This effort is a part of our on-going extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging project ADIoS (ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Spiral galaxies). Our CO(3-2) image revealed the presence of a large (the major axis is 14 kpc in total length) gaseous bar filled with dense molecular medium along the dark lanes observed in optical images. This is the largest ``dense-gas rich bar'' known to date. The dense gas bar discovered in NGC 986 could be a huge reservoir of possible ``fuel'' for future starbursts in the central region, and we suggest that the star formation in the central region of NGC 986 could still be in a growing phase. We found a good spatial coincidence between the overall distributions of dense molecular gas traced by CO(3-2) and the massive star formation depicted by H$\\alpha$. The global CO(3-2) luminosity $L'_{\\r...

  15. Data Characterization Using Artificial-Star Tests: Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Liu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Traditional artificial-star tests are widely applied to photometry in crowded stellar fields. However, to obtain reliable binary fractions (and their uncertainties) of remote, dense, and rich star clusters, one needs to recover huge numbers of artificial stars. Hence, this will consume much computation time for data reduction of the images to which the artificial stars must be added. In this article, we present a new method applicable to data sets characterized by stable, well-defined, point-spread functions, in which we add artificial stars to the retrieved-data catalog instead of to the raw images. Taking the young Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1818 as an example, we compare results from both methods and show that they are equivalent, while our new method saves significant computational time.

  16. Molecular simulation of simple fluids and polymers in nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher John

    Prediction of phase behavior and transport properties of simple fluids and polymers confined to nanoscale pores is important to a wide range of chemical and biochemical engineering processes. A practical approach to investigate nanoscale systems is molecular simulation, specifically Monte Carlo (MC) methods. One of the most challenging problems is the need to calculate chemical potentials in simulated phases. Through the seminal work of Widom, practitioners have a powerful method for calculating chemical potentials. Yet, this method fails for dense and inhomogeneous systems, as well as for complex molecules such as polymers. In this dissertation, the gauge cell MC method, which had previously been successfully applied to confined simple fluids, was employed and extended to investigate nanoscale fluids in several key areas. Firstly, the process of cavitation (the formation and growth of bubbles) during desorption of fluids from nanopores was investigated. The dependence of cavitation pressure on pore size was determined with gauge cell MC calculations of the nucleation barriers correlated with experimental data. Additional computational studies elucidated the role of surface defects and pore connectivity in the formation of cavitation bubbles. Secondly, the gauge cell method was extended to polymers. The method was verified against the literature results and found significantly more efficient. It was used to examine adsorption of polymers in nanopores. These results were applied to model the dynamics of translocation, the act of a polymer threading through a small opening, which is implicated in drug packaging and delivery, and DNA sequencing. Translocation dynamics was studied as diffusion along the free energy landscape. Thirdly, we show how computer simulation of polymer adsorption could shed light on the specifics of polymer chromatography, which is a key tool for the analysis and purification of polymers. The quality of separation depends on the physico-chemical mechanisms of polymer/pore interaction. We considered liquid chromatography at critical conditions, and calculated the dependence of the partition coefficient on chain length. Finally, solvent-gradient chromatography was modeled using a statistical model of polymer adsorption. A model for predicting separation of complex polymers (with functional groups or copolymers) was developed for practical use in chromatographic separations.

  17. A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Abhilasha; Murray, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods that have been employed for the trace determination of organophosphates in real world samples using MIPs. PMID:24956512

  18. The role of low-mass star clusters in forming the massive stars in DR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the young low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar population associated with the massive star-forming region DR 21 by using archival X-ray Chandra observations and by complementing them with existing optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The Chandra observations have revealed for the first time a new highly extincted population of PMS low-mass stars previously missed in observations at other wavelengths. The X-ray population exhibits three main stellar density peaks, coincident with the massive star-forming regions, being the DR 21 core the main peak. The cross-correlated X-ray/IR sample exhibits a radial `Spokes-like' stellar filamentary structure that extends from the DR 21 core towards the northeast. The near-IR data reveal a centrally peaked structure for the extinction, which exhibits its maximum in the DR 21 core and gradually decreases with the distance to the N-S cloud axis and to the cluster centre. We find evidence of a global mass segregation in the full low-mass stellar cluster, and of a stellar age segregation, with the youngest stars still embedded in the N-S cloud, and more evolved stars more spatially distributed. The results are consistent with the scenario where an elongated overall potential well created by the full low-mass stellar cluster funnels gas through filaments feeding stellar formation. Besides the full gravitational well, smaller scale local potential wells created by dense stellar sub-clusters of low-mass stars are privileged in the competition for the gas of the common reservoir, allowing the formation of massive stars. We also discuss the possibility that a stellar collision in the very dense stellar cluster revealed by Chandra in the DR 21 core is the origin of the large-scale and highly energetic outflow arising from this region.

  19. Spectroscopy: Star Light, Star Bright

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a student reading about the different types of spectra: continuous, absorption, and emission. Learners will read about the differences between each and see graphical representations of each. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

  20. Engineering challenges for polymer electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Taylor; D. J. Morris

    2001-01-01

    Polymer LEDs are entering the market and rapid improvements are taking place in the fabrication techniques and the level of sophistication of polymer circuits. However, a number of challenges remain to be overcome before the commercial future of polymer electronics becomes an assured fact. Here, we review briefly the progress made to date in the development of polymer electronics. Then,