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Sample records for densely populated urban

  1. Potential Health Hazards from Microbial Aerosols in Densely Populated Urban Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cronholm, Lois S.

    1980-01-01

    Aerosolized bacteria were recovered up to 930 m downwind of three sewage treatment plants in Jefferson County, Ky. This distance includes homes in the proximity of several hundred such plants in that county. Bacterial counts were elevated on foliage near activated sludge tanks; although these counts decreased rapidly, at 48 h after exposure they were significantly higher than the counts on unexposed leaves. The 50% lethal dose of aerosolized Klebsiella pneumoniae was comparable to the 50% lethal dose of a virulent clinical isolate, and enteric bacteria were recovered from the respiratory organs of mice after forced inhalation adjacent to an aerated sludge tank. The coliform density in the effluents of the plants tested was inversely related to the airborne bacterial load at those plants. This relationship was attributed to the correlation between effluent quality and extent of aeration of activated sludge. Wind direction and distance influenced the airborne counts, but the extreme variation in counts indicates that it is not possible to predict emission rates accurately in an open ecosystem. Airborne enteric bacteria also were isolated near a decorative fountain used by humans for wading. The discovery of these sources of aerosolized microorganisms from polluted waters in densely populated areas suggests that a potential health hazard may be created by the increased probability of inhaling and ingesting microorganisms of fecal origin. Images PMID:6986851

  2. Managing the adverse thermal effects of urban development in a densely populated Chinese city.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qihao; Yang, Shihong

    2004-02-01

    Guangzhou city in South China has experienced an accelerated urban development since the 1980s. This paper examines the impact of the urban development on urban heat islands through a historical analysis of urban-rural air temperature differences. Remote sensing techniques were applied to derive information on land use/cover and land surface temperatures and to assess the thermal response patterns of land cover types. The results revealed an overriding importance of urban land cover expansion in the changes in heat island intensity and surface temperature patterns. Urban development was also related to a continual air temperature increase in the 1980s and 1990s. The combined use of satellite-derived vegetation and land cover distributions with land surface temperature maps provides a potential useful tool for many planning applications. The city's greening campaigns and landscaping designs should consider the different cooling effects of forest, shrubs and grassy lawns for temperature control and should plant more tall trees. PMID:15160740

  3. Sustained high incidence of injuries from burns in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya: An emerging public health priority

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua M.; Nyachieo, Dhillon O.; Benzekri, Noelle A.; Cosmas, Leonard; Ondari, Daniel; Yekta, Shahla; Montgomery, Joel M.; Williamson, John M.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-five percent of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); however, longitudinal household-level studies have not been done in urban slum settings, where overcrowding and unsafe cook stoves may increase likelihood of injury. Methods Using a prospective, population-based disease surveillance system in the urban slum of Kibera in Kenya, we examined the incidence of household-level burns of all severities from 2006–2011. Results Of approximately 28,500 enrolled individuals (6000 households), we identified 3072 burns. The overall incidence was 27.9/1000 person-years-of-observation. Children <5 years old sustained burns at 3.8-fold greater rate compared to ( p < 0.001) those ≥5 years old. Females ≥5 years old sustained burns at a rate that was 1.35-fold ( p < 0.001) greater than males within the same age distribution. Hospitalizations were uncommon (0.65% of all burns). Conclusions The incidence of burns, 10-fold greater than in most published reports from Africa and Asia, suggests that such injuries may contribute more significantly than previously thought to morbidity in LMICs, and may be increased by urbanization. As migration from rural areas into urban slums rapidly increases in many African countries, characterizing and addressing the rising burden of burns is likely to become a public health priority. PMID:24461306

  4. Population kinetics in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlanges, M.; Bornath, T.; Prenzel, R.; Kremp, D.

    1996-07-01

    Starting from quantum kinetic equations, rate equations for the number densities of the different atomic states and equations for the energy density are derived which are valid for dense nonideal plasmas. Statistical expressions are presented for the rate coefficients taking into account many-body effects as dynamical screening, lowering of the ionization energy and Pauli-blocking. Based on these generalized expressions, the coefficients of impact ionization, three-body recombination, excitation and deexcitation are calculated for nonideal hydrogen and carbon plasmas. As a result, higher ionization and recombination rates are obtained in the dense plasma region. The influence of the many-body effects on the population kinetics, including density and temperature relaxation, is shown then for a dense hydrogen plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems. PMID:18657964

  6. Dense network of disdrometers in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, S. A. P.; Hut, R. W.; Bagree, R.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    Dense networks of rain gauges in urban areas are scarce. The standard recommendation for the placement of a rain gauge is that the gauge is positioned at a distance corresponding to two to four times the height of any nearby obstruction to obtain a measurement that is representative for the surrounding area. In an urban area it is almost impossible to find a location that suits this recommendation. Rain measurements with a high spatial resolution are needed in urban areas to obtain a better understanding of urban hydrology. However, the costs of such a network may be prohibitive. In recent years a low-cost disdrometer (below 200,-) has been developed at Delft University of Technology. On the campus of the University, a dense network of these disdrometers is under construction. We will show the layout of the network, its boundary conditions and the first results.

  7. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-04-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of ammonia were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of ammonia well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3+NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  8. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-08-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  9. Characterizing the Urban Heat Island with a Dense Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Smoliak, B. V.; Mykleby, P.; Hertel, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience temperatures that are elevated relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in the fraction of gray and green infrastructure. Traditional methods of characterizing UHIs rely on the comparison of near-surface air temperature measurements between few sites in an urban area with those in a nearby rural area. This methodology assumes (1) that the UHI can be characterized by the difference in air temperature from a small number of points, and (2) that these few points represent the urban and rural signatures of the region. While this methodology makes it possible to compare the UHI of cities around the globe, it ignores the rich information that could be gained from measurements across the urban to rural transect. This transect could traverse elevations, water bodies, vegetation fraction, and other land surface properties. We deployed a network of ~200 temperature sensors across the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) beginning in July 2011 and continuing to the present. Our network covers a 5000-km2 area encompassing the cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul as well as suburban and rural areas within the seven-county region. The TCMA includes ~3.4 million people, nearly 900 lakes, and two major interstate highways and a beltway system. We employed a cokriging method to interpolate sensor measurements onto a continuous grid using satellite-based impervious surface fraction data. Our results show consistent warm anomalies, when compared with a background rural temperature, over the two downtown cores and along major highways and dense suburban areas. Anomalies switch between positive and negative values (i.e., warmer or cooler than the rural, respectively) depending on season over large lakes. The warm season (May - October) average TCMA UHI (all urban areas - all rural areas) peaks at night at 1.5 °C, while the cold season (November - April) UHI is ~1 °C and is less variable over

  10. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations. PMID:12346957

  11. The Benefits of Using Dense Temperature Sensor Networks to Monitor Urban Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Kucharik, C. J.; Schatz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience temperatures that are elevated relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in the fraction of gray and green infrastructure. Studies have shown that communities most at risk for impacts from climate-related disasters (i.e., lower median incomes, higher poverty, lower education, and minorities) tend to live in the hottest areas of cities. Development of adequate climate adaptation tools for cities relies on knowledge of how temperature varies across space and time. Traditionally, a city's urban heat island has been quantified using near-surface air temperature measurements from a few sites. This methodology assumes (1) that the UHI can be characterized by the difference in air temperature from a small number of points, and (2) that these few points represent the urban and rural signatures of the region. This methodology ignores the rich information that could be gained from measurements across the urban to rural transect. This transect could traverse elevations, water bodies, vegetation fraction, and other land surface properties. Two temperature sensor networks were designed and implemented in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul, MN and Madison, WI metropolitan areas beginning in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Both networks use the same model sensor and record temperature every 15 minutes from ~150 sensors. Data from each network has produced new knowledge of how temperature varies diurnally and seasonally across the cities and how the UHI magnitude is influenced by weather phenomena (e.g., wind, snow cover, heat waves) and land surface characteristics such as proximity to inland lakes. However, the two metropolitan areas differ in size, population, structure, and orientation to water bodies. In addition, the sensor networks were established in very different manners. We describe these differences and present lessons learned from the design and ongoing efforts of these two dense networks

  12. The Education of Urban Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Abraham

    A new teacher education text stresses the primacy of urban problems. Also emphasized is a new direction in the training and recruitment of teachers for urban schools. Part I, "The Problem" contains chapters on urban and rural education, family structure and education, stupidity and ignorance, militancy and intelligence, and the teacher,…

  13. [The population of China, fertility and urbanization].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1985-04-01

    China is a huge country with more than 1 billion population. During some 30 years since 1949 when the new China was established, the population of China experienced several influences from political, economic, and social fluctuations on its fertility, mortality, and migration. Recently, the government of China is taking a unique policy for its fertility, so-called "only 1 child per couple" policy, having remarkable effects on actual birthrate. Trend of migration in China is also noteworthy. The number of migrants from rural to urban areas has not been large, and the proportion of urban population has not risen rapidly. There are several reasons behind this. Recently, the government has started policies to encourage sideline business of farmers to utilize effectively surplus labor in agriculture. By this way not only transfer of labor force from agriculture can be realized but also transfer of population from rural to urban areas can be realized. The target of urbanization in China is not the establishment of large cities but the creation of small cities and towns related closely with villages. The author was given the opportunity to attend the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development, which was held in December 1984. At that Symposium many valuable papers were presented by Chinese scholars, using the latest demographic data of population census, fertility survey, and civil registration. The author shares this information with those who are concerned with the population of China in this short paper, especially putting focus on China's fertility and urbanization. PMID:12155127

  14. Global Impacts of Long-Term Land Cover Changes Within China's Densely Populated Rural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term changes in land cover are usually investigated in terms of large-scale change processes such as urban expansion, deforestation and land conversion to agriculture. Yet China's densely populated agricultural regions, which cover more than 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia, have been transformed profoundly over the past fifty years by fine-scale changes in land cover caused by unprecedented changes in population, technology and social conditions. Using a regional sampling and upscaling design coupled with high-resolution landscape change measurements at five field sites, we investigated long-term changes in land cover and ecological processes, circa 1945 to 2002, within and across China's densely populated agricultural regions. As expected, the construction of buildings and roads increased impervious surface area over time, but the total net increase was surprising, being similar in magnitude to the total current extent of China's cities. Agricultural land area declined over the same period, while tree cover increased, by about 10%, driven by tree planting and regrowth around new buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture, improved forestry, and declines in annual crop cultivation. Though changes in impervious surface areas were closely related to changes in population density, long-term changes in agricultural land and tree cover were unrelated to populated density and required explanation by more complex models with strong regional and biophysical components. Moreover, most of these changes occurred primarily at fine spatial scales (< 30 m), under the threshold for conventional global and regional land cover change measurements. Given that these changes in built structures and vegetation cover have the potential to contribute substantially to regional and global changes in biogeochemistry, hydrology, and land-atmosphere interactions, future investigations of these changes and their impacts across Monsoon Asia would benefit from models

  15. Dense fine speckled indirect immunofluorescence pattern in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Broadfoot, Andrew; Sivertsen, Terri; Baumgart, Karl

    2016-04-01

    The dense fine speckled (DFS) pattern is an antinuclear antibody (ANA) pattern that has recently become of interest. This particular pattern has not been associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic disorders (SARD) but has been associated with other inflammatory conditions such as interstitial nephritis, autoimmune thyroid disease and atopic eczema as well as being found in healthy individuals. We have been reporting this pattern in our laboratory for the past 3 years. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of the DFS pattern as detected on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in an Australian population and to assess association of this pattern with other laboratory autoimmune markers. ANA tests performed by IIF from July 2012 until June 2014 were reviewed and the frequency of DFS pattern was determined. All DFS positive samples that had undergone concurrent testing for antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), anti-dsDNA antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (CCP) and anti- phospholipid antibodies were compared. Over the 2 year period, 181,819 patients had ANA tests performed and 51,905 were ANA positive. The DFS pattern was found in 5.7% of ANA positive patients. Within this group of patients, only 1.8% were positive for antibodies to ENA and only 0.7% had anti-dsDNA antibodies level greater than 9 IU/mL. RF and anti-CCP antibodies were positive in 6.3% and 4.1% of DFS positive samples, respectively. There were only two samples positive for anti-phospholipid antibodies when the DFS pattern was present. The presence of the DFS pattern as detected by IIF is infrequently associated with autoimmune markers of SARD which is consistent with international studies. PMID:27020500

  16. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ∼20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3-β-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg( - 1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  17. Illumination of dense urban areas by light redirecting panels.

    PubMed

    El-Henawy, Sally I; Mohamed, Mohamed W N; Mashaly, Islam A; Mohamed, Osama N; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M E

    2014-05-01

    With the high population growth rate, especially in developing countries, and the scarcity of land resources, buildings are becoming so close to each other, depriving the lower floors and the alleys from sunlight and consequently causing health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective efficient light redirecting panels that guide sun rays into those dim places. In this paper, we address this problem. A novel sine wave based panel is presented to redirect/diverge light downward and enhance the illumination level in those dark places. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter respectively, operates over wide solar altitude ranges, and redirects light efficiently. Experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. PMID:24922395

  18. The use of a dense urban meteorological network to enable long term electricity consumption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes de Azevedo, J.

    2015-12-01

    High air temperatures have an impact on energy consumption, since the demand for cooling fans and air conditioning increases. With current climate projections indicating a general increase in air temperatures, as well as more frequent and intense heat waves, cooling energy demand will increase with time and should therefore be considered by industry and policy makers. Cooling degree days (CDD) are a standard approach used by energy industry to estimate cooling demand. The methodology compares ambient temperatures with a base value for air temperature considered representative of the city being analysed. However, due to the Urban Heat Island effect, temperature and energy consumption will vary considerably across a city. Hence, for CDD to be estimated across an urban area, air temperature data from dense urban networks are required. This study analysed air temperature data available from a dense urban meteorological network to estimate CDD and cooling needs across Birmingham-UK for summer 2013. From the results, it was possible to identify the potential role and limitations of urban meteorological networks in forecasting electricity demand within a city for future climate scenarios.

  19. Tsunami inundation modelling based on detailed roughness maps of densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayer, G.; Leschka, S.; Nöhren, I.; Larsen, O.; Günther, H.

    2010-08-01

    An important part within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project was the detailed numerical investigation of the impact of tsunamis in densely populated coastal areas of Indonesia. This work, carried out by the German Research Centre Geesthacht (GKSS), in co-operation with DHI-WASY, also provides the basis for the preparation of high resolution hazard and risk maps by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). In this paper a method is described of how to prepare very detailed roughness maps for scenario computations performed with the MIKE 21 Flow Model FM in three highly resolved (~10 m) priority regions, namely Kuta (Bali), Padang (West-Sumatra), and Cilacap (southern coast of Java). Roughness values are assigned to 43 land use classes, e.g. different types of buildings, rural and urban sub-areas, by using equivalent coefficients found in literature or by performing numerical experiments. Comparisons of simulations using differentiated roughness maps with simulations using constant values (a widely used approach) are presented and it is demonstrated that roughness takes considerable influence on run-up and inundation. Out of all simulations, the results of the worst case scenarios for each of the three priority areas are discussed. Earthquakes with magnitudes of MW=8.5 or higher lead to considerable inundation in all study sites. A spatially distinguished consideration of roughness has been found to be necessary for detailed modelling onshore.

  20. Regional distribution of urban population in China.

    PubMed

    Onoye, E

    1970-03-01

    The attempt is made to clarify the regional distribution of population in China, particularly the urban population, and to trace the course of changes which have occurred under the new regime. As this study was conducted as a part of a study of the industrial location in China, the relation of industrial location to the regional distribution of population must be clarified first. The major statistics regarding the regional distribution of various economic values including population are given on the basis of administrative division. Population by province and the population density are given for mid-year of 1953 and year end of 1954 and 1957. The population density by province shows considerable variety, the average having no significance in itself. The density is high in the eastern provinces and low in the western provinces. The population density of 17 provinces was higher than the national average and that of 8 provinces was below the average. It can be pointed out from the changes in 1953-1957 that population grew in size in all provinces and autonomous districts except for the slight decrease in Tibet. The growth rate almost reached the national average in most provinces. No change was seen in the ranking by population density. Very little data is available to show the situation after 1957. The economic geography of China is characterized by the distinctive contrast between the well developed regions of 3 provinces in Northwest Region, as well as Hopei and Kiangsu and other undeveloped regions. The long-term policy on industrial location is based on several principles but practically aims at the locational dispersion of industry and the elimination of differences in income standard and industrial structure among regions. Provinces of China can be divided into 3 groups according to the urban population ratio. The 1st group is Liaoning with the highest ratio of approximately 33%; the 2nd group consists of 4 provinces, i.e., Heilungkiang, Kiangsu, Kirin, and

  1. A shallow water model for dense gas simulation in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael; Williams, Mike D; Gowardhan, Akshay; Brambilla, Sara; Manca, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Large quantities of toxic chemicals are stored at industrial facilities and transported around the country via train and truck. In the event of an accidental release, many of these chemicals are released as heavier-than-air gases that stay low to the ground as they are transported by the wind . Breathing height concentrations can remain high due to reduced vertical mixing and hazard zone coverage area can be larger due to near-source gravitational slumping . A number of fast-response dense gas dispersion models have been developed and are routinely used to deal with heavier-than-air releases over unobstructed terrain. If a release were to occur in a built-up environment, however, the effects of buildings and other obstacles will significantly alter the initial spreading, the transport direction, and the amount of mixing of the dense gas cloud . We have developed a new fast-running dense gas dispersion model that is intended for handling releases in cities and at large industrial facilities. In this paper we describe the scheme employed and how the model has been integrated into the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) dispersion modeling system.

  2. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  3. Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes for dense urban, suburban and woodland environments in southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Helen; Kotthaus, Simone; Grimmond, C. Sue; Bjorkegren, Alex; Wilkinson, Matt; Morrison, Will; Evans, Jon; Morison, James; Christen, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The net exchange of carbon dioxide between the surface and atmosphere can be measured using the eddy covariance technique. Fluxes from a dense urban environment (central London), a suburban landscape (Swindon) and a woodland ecosystem (Alice Holt) are compared. All sites are located in southern England and experience similar climatic and meteorological conditions, yet have very different land cover. The signatures of anthropogenic and biogenic processes are explored at various (daily, seasonal and annual) timescales. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying the mixture of controls that determine the flux. In summer, there are clear similarities between the suburban and woodland sites, as the diurnal behaviour is dominated by photosynthetic uptake. In winter, however, vegetation is largely dormant and human activity determines the pattern of fluxes at the urban and suburban sites. Emissions from building heating augment the net release of carbon dioxide in cold months. Road use is a major contributor to the total emissions, and the diurnal cycle in the observed fluxes reflects this: in central London roads are busy throughout the day, whereas in Swindon a double-peaked rush-hour signal is evident. The net exchange of carbon dioxide is estimated for each site and set in context with other studies around the world. Central London has the smallest proportion of vegetation and largest emissions amongst study sites in the literature to date. Although Swindon's appreciable vegetation fraction helps to offset the anthropogenic emissions, even in summertime the 24h total flux is usually positive, indicating carbon release. Comparison of these three sites in a similar region demonstrates the effects of increasing urban density and changing land use on the atmosphere. Findings are relevant in terms of characterising the behaviour of urban surfaces and for quantifying the impact of anthropogenic activities.

  4. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

  5. Hypertension in a Brazilian urban slum population.

    PubMed

    Unger, Alon; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Snyder, Robert E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Mohr, Sharif; Costa, Vinícius B A; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Reis, Renato B; Santana, Francisco S; Riley, Lee W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2015-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries account for the majority of hypertension disease burden. However, little is known about the distribution of this illness within subpopulations of these countries, particularly among those who live in urban informal settlements. A cross-sectional hypertension survey was conducted in 2003 among 5649 adult residents of a slum settlement in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hypertension was defined as either an elevated arterial systolic (≥140 mmHg) or diastolic (≥90 mmHg) blood pressure. Sex-specific multivariable models of systolic blood pressure were constructed to identify factors associated with elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the population 18 years and older was 21% (1162/5649). Men had 1.2 times the risk of hypertension compared with women (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.05, 1.36). Increasing age and lack of any schooling, particularly for women, were also significantly associated with elevated blood pressure (p < 0.05). There was also a direct association between men who were black and an elevated blood pressure. Among those who were hypertensive, 65.5% were aware of their condition, and only 36.3% of those aware were actively using anti-hypertensive medications. Men were less likely to be aware of their diagnosis or to use medications (p < 0.01 for both) than women. The prevalence of hypertension in this slum community was lower than reported frequencies in the non-slum population of Brazil and Salvador, yet both disease awareness and treatment frequency were low. Further research on hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases in slum populations is urgently needed to guide prevention and treatment efforts in this growing population. PMID:25920334

  6. Modeling floods in a dense urban area using 2D shallow water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, E.; Paquier, A.; Haider, S.

    2006-07-01

    SummaryA code solving the 2D shallow water equations by an explicit second-order scheme is used to simulate the severe October 1988 flood in the Richelieu urban locality of the French city of Nîmes. A reference calculation using a detailed description of the street network and of the cross-sections of the streets, considering impervious residence blocks and neglecting the flow interaction with the sewer network provides a mean peak water elevation 0.13 m lower than the measured flood marks with a standard deviation between the measured and computed water depths of 0.53 m. Sensitivity analysis of various topographical and numerical parameters shows that globally, the results keep the same level of accuracy, which reflects both the stability of the calculation method and the smoothening of results. However, the local flow modifications due to change of parameter values can drastically modify the local water depths, especially when the local flow regime is modified. Furthermore, the flow distribution to the downstream parts of the city can be altered depending on the set of parameters used. Finally, a second event, the 2002 flood, was simulated with the calibrated model providing results similar to 1988 flood calculation. Thus, the article shows that, after calibration, a 2D model can be used to help planning mitigation measures in a dense urban area.

  7. Trees Detection from Laser Point Clouds Acquired in Dense Urban Areas by a Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, F.; Vallet, B.; Soheilian, B.

    2012-07-01

    3D reconstruction of trees is of great interest in large-scale 3D city modelling. Laser scanners provide geometrically accurate 3D point clouds that are very useful for object recognition in complex urban scenes. Trees often cause important occlusions on building façades. Their recognition can lead to occlusion maps that are useful for many façade oriented applications such as visual based localisation and automatic image tagging. This paper proposes a pipeline to detect trees in point clouds acquired in dense urban areas with only laser informations (x,y, z coordinates and intensity). It is based on local geometric descriptors computed on each laser point using a determined neighbourhood. These descriptors describe the local shape of objects around every 3D laser point. A projection of these values on a 2D horizontal accumulation space followed by a combination of morphological filters provides individual tree clusters. The pipeline is evaluated and the results are presented on a set of one million laser points using a man made ground truth.

  8. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Gerard; Eeftens, Marloes; Beelen, Rob; Fischer, Paul; Brunekreef, Bert; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2015-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia. The aim of our study was to assess the value of satellite observations of NO2 in modelling the spatial variation of annual average NO2 concentrations in a small densely populated country. We used surface level annual average NO2 concentration and geographic information system data from 144 monitoring sites spread over the Netherlands: 26 regional background, 78 urban background and 40 traffic sites for developing land use regression models. For the 144 monitoring sites we obtained the annual average tropospheric NO2 concentration for 2007 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor. These OMI data reflect a spatial scale of about 10 × 10 km. We calculated the correlation between satellite and surface level NO2 concentrations for all sites and for background sites only. We next evaluated whether adding satellite observations improved land use regression models. Annual average satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 correlated well spatially with annual average urban plus regional background (R = 0.74, n = 104 sites) and especially regional background NO2 concentrations (R = 0.88, n = 26). The correlation was moderate for all sites, including traffic locations (R = 0.51, n = 144). A LUR model including satellite NO2 observations performed better (overall R2 = 0.84) than LUR models including geographical coordinates or indicator variables (overall R2 65-74%) in modeling concentrations at the 104 background sites across the Netherlands. Satellite NO2 observations agreed well with measured surface concentrations at background locations and improved land use regression models, even in a small densely populated country.

  9. Dynamics and forecasting of population growth and urban expansion in Srinagar City - A Geospatial Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M.; Muslim, M.

    2014-11-01

    The urban areas of developing countries are densely populated and need the use of sophisticated monitoring systems, such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). The urban sprawl of a city is best understood by studying the dynamics of LULC change which can be easily generated by using sequential satellite images, required for the prediction of urban growth. Multivariate statistical techniques and regression models have been used to establish the relationship between the urban growth and its causative factors and for forecast of the population growth and urban expansion. In Srinagar city, one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities situated in Jammu and Kashmir State of India, sprawl is taking its toll on the natural resources at an alarming pace. The present study was carried over a period of 40 years (1971-2011), to understand the dynamics of spatial and temporal variability of urban sprawl. The results reveal that built-up area has increased by 585.08 % while as the population has increased by 214.75 %. The forecast showed an increase of 246.84 km2 in built-up area which exceeds the overall carrying capacity of the city. The most common conversions were also evaluated.

  10. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  11. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  12. Multivariate spatial analysis of a heavy rain event in a densely populated delta city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Bruni, Guenda; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Delta cities account for half of the world's population and host key infrastructure and services for the global economic growth. Due to the characteristic geography of delta areas, these cities face high vulnerability to extreme weather and pluvial flooding risks, that are expected to increase as climate change drives heavier rain events. Besides, delta cities are subjected to fast urban densification processes that progressively make them more vulnerable to pluvial flooding. Delta cities need to be adapted to better cope with this threat. The mechanism leading to damage after heavy rains is not completely understood. For instance, current research has shown that rain intensities and volumes can only partially explain the occurrence and localization of rain-related insurance claims (Spekkers et al., 2013). The goal of this paper is to provide further insights into spatial characteristics of the urban environment that can significantly be linked to pluvial-related flooding impacts. To that end, a study-case has been selected: on October 12 to 14 2013, a heavy rain event triggered pluvial floods in Rotterdam, a densely populated city which is undergoing multiple climate adaptation efforts and is located in the Meuse river Delta. While the average yearly precipitation in this city is around 800 mm, local rain gauge measurements ranged from aprox. 60 to 130 mm just during these three days. More than 600 citizens' telephonic complaints reported impacts related to rainfall. The registry of those complaints, which comprises around 300 calls made to the municipality and another 300 to the fire brigade, was made available for research. Other accessible information about this city includes a series of rainfall measurements with up to 1 min time-step at 7 different locations around the city, ground-based radar rainfall data (1 Km^2 spatial resolution and 5 min time-step), a digital elevation model (50 cm of horizontal resolution), a model of overland-flow paths, cadastral

  13. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  14. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Oscar; Ortinez, Abraham; Castro, Telma; Espinosa, Maria; Saavedra, Isabel; Alvarez, Harry; Basaldud, Roberto; Paramo, Víctor; Martínez, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  15. Continuous measurement of carbon black in a densely populated area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, O.; Ortinez, A.; Castro, T.; Espinoza, M. D. L. L.; Saavedra, I.; Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Páramo, V. H.; Gavilán, A.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.

    2014-12-01

    The black carbon (BC) is a byproduct of burning fossil fuels and is an important short-lived climate forcer because it absorbs solar radiation altering the Earth's radiative budget and climate. It is also an atmospheric pollutant that promotes reactions of other compounds in the atmosphere. Despite its importance for health and climate, in Mexico there are very few studies on ambient concentrations of BC in urban areas and virtually no information of continuous measurements over long periods (more than a month of measurements). So, in order to develop more efficient local and regional mitigation strategies and policies that allow reducing ambient concentrations of BC, it is necessary to know BC seasonal evolution, contribution to radiative budget and impacts on health. This study shows continuous measurements (from July 2013 to July 2014) of BC to perform an analysis of seasonal variations. The selected monitoring site is located at Iztapalapa, a densely populated area with high traffic on the southeastern part of Mexico City. BC concentrations were obtained by two aethalometers (Magee Scientific Company, models AET31 and AET42) placed 15 meters above the ground. The aethalometers operate in the wavelength range of 370-950 nm and use a standard value of mass absorption coefficient MAC = 10.8 m2/g to calculate BC environmental concentration. To correct the aethalometers readings to the conditions of Mexico City, it was employed MAC = to 6.7 m2/g, which was determined for PM2.5 with a carbon analyzer (UIC, Inc.) and represents the mass absorption coefficient of soot emitted in Mexico City. The average value of the corrected concentration of BC in Mexico City during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 was 5.39 ± 1.89 μg/m3 (1.6 higher than readings recorded by aethalometers), which is greater than that measured in Shanghai in 2014 (annual average 2.33 μg/m3) and those reported for some U.S. cities; the value implies a potential danger to the health of

  16. Treatment of acute bronchospasm in urban populations.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Beverly M

    2005-12-01

    Many urban patients, including minority groups and children, continue to live in poor urban settings. Poor urban environments provide a complex mix of stressors that can exacerbate asthma and increase exacerbations. Although care is available, many minority patients have English language and communication barriers, facts that impede their access to providers and care facilities. Medications for asthma are available to these patients, and strategies to minimize stressors are in place, but implementation and delivery in an urban setting can be a problem. Asthma management strategies coupled with new formulations of asthma medications, such as levalbuterol, can significantly reduce asthma symptoms during acute bronchospasm. In addition to offering the optimal treatment for asthma, broader strategies for reducing minority disparities are required if significant inroads are to be made in addressing problems faced by urban patients. PMID:19667713

  17. Study the Effect of Urban Ecosystem to Floating Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wubin; Zhang, Lingxian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Fu, Zetian

    The urban ecosystem is a complex system hat are compounded of environment -economic-social ,the factors of urban ecosystem affect the decision of the floating population to chose city .In this paper ,we according to the urban ecosystem to design the questionnaire ,and study the weights of the factors that influence the decision by AHP ,and find that economy is most important which is 0.6806, the society and ecological environment are 0.2014and0.1180.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  19. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations.

    PubMed

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban-wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  20. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  1. Aging and memory effects in the spin jam states of densely populated frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Lee, Seung-Hun; Sato, Taku; Zhou, Haidong; Sinclair, Ryan; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gia-Wei; Klich, Israel

    Defects and randomness has been largely studied as the key mechanism of glassiness find in a dilute magnetic system. Even though the same argument has also been made to explain the spin glass like properties in dense frustrated magnets, the existence of a glassy state arise intrinsically from a defect free spin system, far from the conventional dilute limit with different mechanisms such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, has been theoretically proposed recently. We have studied field effects on zero-field cooled and field cooled susceptibility bifurcation and memory effects below freezing transition, of three different densely populated frustrated magnets which glassy states we call spin jam, and a conventional dilute spin glass. Our data show common behaviors among the spin jam states, which is distinct from that of the conventional spin glass. We have also performed Monte Carlo simulations to understand the nature of their energy landscapes.

  2. Characterizing urban seismicity using a dense array in Long Beach, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, F. W.; Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Microearthquakes only produce detectible ground motion over a small area and are often overlooked by sparse seismic networks. However, these earthquakes illuminate active faults and provide data for seismic hazard assessment. This insight from small earthquakes is especially important in urban areas underlain by fault zones, but anthropogenic noise lowers the signal-to-noise ratio and makes it difficult to identify microseismicity in these areas. The goal of this study is to find systematic ways to discriminate small tectonic events from the ambient urban background noise with a large seismic data set. We use 6 months of data from a dense array of over 5200 sensors in a 7-by-10-km area of Long Beach, CA. Several active faults traverse the city, including the Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone. It also has many sources of anthropogenic noise, including two major freeways, a railroad, port, commercial airport, and producing oilfields. Additionally, during the study, active source surveys were performed by the company that deployed the sensors. Using a standard short-term over long-term event detector and then associating the individual picks into events, we find over 4000 events. There is a very strong correlation between the number of events and the time of day and day of the week. This temporal variation suggests a significant human influence on the detectability of seismic activity. Additionally, some of the detected events are not tectonic but direct human activity. The most prevalent examples of this are the active source surveys. We try several methods to separate earthquakes from man-made noise. We can use the location and timing of individual picks spread across the array to determine if their relationship is plausibly caused by an earthquake. Another method overcomes the poor signal-to-noise ratio by stacking data from multiple sub-arrays and correlating the wavelet transform of these stacks. Earthquakes are identified with a characteristic spectral decay that is

  3. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

    PubMed Central

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban–wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  4. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication presents data from the current revision of estimates and projections of the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world. The publication also contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations of at least 750,000 inhabitants in 1994. The revisions are part of a series of…

  5. Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense Dirac Fermions in Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianqi; Luo, Liang; Hupalo, Myron; Zhang, Jian; Tringides, Michael; Schmalian, Joerg; Wang, Jigang

    2012-04-16

    We show that strongly photoexcited graphene monolayers with 35 fs pulses quasi-instantaneously build up a broadband, inverted Dirac fermion population. Optical gain emerges and directly manifests itself via a negative conductivity at the near-infrared region for the first 200 fs, where stimulated emission completely compensates absorption loss in the graphene layer. Our experiment-theory comparison with two distinct electron and hole chemical potentials reproduce absorption saturation and gain at 40 fs, revealing, particularly, the evolution of the transient state from a hot classical gas to a dense quantum fluid with increasing the photoexcitation.

  6. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  7. Do Major Roads Reduce Gene Flow in Urban Bird Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Methodology We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. Results AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (FST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (FST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant FST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. Conclusion We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades. PMID:24204724

  8. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  9. Urban morphology and air quality in dense residential environments in Hong Kong. Part I: District-level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edussuriya, P.; Chan, A.; Ye, A.

    2011-09-01

    The link between urban morphology and air quality in various dense residential environments of Hong Kong are investigated through field measurements and statistical analysis. With regard to the myriads of parameters available in the literature, this study aims to identify the most important urban morphological parameters in the street-level and district levels that affect air quality dispersion in Hong Kong. The study postulates that there is an association between urban morphology and urban air quality and a statistical model is developed to explain the relationship amongst urban air quality, micro-meteorology and urban morphological dimension. The study considered 20 different urban residential areas in five major districts of Hong Kong and real-time street-level air pollutant and microclimatic data are collected. 21 morphological variables are identified and calculated based on the geometry of the urban fabric. This study is the first part of a series which focuses to identify whether district demarcation is correlated with air quality. According to the findings of statistical analysis, only 6 out of 21 morphological variables (complete aspect ratio, occlusivity, roughness height, zero-plane displacement height, total building volume/number of buildings, and standard deviation of height) report distinguishable variability at the district level. Their R2 (correlation coefficient) values vary from 0.2937 (plan area index) to 0.5457 (occlusivity) which is considered moderate to high. All these parameters describe the overall feature of the site rather than the specific geometric features of the street. It translates to the fact that in spite of the large in-district variations in morphological variables amongst the five districts, air pollution variations are insignificant for most of the variables and it means that air quality in Hong Kong are distinguishable not by district-level variable but rather in-site fabrics.

  10. Long-term ecological changes in the densely populated rural landscapes of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Erie C.

    Asia's densely populated agricultural landscapes are undergoing unprecedented ecological changes caused by population growth and adoption of industrial technologies such as fossil fuel and chemical fertilizer. Covering nearly 6×106 km2, these landscapes now release more than half of global greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural land and biomass fuel. Measuring ecological processes and their changes in these highly heterogeneous "village landscapes" is made difficult by their very small scale of management, with households typically managing many small plots using a wide variety of inputs and methods. This chapter describes the global extent of village landscapes, characterizes their spatial heterogeneity, establishes appropriate scales for ecological change measurement, and demonstrates methods developed to measure long-term ecological changes across village landscapes in China. Reliable measurements of ecological change in village landscapes can be made by integrating high-resolution (≤1 m) landscape change measurements with household-level resource management data. These methods link local land use practices with regional and local ecological change, potentially aiding land use decision-making, but require far greater research effort than conventional land use measurements based on 30-1000 m resolution imagery and county or provincial data. Therefore, a multi-scale sampling and analysis system was developed to integrate local and regional data for estimating regional change across village landscapes in China. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach in measuring and mediating the impacts of ecological changes in densely populated landscapes are discussed in light of preliminary results indicating that population increase and modernization are increasing carbon sequestration across these landscapes.

  11. Long-Term Changes in Landscape Structure Within and Across China's Densely Populated Rural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E.

    2006-05-01

    China's densely populated agricultural village landscapes cover nearly 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia. Driven by industrialization, population growth and economic reform, this vast extent of intensively- managed anthropogenic landscapes has undergone unprecedented ecological changes over the past fifty years. Despite their potential global impacts, long-term changes in China's village landscapes are the cumulative result of multitudinous fine-scale changes in landscape structure and resource management by hundreds of millions of agricultural households acting locally. Here we present results from a five-year field study of long-term ecological changes, circa 1945 to 2002, across China's densely populated agricultural regions based on high-resolution landscape change measurements, land manager interviews, and soil and vegetation sampling at five field sites in environmentally distinct regions across China. Human population density nearly doubled across sites, driving increases in anthropogenic impervious surface area and landscape fragmentation, yielding a 5% net increase in impervious surfaces across China's village landscapes over the past fifty years, a change similar in magnitude to the total current area of China's cities (~0.1 × 106 km2). Surprisingly, woody vegetation and tree cover also increased substantially over time, by approximately 10% (~0.2 × 106 km2), driven by tree planting and regrowth around newly constructed buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture and improved forestry, and the abandonment of annual crop cultivation. These and other long-term changes in landscape structure have the potential to contribute substantially and in unforeseen ways to global and regional changes in biogeochemical and hydrological processes, surface albedo and heat balance.

  12. Urban waterfowl population: Ecological evaluation of management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, David M.

    1982-05-01

    An urban population of ducks in Puyallup, Washington, USA was studied for 14 consecutive months beginning in November 1978. Observations were made weekly from four study sites where ducks would congregate at early morning hours. Factors contributing to the presence of waterfowl in Puyallyup included abundant food supplies and a creek corridor that connected fragmented habitats in the urban area to the larger rural populations of waterfowl. Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) were the most abundant of the 13 species observed and were the only ducks remaining during the nesting season. Habitat size and complexity were important factors influencing the species diversity of a particular site. Nesting success of mallards was poor due to limited distribution of nesting habitat, intraspecific aggression, and human disturbance. Both site-specific and more broad-based strategies are suggested for managing and planning for duck populations in urban areas.

  13. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  14. Unseen Community: Marginal Urban Populations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Behavioral Sciences Inst., La Jolla, CA.

    In this report, an ethnographic study of the aged population of 12 hotels in downtown San Diego is described. The life styles and support groups of residents of "single room occupancy" (SRO) hotels are compared to skid-row hotels and middle class retirement hotels in the immediate neighborhood. Methodology in the study consisted of collecting…

  15. A Multi-Step Assessment Scheme for Seismic Network Site Selection in Densely Populated Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Kraft, Toni

    2015-10-01

    We developed a multi-step assessment scheme for improved site selection during seismic network installation in densely populated areas. Site selection is a complex process where different aspects (seismic background noise, geology, and financing) have to be taken into account. In order to improve this process, we developed a step-wise approach that allows quantifying the quality of a site by using, in addition to expert judgement and test measurements, two weighting functions as well as reference stations. Our approach ensures that the recording quality aimed for is reached and makes different sites quantitatively comparable to each other. Last but not least, it is an easy way to document the decision process, because all relevant parameters are listed, quantified, and weighted.

  16. Flushing of a dense fluid from an urban canyon part 1: Steady state measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Nigel; Baratian, Zahra

    2011-11-01

    We consider the role of buoyancy on the vertical transport of a dense gas due to a horizontal wind flow above a street canyon. The density of the pollutant suppresses vertical mixing as the turbulent shear flow at the top of the canyon must do work to raise the dense gas up above the canyon top. We present results of a series of experiments to measure the rate of removal of a dense miscible fluid from a two dimensional square canyon open at the top. The cavity is formed by square blocks up- and down-stream. Dense fluid is introduced at a constant rate at the base of the cavity and is removed by mixing with the flow passing over the top of the cavity. Two different steady flows are observed. For higher Richardson numbers, a two layer stratification develops in which there is a relatively sharp interface. In this case the mixing is parameterized in terms of an entrainment velocity across the interface that is a function of the Richardson number and the fractional depth of the interface below the cavity top. For lower Richardson numbers no interface is observed and the buoyancy increases linearly with height above the cavity base. We also found a range of Richardson numbers for which both steady stratifications are possible and for which the steady flow depends on the initial conditions.

  17. [Macroeconomic recovery trends. Urban impact on the population].

    PubMed

    Perez Mendoza, J S

    1991-12-01

    Some reflections are presented on the impact of Mexico's macroeconomic policy on population dynamics and urban development in the immediate future as the opening and liberalization of the economic increasingly influence market forces. Although the actions envisaged in the macroeconomic policy are not yet consolidated, it is possible to foresee some of their consequences for the city and for population movement. It can be predicted that the macroeconomic policy will lead to greater economic growth and consolidation of the urban population because of positive expectations for stability and growth, and the resultant environment of confidence in the immediate future. A resurgence of private investment in goods and services directed primarily to private consumption will inevitable create demand for public investment in infrastructure and improved services. Demand for consumer durables in likely to rise, as is demand for housing. New residential zones are likely to appear and grow, changing the territorial configuration of urban areas. The urban administration should make some effort to control the growth. PMID:12317225

  18. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  19. Scaling Law between Urban Electrical Consumption and Population in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaowu; Xiong, Aimin; Li, Liangsheng; Liu, Maoxin; Chen, X. S.

    The relation between the household electrical consumption Y and population N for Chinese cities in 2006 has been investigated with the power law scaling form Y = A_0 N^{β}. It is found that the Chinese cities should be divided into three categories characterized by different scaling exponent β. The first category, which includes the biggest and coastal cities of China, has the scaling exponent β> 1. The second category, which includes mostly the cities in central China, has the scaling exponent β ≈ 1. The third category, which consists of the cities in northwestern China, has the scaling exponent β< 1 . Using a urban growth equation, different ways of city population evolution can be obtained for different β. For β< 1 , population evolutes always to a fixed point population N f from below or above depending on the initial population. For β> 1, there is also a fixed point population N f . If the initial population N(0) > N f , the population increases very fast with time and diverges within a finite time. If the initial population N(0) < N f , the population decreases with time and collapse finally. The pattern of population evolution in a city is determined by its scaling exponent and initial population.

  20. Modeling individual trees in an urban environment using dense discrete return LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Madhurima; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; van Leeuwen, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The urban forest is becoming increasingly important in the contexts of urban green space, carbon sequestration and offsets, and socio-economic impacts. This has led to a recent increase in attention being paid to urban environmental management. Tree biomass, specifically, is a vital indicator of carbon storage and has a direct impact on urban forest health and carbon sequestration. As an alternative to expensive and time-consuming field surveys, remote sensing has been used extensively in measuring dynamics of vegetation and estimating biomass. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has proven especially useful to characterize the three dimensional (3D) structure of forests. In urban contexts however, information is frequently required at the individual tree level, necessitating the proper delineation of tree crowns. Yet, crown delineation is challenging for urban trees where a wide range of stress factors and cultural influences affect growth. In this paper high resolution LiDAR data were used to infer biomass based on individual tree attributes. A multi-tiered delineation algorithm was designed to extract individual tree-crowns. At first, dominant tree segments were obtained by applying watershed segmentation on the crown height model (CHM). Next, prominent tree top positions within each segment were identified via a regional maximum transformation and the crown boundary was estimated for each of the tree tops. Finally, undetected trees were identified using a best-fitting circle approach. After tree delineation, individual tree attributes were used to estimate tree biomass and the results were validated with associated field mensuration data. Results indicate that the overall tree detection accuracy is nearly 80%, and the estimated biomass model has an adjusted-R2 of 0.5.

  1. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: Observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England.

    PubMed

    Ward, H C; Kotthaus, S; Grimmond, C S B; Bjorkegren, A; Wilkinson, M; Morrison, W T J; Evans, J G; Morison, J I L; Iamarino, M

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO2 emissions all year round. Observed CO2 fluxes reflect diurnal traffic patterns (busy throughout the day (urban); rush-hour peaks (suburban)) and vary between working days and non-working days, except at the woodland site. Suburban vegetation offsets some anthropogenic emissions, but 24-h CO2 fluxes are usually positive even during summer. Observations are compared to estimated emissions from simple models and inventories. Annual CO2 exchanges are significantly different between sites, demonstrating the impacts of increasing urban density (and decreasing vegetation fraction) on the CO2 flux to the atmosphere. PMID:25613466

  2. Birth interval study in a culturally stable urban population.

    PubMed

    Ayangade, S O

    1978-01-01

    Five hundred women were interviewed within 2 days of delivery to examine indigenous birth spacing among the urban and rural population of Ife township. The crude birth interval was between 30 and 40 months due mainly to cultural attitudes towards lactation and sexual abstinence. The women studied possessed considerable knowledge of Western contraceptive methods, but they rejected them. The possible cause of this rejection is examined and solutions to the problem are suggested. PMID:29795

  3. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

  4. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  5. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. PMID:27208014

  6. Using dense locality sampling resolves the subtle genetic population structure of the dispersive fish species Plecoglossus altivelis.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Hirohiko; Iguchi, Kei'ichiro; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2016-07-01

    In dispersive species with continuous distributions, genetic differentiation between local populations is often absent or subtle and thus difficult to detect. To incorporate such subtle differentiation into management plans, it may be essential to analyse many samples from many localities using adequate numbers of high-resolution genetic markers. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of dense locality sampling in resolving genetic population structure in the ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), a dispersive fish important in Japanese inland fisheries. Genetic variability in, and differentiation between, ayu populations around the Japan-Ryukyu Archipelago were investigated in 4746 individuals collected from 120 localities by genotyping 12 microsatellite markers. These individuals represented the two subspecies of ayu, namely the Ryukyuan subspecies (Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis) and both amphidromous and landlocked forms of the nominotypical subspecies (P. a. altivelis) along the archipelago. We successfully detected an absence of genetic differentiation within the landlocked form and subtle but significant differentiation and clear geographic patterns of genetic variation among populations of the amphidromous form, which had been considered genetically homogeneous. This suggests that dense locality sampling effectively resolves subtle differences in genetic population structure, reducing stochastic deviation in the detection of genetic differentiation and geographic patterns in local populations of this dispersive species. Resampling analyses based on empirical data sets clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of increasing the number of locality samples for stable and reliable estimations of genetic fixation indices. The genetic population structure observed within the amphidromous form provides useful information for identifying management or conservation units in ayu. PMID:27085501

  7. Spatial vulnerability of Australian urban populations to extreme heat events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Phan, Thu; Lynch, Kellie; McInnes, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Extreme heat events pose a risk to the health of all individuals, especially the elderly and the chronically ill, and are associated with an increased demand for healthcare services. In order to address this problem, policy makers' need information about temperatures above which mortality and morbidity of the exposed population is likely to increase, where the vulnerable groups in the community are located, and how the risks from extreme heat events are likely to change in the future. This study identified threshold temperatures for all Australian capital cities, developed a spatial index of population vulnerability, and used climate model output to predict changes in the number of days exceeding temperature thresholds in the future, as well as changes in risk related to changes in urban density and an ageing population. The study has shown that daily maximum and minimum temperatures from the Bureau of Meteorology forecasts can be used to calculate temperature thresholds for heat alert days. The key risk factors related to adverse health outcomes were found to be areas with intense urban heat islands, areas with higher proportions of older people, and areas with ethnic communities. Maps of spatial vulnerability have been developed to provide information to assist emergency managers, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale that target vulnerable groups and address heat-related health risks. The numbers of days exceeding current heat thresholds are predicted to increase over the next 20 to 40 years in all Australian capital cities.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates in roach from the Seine River basin (France): impact of densely urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) from three chemical classes-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and phthalates-were investigated in the Seine River and one tributary, the Orge River, upstream and downstream of urban areas. The impact of urban areas was characterized by a concentration increase of all compounds in the Seine River and for phthalates and PBDEs in the Orge River. In the Seine River, from upstream (Marnay) to downstream (Triel) of urban areas, water concentration increases were greater for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (6 times, p < 0.05) and ∑tri-hexa BDE (5 times [p < 0.05]) than for ∑7PCBi (2.6 times). Simultaneously, sediments displayed a strong accumulation of contaminants downstream and compared with upstream values, their concentrations increased greatly: 202-fold for DEHP, 69-fold for BDE209, 25-fold for ∑tri-hexa-BDE, and 11-fold for ∑7PCBi. Variations of fish ED concentrations gave an indication of their habitat contamination increase observed downstream of densely urbanized areas of the Seine River, especially for PBDEs (∑tri-hexa-PBDEs = 14-fold increase ≤15.7 ± 6.9 ng g(-1) dry weight [dw; p < 0.001]) and for PCBs (∑7PCBi eightfold increase ≤211 ± 55 ng g(-1) dw [p < 0.01]). PCA results highlighted relationships between the different ED classes. A correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between PCB and PBDE fish concentrations, suggesting common sources and similar absorption mechanisms. For PCBs, which were poorly biodegraded, the bioaccumulation factor was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) to molecular hydrophobicity, whereas for PBDEs a negative correlation (p < 0.05) was observed related active debromination processes. This multichemical study investigates for the first time the occurrence of a wide range of EDs in roach, which was chosen as a sentinel species for this survey of surface water contamination. PMID:24132598

  9. Extracting roads from dense point clouds in large scale urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Aleksey; Funkhouser, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a method for extracting roads from a large scale unstructured 3D point cloud of an urban environment consisting of many superimposed scans taken at different times. Given a road map and a point cloud, our system automatically separates road surfaces from the rest of the point cloud. Starting with an approximate map of the road network given in the form of 2D intersection locations connected by polylines, we first produce a 3D representation of the map by optimizing Cardinal splines to minimize the distances to points of the cloud under continuity constraints. We then divide the road network into independent patches, making it feasible to process a large point cloud with a small in-memory working set. For each patch, we fit a 2D active contour to an attractor function with peaks at small vertical discontinuities to predict the locations of curbs. Finally, we output a set of labeled points, where points lying within the active contour are tagged as "road" and the others are not. During experiments with a LIDAR point set containing almost a billion points spread over six square kilometers of a city center, our method provides 86% correctness and 94% completeness.

  10. The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; D'Orazi, V.; Lucatello, S.; Sollima, A.; Momany, Y.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analysed in this way for this cluster. From high-resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H] = -1.791 ± 0.006 ± 0.076 (±statistical ±systematic error) with σ = 0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star-to-star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anti-correlation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass; (ii) horizontal branch morphology; and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a representative of halo globular clusters concerning the pattern of α-capture and Fe-group elements. However we found that a significant contribution from the s-process is required to account for the distribution of neutron-capture elements. A minority of stars in M 80 seem to exhibit slightly enhanced abundances of s-process species, compatible with those observed in M 22 and NGC 1851, although further confirmation from larger samples is required. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 083.D-0208.Full Tables 2, 3, 5-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A116Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Transport of laser emission with broadband spectrum in optically dense atomic medium under the coherent population trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantsev, K. A.; Litvinov, A. N.; Popov, E. N.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents a theory describing the formation of the coherent population trapping resonance for the finite laser bandwidth in an optically-dense medium of atoms inside a buffer gas cell. The equations of the atomic density matrix are established, as well as the transfer equations of laser emission spectrum inside a cell with working and buffer gas at a determined temperature. The dependence of the quality of the coherent population trapping resonance on the laser bandwidth has been studied in the case of detecting the signal of the transmitted emission and the fluorescence signal.

  12. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians. PMID:23036388

  13. Differential exposure of the urban population to vehicular air pollution in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaopeng; Lam, Kin-che; Yu, Qi

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the spatial variations in, and examine the influence of socio-economic class on, the exposure of urban population of Hong Kong to air pollution from vehicular sources. Hong Kong provides a unique and interesting case for an in-depth study of environmental inequality because of its dense environment and housing provision mechanism through which about half of the population is accommodated in public housing estates provided by the government. To estimate the exposure of the urban population to vehicular air pollution, the IMMIS(net) air dispersion model developed for city-wide air quality assessment was used. The annual mean concentrations of CO, NO(x), SO(2) and PM(10) were estimated for various assessment points of 275 public and 295 private building groups. The results show more pronounced inequality among residents living in private than in public housing estates. Elderly people and those of lower socio-economic status were found to be exposed to relatively higher levels of vehicular air pollution compared with groups of higher socio-economic status. However, when all the residents in Hong Kong were pooled together for analysis, no distinct class-biased patterns were found. This could be ascribed to the housing provision mechanism, in which less well-off people are accommodated in public housing estates where the air quality is relatively better. This study highlights the importance of government intervention in housing provision, through which the deprived groups in Hong Kong are inadvertently more protected from air pollution exposure. PMID:22542227

  14. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  15. The effects of urbanization on population density, occupancy, and detection probability of wild felids.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jesse S; Logan, Kenneth A; Alldredge, Mat W; Bailey, Larissa L; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization is a primary driver of landscape conversion, with far-reaching effects on landscape pattern and process, particularly related to the population characteristics of animals. Urbanization can alter animal movement and habitat quality, both of which can influence population abundance and persistence. We evaluated three important population characteristics (population density, site occupancy, and species detection probability) of a medium-sized and a large carnivore across varying levels of urbanization. Specifically, we studied bobcat and puma populations across wildland, exurban development, and wildland-urban interface (WUI) sampling grids to test hypotheses evaluating how urbanization affects wild felid populations and their prey. Exurban development appeared to have a greater impact on felid populations than did habitat adjacent to a major urban area (i.e., WUI); estimates of population density for both bobcats and pumas were lower in areas of exurban development compared to wildland areas, whereas population density was similar between WUI and wildland habitat. Bobcats and pumas were less likely to be detected in habitat as the amount of human disturbance associated with residential development increased at a site, which was potentially related to reduced habitat quality resulting from urbanization. However, occupancy of both felids was similar between grids in both study areas, indicating that this population metric was less sensitive than density. At the scale of the sampling grid, detection probability for bobcats in urbanized habitat was greater than in wildland areas, potentially due to restrictive movement corridors and funneling of animal movements in landscapes influenced by urbanization. Occupancy of important felid prey (cottontail rabbits and mule deer) was similar across levels of urbanization, although elk occupancy was lower in urbanized areas. Our study indicates that the conservation of medium- and large-sized felids associated with

  16. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  17. Population genomics of the Anthropocene: urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zolnik, Christine P; Harris, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization results in pervasive habitat fragmentation and reduces standing genetic variation through bottlenecks and drift. Loss of genomewide variation may ultimately reduce the evolutionary potential of animal populations experiencing rapidly changing conditions. In this study, we examined genomewide variation among 23 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations sampled along an urbanization gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Genomewide variation was estimated as a proxy for evolutionary potential using more than 10 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by ddRAD-Seq. We found that genomewide variation is inversely related to urbanization as measured by percent impervious surface cover, and to a lesser extent, human population density. We also report that urbanization results in enhanced genomewide differentiation between populations in cities. There was no pattern of isolation by distance among these populations, but an isolation by resistance model based on impervious surface significantly explained patterns of genetic differentiation. Isolation by environment modeling also indicated that urban populations deviate much more strongly from global allele frequencies than suburban or rural populations. This study is the first to examine loss of genomewide SNP variation along an urban-to-rural gradient and quantify urbanization as a driver of population genomic patterns. PMID:27099621

  18. Population genomics of the Anthropocene: Urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zolnik, Christine P.; Harris, Stephen E.

    2016-02-11

    Urbanization results in pervasive habitat fragmentation and reduces standing genetic variation through bottlenecks and drift. Loss of genomewide variation may ultimately reduce the evolutionary potential of animal populations experiencing rapidly changing conditions. In this study, we examined genomewide variation among 23 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations sampled along an urbanization gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Genomewide variation was estimated as a proxy for evolutionary potential using more than 10000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by ddRAD-Seq. We found that genomewide variation is inversely related to urbanization as measured by percent impervious surface cover, and to amore » lesser extent, human population density. We also report that urbanization results in enhanced genomewide differentiation between populations in cities. There was no pattern of isolation by distance among these populations, but an isolation by resistance model based on impervious surface significantly explained patterns of genetic differentiation. Isolation by environment modeling also indicated that urban populations deviate much more strongly from global allele frequencies than suburban or rural populations. Lastly, this study is the first to examine loss of genomewide SNP variation along an urban-to-rural gradient and quantify urbanization as a driver of population genomic patterns.« less

  19. Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Eoin L.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Parker, Jordan P. Moberg; Zubietta, Ingrid X.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the importance of its potential implications for human health, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem stability, surprisingly little is known regarding the composition or dynamics of the atmosphere's microbial inhabitants. Using a custom high-density DNA microarray, we detected and monitored bacterial populations in two U.S. cities over 17 weeks. These urban aerosols contained at least 1,800 diverse bacterial types, a richness approaching that of some soil bacterial communities. We also reveal the consistent presence of bacterial families with pathogenic members including environmental relatives of select agents of bioterrorism significance. Finally, using multivariate regression techniques, we demonstrate that temporal and meteorological influences can be stronger factors than location in shaping the biological composition of the air we breathe. PMID:17182744

  20. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  1. Construction of dense linkage maps "on the fly" using early generation wheat breeding populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant species, construction of framework linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular breeding has been confined to experimental mapping populations. However, development and evaluation of these populations is detached from breeding efforts for cultivar development. In...

  2. The Contributions To The Study Of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Due To Car Traffic In A Densely Populated Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorin, Borza

    2015-07-01

    Air quality monitoring is the most important environmental factor to be considered because it is the fastest way that helps pollutant transport into the environment. The development of human society has led to a negative anthropogenic and technogenic impact on air quality, resulting into a significant series of adverse effects on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems in general. In this paper it is presentd the research work performed to monitor carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles in traffic, in a densely populated area in Sibiu. Also, in the paper it is described, the research findings conducted in accordance with national and European legislation. In our research we used GIS software, Geomedia Professional.

  3. Composite pulses for high-fidelity population inversion in optically dense, inhomogeneously broadened atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Gabor

    2016-02-01

    We derive composite pulse sequences that achieve high-fidelity excitation of two-state systems in an optically dense, inhomogeneously broadened ensemble. The composite pulses are resistant to distortions due to the backaction of the medium they propagate in and are able to create high-fidelity inversion to optical depths α z >10 . They function well with smooth pulse shapes used for coherent control of optical atomic transitions in quantum computation and communication. They are an intermediary solution between single π -pulse excitation schemes and adiabatic passage schemes, being far more error tolerant than the former but still considerably faster than the latter.

  4. Prevalence of Glaucoma in an Urban West African Population

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Barton, Keith; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Schiffman, Joyce; Bandi, Jagadeesh; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Kim, Hanna; Hay-Smith, Graham; Tielsch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Multiple studies have found an increased prevalence, younger age at onset, and more severe course of glaucoma in people of African descent, but these findings are based on studies conducted outside Africa. Objective To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an urban West African population of adults. Design and Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study of adults 40 years and older conducted from September 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, from 5 communities in Tema, Ghana. Participants Participants from randomly selected clusters underwent a screening examination that consisted of visual acuity, frequency doubling perimetry, applanation tonometry, and optic disc photography. Participants who failed any of these tests were referred for complete examination, including gonioscopy, standard automated perimetry, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. Results A total of 6806 eligible participants were identified, and 5603 (82.3%) were enrolled in the study. The field examination referred 1869 participants (33.3%) to the clinic examination, and 1538 (82.2%) came for complete examination. A total of 362 participants were identified as having glaucoma of any type and category. Primary open-angle glaucoma was the underlying diagnosis in 342 participants (94.5%). The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 6.8% overall, increasing from 3.7% among those 40 to 49 years old to 14.6% among those 80 years and older, and was higher in men than in women in all age groups, with an overall male-female prevalence ratio of 1.5. Of the participants with glaucoma, 9 (2.5%) were blind using World Health Organization criteria, and only 12 (3.3%) were aware that they had glaucoma. Conclusions and Relevance The prevalence of glaucoma is higher in this urban West African population than in previous studies of people of East or South African and of non-African descent. Strategies to identify affected persons and effectively manage the burden of glaucoma are needed

  5. Patterns of Tobacco Use Across Rural, Urban, and Urban-Slum Populations in a North Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek; Yadav, Kapil; Anand, K

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality globally and in India. The magnitude and the pattern of tobacco consumption are likely to be influenced by the geographical setting and with rapid urbanization in India there is a need to study this differential pattern. Aim: The aim was to study the rural, urban, and urban-slum differences in patterns of tobacco use. Settings: The study was conducted in Ballabgarh block, Faridabad district, Haryana, and was a community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in years 2003-2004 using the WHO STEPS approach with 7891 participants, approximately equal number of males and females, selected using multistage sampling from urban, urban-slum, and rural strata. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using the SPSS 12.0 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Direct standardization to the WHO world standard population was done to and chi-square and ANOVA tests were used for comparison across three study settings. Results: Self-reported tobacco use among males was as follows: urban 35.2%; urban-slums 48.3%; and rural 52.6% (P value <0.05). Self-reported tobacco use among females was as follows: Urban 3.5%; urban-slums 11.9%; and rural 17.7% (P value <0.05). More males reported daily bidi (tobacco wrapped in temburini leaf) smoking (urban 17.8%, urban-slums 36.7%, rural 44.6%) than cigarette use (urban 9.6%, urban-slums 6.3%, rural 2.9%). Females using smoked tobacco were almost exclusively using bidis (urban 1.7%, 7.9%, 11% in rural). Daily chewed tobacco use had urban, urban-slum, and rural gradients of 12%, 10.5%, and 6.8% in males respectively. Its use was low in females. Conclusion: The antitobacco policies of India need to focus on bidis in antitobacco campaigns. The program activities must find ways to reach the rural and urban-slum populations. PMID:20922100

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  7. Advancing Community–Based Research with Urban American Indian Populations: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William E.; Wendt, Dennis C.; Saftner, Melissa A.; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. has witnessed significant growth among urban AI populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  8. Advancing community-based research with urban American Indian populations: multidisciplinary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William E; Wendt, Dennis C; Saftner, Melissa A; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  9. A System for Household Enumeration and Re-identification in Densely Populated Slums to Facilitate Community Research, Education, and Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Dana R.; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Bloom, David E.; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS) appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India. Methods and Findings LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane) segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data. Conclusion LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used. PMID:24722369

  10. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  11. A Viable Population of the European Red Squirrel in an Urban Park

    PubMed Central

    Rézouki, Célia; Dozières, Anne; Le Cœur, Christie; Thibault, Sophie; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Whether urban parks can maintain viable and self-sustaining populations over the long term is questionable. In highly urbanized landscapes, urban parks could play a role in biodiversity conservation by providing habitat and resources to native species. However, populations inhabiting urban parks are usually small and isolated, leading to increased demographic stochasticity and genetic drift, with expected negative consequences on their viability. Here, we investigated a European red squirrel population located in an urban park close to Paris, France (Parc de Sceaux; 184 ha) to assess its viability. Using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 13 microsatellite loci, we showed that the population presented high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of inbreeding. The size of the population was estimated at 100–120 individuals based on the comparison of two census techniques, Distance Sampling and Capture-Mark-Recapture. The estimated heterozygosity level and population size were integrated in a Population Viability Analysis to project the likelihood of the population's persistence over time. Results indicate that the red squirrel population of this urban park can be viable on the long term (i.e. 20 years) for a range of realistic demographic parameters (juvenile survival at least >40%) and immigration rates (at least one immigration event every two years). This study highlights that urban parks can be potential suitable refuges for the red squirrel, a locally threatened species across western European countries, provided that ecological corridors are maintained. PMID:25126848

  12. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. PMID:23873654

  13. The Dynamics of Cities: Assessing Scaling Relations of Past and Projected Urban Population and Infrastructure to Analyze Trajectories of Urbanization in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of population estimate that Earth will add 2.5 billion urban inhabitants by 2050. Rapid urbanization will occur to meet the demands of increasing populations. Bettencourt's theory of urban scaling states (1) that properties of urban infrastructure (Y) are power law functions of population (N), described as Y=Y0Nβ, where β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure, and (2) that the relationship is scale-invariant. Studies by Bettencourt and colleagues provide evidence to support urban scaling using a range of urban infrastructure variables, such as impervious surface area or road volume as a power law function of population size. We tested the theory of urban scaling using, as a metric of urban infrastructure, the percent developed imperviousness (%ISA) data product at 30 m spatial resolution from the USGS National Land Cover Database for 2001, 2006, and 2011. We examined the scaling relations between %ISA and population for all metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous U.S. We compared the parameter coefficients derived from data in the recent past (2001-2011) to the parameter coefficients estimated using two different urban growth projections for 2010-2100. Both urban growth datasets included projections based on the IPCC SRES storylines. As expected, we found β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure properties using both the recent data and future projections. We found β to decrease over time for both urban projection datasets, suggesting increased densification of MSAs in the future. We calculated change in %ISA and population to investigate the impacts of the SRES storylines on future urban density. We found three major patterns in projections of future urban area and population by MSA: (1) increased densification of urban areas along the border with Mexico; (2) stagnant to decreasing population by 2100 yet increasing %ISA (small MSAs); and (3) a linear trend where increases in population coincide with increases in %ISA.

  14. Vertical exchange and regional budgets of air pollutants over densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehning, M.; Richner, H.; Kok, G. L.; Neininger, B.

    Process parameters of photochemical smog formation are derived and vertical exchange between the boundary layer and the free troposphere is identified as an important transport contribution. The analysis is based on three-dimensional observations with aircraft measurements as a key contribution. The information is needed to supplement and validate numerical model results. The wind and concentration fields are reconstructed from the measurements and the fluxes into and out of a closed box are calculated. The flux budgets give net export rates for the box. In addition, a net accumulation rate and a lower limit to the fraction of locally produced pollution are obtained. The accumulation rate comprises net chemical production plus deposition for the secondary pollutant ozone. In case of primary pollutants such as NO x, local emissions also contribute to this accumulation rate. Six diverse areas are compared: Swiss Plateau, Vienna, Berlin, Heilbronn, Ticino Region and Hong Kong. Typical net production rates for ozone are between 2.5 and 3.5 ppb h -1 in the afternoon. Fresh local production contributes between 5 and 30% to the observed ozone, while the remainder is advected or is already present. Berlin, as a fairly isolated urban area in a rural environment, has the highest fraction of "homemade" pollution. Over Hong Kong, strong local NO x emissions hinder significant net ozone production in the vicinity of the urban center, but enhanced ozone production occurs further downwind. Budgets of the primary pollutant NO 2 are much more dependent on the regional emission situation. The corresponding fractions of "homemade" NO 2 pollution are higher than for O 3 and typically between 30 and 100%. An exception is the Ticino Region which imports large amounts of pollutants from highly industrialized northern Italy. Vertical exchange between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere contributes substantially to the regional pollutant budget. It dominates the budget

  15. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. Objectives: We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. Methods: We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Conclusions: Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Citation: Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of

  16. Asthma in an Urban Population in Portugal: A prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and incidence of asthma are believed to be increasing but research on the true incidence, prevalence and mortality from asthma has met methodological obstacles since it has been difficult to define and diagnose asthma in epidemiological terms. New and widely accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma present opportunities for progress in this field. Studies conducted in Portugal have estimated the disease prevalence between 3% and 15%. Available epidemiological data present a significant variability due to methodological obstacles. Aim To estimate the true prevalence of asthma by gender and age groups in the population of the area covered by one urban Health Centre in Portugal. Method An observational study was conducted between February and July 2009 at the Horizonte Family Health Unit in Matosinhos, Portugal. A random sample of 590 patients, stratified by age and gender was obtained from the practice database of registered patients. Data was collected using a patient questionnaire based on respiratory symptoms and the physician's best knowledge of the patient's asthma status. The prevalence of asthma was calculated by age and gender. Results Data were obtained from 576 patients (97.6% response rate). The mean age for patients with asthma was 27.0 years (95% CI: 20.95 to 33.16). This was lower than the mean age for non-asthmatics but the difference was not statistically significant. Asthma was diagnosed in 59 persons giving a prevalence of 10.24% (95% CI: 8.16 to 12.32). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of asthma by gender. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma found in the present study was higher than that found in some studies, though lower than that found in other studies. Further studies in other regions of Portugal are required to confirm these findings. PMID:21595928

  17. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences

  18. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (εe) , a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if εe is <-0.5, while for εe >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  19. Pro-apoptotic Bax molecules densely populate the edges of membrane pores

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Tomomi; Olson, Norman H.; Kiosses, William B.; Peters, Bjoern; Newmeyer, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    How the pro-apoptotic Bax protein permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane is not fully understood. Previously, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we showed that activated Bax forms large, growing pores. Whether formed in liposomes or in mitochondrial outer membranes, Bax-induced pores exhibit the same morphology, with negative curvature flanking the edges and with no visible protein structure protruding from the membranes. Here we used cryo-EM to show that gold-labeled Bax molecules, after activation by Bid, became localized strictly at pore edges. This argues that Bax acts at short range to deform the membrane. Also, Bax molecules populated the walls of both small and large pores at the same density, implying that Bax is continuously recruited to the pores as they widen. Moreover, because all Bax molecules became oligomerized after membrane insertion, we infer that Bax oligomers are present at pore edges. We suggest that oligomerization may promote pore enlargement. PMID:27255832

  20. Pro-apoptotic Bax molecules densely populate the edges of membrane pores.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Tomomi; Olson, Norman H; Kiosses, William B; Peters, Bjoern; Newmeyer, Donald D

    2016-01-01

    How the pro-apoptotic Bax protein permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane is not fully understood. Previously, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we showed that activated Bax forms large, growing pores. Whether formed in liposomes or in mitochondrial outer membranes, Bax-induced pores exhibit the same morphology, with negative curvature flanking the edges and with no visible protein structure protruding from the membranes. Here we used cryo-EM to show that gold-labeled Bax molecules, after activation by Bid, became localized strictly at pore edges. This argues that Bax acts at short range to deform the membrane. Also, Bax molecules populated the walls of both small and large pores at the same density, implying that Bax is continuously recruited to the pores as they widen. Moreover, because all Bax molecules became oligomerized after membrane insertion, we infer that Bax oligomers are present at pore edges. We suggest that oligomerization may promote pore enlargement. PMID:27255832

  1. Grid cells analysis of urban growth using remote sensing and population census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Urban growth and sprawl have drastically altered the ecosystems and ecosystem services. Urban areas are an increasingly important component of the global environment, yet they remain one of the most challenging areas for conducting research. Remote sensing based information is one of the most important resources to support urban planning and administration in megacities. It is possible to provide the up-to-date information regarding the extent, growth, and physical characteristics of urban land. Remote sensing provides spatially consistent image information that covers broad areas with both high spatial resolution and high temporal frequency. Therefore, remote sensing is an important tool for providing information on urban land-cover characteristics and their changes over time at various spatial and temporal scales. Urban land-use and land-cover changes are linked to socio-economic activities. Urbanization includes both the physical growth of a city and the movement of people to urban areas. As a consequence, it is essential to combine remote sensing derived parameters with socio-economic parameter to analyze the spatial-temporal changes and interaction of both factors. The aim of the research was to use1-km2 grid cells to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of urban growth in the world mega cities. The research was conducted in the 50 global cities using Landsat ETM/TM remote sensing imagery from 1985 - 2011, and time series population census data (1-km2 resolution gridded population census data of Japan and 2.5 arc-minute resolutions Gridded Population of the World). First, maximum likelihood classification (MLC) method were used to produce land cover maps by using Landsat images. Then intersect the land cover maps with 1-km2 grid cell maps to represents the proportion of each land cover category within each 1-km2 grid cell. Finally, we combined the proportional land cover maps with gridded population census data on 1-km2 resolution grid cells to

  2. [Spatial population distribution and development: notes on urban settlements in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Jordan, R

    1982-04-01

    The relationship between population distribution and development trends is analyzed, with attention to the planning of spatial redistribution policies. Some shortcomings in the investigation of the causes and consequences of urbanization are discussed. The second part of the article "refers to some spatial demographic and socio-economic expressions of the urbanization process in Latin America, the population concentration trends and their relationships with changes in agrarian structure and industrialization, social stratification patterns and forms of urban space organization.... The paper concludes with some critical notes on the theses related to 'optimum' size of urban centres and to 'balanced development' of urban systems, on which some policy proposals have been based." (summary in ENG) PMID:12264230

  3. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  4. The Role of Urban Community Colleges in Educating Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2004-01-01

    This chapter uses data from the Transfer and Retention of Urban Community College Students project to provide evidence of success among racially diverse students in the Los Angeles Community College District. Through interviews with student services personnel, it also describes the specific efforts that may be responsible for this success. In…

  5. Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

  6. Stereospecific growth of densely populated rutile mesoporous TiO2 nanoplate films: a facile low temperature chemical synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Woon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Cho, Young-Jin; Mane, Rajaram S.; Shashikala, V.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash; Gaikwad, Rajendra S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Han, Sung-Hwan; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2010-03-01

    We report for the first time, using a simple and environmentally benign chemical method, the low temperature synthesis of densely populated upright-standing rutile TiO2 nanoplate films onto a glass substrate from a mixture of titanium trichloride, hydrogen peroxide and thiourea in triply distilled water. The rutile TiO2 nanoplate films (the phase is confirmed from x-ray diffraction analysis, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and Raman shift) are 20-35 nm wide and 100-120 nm long. The chemical reaction kinetics for the growth of these upright-standing TiO2 nanoplate films is also interpreted. Films of TiO2 nanoplates are optically transparent in the visible region with a sharp absorption edge close to 350 nm, confirming an indirect band gap energy of 3.12 eV. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area, Barret-Joyner-Halenda pore volume and pore diameter, obtained from N2 physisorption studies, are 82 m2 g - 1, 0.0964 cm3 g - 1 and 3.5 nm, respectively, confirming the mesoporosity of scratched rutile TiO2 nanoplate powder that would be ideal for the direct fabrication of nanoscaled devices including upcoming dye-sensitized solar cells and gas sensors.

  7. Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Hänninen, O.; Slørdal, L. H.; Kukkonen, J.; Bjergene, N.; Fay, B.; Finardi, S.; Hoe, S. C.; Jantunen, M.; Karppinen, A.; Rasmussen, A.; Skouloudis, A.; Sokhi, R. S.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2006-03-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on exceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and implementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate forecasting of air pollution episodes and population exposure, including modelling of emissions, meteorology, atmospheric dispersion and chemical reaction of pollutants, population mobility, and indoor-outdoor relationship of the pollutants. In the past, these different areas have been treated separately by different models and even institutions. Progress in computer resources and ensuing improvements in numerical weather prediction, air chemistry, and exposure modelling recently allow a unification and integration of the disjunctive models and approaches. The current work presents a novel approach that integrates the latest developments in meteorological, air quality, and population exposure modelling into Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems (UAQIFS) in the context of the European Union FUMAPEX project. The suggested integrated strategy is demonstrated for examples of the systems in three Nordic cities: Helsinki and Oslo for assessment and forecasting of urban air pollution and Copenhagen for urban emergency preparedness.

  8. Integrated systems for forecasting urban meteorology, air pollution and population exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Hänninen, O.; Slørdal, L. H.; Kukkonen, J.; Bjergene, N.; Fay, B.; Finardi, S.; Hoe, S. C.; Jantunen, M.; Karppinen, A.; Rasmussen, A.; Skouloudis, A.; Sokhi, R. S.; Sørensen, J. H.; Ødegaard, V.

    2007-02-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects. Model-based abatement strategies are required and developed for the growing urban populations. In the initial development stage, these are focussed on exceedances of air quality standards caused by high short-term pollutant concentrations. Prediction of health effects and implementation of urban air quality information and abatement systems require accurate forecasting of air pollution episodes and population exposure, including modelling of emissions, meteorology, atmospheric dispersion and chemical reaction of pollutants, population mobility, and indoor-outdoor relationship of the pollutants. In the past, these different areas have been treated separately by different models and even institutions. Progress in computer resources and ensuing improvements in numerical weather prediction, air chemistry, and exposure modelling recently allow a unification and integration of the disjunctive models and approaches. The current work presents a novel approach that integrates the latest developments in meteorological, air quality, and population exposure modelling into Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems (UAQIFS) in the context of the European Union FUMAPEX project. The suggested integrated strategy is demonstrated for examples of the systems in three Nordic cities: Helsinki and Oslo for assessment and forecasting of urban air pollution and Copenhagen for urban emergency preparedness.

  9. The potato's contribution to population and urbanization: evidence from a historical experiment.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Nathan; Qian, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    We exploit regional variation in suitability for cultivating potatoes, together with time variation arising from their introduction to the Old World from the Americas, to estimate the impact of potatoes on Old World population and urbanization. Our results show that the introduction of the potato was responsible for a significant portion of the increase in population and urbanization observed during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. According to our most conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato accounts for approximately one-quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900. Additional evidence from within-country comparisons of city populations and adult heights also confirms the cross-country findings. PMID:22073408

  10. Scaling relationship for NO2 pollution and urban population size: a satellite perspective.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, L N; Martin, R V; Parrish, D D; Krotkov, N A

    2013-07-16

    Concern is growing about the effects of urbanization on air pollution and health. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) released primarily from combustion processes, such as traffic, is a short-lived atmospheric pollutant that serves as an air-quality indicator and is itself a health concern. We derive a global distribution of ground-level NO2 concentrations from tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Local scaling factors from a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem) are used to relate the OMI NO2 columns to ground-level concentrations. The OMI-derived surface NO2 data are significantly correlated (r = 0.69) with in situ surface measurements. We examine how the OMI-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations, OMI NO2 columns, and bottom-up NOx emission inventories relate to urban population. Emission hot spots, such as power plants, are excluded to focus on urban relationships. The correlation of surface NO2 with population is significant for the three countries and one continent examined here: United States (r = 0.71), Europe (r = 0.67), China (r = 0.69), and India (r = 0.59). Urban NO2 pollution, like other urban properties, is a power law scaling function of the population size: NO2 concentration increases proportional to population raised to an exponent. The value of the exponent varies by region from 0.36 for India to 0.66 for China, reflecting regional differences in industrial development and per capita emissions. It has been generally established that energy efficiency increases and, therefore, per capita NOx emissions decrease with urban population; here, we show how outdoor ambient NO2 concentrations depend upon urban population in different global regions. PMID:23763377

  11. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in an urban eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, D S; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok K; Das, B C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypertension and to identify predictors of adult hypertension specifically in an underdeveloped urban region of eastern India. Study design Population-based cross-sectional study, with multi-stage random sampling technique. Settings A main urban city located in South Orissa in eastern India. Participants 1178 adults 20–80 years of age randomly selected from 37 electoral wards of an urban locale. Statistical methods Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 36%. Significant predictors of hypertension were age, central obesity, inadequate fruit intake, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein level and physical inactivity. Conclusions One-third of the adults in this urban population of eastern India are reported to be hypertensive and the classical risk factors have been found to contribute to the increased burden, which reinforces the importance of preventive cardiovascular interventions in tackling this burden.

  12. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  13. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  14. Sex and Urbanicity Contribute to Variation in Lymphocyte Distribution across Ugandan Populations.

    PubMed

    Naluyima, Prossy; Eller, Leigh Anne; Ouma, Benson J; Kyabaggu, Denis; Kataaha, Peter; Guwatudde, David; Kibuuka, Hannah; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; de Souza, Mark S; Sandberg, Johan K; Eller, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Management of patient care and interpretation of research data require evaluation of laboratory results in the context of reference data from populations with known health status to adequately diagnose disease or make a physiological assessment. Few studies have addressed the diversity of lymphocyte subsets in rural and urban Ugandan populations. Here, 663 healthy blood bank donors from semi-urban centers of Kampala consented to participate in a study to define lymphocyte reference ranges. Whole blood immunophenotyping was performed to determine the frequency and absolute counts of T, B, and NK cells using clinical flow cytometry. Results from blood bank donors were compared to a rural cohort from the district of Kayunga and more urban clinical trial participants from the capital city, Kampala. Relationships between hematological and lymphocyte parameters were also explored. In the semi-urban blood donors, females were significantly different from males in all parameters except the frequency of CD8 T and B cells. Females had higher absolute counts of CD4 T, CD8 T and B cells, whereas males had higher NK cell counts. NK cell frequency and counts were significantly higher in semi-urban blood donors, regardless of sex, compared to more urban study participants. CD8 T cell frequency and counts were significantly higher in the blood donors compared to the rural participants, irrespective of sex. Interestingly, basophil counts were positively associated with overall T cell counts. These findings suggest that both sex and level of cohort urbanicity may influence lymphocyte subset distributions in Ugandans. PMID:26730706

  15. Sex and Urbanicity Contribute to Variation in Lymphocyte Distribution across Ugandan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Naluyima, Prossy; Eller, Leigh Anne; Ouma, Benson J.; Kyabaggu, Denis; Kataaha, Peter; Guwatudde, David; Kibuuka, Hannah; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; de Souza, Mark S.; Sandberg, Johan K.; Eller, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Management of patient care and interpretation of research data require evaluation of laboratory results in the context of reference data from populations with known health status to adequately diagnose disease or make a physiological assessment. Few studies have addressed the diversity of lymphocyte subsets in rural and urban Ugandan populations. Here, 663 healthy blood bank donors from semi-urban centers of Kampala consented to participate in a study to define lymphocyte reference ranges. Whole blood immunophenotyping was performed to determine the frequency and absolute counts of T, B, and NK cells using clinical flow cytometry. Results from blood bank donors were compared to a rural cohort from the district of Kayunga and more urban clinical trial participants from the capital city, Kampala. Relationships between hematological and lymphocyte parameters were also explored. In the semi-urban blood donors, females were significantly different from males in all parameters except the frequency of CD8 T and B cells. Females had higher absolute counts of CD4 T, CD8 T and B cells, whereas males had higher NK cell counts. NK cell frequency and counts were significantly higher in semi-urban blood donors, regardless of sex, compared to more urban study participants. CD8 T cell frequency and counts were significantly higher in the blood donors compared to the rural participants, irrespective of sex. Interestingly, basophil counts were positively associated with overall T cell counts. These findings suggest that both sex and level of cohort urbanicity may influence lymphocyte subset distributions in Ugandans. PMID:26730706

  16. Effects of urbanization on prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in intermediate host populations.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Kenneth F; Page, L Kristen; Downey, Mark; McCord, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is an intestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) that can also infect humans and a wide range of wildlife species. Prevalence of B. procyonis in raccoon populations appears to decrease as the landscape urbanizes, but less is known about prevalence in the small-mammal intermediate hosts of the parasite. We measured prevalence of B. procyonis in populations of mice (Peromyscus spp.) in forest preserves along a gradient of urbanization in Illinois. Prevalence in the mouse intermediate host exhibited a trend opposite raccoons: prevalence increased as surrounding human population density increased. This counterintuitive result may be due to higher overall environmental loads of B. procyonis in urban areas due to higher raccoon densities. Our results emphasize the need to understand fully the transmission dynamics of B. procyonis in its definitive and intermediate hosts in order to design and implement effective strategies to mitigate zoonotic risks to humans. PMID:23060514

  17. Health and Marital Experience in an Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renne, Karen S.

    1971-01-01

    the findings indicated that (1) physical and psychlogical health are associated with marital happiness regardless of marital history, and (2) at the same time, divorce and remarriage tend to "select" the healthier members of the unhappy married population. (Author)

  18. Endless Urban Growth? On the Mismatch of Population, Household and Urban Land Area Growth and Its Effects on the Urban Debate

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990–2000 and 2000–2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these “double-declining” cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number “automatically” solve the global problem of land consumption. PMID:23840501

  19. [Clandestine places: illegal sale of alcohol for urban worker populations].

    PubMed

    Hamel, P; Asún, D

    1978-03-01

    The authors have studied the illegal commerce of alcohol in popular urban communities. This sale is done in so called clandestine places. The study was approached from a cultural-anthropological point of view and its objective is a descriptive-exploratory study based on observation and interview techniques. A definition and a tipology of these places was attempted, emphasizing group dynamics and interpersonal relations between the owner of the place and the customer; among the customers; among the place itself and the rest of the community organizations, formal and informal ones. A primary analysis was done, according to which these clandestine places appear legitimized by nets of interpersonal relations, critical economic situations and places that satisfy recreational needs of the inhabitants. In order to eliminate the former, adecuate substitutes for recreation and social interaction ought to be considered. PMID:685704

  20. [Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica (Carnivora, Felidae) in a densely populated locality (with reference to Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve and its environs)].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve located in a densely populated locality (only 15 km to the north of it is the city of Khabarovsk) have been investigated. For a long time (1992-2000) the diet of tigers consisted 100% of wild animals, although the accessibility of domestic animals, dogs, in particular, was high. From 2000 to 2007, in their feeding, the proportion of dogs increased (up to 47%), and the proportion of wild animals decreased (50.8%). Tigers attacking dogs were physically weakened (broken fangs, wounds, inflicted by humans, diseases). Thus, even in a densely populated locality, the tiger's diet includes domestic animals only at exposure to different negative factors. PMID:22834318

  1. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  2. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  3. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around ‑0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around ‑0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  4. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, A.; Tanaka, K.; Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2015-11-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  5. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change from 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  6. Urban occupational health in the Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrant population: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Novo, Patricia; Dobslaw, Rebecca; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants represent a rapidly growing population within the United States. The majority settle in urban areas. As a group, Mexican immigrants typically have low educational attainment and socioeconomic status, and limited English proficiency. These immigrants often find work in hazardous jobs, with high injury and fatality rates. They often have inadequate or no safety training, no personal protective equipment, limited understanding of workers' rights, job insecurity, fear of report of undocumented status and lack health care benefits. This review includes what has been published on the urban occupational health of this population. The findings suggest that Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants experience higher rates of work-related fatalities and injuries compared to other populations, and may be less likely to report such incidents to employers or to apply for workers' compensation. There is a strong need to develop effective programs to address the health and safety of this vulnerable population. PMID:23468371

  7. Population, Behavioural and Physiological Responses of an Urban Population of Black Swans to an Intense Annual Noise Event

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Catherine J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated. PMID:23024783

  8. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    PubMed

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated. PMID:23024783

  9. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  10. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  11. The Prevalence and Incidence of Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis in an Urban Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Marc C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted in an urban Black population in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that the Black race is not associated with significantly increased risk of development of juvenile rheumatiod arthritis. The prevalence rate was estimated as 0.26 per 1,000 and the average annual incidence as 6.6 per 100,000/year. (GC)

  12. The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

    This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

  13. Estimation of Pairwise Identity by Descent From Dense Genetic Marker Data in a Population Sample of Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    I present a new approach for calculating probabilities of identity by descent for pairs of haplotypes. The approach is based on a joint hidden Markov model for haplotype frequencies and identity by descent (IBD). This model allows for linkage disequilibrium, and the method can be applied to very dense marker data. The method has high power for detecting IBD tracts of genetic length of 1 cM, with the use of sufficiently dense markers. This enables detection of pairwise IBD between haplotypes from individuals whose most recent common ancestor lived up to 50 generations ago. PMID:18430938

  14. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  15. [Genetic Structure of Urban Population of the Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus)].

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, N Yu; Meschersky, I G; Surov, A V; Bogomolov, P L; Tovpinetz, N N; Poplavskaya, N S

    2016-02-01

    Over the past half-century, the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus), along with range-wide decline of natural populations, has actively populated the cities. The study of the genetic structure of urban populations of common hamster may shed light on features of the habitation of this species in urban landscapes. This article is focused on the genetic structure of common hamster populations in Simferopol (Crimea), one of the largest known urban populations of this species. On the basis of the analysis of nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene and mtDNA control region, and the allelic composition of ten microsatellite loci of nDNA, we revealed that, despite the fact that some individuals can move throughout the city at considerable distances, the entire population of the city is represented by separate demes confined to different areas. These demes are characterized by a high degree of the genetic isolation and reduced genetic diversity compared to that found for the city as a whole. PMID:27215037

  16. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time-use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for evaluating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other micro-environments. The population exposure originated from the long range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  17. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for estimating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other microenvironments in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The population exposure originating from the long-range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure in Helsinki. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  18. High-resolution air pollution modeling for urban environments in support of dense multi-platform networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchet, Antoine; Zink, Katrin; Arfire, Adrian; Marjovi, Ali; Martinoli, Alcherio; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    As the fraction of people living in urban areas is rapidly increasing worldwide, the impact of air quality on human health in cities is a growing concern not only in developing countries but also in Europe despite the achievements of European air quality legislation. One obstacle to the quantitative assessment of the connections between health and air quality is the very high temporal and spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Yet, an important issue for obtaining accurate and spatially highly resolved air pollution data is the trade-off between the high costs of accurate air pollution sensors and the number of such devices required for succinctly monitoring a given geographical area. The OpenSense 2 project aims at establishing air quality data at very high temporal and spatial resolution in the cities of Lausanne and Zurich in Switzerland in order to provide reliable information for epidemiologic studies and for the design of air pollution controls and urban planning. Towards this goal, observations from both stationary reference monitoring stations and low-cost mobile sensors (including sensing platforms anchored on public transport vehicles) are combined with high-resolution air quality modeling throughout the two cities. As a first step, we simulate the 3-dimensional, high-resolution dispersion and distribution of key pollutants using the GRAMM/GRAL modeling system. The GRAMM meteorological meso-scale model calculates wind fields at 100 m resolution accounting for the complex topography and land use within and around the two cities. GRAMM outputs are then used to drive the building-resolving dispersion model GRAL at 5-10m resolution. Further key inputs for GRAL are high resolution emission inventories and the 3-D building structure which are available for both cities. Here, in order to evaluate the ability of the GRAMM/GRAL modeling system to reproduce air pollutant distributions within the two cities of Lausanne and Zurich, we

  19. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  20. Definition and prevalence of sedentarism in an urban population.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M S; Morabia, A; Sloutskis, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to formulate a precise definition of sedentarism and to identify activities performed by active people that could serve as effective preventive goals. METHODS: A population-based sample of 919 residents of Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35 to 74 years, completed a 24-hour recall. Sedentary people were defined as those expending less than 10% of their daily energy in the performance of moderate- and high-intensity activities (at least 4 times the basal metabolism rate). RESULTS: The rates of sedentarism were 79.5% in men and 87.2% in women. Among sedentary and active men, average daily energy expenditures were 2600 kcal (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2552, 2648) and 3226 kcal (95% CI = 3110, 3346), respectively; the corresponding averages for women were 2092 kcal (95% CI = 2064, 2120) and 2356 kcal (95% CI = 2274, 2440). The main moderate- and high-intensity activities among active people were sports (tennis, gymnastics, skiing), walking, climbing stairs, gardening, and (for men only) occupational activities. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of sedentarism outlined in this article can be reproduced in other populations, allows comparisons across studies, and provides preventive guidelines in that the activities most frequently performed by active people are the ones most likely to be adopted by their sedentary peers. PMID:10358676

  1. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  2. Spatially differentiated and source-specific population exposure to ambient urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J. Gaines; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    Models assessing exposure to air pollution often focus on macro-scale estimates of exposure to all types of sources for a particular pollutant across an urban study area. While results based on these models may aid policy makers in identifying larger areas of elevated exposure risk, they often do not differentiate the proportion of population exposure attributable to different polluting sources (e.g. traffic or industrial). In this paper, we introduce a population exposure modeling system that integrates air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and population exposure techniques to spatially characterize a source-specific exposure to ambient air pollution for an entire urban population at a fine geographical scale. By area, total population exposure in Dallas County in 2000 was more attributable to vehicle polluting sources than industrial polluting sources at all levels of exposure. Population exposure was moderately correlated with vehicle sources ( r = 0.440, p < 0.001) and weakly with industrial sources ( r = 0.069, p = 0.004). Population density was strongly correlated with total exposure ( r = 0.896, p < 0.001) but was not significantly correlated with individual or combined sources. The results of this study indicate that air quality assessments must incorporate more than industrial or vehicle polluting sources-based population exposure values alone, but should consider multiple sources. The population exposure modeling system proposed in this study shows promise for use by municipal authorities, policy makers, and epidemiologists in evaluating and controlling the quality of the air in the process of urban planning and mitigation measures.

  3. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  4. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  5. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  6. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  7. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations. PMID:26777030

  8. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, the thyroid cancer incidence was much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and megalopolis such as Seoul. Gastric cancer was relatively more common in rural areas, in megalopolis near the sea (Ulsan, Busan, and Incheon), and other southern provinces (Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Gyeongsangnam-do). A detailed analysis in Gyeongsangnam-do revealed that rural areas have relatively low incidence of thyroid and colorectal cancer, and relatively high incidence of gastric and lung cancer compared to urban areas. Conclusion This study suggests that there are some differences in cancer incidence by population size. Thyroid and colorectal cancer incidence was increasing, and gastric and lung cancer was slightly decreasing in urban areas, whereas gastric and lung cancer incidence still remains high in rural areas. PMID:26194369

  9. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  10. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  11. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  12. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  13. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  14. Metal induced inhalation exposure in urban population: A probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widziewicz, Kamila; Loska, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    The paper was aimed at assessing the health risk in the populations of three Silesian cities: Bielsko-Biała, Częstochowa and Katowice exposed to the inhalation intake of cadmium, nickel and arsenic present in airborne particulate matter. In order to establish how the exposure parameters affects risk a probabilistic risk assessment framework was used. The risk model was based on the results of the annual measurements of As, Cd and Ni concentrations in PM2.5 and the sets of data on the concentrations of those elements in PM10 collected by the Voivodship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection over 2012-2013 period. The risk was calculated as an incremental lifetime risk of cancer (ILCR) in particular age groups (infants, children, adults) following Monte Carlo approach. With the aim of depicting the effect the variability of exposure parameters exerts on the risk, the initial parameters of the risk model: metals concentrations, its infiltration into indoor environment, exposure duration, exposure frequency, lung deposition efficiency, daily lung ventilation and body weight were modeled as random variables. The distribution of inhalation cancer risk due to exposure to ambient metals concentrations was LN (1.80 × 10-6 ± 2.89 × 10-6) and LN (6.17 × 10-7 ± 1.08 × 10-6) for PM2.5 and PM10-bound metals respectively and did not exceed the permissible limit of the acceptable risk. The highest probability of contracting cancer was observed for Katowice residents exposed to PM2.5 - LN (2.01 × 10-6 ± 3.24 × 10-6). Across the tested age groups adults were approximately one order of magnitude at higher risk compared to infants. Sensitivity analysis showed that exposure duration (ED) and body weight (BW) were the two variables, which contributed the most to the ILCR.

  15. Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban

  16. Temporal variation in airborne microbial populations and microbially-derived allergens in a tropical urban landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Anthony C.; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Chan, Yuki; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Scott, James A.; Vrijmoed, Lilian L. P.; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-08-01

    The microbial component of outdoor aerosols was assessed along a gradient of urban development from inner-city to rural in the seasonal-tropical metropolis of Hong Kong. Sampling over a continuous one-year period was conducted, with molecular analyses to characterize bacterial and eukaryal microbial populations, immuno-assays to detect microbially-derived allergens and extensive environmental and meteorological observations. The data revealed bio-aerosol populations were not significantly impacted by the level of urban development as measured by anthropogenic pollutants and human population levels, but instead exhibited a strong seasonal trend related to general climatic variables. We applied back-trajectory analysis to establish sources of air masses and this allowed further explanation of urban bio-aerosols largely in terms of summer-marine and winter-continental origins. We also evaluated bio-aerosols for the potential to detect human health threats. Many samples supported bacterial and fungal phylotypes indicative of known pathogenic taxa, together with common indicators of human presence. The occurrence of allergenic endotoxins and beta-glucans generally tracked trends in microbial populations, with levels known to induce symptoms detected during summer months when microbial loading was higher. This strengthens calls for bio-aerosols to be considered in future risk assessments and surveillance of air quality, along with existing chemical and particulate indices.

  17. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  18. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  19. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  20. High-resolution maps of forest-urban watersheds present an opportunity for ecologists and managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense populations of people and abundant impervious surfaces contribute to poor water quality and increased flooding in forest-urban watersheds. Green infrastructure mitigates these effects, but precisely quantifying benefits is difficult because most land cover maps rely on coar...

  1. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in Urban and Indigenous Populations of Mexico: Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Lineages.

    PubMed

    González-Sobrino, Blanca Z; Pintado-Cortina, Ana P; Sebastián-Medina, Leticia; Morales-Mandujano, Fabiola; Contreras, Alejandra V; Aguilar, Yasnaya E; Chávez-Benavides, Juan; Carrillo-Rodríguez, Aurelio; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Medrano-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Aside from the admixture between indigenous people and people from overseas, populations in Mexico changed drastically after the Spanish conquest of the sixteenth century, forming an intricate history that has been underutilized in understanding the genetic population structure of Mexicans. To infer historical processes of isolation, dispersal, and assimilation, we examined the phylogeography of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in 3,026 individuals from 10 urban and nine indigenous populations by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms. A geographic array with a predominance of Amerindian lineages was observed for mtDNA, with northern indigenous populations being divergent from the central and southern indigenous populations; urban populations showed low differentiation with isolation by distance. Y-chromosome variation distinguished urban and indigenous populations through the Amerindian haplogroup Q frequency. The MtDNA and the Y-chromosome together primarily distinguished urban and indigenous populations, with different geographic arrays for both. Gene flow across geographical distance and between the urban and indigenous realms appears to have altered the pre-Hispanic phylogeography in central and southern Mexico, mainly by displacement of women, while maintaining the indigenous isolation in the north, southeast, and Zapotec regions. Most Amerindian mtDNA diversity currently occurs in urban populations and appears to be reduced among indigenous people. PMID:27050033

  2. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J.; Porter, D.; Edwards, D.

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  3. How much urban population matters? Exploring the drivers of carbon emissions in 84 cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Lankao, P.

    2010-12-01

    Just as urban centers register different levels and paths of development, cities do not contribute at the same level to global warming. Carbon emissions per capita in cities from high-income countries such as Texas and the District of Columbia are 19-20 fold as high compared with those in Sao Paolo, Delhi and Kolkata. Yet, other wealthy cities such as Stockholm and Barcelona also have low levels of emissions per capita. This presentation will draw on results from a quantitative research effort covering 84 cities to show that population dynamics are not the only determinant of urban emissions. Many different factors account for the diverse levels and sources of urban carbon emissions: (a) differences both in their national/regional energy systems and in how energy generation, transportation and other emitters operate; (b) levels of economic development and affluence as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; (c) technology and technological innovations and acquisition; (d) climatic situation, altitude and location in relation to energy sources; (e) demographic structure and dynamics of a city; (f) urban function and city’s economic base; (g) urban form (spatial structure) and related to this, the lay out and structure of a city’s transportation system; and (h) the wider institutional setting of the city.

  4. Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, S.J.; Dorcas, M.E.; Gallant, A.L.; Klaver, R.W.; Willson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has become the dominant form of landscape disturbance in parts of the United States. Small streams in the Piedmont region of the eastern United States support high densities of salamanders and are often the first habitats to be affected by landscape-altering factors such as urbanization. We used US Geological Survey land cover data from 1972 to 2000 and a relation between stream salamanders and land cover, established from recent research, to estimate the impact of contemporary land-cover change on the abundance of stream salamanders near Davidson, North Carolina, a Piedmont locale that has experienced rapid urbanization during this time. Our analysis indicates that southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera) populations have decreased from 32% to 44% while northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) have decreased from 21% to 30% over the last three decades. Our results suggest that the widespread conversion of forest to urban land in small catchments has likely resulted in a substantial decline of populations of stream salamanders and could have serious effects on stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population-Adjusted Street Connectivity, Urbanicity and Risk of Obesity in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fahui; Wen, Ming; Xu, Yanqing

    2013-01-01

    Street connectivity, defined as the number of (3-way or more) intersections per area unit, is an important index of built environments as a proxy for walkability in a neighborhood. This paper examines its geographic variations across the rural-urban continuum (urbanicity), major racial-ethnic groups and various poverty levels. The population-adjusted street connectivity index is proposed as a better measure than the regular index for a large area such as county due to likely concentration of population in limited space within the large area. Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), this paper uses multilevel modeling to analyze its association with physical activity and obesity while controlling for various individual and county-level variables. Analysis of data subsets indicates that the influences of individual and county-level variables on obesity risk vary across areas of different urbanization levels. The positive influence of street connectivity on obesity control is limited to the more but not the mostly urbanized areas. This demonstrates the value of obesogenic environment research in different geographic settings, helps us reconcile and synthesize some seemingly contradictory results reported in different studies, and also promotes that effective policies need to be highly sensitive to the diversity of demographic groups and geographically adaptable. PMID:23667278

  6. Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in an urban population of Apodemus sylvaticus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Boufana, B; Hall, J L; Brannan, V; Mastin, A; Birtles, R J; Craig, P S; Rogan, M T

    2016-07-01

    The presence of the cyclophyllidean cestode Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), was confirmed by molecular DNA analysis from a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) population inhabiting urban woodland in Salford, Greater Manchester (UK) with a prevalence of 27.8%. It would appear that the only previously published record of this species in A. sylvaticus in the British Isles is that from south-west Ireland, where 24% of the wood mice examined were infected with R. straminea. This species has been recorded in studies on A. sylvaticus in continental Europe. The current report represents a new record for R. straminea on mainland Britain and a first study of helminth parasites in an urban wood mouse population. PMID:26278677

  7. Population in trans-border regions: the Southern California-Baja California urban system.

    PubMed

    Rubin-kurtzman, J R; Ham-chande, R; Van Arsdol, M D

    1996-01-01

    "This article is a case study of population growth and composition in the Southern California-Baja California trans-border urban system (TBS). The central question guiding the research is how the combination of geographic proximity and economic integration in two very different regions affects population characteristics in the Southern California-Baja California TBS. We begin by briefly defining trans-border urban systems. We then specify the attributes of the Southern California-Baja California TBS, contrasting them with attributes observed elsewhere in the United States and Mexico.... The data are drawn primarily from the U.S. and Mexican censuses. Secondary data from a variety of sources also are discussed." PMID:12347786

  8. Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

  9. [Marriage and Migratory Characteristics of the Urban Population of Karachay-Cherkessia (the End of the 20th Century)].

    PubMed

    El'chinova, G I; Zinchenko, R A

    2016-01-01

    As part of systematic research carried out by the Laboratory of Genetic Epidemiology of the Research Center for Medical Genetics, the marriage and migratory structure of the urban population of Karachay-Cherkessia was studied. Numerical estimates of the population-genetic parameters were obtained from 11346 marriage records for 1990-2000. The endogamy, ethnic assortativeness, miscegenation and local inbreeding intensities, and mean-square migration for the four cities--Cherkessk, Karachayevsk, Ust-Dzheguta, and Teberda were estimated. It is shown that the autochthonic urban population is highly miscegenated, despite the traditional preference for monoethnic marriages. Half of the Russian urban population is migrant; the autochthonic urban population is substantially formed of Karachay-Cherkessia natives of. PMID:27183800

  10. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface.

    PubMed

    Foley, Erica A; Khatchikian, Camilo E; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R; Levy, Michael Z; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment has had devastating ecological and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here, we show that populations of Tria. infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban centre share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographical distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. infestans, and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. PMID:24103030

  11. To mitigate, resist, or undo: addressing structural influences on the health of urban populations.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T

    2000-01-01

    Young to middle-aged residents of impoverished urban areas suffer extra-ordinary rates of excess mortality, to which deaths from chronic disease contribute heavily. Understanding of urban health disadvantages and attempts to reverse them will be incomplete if the structural factors that produced modern minority ghettos in central cities are not taken into account. Dynamic conceptions of the role of race/ethnicity in producing health inequalities must encompass (1) social relationship between majority and minority populations that privilege the majority population and (2) the autonomous institutions within minority populations that members develop and sustain to mitigate, resist, or undo the adverse effects of discrimination. Broad social and economic policies that intensify poverty or undermine autonomous protections can reap dire consequences for health. Following from this structural analysis and previous research, guiding principles for action and suggestions for continued research are proposed. Without taking poverty and race/ethnicity into account, public health professionals who hope to redress the health problems of urban life risk exaggerating the returns that can be expected of public health campaigns or overlooking important approaches for mounting successful interventions. PMID:10846503

  12. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Quentin S.; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments. PMID:26886219

  13. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  14. Overview of intestinal parasitic prevalence in rural and urban population in Lucknow, north India.

    PubMed

    Nitin, Shukla; Venkatesh, V; Husain, N; Masood, J; Agarwal, G G

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infestations are a common finding in the developing world, however, the patterns of parasitic distribution and rates are different everywhere. Intestinal parasitic prevalece in urban and rural areas in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh were determined in this community-based study. Multistage random sampling was adopted to collect stool samples from urban and rural population in Lucknow district. Door to door survey was done. Stool samples were processed by standard methods for parasitological examination. One thousand and seventy one stool samples were collected from urban Alambagh, (n=648) and rural Mati, (n=343) areas. Overall one hundred and twenty three (11.5%) subjects had intestinal infection. Intestinal infestation rate was 5.4% and 20.8% in the urban and rural areas respectively. Giardia lamblia (22%) was the commonest pathogenic protozoan detected. The soil transmitted helminths detected were Ascaris (11.4%) and Hookworm (2.4%). Infection had no predilection for either sex or age group in both areas. The prevalence of parasitic infection appears to be relatively low in this region, probably due to improving access to health care. However due to the sheer numbers of affected individuals involved, intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health problem. PMID:18697590

  15. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  16. Building-Scale Atmospheric Modeling for Understanding and Anticipating Environmental Risks to Urban Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, T. T.; Swerdlin, S. P.; Chen, F.; Hayden, M.

    2009-05-01

    The innovative use of Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) models to define the building- and street-scale atmospheric environment in urban areas can benefit society in a number of ways. Design criteria used by architectural climatologists, who help plan the livable cities of the future, require information about air movement within street canyons for different seasons and weather regimes. Understanding indoor urban air- quality problems and their mitigation, especially for older buildings, requires data on air movement and associated dynamic pressures near buildings. Learning how heat waves and anthropogenic forcing in cities collectively affect the health of vulnerable residents is a problem in building thermodynamics, human behavior, and neighborhood-scale and street-canyon-scale atmospheric sciences. And, predicting the movement of plumes of hazardous material released in urban industrial or transportation accidents requires detailed information about vertical and horizontal air motions in the street canyons. These challenges are closer to being addressed because of advances in CFD modeling, the coupling of CFD models with models of indoor air motion and air quality, and the coupling of CFD models with mesoscale weather-prediction models. This paper will review some of the new knowledge and technologies that are being developed to meet these atmospheric-environment needs of our growing urban populations.

  17. Population-Based Study of the Association between Urbanization and Kawasaki Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is unclear if the prevalence of Kawasaki disease (KD) correlates with the degree of urbanization. We hypothesized that the prevalence of KD is more pronounced in urban versus rural environments. Methods. The National Health Insurance (NHI) program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995 and covers most of the population (>99%). We used the NHI database to investigate the epidemiological features of KD. A total of 115 diagnosed patients with KD from 1997 to 2010 were included, together with 1,150 matched controls without KD. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the difference between modern city and rural environments. Results. Of the 1265 sampled subjects (claims data from 1,000,000 random subjects), the mean age of the KD study group and control group was 2.08 ± 1.66 and 2.08 ± 1.64 years, respectively. After matching for age, sex, and same index date, no statistically significant differences in urbanization level and geographical location of the patients' residence were observed. Conclusion. Urbanization did not appear to be an important effect modifier of Kawasaki disease in Taiwan. PMID:23864819

  18. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  19. Mexican urban occupational health in the US: a population at risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Dobslaw, Rebecca; Ramirez, Julia; Tonda, Josana; Lobach, Iryna; Leng, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Mexicans are the largest immigrant group in the US. Little is known about their urban occupational health status. We assess occupational illness, injury, and safety training among New York City Mexican immigrants. This study is a consecutive sample of the Mexican immigrant population utilizing Mexican Consulate services in New York City over two weeks in March 2009. Bilingual research assistants approached persons waiting in line at the Consulate and administered an occupational health questionnaire. 185 people agreed to participate. Most work in restaurants (37%), cleaning (18%), construction (12%), babysitting/nanny (7%), retail (9%), and factories (5%). 22% had received safety training. 18% reported work-related pain or illness. 18% suffered from a job-related injury since immigrating. Most injuries were in construction, factories, and restaurants. 29% had not reported their injury. This study provides evidence that the urban Mexican immigrant population is at high risk for work-related illness and injury, is not receiving adequate safety training, and is under-reporting occupational injury. Culturally and linguistically responsive community outreach programs are needed to provide occupational health and safety information and resources for urban Mexican workers. PMID:20614170

  20. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M.; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G.; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Method Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946–51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Results Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31). Conclusions The absence of rural–urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography. PMID:26844118

  1. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of Bulgarian Urban Population: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyakova, Mariana; Shipkovenska, Elena; Dyakov, Peter; Dimitrov, Plamen; Torbova, Svetla

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the total cardiovascular risk of the Bulgarian urban population. Methods A representative sample of Bulgarian urban population (n = 3810, response rate 68.3%) from five Bulgarian cities was inlcuded in a cross-sectional observation study performed in 2005-2007. A detailed cardiovascular risk assessment was performed by general practitioners and a total 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event was estimated according to the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE, HeartScore®). Results There were 48.7% of participants in the high risk group (SCORE≥5%), 24.3% aged 45-54 and more than half aged 55-64 years. Nearly a quarter of the sample had a total cardiovascular risk of over 10% (SCORE≥10%), whereas 10.1% of the sample had excessively high cardiovascular risk (SCORE≥15%). In the 65-75 age group, the prevalence of men with excessively high risk was 46.6%, compared with 6.0% in women (P < 0.001). Most of the main cardiovascular risk factors were slightly increased or borderline in comparison with clinical thresholds. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk is high in a large proportion of Bulgarian urban population, especially in men aged over 65. These findings indicate that a comprehensive national strategy and program for management of cardiovascular diseases is urgently needed. The SCORE method can be well implemented if a higher threshold for a high risk group is defined and smaller target population is planned for extensive and expensive high risk preventive measures. PMID:19090603

  3. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    PubMed

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  4. Determinants of extinction in fragmented plant populations: Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Dornier, Antoine; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Local populations are subject to recurrent extinctions, and small populations are particularly prone to extinction. Both demographic (stochasticity and the Allee effect) and genetic factors (drift load and inbreeding depression) potentially affect extinction. In fragmented populations, regular dispersal may boost population sizes (demographic rescue effect) or/and reduce the local inbreeding level and genetic drift (genetic rescue effect), which can affect extinction risks. We studied extinction processes in highly fragmented populations of the common species Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban habitats exhibiting a rapid turnover of patches. A four-year demographic monitoring survey and microsatellite genotyping of individuals allowed us to study the determinants of extinction. We documented a low genetic structure and an absence of inbreeding (estimated by multilocus heterozygosity), which suggest that genetic factors were not a major cause of patch extinction. On the contrary, local population size was the main factor in extinction, whereas connectivity was shown to decrease patch extinction, which we interpreted as a demographic rescue effect that was likely due to better pollination services for reproduction. This coupling of demographic and genetic tools highlighted the importance of dispersal in local patch extinctions of small fragmented populations connected by gene flow. PMID:22200853

  5. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Alias, S N; Sahimin, N; Edah, M A; Mohd-Zain, S N

    2014-06-01

    A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats. PMID:25134892

  6. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii Isolates from the Urban Rat Populations of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Benacer, Douadi; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Amran, Fairuz; Galloway, Renee L.; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of Leptospira. The objectives of this study were isolation and identification of Leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Three hundred urban rats (73% Rattus rattus and 27% R. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. Twenty cultures were positive for Leptospira using dark-field microscopy. R. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that all isolates were pathogenic Leptospira species. Two Leptospira serogroups, Javanica and Bataviae, were identified using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (85%) and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (15%). We conclude that these two serovars are the major serovars circulating among the urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Despite the low infection rate reported, the high pathogenicity of these serovars raises concern of public health risks caused by rodent transmission of leptospirosis. PMID:23358635

  8. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defries, Ruth S.; Rudel, Thomas; Uriarte, Maria; Hansen, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear regression and regression tree-show that forest loss is positively correlated with urban population growth and exports of agricultural products for this time period. Rural population growth is not associated with forest loss, indicating the importance of urban-based and international demands for agricultural products as drivers of deforestation. The strong trend in movement of people to cities in the tropics is, counter-intuitively, likely to be associated with greater pressures for clearing tropical forests. We therefore suggest that policies to reduce deforestation among local, rural populations will not address the main cause of deforestation in the future. Rather, efforts need to focus on reducing deforestation for industrial-scale, export-oriented agricultural production, concomitant with efforts to increase yields in non-forested lands to satisfy demands for agricultural products.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus among urban and rural populations in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pujol, F H; Favorov, M O; Marcano, T; Esté, J A; Magris, M; Liprandi, F; Khudyakov, Y E; Khudyakova, N S; Fields, H A

    1994-03-01

    Antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) were detected in sera by a synthetic peptide-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from different populations in Venezuela. Antibodies against HEV were found in 1.6% (3/184) of urban pregnant woman (Caracas), in 3.9% (8/204) of rural populations (San Camilo, Edo Apure), and in 5.4% (12/223) of rural Amerindians (Padamo, Edo Amazonas). Positivity was confirmed by a neutralization EIA based on the use of competing soluble free peptides. The prevalence of antibodies in the Amerindian group was significantly higher than in urban pregnant women. No relation was found between age and HEV prevalence in rural populations. Three of 21 positive sera were also weakly positive by Western blot for IgM antibodies. This result, together with the low optical density values observed by EIA, suggested that the presence of antibodies in these sera reflects past infections. Based on these results, Venezuela does not seem to be highly endemic for hepatitis E. This is the first report of serological evidence of infection by HEV in South America. PMID:8006635

  10. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  11. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Settings and Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. Materials and Methods: All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females) were examined (response rate, 80.2%). The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6–1.1%) and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6%) and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7%) for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4–3.4%) and visual impairment (blindness + low vision) was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2–4.4%). The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68%) and cataract (22%). Conclusions: In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision. PMID:23619490

  12. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal’s tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual’s lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  13. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F.

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the “average person” for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities. PMID:26264013

  14. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

    2015-08-01

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the "average person" for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities. PMID:26264013

  15. Distinctive mutation spectrum of the HBB gene in an urban eastern Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Subhransu Sekhar; Biswal, Sebaranjan; Dixit, Manjusha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell anemia (or Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val]) impose a major health burden in the Indian population. To determine the frequencies of the HBB gene mutations in eastern Indian populations and to compare with the available data, a comprehensive molecular analysis of the HBB gene was done in the normal Odisha State population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and DNA sequencing techniques, β-thal and sickle cell anemia mutations were characterized in 267 healthy individuals. Entire HBB gene sequencing showed 63 different mutations including 11 new ones. The predominant mutation HBB: c.9T > C was observed at a high frequency (19.57%) in the normal population. In the urban population of Odisha State, India, carrier frequency of hemoglobinopathies was found to be 18.48%, and for β-thal, the carrier rate was 14.13%, which is very high indeed. In the absence of a complete cure by any expensive treatment and drug administration, this information would be helpful for planning a population screening program and establishing prenatal diagnosis of β-thal in order to reduce the burden of such a genetic disease. PMID:24099628

  16. Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulation: High Resolution Population Dynamics for Global Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Lu, W.; Liu, C.; Thakur, G.; Karthik, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this rapidly urbanizing world, unprecedented rate of population growth is not only mirrored by increasing demand for energy, food, water, and other natural resources, but has detrimental impacts on environmental and human security. Transportation simulations are frequently used for mobility assessment in urban planning, traffic operation, and emergency management. Previous research, involving purely analytical techniques to simulations capturing behavior, has investigated questions and scenarios regarding the relationships among energy, emissions, air quality, and transportation. Primary limitations of past attempts have been availability of input data, useful "energy and behavior focused" models, validation data, and adequate computational capability that allows adequate understanding of the interdependencies of our transportation system. With increasing availability and quality of traditional and crowdsourced data, we have utilized the OpenStreetMap roads network, and has integrated high resolution population data with traffic simulation to create a Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulations (TUMS) at global scale. TUMS consists of three major components: data processing, traffic simulation models, and Internet-based visualizations. It integrates OpenStreetMap, LandScanTM population, and other open data (Census Transportation Planning Products, National household Travel Survey, etc.) to generate both normal traffic operation and emergency evacuation scenarios. TUMS integrates TRANSIMS and MITSIM as traffic simulation engines, which are open-source and widely-accepted for scalable traffic simulations. Consistent data and simulation platform allows quick adaption to various geographic areas that has been demonstrated for multiple cities across the world. We are combining the strengths of geospatial data sciences, high performance simulations, transportation planning, and emissions, vehicle and energy technology development to design and develop a simulation

  17. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Yana; Pehek, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity). A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA. PMID:23646283

  18. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zak, Yana; Pehek, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity). A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA. PMID:23646283

  19. Patterns of dynamic urban population growth in Russia, 1989-1996: a research report.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R H

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to investigate locations in which rapid urban growth occurred in Russia over the period 1989 to 1996....Particular emphasis will be given to the geographical patterns, economic functions, and population size of rapidly growing towns. In addition, the discussion of trends for 1989-1996 also will be briefly preceded by and compared to those of 1979-1989, although the paper will emphasize trends during the 1990s. Furthermore, the topic of ¿new towns', which themselves often are rapidly growing centers, will be addressed as well." PMID:12292848

  20. Variations in the prevalence of point (pre)hypertension in a Nigerian school-going adolescent population living in a semi-urban and an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertension has been shown to start in early life and to track into adulthood. Detecting adolescents with hypertension and prehypertension will aid early intervention and reduce morbidity and mortality from the disorders. This study reports the point-prevalence of the two disorders in a semi-urban and an urban population of school-going adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A total of 843 adolescents from two places of domicile were studied. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard protocol. Point-hypertension and point-prehypertension were defined with respect to each subject's gender, age and height. The prevalence of the disorders was calculated and reported age-wise and nutritional status-wise. Results The prevalence of point-prehypertension in the semi-urban area was 22.2% (20.7% for girls and 23.1% for boys) while it was 25.0% (21.8% for girls and 29.2% for boys) in the urban area. The prevalence of point-hypertension was 4.6% (4.1% for girls and 4.8% for boys) in the semi-urban area and 17.5% (18.0% for girls and 16.9% for boys) in the urban area. Point-prehypertension was not detected among the thin subjects of both places of domicile. The prevalence of point-prehypertension was similar in both the urban and semi-urban areas among the subjects who had normal BMI-for-age, and over-weight/obese subjects respectively. From the semi-urban to the urban area, the prevalence of point-hypertension increased approximately 3-folds among thin and normal BMI-for-age subjects, and 10-folds among overweight/obese subjects. Systolic hypertension was more preponderant in both the semi-urban and urban areas. Conclusions The prevalence of both disorders is considerably high in the studied populations. Urgent pediatric public health action is needed to address the situation. PMID:20214768

  1. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  2. Urban landscape genetics: canopy cover predicts gene flow between white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of urban canopy cover on gene flow between 15 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City parklands. Parks in the urban core are often highly fragmented, leading to rapid genetic differentiation of relatively nonvagile species. However, a diverse array of 'green' spaces may provide dispersal corridors through 'grey' urban infrastructure. I identify urban landscape features that promote genetic connectivity in an urban environment and compare the success of two different landscape connectivity approaches at explaining gene flow. Gene flow was associated with 'effective distances' between populations that were calculated based on per cent tree canopy cover using two different approaches: (i) isolation by effective distance (IED) that calculates the single best pathway to minimize passage through high-resistance (i.e. low canopy cover) areas, and (ii) isolation by resistance (IBR), an implementation of circuit theory that identifies all low-resistance paths through the landscape. IBR, but not IED, models were significantly associated with three measures of gene flow (Nm from F(ST) , BayesAss+ and Migrate-n) after factoring out the influence of isolation by distance using partial Mantel tests. Predicted corridors for gene flow between city parks were largely narrow, linear parklands or vegetated spaces that are not managed for wildlife, such as cemeteries and roadway medians. These results have implications for understanding the impacts of urbanization trends on native wildlife, as well as for urban reforestation efforts that aim to improve urban ecosystem processes. PMID:22320856

  3. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  4. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    PubMed

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-01

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers. PMID:25131676

  5. Lipids, apoprotein B, and associated coronary risk factors in urban and rural older Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Salinas, C A; Lerman-Garber, I; Pérez, J; Villa, A R; Martinez, C L; Turrubiatez, L C; Wong, B; Gómez Pérez, F J; Gutierrez Robledo, L M

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemias and examine its association with food intake and metabolic variables in urban and rural elder Mexican populations. Three different communities (urban areas of medium and low income and a rural area) were studied. A total of 344 subjects aged 60 years and older and 273 aged 35 to 59 years were included. The evaluated parameters were personal medical data, 24-hour diet recall, and fasting plasma lipids, insulin, and glucose levels. Older subjects, especially men, living in the rural area had lower cholesterol levels (5.02 +/- 0.97 v 5.6 +/- 1.07 mmol/L; P <.05) and insulin levels (12 +/- 10 v 42 +/- 68 mU/mL) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (1.31 +/- 0.36 v 1.07 +/-0.28 mmol/L) than the elders from the urban medium-income group. Possible explanations for these differences are found in the dietary habits of the groups. Rural elders had higher amounts of fiber (20 +/- 11 v 10 +/- 6 g/d) and carbohydrate (70% +/- 0.08% v 52% +/- 0.11% of calories) and lower fat (18% +/- 0.07% v 33% +/- 0.1% of calories) in their diets. In the urban groups, low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia was present in 17.8% of adult and 39.1% of elderly women (P =.00001). In conclusion, environmental factors still play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of the dyslipidemias in the elderly. PMID:11230784

  6. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; A, Rashima; Raju, Prema; Arvind, Hemamalini; Baskaran, Mani; Ve, Ramesh S

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes) rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.4% to 14.6%) and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes) urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5%) had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of <20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%), rural residence (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of <20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5%) were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.02) and literates (P < 0.001). In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001) and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination (P < 0.001) were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery-related complications were

  7. Spatial ecology of the critically endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, in an extremely dense population: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Suzanne F; Biciloa, Pita; Harlow, Peter S; Keogh, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Critically Endangered Fijian crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, occurs at extreme density at only one location, with estimates of >10,000 iguanas living on the 70 hectare island of Yadua Taba in Fiji. We conducted a mark and recapture study over two wet seasons, investigating the spatial ecology and intraspecific interactions of the strictly arboreal Fijian crested iguana. This species exhibits moderate male-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has been linked in other lizard species to territoriality, aggression and larger male home ranges. We found that male Fijian crested iguanas exhibit high injury levels, indicative of frequent aggressive interactions. We did not find support for larger home range size in adult males relative to adult females, however male and female residents were larger than roaming individuals. Males with established home ranges also had larger femoral pores relative to body size than roaming males. Home range areas were small in comparison to those of other iguana species, and we speculate that the extreme population density impacts considerably on the spatial ecology of this population. There was extensive home range overlap within and between sexes. Intersexual overlap was greater than intrasexual overlap for both sexes, and continuing male-female pairings were observed among residents. Our results suggest that the extreme population density necessitates extensive home range overlap even though the underlying predictors of territoriality, such as male biased sexual size dimorphism and high aggression levels, remain. Our findings should be factored in to conservation management efforts for this species, particularly in captive breeding and translocation programs. PMID:24019902

  8. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  9. Predominance of human lymphotropic T cell virus type 2 subtype B in urban populations of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, Maria E; Delfino, Cecilia M; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Biglione, Mirna M

    2012-09-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus subtype b (HTLV-2b) infection has been described among aborigines from Northern Argentina, while HTLV-2a has been described in an injecting drug user (IDU) from a Central region, similar to the situation in Spain, the United States, and Brazil. In this study, 22 of the 26 strains analyzed from blood donors and HIV-1(+) individuals were HTLV-2b (84.6%) clustering with Amerindian references, while 4 HIV-1(+) (15.4%) were HTLV-2a. HTLV-2a sequences were closely related to Brazilian references in contrast to the previous Argentinean IDU strain that clustered with Africans and Amerindians from North America. In summary, these findings show that HTLV-2b is the major strain circulating in an urban population of Argentina. HTLV-2a/b could have been introduced from endemic South American countries such as Brazil and because of contact with other populations such as IDUs from Europe despite its introduction due to the increasing internal migration of aborigines to large urban centers. Considering this results and recent data about the dissemination of HTLV-1 in residents of Buenos Aires city, new studies among non-at-risk groups for HTLV-1/2 infection should be performed. PMID:22115426

  10. Prevalence of Sexual Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Urban African-American Population

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C.; Aiello, Allison E.; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. Methods In 2008–2009, 1,306 African Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3% for women and 5.1% for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Conclusions Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African Americans. PMID:23686528

  11. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  12. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different natures need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in meteorological services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created within the framework of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. Understanding TeV-band The rainfall intensity, in conjunction with the population density, has established itself as one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for areas of varying populations. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure modifications. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests were carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index was suggested based on return periods given by intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves.

  13. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different nature need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in Meteorological Services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created under the frame of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. The rainfall intensity in conjunction with the population density has demonstrated to be one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for differently populated areas. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests have been carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index has been suggested, based on return periods given by Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves.

  14. Individual and environmental factors associated for overweight in urban population of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant global public health problem and the main cause of many chronic diseases in both developed and developing countries. The increase in obesity in different populations worldwide cannot be explained solely by metabolic and genetic factors; environmental and social factors also have a strong association with obesity. Thus, it is believed that the current obesity epidemic is the result of a complex combination of genetic factors and an obesogenic environment .The purpose of this study was to evaluate individual variables and variables within the built and social environment for their potential association with overweight and obesity in an urban Brazilian population. Methods Cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 3404 adults living in the urban area of the city. Information from the surveillance system for chronic diseases of Brazilian Ministry of Health was used and individual data was collected by telephone interviews. The database was geocoded using the Brazilian System of Postal Codes for participant residences. An updated, existing list based on the current addresses of supermarkets and hypermarkets in the city was used as an indicator variable of the availability and access to food. Georeferenced information on parks, public squares, places for practicing physical activity and the population density were also used to create data on the built environment. To characterize the social environment, we used the health vulnerability index (HVI) and georeferenced data for homicide locations. Results The prevalence was 44% for overweight, poisson regression was used to create the final model. The environment variables that independently associated with overweight were the highest population density, very high health vulnerability index and the homicide rate adjusted for individuals variables. The results of the current study illustrate and confirm some important associations between individual and environmental variables and

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414...

  20. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Nagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC) parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In contrast to nuclear loci

  1. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC) parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In contrast to nuclear loci

  2. Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Toward Urban Family Physician Program: A Population Based Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Behnam; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Ghahramani, Sulmaz; Akbari, Maryam; Tabrizi, Reza; Bagheri, Zahra; Poostforoushfard, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Background: A national project of extending a family physician program to urban areas has been started since May 2013 in Iran. The present study aimed to detect correlates of people's satisfaction and dissatisfaction about urban family physician program. Methods: This cross-sectional and population-based study was conducted in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Multistage and proportional to size random sampling were used. Different items about satisfaction and dissatisfaction toward urban family physician program were queried. Single variable and then multiple variable analyses of data were done using SPSS software (Chicago, IL. USA). Results: Mean age of 1257 participants in the study was 38.1 ± 13.2 years. Respondents included men (634; 50.4%), married (882; 70.2%), those who were educated at universities (529; 42%) and self-employed groups (405; 32.2%). One thousand fifty-eight (84.1%) were covered by the family physician program. Mean of referral times to a family physician was 2.2 ± 2.9 during the year before the study. Satisfaction toward urban family physician program was high in 198 (15.8%), moderate in 394 (31.3%), and low in 391 (31.1%). Dissatisfaction about this program was more among younger than 51-year-old groups (for 31–50 years odds ratio [OR] =2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4–3.7, P < 0.001 and for 18–30 years OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4, P = 0.005), less knowledgeable ones (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3–3.6, P = 0.001), singles (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4, P = 0.003), and those with more than 4 of family members (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1–1.7, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Overall, the majority of the people are not very satisfied with the urban family physician program. This shows the need for a multi-disciplinary approach including training, improvement of infrastructures and referral system, continuous supervision, and frequent monitoring of user's and provider's feedback about this program. According the results, the family physician program should be

  3. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  4. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M.L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human fecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent fecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Trichococcus and Aeromonas, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous, and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight into

  5. 3-D Real Time Lidar scanning measurements to assess and determine the impact of aerosol sources in highly densely-populated cities in south France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Sauvage, L.; Loaec, S.; Guinot, B.; Fofana, M.

    2009-12-01

    EZ Lidar, produced by LEOSPHERE, was deployed in several measurement campaigns from November 2008 to July 2009 in densely-populated cities of south of France to assess the impact of tunnels, highways, airports, industries and other pollution sources on aerosol emissions. PM2.5 and PM1 are particularly harmful on the population. The study and the fully characterization of pollution sources is then crucial to reduce these emission to improve air quality in large metropolitan areas. EZ Lidar is capable to produce 3-D scan almost instantaneously. The backscattered power is then range corrected and transformed in false colors from blue to red that are proportional to the aerosol density (Blue low aerosol density, red high aerosol density). Each scan can be considered as a frame, and it is superimposed to the site satellite map. The temporal sequence of the frames fully characterize the pollution sources. The paper shows the 3-D scan analysis over the selected sites and the individuation of principal emission sources and their temporal evolution.

  6. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  7. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Koen; Lefebre, Filip; Adriaensen, Stefan; Arnold, Ute; Beckroege, Wolfgang; Bronner, Christine; Damsgaard, Ole; Dostal, Ivo; Dufek, Jiri; Hirsch, Jacky; IntPanis, Luc; Kotek, Zdenek; Ramadier, Thierry; Thierry, Annette; Vermoote, Stijn; Wania, Annett; Weber, Christiane

    The impact of uncontrolled urban growth ('sprawl') on air pollution and associated population exposure is investigated. This is done for the Ruhr area in Germany, by means of a coupled modelling system dealing with land use changes, traffic, meteorology, and atmospheric dispersion and chemistry. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre F., Adriaensen S., Arnold U., Beckroege W., Bronner C., Damsgaard O., Dostal I., Dufek J., Hirsch J., Int Panis L., Kotek Z., Ramadier T., Thierry A., Vermoote S., Wania A., Weber C., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part I: reproducing the base state.], a description was given of the coupling of these models and of the validation of simulation results. In the present paper, a land use change scenario was implemented to mimic urban sprawl, relocating 12% of the urban population in the study domain to the green periphery. The resulting updated land use, population and employment density patterns were then used as input for traffic simulations, yielding an increase of total traffic volume by almost 17%. As a consequence, the domain-average simulated pollutant concentrations of ozone and particulate matter increased, though by a smaller amount, of approximately 4%. In a final step, population exposure to air pollution was calculated, both for the base case and the scenario simulations. A very slight domain-average exposure increase was found, of the order of a half percent. A compensating mechanism was identified, explaining this small figure. However, when stratifying the population into groups of individuals that were relocated to the urban periphery and those that were not, much larger exposure changes following urban sprawl emerged. Indeed, it was found that the relatively small proportion of relocated individuals benefited of a decrease of exposure to particulate matter by almost 13%, mainly because of their moving out of the most polluted areas; and

  8. Advancing Environmental Noise Pollution Analysis in Urban Areas by Considering the Variation of Population Exposure in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, S.; Gomes, N.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient noise is a subtle form of pollution in large urban areas, degrading human health and well-being. In Europe, directives require that urban environmental noise be measured and mapped for the main periods of the daily cycle. Subsequent analyses of human exposure to noise in those periods is usually conducted using resident (i.e., nighttime) population from the census and assuming constant densities within the enumeration units. However, population distribution and densities vary considerably from night to day in metropolitan areas, and disregard for that process results in gross misestimation of exposure to ambient noise in the daytime period. This study considers the spatio-temporal variation of population distribution in assessing exposure to ambient noise in a major urban area, the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Detailed and compatible day- and nighttime population distribution maps were used, developed by means of "intelligent dasymetric mapping". After categorizing noise levels in existing maps in each period, classified according to current legislation, human exposure to ambient noise was assessed with temporally matching population surfaces. Population exposure to noise in 2000 and 2009 was compared and further analyzed in regards to main source of noise, i.e. road traffic vs. aircraft.. Results show that human exposure to noise shifts substantially in time and space, with a significant increase in exposed population from the nighttime to daytime period, especially in the higher noise levels. This is due to the combined effects of the daily variation of noise patterns and population distribution.

  9. Ectoparasite loads in sympatric urban populations of the northern white-breasted and the European hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Dziemian, Sylwia; Sikora, Bożena; Piłacińska, Barbara; Michalik, Jerzy; Zwolak, Rafał

    2015-06-01

    We investigated abundance and prevalence of ticks and fleas infesting urban populations of two species of hedgehogs: the northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). The hedgehogs were captured in the city of Poznań (western Poland) over the period of 4 years. Both species of hedgehogs were infested with the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus), the hedgehog tick (Ixodes hexagonus), and the hedgehog flea (Archeopsylla erinacei). The northern white-breasted hedgehog had higher loads of I. ricinus and A. erinacei than the European hedgehog. The abundance and prevalence of I. hexagonus were similar on both species of hosts. Co-infestation with the two species of ticks was more frequent on the northern white-breasted hedgehog than on the European hedgehog. Therefore, these two closely related species of hedgehogs differ in their importance as hosts of arthropod vectors of pathogens in urban areas and might play a different role in the dynamics of zoonotic diseases. PMID:25820646

  10. Macroparasite communities in stray cat populations from urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sahimin, Norhidayu; Pal, Paul; Lewis, John W

    2013-09-23

    The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed. PMID:23664711

  11. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.M. . E-mail: mustafa@ummc.edu.my; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-07-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 {+-} 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 {+-} 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 {+-} 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 {+-} 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 {+-} 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.

  12. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Yue, Song; Wu, Jingyang; Zhang, Jiahua; Lian, Jie; Huang, Desheng; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs) among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79%) was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM) 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT) 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME) 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH) 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community. PMID:26759726

  13. Intestinal helminths of feral cat populations from urban and suburban districts of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Prabhaker, K S; Al-Ibrahim, Roda; Lewis, John W

    2010-03-25

    A survey of the helminths of 658 adult cats from feral urban and suburban populations in Qatar was conducted across all months in 2006 and 2007. Six species of helminths were identified, comprising two cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis [73.6%] and Diplopylidium acanthotetra [47.1%]) and four nematodes (Ancylostoma tubaeforme [14.7%], Physaloptera praeputialis [5.2%], Toxocara cati [0.8%] and Toxascaris leonina [0.2%]), and 83% of cats were infected with at least one of these. The average number of species harboured was 1.4 and the average worm burden was 55.8 worms/cat. The vast majority of worms (97.6%) were cestodes, nematodes being relatively rare. Prevalence and abundance of infections were analyzed, taking into consideration four factors: year (2006 and 2007), site (urban and suburban), season (winter and summer) and sex of the host. Analyses revealed marked year effects, female host bias in some species and interactions involving combination of factors, but especially sex and season of the year. The results indicate that whilst the majority of adult feral cats in Qatar carry helminth infections, infections are variable between years and subject to annual changes that may reflect climatic and other environmental changes in the rapidly developing city of Doha and its suburban surroundings. Only two species have the potential to infect humans and both were rare among the sampled cats (A. tubaeforme and T. cati). PMID:20031329

  14. Clinical characteristics and response to therapy of autoimmune hepatitis in an urban Latino population

    PubMed Central

    Zahiruddin, Ayesha; Farahmand, Abtin; Gaglio, Paul; Massoumi, Hatef

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We hypothesized that AIH outcomes might be different in our patient population that consists of a large number of Latinos. Background: Literature has suggested that the presentation and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis can be different among different ethnicity and communities. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of Latino patients with AIH diagnosed between 2002-2012. Complete and partial remissions were defined as normalization of liver enzyme values, or achieving less than twice the upper limit normal (ULN), respectively. Results: A total of 28 patients were identified. 26 (93%) were female. 13 (46%) had an acute presentation, one with type 2 AIH and 3 with ANA seronegative disease. The average pathologic stage (Ishak score) was 3.44±1.67 (range: 0-6). Complete and partial remission was achieved in 20 (71%) and 5 (18%) patients respectively. Ten patients (38%) required maintenance prednisone either alone (2), or in combination with Azathioprine (6) or Mycophenolate Mofetil (2). Remission in the majority of patients, including 14 (50%) who were cirrhotic. Six of 14 (43%) cirrhotic patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: In an urban Latino population, cirrhosis was the initial presentation of AIH in a significant percentage of patients raising concerns regarding insufficient screening for AIH in this patient population. A large number of patients required continuous prednisone to avoid relapse. PMID:27458516

  15. From rodent utopia to urban hell: population, pathology, and the crowded rats of NIMH.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2011-12-01

    In a series of experiments at the National Institute of Mental Health, the animal ecologist John B. Calhoun offered rats everything they needed, except space. The resulting population explosion was followed by a series of "social pathologies"--violence, sexual deviance, and withdrawal. This essay examines the influence of Calhoun's experiments among psychologists and sociologists concerned with the effects of the built environment on health and behavior. Some saw evidence of the danger of the crowd in Calhoun's "rat cities" and fastened on a method of analysis that could be transferred to the study of urban man. Others, however, cautioned against drawing analogies between rodents and humans. The ensuing dispute saw social scientists involved in a careful negotiation over the structure and meaning of Calhoun's experimental systems and, with it, over the significance of the crowd in the laboratory, institution, and city. PMID:22448542

  16. Urban-rural differences in a population-based breast cancer screening program in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Stamenić, Valerija; Strnad, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate urban-rural differences in the distribution of risk factors for breast cancer. Methods We analyzed the data from the first round of the “Mamma” population based-screening program conducted in Croatia between 2007 and 2009 and self-reported questionnaire results for 924 patients with histologically verified breast cancer. Reproductive and anthropometric characteristics, family history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, and prior breast screening history were compared between participants from the city of Zagreb (n = 270) and participants from 13 counties with more than 50% of rural inhabitants (n = 654). Results The screen-detected breast cancer rate was 4.5 per 1000 mammographies in rural counties and 4.6 in the city of Zagreb, while the participation rate was 61% in rural counties and 59% in Zagreb. Women from Zagreb had significantly more characteristics associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (P < 0.001 in all cases): no pregnancies (15% vs 7%), late age of first pregnancy (≥30 years) (10% vs 4%), and the most recent mammogram conducted 2-3 years ago (32% vs 14%). Women from rural counties were more often obese (41% vs 28%) and had early age of first live birth (<20 years) (20% vs 7%, P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion Identification of rural-urban differences in mammography use and their causes at the population level can be useful in designing and implementing interventions targeted at the reduction of inequalities and modifiable risk factors. PMID:21328724

  17. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  18. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a semi-urban population of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hargovind; Vanikar, Aruna; Patel, Himanshu; Kanodia, Kamal; Kute, Vivek; Nigam, Lovelesh; Suthar, Kamlesh; Thakkar, Umang; Sutariya, Harsh; Gandhi, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally there is an increase in incidence of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and stone diseases are the major risk factors for CKD. We organized kidney disease screening camps in a semi-urban population of Gujarat, India on the occasion of World Kidney Day (WKD). Methods Voluntary participants from six towns were screened. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula and CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria ≥1+. Urogenital ultrasonography was performed with emphasis on stone burden. Participants with known diabetes, stone diseases, hypertension, kidney/liver/cardiac disease, hepatitis, HIV, transplant recipients, pregnant women and those <18 years were excluded from the study. Results Of the 2350 participants (1438 men), CKD was found in 20.93% and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was noted in 8.29% of participants. The prevalence of CKD peaked after the seventh decade of life in both genders. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CKD between coastal and non-coastal regions, however, obesity, hypertension and diabetes were more common in the coastal belt, whereas stone burden was greater in the non-coastal region. Conclusions The prevalence of CKD in a semi-urban apparently healthy Indian population was higher than the reported prevalence in developed countries. Significant differences between regions point to the need to evaluate and correctregion-specific risk factors. PMID:27274831

  19. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Geer, Laura A; Dalloul, Mudar; Abulafia, Ovadia; Jenck, Alizee M; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use of both chemicals, which are under scrutiny regarding lack of effectiveness, potential for endocrine disruption, and potential contribution to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Here, we report on body burdens of TCS and TCC resulting from real-world exposures during pregnancy. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the concentrations of TCS, TCC, and its human metabolites (2'-hydroxy-TCC and 3'-hydroxy-TCC) as well as the manufacturing byproduct (3'-chloro-TCC) as total concentrations (Σ-) after conjugate hydrolysis in maternal urine and cord blood plasma from a cohort of 181 expecting mother/infant pairs in an urban multiethnic population from Brooklyn, NY recruited in 2007-09. TCS was detected in 100% of urine and 51% of cord blood samples after conjugate hydrolysis. The interquartile range (IQR) of detected TCS concentrations in urine was highly similar to the IQR reported previously for the age-matched population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2004, but typically higher than the IQR reported previously for the general population (detection frequency = 74.6%). Urinary levels of TCC are reported here for the first time from real-world exposures during pregnancy, showing a median concentration of 0.21 μg/L. Urinary concentrations of TCC correlated well with its phase-I metabolite ∑-2'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.49) and the manufacturing byproduct ∑-3'-chloro-TCC C (r = 0.79), and ∑-2'-hydroxy-TCC correlated strongly with ∑-3'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.99). This human biomonitoring study presents the first body burden data for TCC from exposures

  20. Human Fetal Exposure to Triclosan and Triclocarban in an Urban Population from Brooklyn, New York

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use of both chemicals, which are under scrutiny regarding lack of effectiveness, potential for endocrine disruption, and potential contribution to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Here, we report on body burdens of TCS and TCC resulting from real-world exposures during pregnancy. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the concentrations of TCS, TCC, and its human metabolites (2′-hydroxy-TCC and 3′-hydroxy-TCC) as well as the manufacturing byproduct (3′-chloro-TCC) as total concentrations (Σ−) after conjugate hydrolysis in maternal urine and cord blood plasma from a cohort of 181 expecting mother/infant pairs in an urban multiethnic population from Brooklyn, NY recruited in 2007–09. TCS was detected in 100% of urine and 51% of cord blood samples after conjugate hydrolysis. The interquartile range (IQR) of detected TCS concentrations in urine was highly similar to the IQR reported previously for the age-matched population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2004, but typically higher than the IQR reported previously for the general population (detection frequency = 74.6%). Urinary levels of TCC are reported here for the first time from real-world exposures during pregnancy, showing a median concentration of 0.21 μg/L. Urinary concentrations of TCC correlated well with its phase-I metabolite ∑-2′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.49) and the manufacturing byproduct ∑-3′-chloro-TCC C (r = 0.79), and ∑-2′-hydroxy-TCC correlated strongly with ∑-3′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.99). This human biomonitoring study presents the first body burden data for TCC

  1. Succession stage variation in population size in an early-successional herb in a peri-urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rossum, Fabienne

    2009-03-01

    Urban and peri-urban forests incur high anthropogenic pressures (e.g. recreational activities, artificialization, and eutrophication). Plant species from early-successional, transient, forest habitats, often characterized by a short life span and a persistent seed bank in the soil may differ from late-successional species in key-factors for population persistence. This study investigated variation in population size and seedling recruitment for different forest succession stages and three consecutive years in Centaurium erythraea, an early-successional biennial herb, occurring in a peri-urban forest of Brussels urban zone (Belgium). Forest succession stage had a significant impact on C. erythraea population size and on its temporal fluctuation. Populations in closing vegetation (evolving to late-succession stages) showed small population sizes and a low number of recruits compared to populations from stable early-succession vegetation and clearcuts. The number of recruits was the highest after clearcutting, which can be related to the expression of the soil seed bank. Populations showed year-to-year variation in size (flowering individuals and recruits), even in stable (over three years) early-succession forest vegetation. In the absence of disturbance changing succession stage, population size is expected to depend on seed set of the previous years and subsequent seedling recruitment, which can be affected by environmental stochasticity. Opening gaps in the herbaceous vegetation may stimulate seedling recruitment, also in unoccupied patches where "cryptic" seed populations are present in the soil. Forest path and road verges, despite their potential negative impact on forests, can constitute refuge habitats for early-successional forest plant species. Their management should involve the preservation of these species.

  2. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  3. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  4. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    calculate a distribution of losses connected with decision making in land-use is demonstrated. Rural community's vulnerability determines by water availability, quality of soils, effectiveness of land use (including climate change adaptation), intensity of pollutions, crop productivity variations during the period of crop rotation, annual national distribution of crops output, and distance to city centres. It should noted here that "distance to city centres" is not comprehensive indicator of market accessibility in general case: quality and availability of transport infrastructure should be described more detailed on the next stages of analysis. Urban population vulnerability determines by distribution of urban fractures and quality urban environment: density, quality and availability of infrastructure, balance between industrial, residential and recreational zones, effectiveness of urban land use and landscape management, and social policy, particularly, employment. Population density is closely connected with social density, with communications and decision making. Social learning, as the function of social communications, is the way to increase sustainability. Also it possible to say that social sustainability is a function of intensity and efficiency of communications between interlinked and interacted networks in the heterogeneous environment. Therefore the results of study demonstrated that risk management study should includes issues of risk and threats perception, which should be described in framework of appropriate tools and approaches connected with ethical dimension of vulnerability. For instance, problems of accessibility and availability of safety resources in view of social fairness and socio-economic dynamics should be included into future studies in field of risk analysis.

  5. The out-of-the-delta hypothesis: dense human populations in low-lying river deltas served as agents for the evolution of a deadly pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Yan; Orata, Fabini D.; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease that has changed the history of mankind, devastating the world with seven pandemics from 1817 to the present day. Although there is little doubt in the causative agent of these pandemics being Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup, where, when, and how this pathogen emerged is not well understood. V. cholerae is a ubiquitous coastal species that likely existed for tens of thousands of years. However, the evolution of a strain capable of causing a large-scale epidemic is likely more recent historically. Here, we propose that the unique human and physical geography of low-lying river deltas made it possible for an environmental bacterium to evolve into a deadly human pathogen. Such areas are often densely populated and salt intrusion in drinking water frequent. As V. cholerae is most abundant in brackish water, its favored environment, it is likely that coastal inhabitants would regularly ingest the bacterium and release it back in the environment. This creates a continuous selection pressure for V. cholerae to adapt to life in the human gut. PMID:26539168

  6. Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations.

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Rupert L; Breward, Neil; Young, Scott D; Crout, Neil M J; Tye, Andrew M; Moir, Ann M; Thornton, Iain

    2004-01-01

    We performed a risk assessment of metal exposure to population subgroups living on, and growing food on, urban sites. We modeled uptake of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc for a selection of commonly grown allotment and garden vegetables. Generalized linear cross-validation showed that final predictions of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn content of food crops were satisfactory, whereas the Pb uptake models were less robust. We used predicted concentrations of metals in the vegetables to assess the risk of exposure to human populations from homegrown food sources. Risks from other exposure pathways (consumption of commercially produced foodstuffs, dust inhalation, and soil ingestion) were also estimated. These models were applied to a geochemical database of an urban conurbation in the West Midlands, United Kingdom. Risk, defined as a "hazard index," was mapped for three population subgroups: average person, highly exposed person, and the highly exposed infant (assumed to be a 2-year-old child). The results showed that food grown on 92% of the urban area presented minimal risk to the average person subgroup. However, more vulnerable population subgroups (highly exposed person and the highly exposed infant) were subject to hazard index values greater than unity. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment and the "suitable for use" approach to urban redevelopment. PMID:14754576

  7. PREDICTING PARTICULATE (PM-10) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR URBAN POPULATIONS USING A RANDOM COMPONENT SUPERPOSITION MODEL (RCS) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk evaluations usually require the frequency distribution of personal exposures of a given population. For particles, personal exposure field studies have been conducted in only a few urban areas, such as Riverside, CA; Philipsburg, NJ; and Toronto, Ontario. This paper...

  8. Epidemiological evaluation of apical periodontitis prevalence in an urban Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Berlinck, Teresa; Tinoco, Justine Monteiro Monnerat; Carvalho, Fernanda Leal Fonseca; Sassone, Luciana Moura; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in an urban Brazilian population according to gender, age group and tooth type. Data were collected from clinical files containing the medical and dental histories and periapical radiographs of 1,126 patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro between March 2000 and December 2010. A total of 15,724 periapical radiographs were evaluated. All the radiographs were evaluated by two independent, previously calibrated endodontists (kappa = 0.88). Periapical areas on the radiographs were classified as N (normal) or AR (apical radiolucency). The frequency of AP and the 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were calculated according to gender, age group and tooth type. Differences between groups were calculated using the Z-test at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). AP was present in 7.87% of the samples, with 16.70% occurring on previously endodontically treated teeth and 44.65% occurring on teeth referred for endodontic treatment (TR-RCT). The frequency of AP was higher among females (64%) than among males (35%). The central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. The frequency of AP was higher among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age. In this population, AP was more prevalent among females and among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age, and the central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. PMID:25760068

  9. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  10. A New Approach to Reach Latino Populations in Rural and Urban Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P.; Garcia, A.; Galindo, C.; Obot, V.; Allen, J.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Garcia, J.; Garza, O.

    2004-12-01

    Current statistics indicate that Latino populations have lower high school and college graduation rates than Anglos or African Americans. If Latinos do not pursue baccalaureate and higher degrees, then this group will be left behind as technological advances increasingly drive our society. The drop out rate affects not only the individuals, families, communities, and society from many different aspects, including financial independence, but also loss of potential contributing members of society in science, engineering, etc. Houston, an urban area, with a Latino population of 39% and Brownsville, a rural area represented by 84% Latinos, are two Texas areas where universities, schools, museums, and NASA are reaching out to increase science skills and graduation rates. Many Houston families have the opportunity to be introduced to different options, but Brownsville families do not have the same opportunities as the area lacks a strong industrial and technological base. We have developed programs to improve the space and Earth science knowledge base by providing summer science enrichment programs for K-12 students, family events, exposing high school students to college opportunities, and training high school and college students to serve as mentors to their peers. The peer mentors lead many of the outreach venues, interacting with the public with demonstrations and interactive science activities. In addition, we have developed a series of teacher workshops and modules on integrated science and mathematics. The teacher workshops are designed to provide the teachers with a wealth of integrated examples for classroom use.