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Sample records for denshi jh tsshin

  1. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a Fluorescent Detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA. PMID:25445664

  2. Regulation of JH epoxide hydrolase versus JH esterase activity in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, by juvenile hormone and xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2005-05-01

    JH III esterase and JH III epoxide hydrolase (EH) in vitro activity was compared in whole body Trichoplusia ni homogenates at each stage of development (egg, larva, pupa and adult). While activity of both enzymes was detected at all ages tested, JH esterase was significantly higher than EH activity except for day three of the fifth (last) stadium (L5D3). For both enzymes, activity was highest in eggs. Adult virgin females had 4.6- and 4.0-fold higher JH esterase and EH activities, respectively, than adult virgin males. JH III metabolic activity also was measured in whole body homogenates of fifth stadium T. ni that were fed a nutritive diet (control) or starved on a non-nutritive diet of alphacel, agar and water. With larvae that were starved for 6, 28 and 52 h, EH activity per insect equivalent was 48%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the control insects. At the same time points, JH esterase activity levels in starved T. ni were 29%, 4% and 3% of that of insects fed the nutritive diet. Selected insect hormones and xenobiotics were administered topically or orally to fifth stadium larvae for up to 52 h, and the effects on whole body EH and JH esterase activity analyzed. JH III increased the JH III esterase activity as high as 2.2-fold, but not the JH III EH activity. The JH analog, methoprene, increased both JH esterase and EH activity as high as 2.5-fold. The JH esterase inhibitor, 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP), had no impact on EH activity. The epoxides trans- and cis-stilbene oxide (TSO and CSO) in separate experiments increased the EH activity approximately 2.0-fold. TSO did not alter JH esterase levels when topically applied, but oral administration reduced activity to 70% of the control at 28 h, and then increased the activity 1.8-fold at 52 h after the beginning of treatment. CSO had no effect on JH esterase activity. Phenobarbital increased EH activity by 1.9-fold, but did not change JH esterase levels. Clofibrate and cholesterol 5alpha,6alpha

  3. Juvenile Hormone (JH) Esterase of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Is Not a Target of the JH Analog Insecticide Methoprene

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Samra, Aman I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA) insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) and Vmax values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs). CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE. PMID:22174797

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    PubMed Central

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140.

    PubMed

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain's superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  6. Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) insecticides are biological and structural mimics of JH, a key insect developmental hormone. Toxic and anti-developmental effects of the JHA insecticides methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen were investigated on the larval and pupal stages of Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioassays showed that fenoxycarb has the highest toxicity and fastest speed of kill in 2nd instar S. littoralis. All three JHAs affected the development of 6th instar (i.e., final instar) and pupal S. frugiperda. JH esterase (JHE) is a critical enzyme that helps to regulate JH levels during insect development. JHE activity in the last instar S. littoralis and S. frugiperda was 11 and 23 nmol min(-1) ml(-1) hemolymph, respectively. Methoprene and pyriproxyfen showed poor inhibition of JHE activity from these insects, whereas fenoxycarb showed stronger inhibition. The inhibitory activity of fenoxycarb, however, was more than 1000-fold lower than that of OTFP, a highly potent inhibitor of JHEs. Surprisingly, topical application of methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen on 6th instars of S. littoralis and S. frugiperda prevented the dramatic reduction in JHE activity that was found in control insects. Our findings suggest that JHAs may function as JH agonists that play a disruptive role or a hormonal replacement role in S. littoralis and S. frugiperda. PMID:26969437

  7. Characterization and purification of the Drosophila Kc cell JH binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiuhua.

    1989-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is one of the principal regulators of insect development. First, physical properties of the JH binding protein are characterized using a photoaffinity ligand ({sup 3}H)-EFDA. Second, ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is employed as labeled to examined the behavior of the JH binding protein in several protein separation procedures. The properties of heparin-agarose, hydroxylapatite, gel filtration, ion exchange, and chromatofocusing chromatography are examined for their ability to affect separation of the JH binding protein from other components of Kc cell cytosol. Third, several of the separation procedures are linked sequentially into a JH binding protein purification scheme and the procedure is shown to purify the JH binding protein to homogeneity. Fourth, competition study is carried out to demonstrate the protein purified using ({sup 3}H)-EFDA is JH competable. In addition, JH III, the naturally occurring hormone, is used as the radioligand in this purification procedure, the authenticity of the intracellar JH binding protein is reassured. Fifth, the amino acid composition of the JH binding protein is elucidated. Finally, nanomoles of the purified JH binding protein are collected for protein microsequencing. The sequencing data will be used to synthesize peptide which, in turn, will be used for JH binding protein antibody production.

  8. The D-JH complex is an intermediate to the complete immunoglobulin heavy-chain V-region gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yaoita, Y; Matsunami, N; Choi, C Y; Sugiyama, H; Kishimoto, T; Honjo, T

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the organization of the immunoglobulin JH segments in three clones derived from a single Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cell. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analyses of the JH-containing fragments have revealed the rearrangement from the preformed D-JH complex to the complete VH-D-JH gene, which was accompanied by the expression of the intra-cytoplasmic mu chain. In one case a JH segment downstream to the preformed D-JH was used to create a new VH-D-JH gene. Upon the D-JH and VH-D-JH rearrangements the intervening D segments were deleted from the chromosome. One of the expressed VH genes suffered from a large deletion of the 3' portion (including the 95th cysteine residue) of the VH segment. We discuss the possible mechanism of the allelic exclusion. Images PMID:6316256

  9. High juvenile hormone titre and abdominal activation of JH signalling may induce reproduction of termite neotenics.

    PubMed

    Saiki, R; Gotoh, H; Toga, K; Miura, T; Maekawa, K

    2015-08-01

    Termite castes are a key example of polyphenism, in which reproductive division of labour is clearly seen in colonies. The reproductive castes in termites include primary and neotenic reproductives; primary reproductives found a new colony whereas neotenics succeed them in the reproductive role when the primary reproductives die or become senescent. Neotenics usually differentiate from nymphs or workers by developing functional gonads while retaining juvenile characteristics; however, the developmental mechanism during neotenic differentiation remains poorly understood. Juvenile hormone (JH) mediates a number of aspects of developmental regulation in caste differentiation in termites. In the present study we quantified JH titres in neotenic reproductives of Reticulitermes speratus, and compared these with other developmental stages. In addition, expression changes in JH signalling gene homologues (Methoprene-tolerant [Met], Krüppel-homolog1, Broad-Complex) in the head, thorax and abdomen were investigated during neotenic differentiation. Finally, we examined the function of Met in reproduction of neotenics by RNA interference (RNAi). Our results showed that the JH titres of neotenics were significantly higher than those of nymphs and workers. JH signalling genes were highly expressed in neotenic abdomens, compared with those in workers and nymphs. Met RNAi resulted in the inhibition of vitellogenin gene expression in newly moulted neotenics. These results suggest that the fertility of neotenics might be controlled by a large increase of JH titres and body-part-specific activation of JH signalling pathways. PMID:25847681

  10. Overexpression of Drosophila juvenile hormone esterase binding protein results in anti-JH effects and reduced pheromone abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The titer of juvenile hormone (JH), which has wide ranging physiological effects in insects, is regulated in part by JH esterase (JHE). We show that overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster of the JHE binding protein, DmP29 results in a series of apparent anti-JH effects. We hypothesize that DmP29 ...

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of the JH2 Pseudokinase Domain of JAK Family Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2).

    PubMed

    Min, Xiaoshan; Ungureanu, Daniela; Maxwell, Sarah; Hammarén, Henrik; Thibault, Steve; Hillert, Ellin-Kristina; Ayres, Merrill; Greenfield, Brad; Eksterowicz, John; Gabel, Chris; Walker, Nigel; Silvennoinen, Olli; Wang, Zhulun

    2015-11-01

    JAK (Janus family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases) family tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) participates in signaling through cytokine receptors involved in immune responses and inflammation. JAKs are characterized by dual kinase domain: a tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) that is preceded by a pseudokinase domain (JH2). The majority of disease-associated mutations in JAKs map to JH2, demonstrating its central regulatory function. JH2s were considered catalytically inactive, but JAK2 JH2 was found to have low autoregulatory catalytic activity. Whether the other JAK JH2s share ATP binding and enzymatic activity has been unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of TYK2 JH2 in complex with adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATP-γS) and characterize its nucleotide binding by biochemical and biophysical methods. TYK2 JH2 did not show phosphotransfer activity, but it binds ATP and the nucleotide binding stabilizes the protein without inducing major conformational changes. Mutation of the JH2 ATP-binding pocket increased basal TYK2 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. The overall structural characteristics of TYK2 JH2 resemble JAK2 JH2, but distinct stabilizing molecular interactions around helix αAL in the activation loop provide a structural basis for differences in substrate access and catalytic activities among JAK family JH2s. The structural and biochemical data suggest that ATP binding is functionally important for both TYK2 and JAK2 JH2s, whereas the regulatory phosphorylation appears to be a unique property of JAK2. Finally, the co-crystal structure of TYK2 JH2 complexed with a small molecule inhibitor demonstrates that JH2 is accessible to ATP-competitive compounds, which offers novel approaches for targeting cytokine signaling as well as potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26359499

  12. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel erythrose reductase from Candida magnoliae JH110

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Erythrose reductase (ER) catalyzes the final step of erythritol production, which is reducing erythrose to erythritol using NAD(P)H as a cofactor. ER has gained interest because of its importance in the production of erythritol, which has extremely low digestibility and approved safety for diabetics. Although ERs were purified and characterized from microbial sources, the entire primary structure and the corresponding DNA for ER still remain unknown in most of erythritol-producing yeasts. Candida magnoliae JH110 isolated from honeycombs produces a significant amount of erythritol, suggesting the presence of erythrose metabolizing enzymes. Here we provide the genetic sequence and functional characteristics of a novel NADPH-dependent ER from C. magnoliae JH110. Results The gene encoding a novel ER was isolated from an osmophilic yeast C. magnoliae JH110. The ER gene composed of 849 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 31.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of ER showed a high degree of similarity to other members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily including three ER isozymes from Trichosporonoides megachiliensis SNG-42. The intact coding region of ER from C. magnoliae JH110 was cloned, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli using a combined approach of gene fusion and molecular chaperone co-expression, and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The enzyme displayed a temperature and pH optimum at 42°C and 5.5, respectively. Among various aldoses, the C. magnoliae JH110 ER showed high specific activity for reduction of erythrose to the corresponding alcohol, erythritol. To explore the molecular basis of the catalysis of erythrose reduction with NADPH, homology structural modeling was performed. The result suggested that NADPH binding partners are completely conserved in the C. magnoliae JH110 ER. Furthermore, NADPH interacts with the side chains Lys252, Thr255, and Arg258, which could account for the enzyme

  13. Computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizos, G.; Niarchos, D.

    2014-07-01

    A computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range is described. It is a system built on a PXI platform combining PXI modules for control signal generation and data acquisition. The physiscal signals are digitized and the respective data strems are processed, presented and recorded in LabVIEW 7.0.

  14. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  15. EFFECTS OF INSECT HORMONE ACTIONS, 20E AND JH, ON MIDGUT STEM CELLS OF LEPIDOPTERA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of the two principal insect hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH3) to the medium containing midgut stem cells cultured in vitro, induced stimulation of stem cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Stem cells were obtained from larvae of an economically...

  16. Insights into tidal disruption of stars from PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda E.; Murray, Norman

    2015-12-01

    Was PS1-10jh, an optical/ultraviolet transient discovered by the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey, the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (BH)? We address two aspects of the problem: the composition of the putative disrupted object (using the spectroscopic data), and the energetics of the observed gas and radiation (using the photometric data). We perform photoionization calculations and compare with the observed lower limit of the line ratio L_{He II 4686}/L_{Hα }>5 to argue that this event was not the disruption of a solar-type star, and instead was likely the disruption of a helium core (as first proposed by Gezari et al.). Disruption of such a dense object requires a relatively small central BH, MBH ≲ 2 × 105 M⊙. We use the photometric data to infer that PS1-10jh comprised an outflow of ˜0.01 M⊙ of gas, escaping from the BH at ˜1000 km s-1, and we propose that this outflow was driven primarily by radiation pressure trapped by Thomson and resonance line scattering. The large ratio of radiated energy to kinetic energy, Erad/EK ˜ 104, together with the large value of Erad ˜ 2 × 1051 erg, suggests that the outflow was shocked at large radius (perhaps similar to superluminous supernovae or the internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts). We describe puzzles in the physics of PS1-10jh, and discuss how this event may help us understand future tidal disruptions and super-Eddington accretion events as well.

  17. Uncoupling JAK2 V617F activation from cytokine-induced signalling by modulation of JH2 αC helix.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Emilie; Dusa, Alexandra; Colau, Didier; Motamedi, Amir; Cahu, Xavier; Mouton, Céline; Huang, Lily J; Shiau, Andrew K; Constantinescu, Stefan N

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms by which JAK2 is activated by the prevalent pseudokinase (JH2) V617F mutation in blood cancers remain elusive. Via structure-guided mutagenesis and transcriptional and functional assays, we identify a community of residues from the JH2 helix αC, SH2-JH2 linker and JH1 kinase domain that mediate V617F-induced activation. This circuit is broken by altering the charge of residues along the solvent-exposed face of the JH2 αC, which is predicted to interact with the SH2-JH2 linker and JH1. Mutations that remove negative charges or add positive charges, such as E596A/R, do not alter the JH2 V617F fold, as shown by the crystal structure of JH2 V617F E596A. Instead, they prevent kinase domain activation via modulation of the C-terminal residues of the SH2-JH2 linker. These results suggest strategies for selective V617F JAK2 inhibition, with preservation of wild-type function. PMID:27029346

  18. Uncoupling JAK2 V617F activation from cytokine-induced signalling by modulation of JH2 αC helix

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Emilie; Dusa, Alexandra; Colau, Didier; Motamedi, Amir; Cahu, Xavier; Mouton, Céline; Huang, Lily J.; Shiau, Andrew K.; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which JAK2 is activated by the prevalent pseudokinase (JH2) V617F mutation in blood cancers remain elusive. Via structure-guided mutagenesis and transcriptional and functional assays, we identify a community of residues from the JH2 helix αC, SH2-JH2 linker and JH1 kinase domain that mediate V617F-induced activation. This circuit is broken by altering the charge of residues along the solvent-exposed face of the JH2 αC, which is predicted to interact with the SH2-JH2 linker and JH1. Mutations that remove negative charges or add positive charges, such as E596A/R, do not alter the JH2 V617F fold, as shown by the crystal structure of JH2 V617F E596A. Instead, they prevent kinase domain activation via modulation of the C-terminal residues of the SH2-JH2 linker. These results suggest strategies for selective V617F JAK2 inhibition, with preservation of wild-type function. PMID:27029346

  19. Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol via the meta Cleavage Pathway by Comamonas testosteroni JH5

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, J.; Hopp, J.; Dott, W.

    1997-01-01

    Comamonas testosteroni JH5 used 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) as its sole source of energy and carbon up to a concentration of 1.8 mM, accompanied by the stoichiometric release of chloride. The degradation of 4-CP mixed with the isomeric 2-CP by resting cells led to the accumulation of 3-chlorocatechol (3-CC), which inactivated the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. As a result, further 4-CP breakdown was inhibited and 4-CC accumulated as a metabolite. In the crude extract of 4-CP-grown cells, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and muconate cycloisomerase activities were not detected, whereas the activities of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase, and 2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase were detected. These enzymes of the meta cleavage pathway showed activity with 4-CC and with 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. The activities of the dioxygenase and semialdehyde dehydrogenase were constitutive. Two key metabolites of the meta cleavage pathway, the meta cleavage product (5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde) and 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic acid, were detected. Thus, our previous postulation that C. testosteroni JH5 uses the meta cleavage pathway for the complete mineralization of 4-CP was confirmed. PMID:16535738

  20. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly <3 Lu (less of 5 ×10-5 m 3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to

  1. Fenoxycarb and thyroid hormones have JH-like effects on the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Davey, K G; Gordon, D R

    1996-01-01

    Earlier work had shown that JH acts on the membrane of the follicle cell of Locusta migratoria, bringing about a rapid reduction in volume which can be detected in vitro by measuring the increase in optical path difference using quantitative interference microscopy. The juvenoid fenoxycarb, a phenoxyphenyl derivative, is unrelated in structure to the juvenile hormones (which are derivatives of farnesoic acid), but it also caused a reduction in volume of the cells in vitro as measured by an increase in the optical path difference. The vertebrate hormone thyroxine, and thyronine, the non-iodinated derivative of thyroxine, also phenoxy phenyl compounds, evoked a response like fenoxycarb. The effect of thyroxine was abolished by ouabain, which inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, the effector molecule for JH, and inhibited by ethoxyzolamide which inhibits the binding of JH to a putative membrane receptor. Triiodothyronine, the effective vertebrate hormone, acted at a lower threshold and optimum concentration, and had a greater magnitude of effect than the other compounds tested. These facts suggest that these phenoxyphenyl compounds are JH agonists and that the membrane receptor for JH may resemble a possible membrane receptor for thyroxine. PMID:8756310

  2. Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) isolated from the basalt subseafloor.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Tae; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Stewart, Lucy C; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens JH146(T) is a hyperthermophilic and obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from low-temperature (26 °C) hydrothermal vent fluid at Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It is most closely related to the N2-fixing methanogen Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22; however, they differ in that JH146 cannot fix N2 or reductively assimilate nitrate. In this study, we present the complete genome sequence of strain JH146(T) (1,607,556 bp) with its 1635 protein coding genes, and 41 RNA genes. Our analysis focuses on its methane production via the acetyl-CoA pathway and its deleted gene clusters related to nitrogen assimilation. This study extends our understanding of methanogenesis at high temperatures and the impact of these organisms on the biogeochemistry of subseafloor hydrothermal environments and the deep sea. PMID:26094864

  3. IAA production by Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 promotes Indian mustard growth in the presence of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Jin-Won; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus sp. strain JH 2-2, isolated from the rhizosphere of plants at a multi-metal contaminated mine site, has the potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and promote plant growth by reducing Cr toxicity and producing IAA. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cr(VI) to Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 was 1000 mg L(-1) and the strain reduced 99% of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) to Cr(IV) within 24 h. Lower Cr(VI) stress (10 mg L(-1) ) stimulated IAA production, but much less IAA was produced at 30 or 50 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) . Inoculation with Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 increased the length of Brassica juncea L. roots by 364% and stems by 735% in the presence of 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) from those of uninoculated control plants. These findings suggest potential use of Bacillus sp. JH 2-2 to promote phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Cr(VI). PMID:25283159

  4. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase. PMID:25140701

  5. Salivaricin E and abundant dextranase activity may contribute to the anti-cariogenic potential of the probiotic candidate Streptococcus salivarius JH.

    PubMed

    Walker, Glenn V; Heng, Nicholas C K; Carne, Alan; Tagg, John R; Wescombe, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that is continuing to increase in prevalence, reducing the quality of life for millions worldwide as well as causing considerable expense, with an estimated US$108 billion spent on dental care in the USA each year. Oral probiotics are now being investigated to determine whether they could play a role in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Streptococcus salivarius strain JH is a potential probiotic candidate that produces multiple proteinaceous antimicrobials (bacteriocins), the inhibitory spectrum of which includes Streptococcus mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries. The genome of strain JH has previously been shown to contain the biosynthetic loci for the bacteriocins salivaricin A3, streptin and streptococcin SA-FF22. Here we show that strain JH also produces salivaricin E, a 32 aa lantibiotic with a mass of 3565.9 Da, which is responsible for the inhibition of S. mutans growth. In addition, strain JH was shown to produce dextranase, an enzyme that hydrolyses (1 → 6)-α-D-glucosidic linkages, at levels higher than any other S. salivarius tested. In vitro testing showed that partial hydrolysis of the exopolymeric substances of S. mutans, using strain JH dextranase, improved the anti-S. mutans inhibitory activity of the lytic bacteriocin, zoocin A. The multiple bacteriocin and dextranase activities of strain JH support its candidature for development as an oral probiotic. PMID:26744310

  6. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287. PMID:27079573

  7. Disruption of a Red Giant Star by a Supermassive Black Hole and the Case of PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-06-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  8. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  9. Screening for JH1 genetic defect carriers in Jersey cattle by a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Gang; Huang, Hetian; Lu, Lu; Wang, Lijie; Fang, Lingzhao; Liu, Lin; Wang, Yachun; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-09-01

    An autosomal recessive genetic defect termed JH1 has been associated with early embryonic loss in the Jersey cattle breed. The genetic basis has been identified as a cytosine to thymine mutation in the CWC15 gene that changes an amino acid from arginine to a stop code. To screen for JH1 carriers in an imported Jersey population in China, a method based on a polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (PCR-RFLP) was developed for the accurate diagnosis of the JH1 allele. A total of 449 randomly chosen cows were examined with the PCR-RFLP assay, and 31 were identified as JH1 carriers, corresponding to a carrier frequency of 6.9%. The PCR-RFLP method was validated by DNA sequencing of 8 positive and 13 negative samples, with all 21 samples giving the expected DNA sequence. In addition, 3 negative and 3 positive samples were confirmed by a commercial microarray-based single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Finally, samples from 9 bulls in the United States of known status were correctly identified as carriers (5 bulls) or noncarriers (4 bulls). As the JH1 defect has most likely spread worldwide, implementing routine screening is necessary to avoid the risk of carrier-to-carrier matings and to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene. PMID:26179100

  10. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  11. PS1-10jh Continues to Follow the Fallback Accretion Rate of a Tidally Disrupted Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t‑5/3 power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens JH 70-4 promotes pb stabilization and early seedling growth of sudan grass in contaminated mining site soil.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Babu, A Giridhar; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain (JH 70-4) exhibiting plant growth promoting characteristics (indoleacetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity), as well as heavy metal(loid) (HM) tolerance and Pb precipitation, was isolated from HM-contaminated soil at an abandoned mine site. The bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The JH 70-4 strain induced precipitation of Pb as PbS nanoparticles, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Solution pH, incubation time, and Pb concentration influenced removal and PbS formation. Inoculating contaminated soil with JH 70-4 decreased Pb availability; exchangeable Pb decreased while organic- and sulphide-bound Pb increased. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure showed a 65% decrease in Pb in leachate 60 d after inoculating soil with JH 70-4. Shoot and root lengths of Sudan grass grown in the inoculated soil were greater than in the uninoculated soil. Findings suggest that microbial Pb fixation is a viable strategy for remediating soil and promoting plant growth for phytostabilization of contaminated sites. PMID:25145215

  13. RXR/USP and EcR are critical for the regulation of reproduction and the control of JH biosynthesis in Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Hult, Ekaterina F; Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Lam, Jennifer; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-09-01

    During development and reproduction the response to ecdysteroids is mediated by a heterodimeric receptor complex comprising the retinoid X receptor/ultraspiracle (RXR/USP) and the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Here, the role of these receptors in the endocrine control of reproduction is examined in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. We report the sequence of four DpRXR and three DpEcR splice variants, including the first description of a Drosophila EcRB2-like isoform in a hemimetabolous insect. DpRXR and DpEcR are broadly expressed in the tissues of adult females, with relatively high transcript levels in the corpora allata (CA), nervous tissue and ovary. Developmental profiling revealed an inverse correlation between DpRXR and DpEcR expression and the activity of the CA. RNAi-mediated depletion of DpRXR and DpEcR did not affect oocyte growth, but inhibited oviposition and impaired chorion formation. Retained oocytes exhibited a degenerating follicular epithelium and were slowly resorbed. Treated animals showed significantly higher rates of JH biosynthesis and a decrease in ecdysteroid titers at the end of vitellogenesis. Reduction of DpRXR and DpEcR expression resulted in an upregulation of genes involved in JH production and a downregulation of allatostatin receptor mRNA in the CA. Treatment with dsRNA also affected the expression of genes downstream of JH in target tissues including vitellogenin and Krüppel-homolog 1 as well as Broad-Complex, an early ecdysone response gene. Overall, results suggest that DpRXR and DpEcR are not required early in the reproductive cycle when events are JH-dependent, but do mediate critical ecdysteroid feedback to the CA late in the gonadotropic cycle. PMID:25917982

  14. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Anna B; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M; Steinert, Joern R; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26805723

  15. The Amino Acid Transporter JhI-21 Coevolves with Glutamate Receptors, Impacts NMJ Physiology, and Influences Locomotor Activity in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Anna B.; Augustin, Hrvoje; Clark, Nathan L.; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Simonnet, Mégane M.; Steinert, Joern R.; Geillon, Flore; Manière, Gérard; Featherstone, David E.; Grosjean, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in synaptic physiology underlie neuronal network plasticity and behavioral phenomena, which are adjusted during development. The Drosophila larval glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents a powerful synaptic model to investigate factors impacting these processes. Amino acids such as glutamate have been shown to regulate Drosophila NMJ physiology by modulating the clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thereby regulating the strength of signal transmission from the motor neuron to the muscle cell. To identify amino acid transporters impacting glutmatergic signal transmission, we used Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), a recently developed bioinformatic tool. Our screen identified ten proteins co-evolving with NMJ glutamate receptors. We selected one candidate transporter, the SLC7 (Solute Carrier) transporter family member JhI-21 (Juvenile hormone Inducible-21), which is expressed in Drosophila larval motor neurons. We show that JhI-21 suppresses postsynaptic muscle glutamate receptor abundance, and that JhI-21 expression in motor neurons regulates larval crawling behavior in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26805723

  16. bHLH-PAS family transcription factor methoprene-tolerant plays a key role in JH action in preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, Anjiang; Palli, Subba R.

    2008-01-01

    The biological actions of juvenile hormones are well studied; they regulate almost all aspects of an insect’s life. However, the molecular actions of these hormones are not well understood. Recent studies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, demonstrated the utility of this insect as a model system to study JH action. These studies confirmed that the bHLH-PAS family transcription factor, methoprene-tolerant (TcMet,) plays a key role in JH action during larval stages. In this study, we investigated the role of TcMet in JH action during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The phenotypes of TcMet RNAi insects shared similarity with the phenotypes of some allatectomized lepidopteran larvae that were attempting to undergo precocious larval-pupal metamorphosis. Knocking-down TcMet during the final instar also disrupted larval-pupal ecdysis, resulting in the development of adultoid underneath the larval skin. However, the loss of TcMet did not completely block remodeling of internal tissues such as midgut. T. castaneum larvae injected with TcMet dsRNA demonstrated a resistance to a JH analog (JHA), hydroprene, irrespective of time and route of application. Knocking-down TcMet also caused down regulation of JH-response genes, JHE and Kr-h1 suggesting that TcMet might be involved in the expression of these genes. Based on the phenotype, gene expression, and JHA action studies in TcMet RNAi insects, this study concludes that Met plays a key role in JH action for preventing the premature development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis. PMID:18450431

  17. Detection and quantification of MBR/JH2 t(14;18) BCL-2 gene rearrangement in follicular lymphoma using a combined real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Csernák, Erzsébet; Tóth, Erika; Melegh, Zsombor; Schneider, Tamás; Rosta, András; Szentirmay, Zoltán

    2006-06-01

    We report our experience with a new real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay applicable for simultaneous quantification and characterization of MBR/JH translocation in follicular lymphomas. This technique, which combines amplification with the FRET probe with SYBR Green I melting curve analysis, allows efficient detection of tumor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood and their comparison with the original neoplastic clone. PMID:16704964

  18. Artocarpus altilis CG-901 alters critical nodes in the JH1-kinase domain of Janus kinase 2 affecting upstream JAK/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nash, Oyekanmi; Omotuyi, Olaposi; Lee, Joonku; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    As a key step in achieving low-cost, easily accessible anti-cancer therapy for low- and middle-income countries, we recently established the scientific basis for the folkloric use of Artocarpus altilis for the treatment of cancer by investigating the geranyl dihydrochalcone (CG-901) content and its interference with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and blockage of further downstream signaling. In the current study, the CG-901 upstream target was queried by chemical fingerprinting similarity assessment, semi-empirical (PM6ESCF) QMMM and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Moderate (∼0.4) to high (∼0.7) Tanimoto scores were found when the CG-901 scaffold was compared to ligands co-crystallized with Janus kinases (JAK) 1-3. High negative energy values were obtained when the CG-901 was treated semi-empirically (PM6ESCF) within the classical field of JAK (1-3). Multiple nanosecond MD simulations showed that CG-901 did not cause any large structural perturbations in the nucleotide-binding, activation and catalytic loops within the kinase (JH1) domain of JAK (1-3); however, it reduced the energy required to attain metastability along the path to energy minima conformation. In comparison to JAK1 and Apo-state JAK2, JAK2-bound CG-901 exhibited a highly re-organized key intra-domain protein network; indicating atomic level interference with inter-residue communication. In conclusion, CG-901 isolated from A. altilis represents a broad-spectrum JAK inhibitor, which may underlie the mechanism of STAT3 phosphorylation blockage. Graphical abstract Upper panel Janus kinase 2 upstream signaling pathway. Lower panel Apo-JAK2 (left) and CG-901-bound JAK2 (right). PMID:26442513

  19. The JH1 Haplotype-a newly discovered marker for infertility in the jersy breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus on production traits in genetic selection programs with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction has contributed to the decline in reproductive function. Moreover, there is a negative genetic correlation between milk yield and reproduction so that selection for yield ca...

  20. ASASSN-16jh: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in 2dFGRS S501Z101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Stanek, K. Z.; Brown, J. S.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Bose, S.; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-08-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy PGC199416.

  1. Internal Duplications of DH, JH, and C Region Genes Create an Unusual IgH Gene Locus in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Qin, Tong; Chu, Dan; Cheng, Xueqian; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xifeng; Wang, Peng; Han, Haitang; Ren, Liming; Aitken, Robert; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2016-05-15

    It has been suspected for many years that cattle possess two functional IgH gene loci, located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 21 and BTA11, respectively. In this study, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and additional experiments, we showed that all functional bovine IgH genes were located on BTA21, and only a truncated μCH2 exon was present on BTA11. By sequencing of seven bacterial artificial chromosome clones screened from a Hostein cow bacterial artificial chromosome library, we generated a 678-kb continuous genomic sequence covering the bovine IGHV, IGHD, IGHJ, and IGHC genes, which are organized as IGHVn-IGHDn-IGHJn-IGHM1-(IGHDP-IGHV3-IGHDn)3-IGHJn-IGHM2-IGHD-IGHG3-IGHG1-IGHG2-IGHE-IGHA. Although both of two functional IGHM genes, IGHM1 and IGHM2, can be expressed via independent VDJ recombinations, the IGHM2 can also be expressed through class switch recombination. Likely because more IGHD segments can be involved in the expression of IGHM2, the IGHM2 gene was shown to be dominantly expressed in most tissues throughout different developmental stages. Based on the length and identity of the coding sequence, the 23 IGHD segments identified in the locus could be divided into nine subgroups (termed IGHD1 to IGHD9). Except two members of IGHD9 (14 nt in size), all other functional IGHD segments are longer than 30 nt, with the IGHD8 gene (149 bp) to be the longest. These remarkably long germline IGHD segments play a pivotal role in generating the exceptionally great H chain CDR 3 length variability in cattle. PMID:27053761

  2. A Study of the Status of Computer Usage in Industrial Technology Programs in Idaho J.H. and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    A study examined the extent to which microcomputers are being used by industrial technology teachers in Idaho public junior and senior high schools. The express purpose of the study was to develop an information base upon which teacher educators and administrators could design pre- and inservice teacher education curricula. The survey…

  3. Improved Measurement of 3J(H αi, N i+1 ) Coupling Constants in H 2O Dissolved Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, Frank; Schmidt, Jürgen M.; Maurer, Steffen; Rüterjans, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    A modification to the recently proposed α/β-HN(CO)CA-J TROSY pulse sequence (P. Permi et al., J. Magn. Reson.146, 255-259 (2000)) makes it possible to determine 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) coupling constants from a single E.COSY-type cross-peak pattern rather than from two 1Hα spin-state-edited subspectra. Advantages are increased 15N resolution, critical to extracting accurate 1Hα-15N coupling constants, and minimized differential relaxation due to nested 13Cα and 15N evolution periods. Application of the improved pulse sequence to Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin results in 3J(Hαi, Ni+1) values being systematically larger than those obtained with the original scheme. Parametrization of the coupling dependence on the protein backbone torsion angle ψ yields the Karplus relation 3J(Hαi, Ni+1)=-1.00 cos2(ψ-120°)+0.65 cos(ψ-120°)-0.15 Hz, with a residual root-mean-square difference of 0.13 Hz between measured and back-calculated coupling constants. The curve compares with data derived from ubiquitin (A. C. Wang and A. Bax, J. Am. Chem. Soc.117, 1810-1813 (1995)), although spanning a slightly larger range of J values in flavodoxin. The orientation of the Ala39/Ser40 peptide link, forming a type-II β-turn in flavodoxin, is twisted against X-ray-derived torsions by approximately 10° in the NMR structure as evident from the analysis of φ- and ψ-related 3J coupling constants. The remaining deviation of some experimental values from the prediction is likely to be due to strong hydrogen bonding, substituent effects, or the additional dependence on the adjacent torsions φ.

  4. Dupuytren contracture

    MedlinePlus

    Calandruccio JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013: ...

  5. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Calandruccio JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012: ...

  6. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    Calandruccion JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 76. ...

  7. Synthesis and bioassay of radiolabeled, chiral probes for juvenile hormone receptor study

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, W.

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of compounds were synthesized for the detailed study on interactions between insect juvenile hormone (JH) and the corresponding binding proteins, receptor proteins and catabolic enzymes: (1) High specific activity /sup 3/H-labeled, chiral alkyldiazoacetates with their skeletons approaching those of natural JH I and JH II were synthesized as photoaffinity labels for probing JH receptor proteins in Lepidoptera. Compared with epoxy farnesyl diazoacetate (EFDA), epoxy bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (EBDA) and epoxy homofarnesyl diazoacetate (EHDA) have largely increased affinity to Manduca sexta JH binding proteins (JHBP) as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. (2) Chiral JH I and JH II acids, as well as 12-hydroxy-JH I and JH II were synthesized. The hydroxy groups in these compounds provide tether points for attachment to proteins to serve as antigens with most of the recognition sites preserved to be used in JH radioimmunoassays. (3) The first radioiodine-labeled JH, (/sup 125/I)-12-iodo-JH I, was synthesized, both in no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms, as one of the probes for JH receptor study. (4) Four alkylthioltrifluoropropanones with skeletons approaching that of JH III and functional groups mimicking the JH epoxide moiety were synthesized as inhibitors for JH esterase (JHE).

  8. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    PubMed

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  9. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  10. [Synthesis of juvenile hormones in vitro by the corpora allata of 5th stage larva of Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R and F) (Insecta, Orthopteroida)].

    PubMed

    Caruelle, J P; Baehr, J C; Cassier, P

    1979-04-01

    Corpora allata of Locusta migratoria 5th stage larvae synthesize J.H.1, J.H.2 and J.H.3 in vitro. The C.A. of insects of different ages exbit different rates of J.H. synthesis. J.H.1 and J.H.2 synthesis is less than 1 ng/48 h/gland. During the same time the J.H.3 production may be as much as 25.6 ng/gland. J.H. synthetic activity is the same between right and left C.A. The release of J.H. from the C.A. occurs immediately following synthesis. These results are compared with in vivo haemolymphatic J.H. levels. PMID:113127

  11. Protein kinase C modulates transcriptional activation by the juvenile hormone receptor methoprene-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Ojani, Reyhaneh; Liu, Pengcheng; Fu, Xiaonan; Zhu, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological events in insects by triggering dramatic changes in gene expression in target cells. The Methoprene-tolerant (MET) protein, an intracellular JH receptor, acts as a transcriptional regulator and binds to the promoters of tissue- and stage-specific JH target genes when JH is present. Our recent study has demonstrated that the transcriptional activation by MET is modulated by a membrane-initiated JH signaling pathway, involving phospholipase C (PLC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC) is another essential intermediate of this pathway. PKC was activated by JH and this action was PLC-dependent. Inhibition of the PKC activity substantially weakened the JH-induced gene expression in mosquito cells. RNAi experiments indicated that several PKC isoforms were involved in the JH action during the post-emergence development of adult female mosquitoes. JH treatment considerably increased the binding of MET to the promoters of JH response genes in cultured mosquito abdomens that were collected from newly emerged female adults. The JH-induced DNA binding of MET was hindered when the abdomens were treated with a PKC inhibitor and JH. Therefore, the results suggest that PKC modulates the transactivation activity of MET by enhancing the binding of MET to JH response elements in the JH target genes. This mechanism may allow for variable and stage- and tissue-specific genomic responses to JH. PMID:26689644

  12. Ab Initio Modeling and Experimental Assessment of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) Kinase-Pseudokinase Complex Structure

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Huang, Lily Jun-shen; Huang, Niu

    2013-01-01

    The Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) plays essential roles in transmitting signals from multiple cytokine receptors, and constitutive activation of JAK2 results in hematopoietic disorders and oncogenesis. JAK2 kinase activity is negatively regulated by its pseudokinase domain (JH2), where the gain-of-function mutation V617F that causes myeloproliferative neoplasms resides. In the absence of a crystal structure of full-length JAK2, how JH2 inhibits the kinase domain (JH1), and how V617F hyperactivates JAK2 remain elusive. We modeled the JAK2 JH1–JH2 complex structure using a novel informatics-guided protein-protein docking strategy. A detailed JAK2 JH2-mediated auto-inhibition mechanism is proposed, where JH2 traps the activation loop of JH1 in an inactive conformation and blocks the movement of kinase αC helix through critical hydrophobic contacts and extensive electrostatic interactions. These stabilizing interactions are less favorable in JAK2-V617F. Notably, several predicted binding interfacial residues in JH2 were confirmed to hyperactivate JAK2 kinase activity in site-directed mutagenesis and BaF3/EpoR cell transformation studies. Although there may exist other JH2-mediated mechanisms to control JH1, our JH1–JH2 structural model represents a verifiable working hypothesis for further experimental studies to elucidate the role of JH2 in regulating JAK2 in both normal and pathological settings. PMID:23592968

  13. Genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daojun; Meng, Meng; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Kang, Lixia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. Herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) as well as 35 in Drosophila melanogaster, 35 in Anopheles gambiae, 36 in Apis mellifera, 47 in Tribolium castaneum, and 44 in Danaus plexippus. Comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, in the neuropeptide regulation of JH biosynthesis, or in JH signaling is a single copy in B. mori and other surveyed insects, indicating that these JH-related pathways or steps are likely conserved in all surveyed insects. However, each gene participating in the isoprenoid branch of JH biosynthesis and JH metabolism, together with the FPPS genes for catalyzing the final step of the MVA pathway of JH biosynthesis, exhibited an obvious duplication in Lepidoptera, including B. mori and D. plexippus. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that different copies of several JH-related genes presented expression changes that correlated with the dynamics of JH titer during larval growth and metamorphosis. Taken together, the findings suggest that duplication-derived copy variation of JH-related genes might be evolutionarily associated with the variation of JH types between Lepidoptera and other insect orders. In conclusion, our results provide useful clues for further functional analysis of JH-related genes in B. mori and other insects. PMID:25071411

  14. Genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daojun; Meng, Meng; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Kang, Lixia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-06-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. Herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) as well as 35 in Drosophila melanogaster, 35 in Anopheles gambiae, 36 in Apis mellifera, 47 in Tribolium castaneum, and 44 in Danaus plexippus. Comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, in the neuropeptide regulation of JH biosynthesis, or in JH signaling is a single copy in B. mori and other surveyed insects, indicating that these JH-related pathways or steps are likely conserved in all surveyed insects. However, each gene participating in the isoprenoid branch of JH biosynthesis and JH metabolism, together with the FPPS genes for catalyzing the final step of the MVA pathway of JH biosynthesis, exhibited an obvious duplication in Lepidoptera, including B. mori and D. plexippus. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that different copies of several JH-related genes presented expression changes that correlated with the dynamics of JH titer during larval growth and metamorphosis. Taken together, the findings suggest that duplication-derived copy variation of JH-related genes might be evolutionarily associated with the variation of JH types between Lepidoptera and other insect orders. In conclusion, our results provide useful clues for further functional analysis of JH-related genes in B. mori and other insects. PMID:25071411

  15. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  16. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  17. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  18. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  19. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  20. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  1. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  2. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  3. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  4. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  5. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  6. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  7. Activities of natural methyl farnesoids on pupariation and metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) and juvenile hormone (JH III), which respectively bind to the receptors USP and MET, and bisepoxy JH III (bisJHIII) were assessed for several activities during Drosophila larval development, and during prepupal development to eclosed adults. Dietary MF and JH III were similar...

  8. Juvenile Hormone Extraction, Purification, and Quantification in Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important insect hormone known to have many effects on development, reproduction, and behavior in both solitary and social insects. A number of questions using ants as a model involve JH. This procedure allows for quantification of circulating levels of JH III, which can ...

  9. Digital engineering aspects of Karst map: a GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of Karst: U.S. Geological Survey, National Atlas of the United States of America, Scale 1:7,500,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobin, Bret D.; Weary, David J.

    2004-01-01

    These data are digital facsimiles of the original 1984 Engineering Aspects of Karst map by Davies and others. This data set was converted from a printed map to a digital GIS coverage to provide users with a citable national scale karst data set to use for graphic and demonstration purposes until new, improved data are developed. These data may be used freely with proper citation. Because it has been converted to GIS format, these data can be easily projected, displayed and queried for multiple uses in GIS. The karst polygons of the original map were scanned from the stable base negatives of the original, vectorized, edited and then attributed with unit descriptions. All of these processes potentially introduce small errors and distortions to the geography. The original map was produced at a scale of 1:7,500,000; this coverage is not as accurate, and should be used for broad-scale purposes only. It is not intended for any site-specific studies.

  10. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin inhibits insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Debernard, S; Rossignol, F; Couillaud, F

    1994-07-01

    Fluvastatin (Sandoz Compound XU 62-320), a synthetic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was assayed in vitro and in vivo for its ability to suppress juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis by corpora allata of Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Fluvastatin inhibited JH biosynthesis by corpora allata in vitro. Exogenous mevalonic acid lactone restored JH biosynthesis in corpora allata inhibited by fluvastatin. Fluvastatin injected into locusts in vivo inhibited JH biosynthesis, but maximal inhibition lasted for only 6 hr. There were no discernible effects on either JH-regulated metamorphosis or oocyte maturation. Lengthening of the fourth larval stadium was observed and increased doses (single or repeated injections) were fatal. PMID:7926659

  11. De novo biosynthesis of juvenile hormone III and I by the accessory glands of the male mosquito.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, D; Carlson, D A; Hancock, R G; Rembold, H; van Handel, E

    1994-05-01

    The role of the male accessory glands (MAG) in reproduction was investigated in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. MAG incubated with [14C]acetate synthesized radioactively labeled JH III, JH III bisepoxide and methyl farnesoate. MAG incubated with L-[methyl-3H]methionine synthesized [3H]JH III and a molecule that chromatographed on HPLC with JH I. Analysis of MAG and whole males extract by glass capillary combined gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry identified JH III and I as the main analogs that were synthesized by male mosquitoes. MAG of Culex nigripalpus, Anopheles rangeli and Anopheles trinkae also synthesized JH III from L-[methyl-3H]methionine, which indicates that the male mosquito has a complete JH III biosynthetic pathway. Unfed and unmated Culex quinquefasciatus do not develop their ovaries to the resting stage. Females injected with one MAG extract equivalent or implanted with A. aegypti MAG developed their ovaries to the resting previtellogenic stage, whereas females that were injected with saline did not. These results indicate that MAG synthesize and secrete JH III. The corpora allata (CA) of the male Aedes aegypti also synthesize JH III from L-[methyl-3H]methionine. This observation may suggest that JH synthesized by the male's CA is used for internal regulation, whereas JH synthesized by the MAG is transferred with the sperm into the female. PMID:8205141

  12. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  13. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior. PMID:26826599

  14. Establishment of a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting chemicals with juvenile hormone activity using adult Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoko; Watanabe, Haruna; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and JH agonists have been shown to induce male offspring production in various daphnids, including Daphnia magna using OECD TG211. The critical period (about 1h) for JH action on ova in the parent's ovary to induce male offspring is existing at 7-8h later from ovulation. Therefore, we considered that adult D. magna could be used to produce a short-term screening method for detecting JH analogs. Using this method, we successfully demonstrated male offspring induction in the second broods after exposure to JH or JH agonists. After investigating the exposure time, the number of repetitions and the exposure concentration, we established a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting JH analogs using adult D. magna. We examined positive and negative control chemicals using a previously developed method and verified the validity of our new testing method. PMID:24477940

  15. The Drosophila FTZ-F1 nuclear receptor mediates juvenile hormone activation of E75A gene expression through an intracellular pathway.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Edward B; Dubrovskaya, Veronica A; Bernardo, Travis; Otte, Valerie; DiFilippo, Robert; Bryan, Heather

    2011-09-23

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates a wide variety of biological activities in holometabolous insects, ranging from vitellogenesis and caste determination in adults to the timing of metamorphosis in larvae. The mechanism of JH signaling in such a diverse array of processes remains either unknown or contentious. We previously found that the nuclear receptor gene E75A is activated in S2 cells as a primary response to JH. Here, by expressing an intracellular form of JH esterase, we demonstrate that JH must enter the cell in order to activate E75A. To find intracellular receptors involved in the JH response, we performed an RNAi screen against nuclear receptor genes expressed in this cell line and identified the orphan receptor FTZ-F1. Removal of FTZ-F1 prevents JH activation of E75A, whereas overexpression enhances activation, implicating FTZ-F1 as a critical component of the JH response. FTZ-F1 is bound in vivo to multiple enhancers upstream of E75A, suggesting that it participates in direct JH-mediated gene activation. To better define the role of FTZ-F1 in JH signaling, we investigated interactions with candidate JH receptors and found that the bHLH-PAS proteins MET and GCE both interact with FTZ-F1 and can activate transcription through the FTZ-F1 response element. Removal of endogenous GCE, but not MET, prevents JH activation of E75A. We propose that FTZ-F1 functions as a competence factor by loading JH signaling components to the promoter, thus facilitating the direct regulation of E75A gene expression by JH. PMID:21832074

  16. The Drosophila FTZ-F1 Nuclear Receptor Mediates Juvenile Hormone Activation of E75A Gene Expression through an Intracellular Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovsky, Edward B.; Dubrovskaya, Veronica A.; Bernardo, Travis; Otte, Valerie; DiFilippo, Robert; Bryan, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates a wide variety of biological activities in holometabolous insects, ranging from vitellogenesis and caste determination in adults to the timing of metamorphosis in larvae. The mechanism of JH signaling in such a diverse array of processes remains either unknown or contentious. We previously found that the nuclear receptor gene E75A is activated in S2 cells as a primary response to JH. Here, by expressing an intracellular form of JH esterase, we demonstrate that JH must enter the cell in order to activate E75A. To find intracellular receptors involved in the JH response, we performed an RNAi screen against nuclear receptor genes expressed in this cell line and identified the orphan receptor FTZ-F1. Removal of FTZ-F1 prevents JH activation of E75A, whereas overexpression enhances activation, implicating FTZ-F1 as a critical component of the JH response. FTZ-F1 is bound in vivo to multiple enhancers upstream of E75A, suggesting that it participates in direct JH-mediated gene activation. To better define the role of FTZ-F1 in JH signaling, we investigated interactions with candidate JH receptors and found that the bHLH-PAS proteins MET and GCE both interact with FTZ-F1 and can activate transcription through the FTZ-F1 response element. Removal of endogenous GCE, but not MET, prevents JH activation of E75A. We propose that FTZ-F1 functions as a competence factor by loading JH signaling components to the promoter, thus facilitating the direct regulation of E75A gene expression by JH. PMID:21832074

  17. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, and What Questions Remain?

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of JH biosynthesis has significantly changed in the last years. In this review I would like to discuss the following topics: (1) the progresses in understanding the JH biosynthesis pathway. Access to genome sequences has facilitated the identification of all the genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and the completion of comprehensive transcriptional studies, as well as the expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Now the existence of different flux directionalites, feed-back loops and pathway branching points in the JH biosynthesis pathways can be explored; (2) the new concepts in the modulation of JH synthesis by allatoregulators. The list of putative JH modulators is increasing. I will discuss their possible role during the different physiological states of the CA; (3) the new theoretical and physiological frameworks for JH synthesis analysis. I will discuss the bases of the flux model for JH biosynthesis. JH plays multiple roles in the control of ovary development in female mosquitoes; therefore, the CA presents different physiological states, where JH synthesis is altered by gating the flux at distinctive points in the pathway; (4) in the final section I will identify new challenges and future directions on JH synthesis research.

  18. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  19. Nutrition, hormones and life history in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Stephen T; Robinson, Gene E

    2004-05-01

    Nutrition, hormones and the allocation of physiological resources are intricately related. To investigate these inter-relationships in female burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), we examined the effect of diet quality on juvenile hormone (JH) levels and reproduction, and the effect of JH supplementation on reproduction and resistance to starvation. Nicrophorus orbicollis adult females fed a less preferred mealworm larvae diet gained less body mass, had smaller ovaries and had lower titers of JH in their hemolymph than females fed a preferred blowfly diet. When presented a carcass for breeding, females on a less preferred diet oviposited 33% fewer eggs, and eggs were of 18% less mass. Females on the less preferred diet also took longer to begin oviposition as indicated indirectly by the time when their eggs hatched. To investigate the effects of JH, independent of nutrition, JH was topically applied to single and paired females of Nicrophorus tomentosus. When presented a carcass, JH-treated paired females oviposited more eggs (28%-year 1, 44%-year 2) than control females, and also showed a trend toward faster oviposition. JH supplementation had a greater effect on single females. JH treatment increased the proportion of single females attempting reproduction (at least one viable larva), increased the number of eggs (69%-year 1, 123%-year 2), and increased the proportion of females ovipositing early. In separate experiments, treatment with JH or a JH analog negatively affected resistance to starvation in three species. Treatment with JH reduced starvation survival by 10.3% days in N. tomentosus females. Treatment with the JH analog methoprene reduced starvation survival 17.8% in N. orbicollis females and by 18% in Ptomascopus morio females. These results suggest that JH has positive and negative effects on different components of life history. PMID:15121451

  20. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway. PMID:25706877

  1. Juvenile hormone-activated phospholipase C pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the methoprene-tolerant protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengcheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-04-14

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of a wide diversity of developmental and physiological events in insects. Although the intracellular JH receptor methoprene-tolerant protein (MET) functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for specific JH-regulated genes, some JH responses are mediated by signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins associated with plasma membrane. It is unknown whether the JH-regulated gene expression depends on the membrane-mediated signal transduction. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we found that JH activated the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway and quickly increased the levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and intracellular calcium, leading to activation and autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). When abdomens from newly emerged mosquitoes were cultured in vitro, the JH-activated gene expression was repressed substantially if specific inhibitors of PLC or CaMKII were added to the medium together with JH. In newly emerged female mosquitoes, RNAi-mediated depletion of PLC or CaMKII considerably reduced the expression of JH-responsive genes, including the Krüppel homolog 1 gene (AaKr-h1) and the early trypsin gene (AaET). JH-induced loading of MET to the promoters of AaKr-h1 and AaET was weakened drastically when either PLC or CaMKII was inactivated in the cultured tissues. Therefore, the results suggest that the membrane-initiated signaling pathway modifies the DNA-binding activity of MET via phosphorylation and thus facilitates the genomic responses to JH. In summary, this study reveals an interplay of genomic and nongenomic signaling mechanisms of JH. PMID:25825754

  2. Juvenile hormone regulates Aedes aegypti Krüppel homolog 1 through a conserved E box motif.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingjun; Sui, Yipeng; Xu, Jingjing; Zhu, Fang; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays important roles in regulation of many physiological processes including development, reproduction and metabolism in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of JH signaling pathway are not completely understood. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of JH regulation of Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) in Aedes aegypti, we employed JH-sensitive Aag-2 cells developed from the embryos of this insect. In Aag-2 cells, AaKr-h1 gene is induced by nanomolar concentration of JH III, its expression peaked at 1.5 h after treatment with JH III. RNAi studies showed that JH induction of this gene requires the presence of Ae. aegypti methoprene-tolerant (AaMet). A conserved 13 nucleotide JH response element (JHRE, TGCCTCCACGTGC) containing canonical E box motif (underlined) identified in the promoter of AaKr-h1 is required for JH induction of this gene. Critical nucleotides in the JHRE required for JH action were identified by employing mutagenesis and reporter assays. Reporter assays also showed that basic helix loop helix (bHLH) domain of AaMet is required for JH induction of AaKr-h1. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method identified two isoforms of AaKr-h1, AaKr-h1α and AaKr-h1β, the expression of both isoforms is induced by JH III, but AaKr-h1α is the predominant isoform in both Aag-2 cells and Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:24931431

  3. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva. PMID:17064726

  4. Juvenile hormone-activated phospholipase C pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the methoprene-tolerant protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengcheng; Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of a wide diversity of developmental and physiological events in insects. Although the intracellular JH receptor methoprene-tolerant protein (MET) functions in the nucleus as a transcriptional activator for specific JH-regulated genes, some JH responses are mediated by signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins associated with plasma membrane. It is unknown whether the JH-regulated gene expression depends on the membrane-mediated signal transduction. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we found that JH activated the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway and quickly increased the levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, and intracellular calcium, leading to activation and autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). When abdomens from newly emerged mosquitoes were cultured in vitro, the JH-activated gene expression was repressed substantially if specific inhibitors of PLC or CaMKII were added to the medium together with JH. In newly emerged female mosquitoes, RNAi-mediated depletion of PLC or CaMKII considerably reduced the expression of JH-responsive genes, including the Krüppel homolog 1 gene (AaKr-h1) and the early trypsin gene (AaET). JH-induced loading of MET to the promoters of AaKr-h1 and AaET was weakened drastically when either PLC or CaMKII was inactivated in the cultured tissues. Therefore, the results suggest that the membrane-initiated signaling pathway modifies the DNA-binding activity of MET via phosphorylation and thus facilitates the genomic responses to JH. In summary, this study reveals an interplay of genomic and nongenomic signaling mechanisms of JH. PMID:25825754

  5. Identification of two juvenile hormone inducible transcription factors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ueno, Chihiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Kinjoh, Terunori; Ito, Yuka; Shimura, Sachiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kamimura, Manabu

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many physiological processes in insects. However, the signal cascades in which JH is active have not yet been fully elucidated, particularly in comparison to another major hormone ecdysteroid. Here we identified two JH inducible transcription factors as candidate components of JH signaling pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DNA microarray analysis showed that expression of two transcription factor genes, E75 and Enhancer of split mβ (E(spl)mβ), was induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I) in NIAS-Bm-aff3 cells. Real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that expression of four E75 isoforms (E75A, E75B, E75C and E75D) and E(spl)mβ was 3-8 times greater after JH I addition. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not suppress JH-induced expression of the genes, indicating that they were directly induced by JH. JH-induced expression of E75 and E(spl)mβ was also observed in four other B. mori cell lines and in larval hemocytes of final instar larvae. Notably, E75A expression was induced very strongly in larval hemocytes by topical application of the JH analog fenoxycarb; the level of induced expression was comparable to that produced by feeding larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that E75 and E(spl)mβ are general and direct target genes of JH and that the transcription factors encoded by these genes play important roles in JH signaling. PMID:25770979

  6. Juvenile Hormone-Receptor Complex Acts on Mcm4 and Mcm7 to Promote Polyploidy and Vitellogenesis in the Migratory Locust

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Zhiming; Deng, Shun; Walker, Virginia K.; Zhou, Shutang

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the corpora allata, coordinates insect growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction. While JH action for the repression of larval metamorphosis has been well studied, the molecular basis of JH in promoting adult reproduction has not been fully elucidated. Methoprene-tolerant (Met), the JH receptor, has been recently shown to mediate JH action during metamorphosis as well as in vitellogenesis, but again, the precise mechanism underlying the latter has been lacking. We have now demonstrated using Met RNAi to phenocopy a JH-deprived condition in migratory locusts, that JH stimulates DNA replication and increases ploidy in preparation for vitellogenesis. Mcm4 and Mcm7, two genes in the DNA replication pathway were expressed in the presence of JH and Met. Depletion of Mcm4 or Mcm7 inhibited de novo DNA synthesis and polyploidization, and resulted in the substantial reduction of vitellogenin mRNA levels as well as severely impaired oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. By using luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have shown that Met directly regulates the transcription of Mcm4 and Mcm7 by binding to upstream consensus sequences with E-box or E-box-like motifs. Our work suggests that the JH-receptor complex acts on Mcm4 and Mcm7 to regulate DNA replication and polyploidy for vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation. PMID:25340846

  7. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  8. Juvenile hormone-receptor complex acts on mcm4 and mcm7 to promote polyploidy and vitellogenesis in the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Wu, Zhongxia; Song, Jiasheng; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Zhiming; Deng, Shun; Walker, Virginia K; Zhou, Shutang

    2014-10-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the corpora allata, coordinates insect growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction. While JH action for the repression of larval metamorphosis has been well studied, the molecular basis of JH in promoting adult reproduction has not been fully elucidated. Methoprene-tolerant (Met), the JH receptor, has been recently shown to mediate JH action during metamorphosis as well as in vitellogenesis, but again, the precise mechanism underlying the latter has been lacking. We have now demonstrated using Met RNAi to phenocopy a JH-deprived condition in migratory locusts, that JH stimulates DNA replication and increases ploidy in preparation for vitellogenesis. Mcm4 and Mcm7, two genes in the DNA replication pathway were expressed in the presence of JH and Met. Depletion of Mcm4 or Mcm7 inhibited de novo DNA synthesis and polyploidization, and resulted in the substantial reduction of vitellogenin mRNA levels as well as severely impaired oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. By using luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have shown that Met directly regulates the transcription of Mcm4 and Mcm7 by binding to upstream consensus sequences with E-box or E-box-like motifs. Our work suggests that the JH-receptor complex acts on Mcm4 and Mcm7 to regulate DNA replication and polyploidy for vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation. PMID:25340846

  9. Wolbachia-induced paternal defect in Drosophila is likely by interaction with the juvenile hormone pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Xiong, En-Juan; Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Lin-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many insect species. They can manipulate the host's reproduction to increase their own maternal transmission. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, which is expressed as embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. However, matings between males and females carrying the same Wolbachia strain result in viable progeny. The molecular mechanisms of CI are currently not clear. We have previously reported that the gene Juvenile hormone-inducible protein 26 (JhI-26) exhibited the highest upregulation in the 3rd instar larval testes of Drosophila melanogaster when infected by Wolbachia. This is reminiscent of an interaction between Wolbachia and juvenile hormone (JH) pathway in flies. Considering that Jhamt gene encodes JH acid methyltransferase, a key regulatory enzyme of JH biosynthesis, and that methoprene-tolerant (Met) has been regarded as the best JH receptor candidate, we first compared the expression of Jhamt and Met between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected fly testes to investigate whether Wolbachia infection influence the JH signaling pathway. We found that the expressions of Jhamt and Met were significantly increased in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting an interaction of Wolbachia with the JH signaling pathway. Then, we found that overexpression of JhI-26 in Wolbachia-free transgenic male flies caused paternal-effect lethality that mimics the defects associated with CI. JhI-26 overexpressing males resulted in significantly decrease in hatch rate. Surprisingly, Wolbachia-infected females could rescue the egg hatch. In addition, we showed that overexpression of JhI-26 caused upregulation of the male accessory gland protein (Acp) gene CG10433, but not vice versa. This result suggests that JhI-26 may function at the upstream of CG10433. Likewise, overexpression of CG10433 also resulted in paternal-effect lethality. Both JhI-26 and CG10433 overexpressing males

  10. Disruption of insulin signalling affects the neuroendocrine stress reaction in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Rauschenbach, Inga Y; Karpova, Evgenia K; Adonyeva, Natalya V; Andreenkova, Olga V; Faddeeva, Natalya V; Burdina, Elena V; Alekseev, Alexander A; Menshanov, Petr N; Gruntenko, Nataly E

    2014-10-15

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and dopamine are involved in the stress response in insects. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway has also recently been found to be involved in the regulation of various processes, including stress tolerance. However, the relationships between the JH, dopamine and insulin signalling pathways remain unclear. Here, we study the role of insulin signalling in the regulation of JH and dopamine metabolism under normal and heat stress conditions in Drosophila melanogaster females. We show that suppression of the insulin-like receptor (InR) in the corpus allatum, a specialised endocrine gland that synthesises JH, causes an increase in dopamine level and JH-hydrolysing activity and alters the activities of enzymes that produce as well as those that degrade dopamine [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-dependent arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (DAT)]. We also found that InR suppression in the corpus allatum modulates dopamine, ALP, TH and JH-hydrolysing activity in response to heat stress and that it decreases the fecundity of the flies. JH application restores dopamine metabolism and fecundity in females with decreased InR expression in the corpus allatum. Our data provide evidence that the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway regulates dopamine metabolism in females of D. melanogaster via the system of JH metabolism and that it affects the development of the neuroendocrine stress reaction and interacts with JH in the control of reproduction in this species. PMID:25214494

  11. Methoprene-tolerant 1 regulates gene transcription to maintain insect larval status.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Li; Liu, Chun-Yan; Liu, Wen; Wang, Di; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are regulated by two hormones: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). The hormone 20E regulates gene transcription via the nuclear receptor EcR to promote metamorphosis, whereas JH regulates gene transcription via its intracellular receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) to prevent larval-pupal transition. However, the function and mechanism of Met in various insect developments are not well understood. We propose that Met1 plays a key role in maintaining larval status not only by promoting JH-responsive gene transcription but also by repressing 20E-responsive gene transcription in the Lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Met1 protein is increased during feeding stage and decreased during molting and metamorphic stages. Met1 is upregulated by JH III and a low concentration of 20E independently, but is downregulated by a high concentration of 20E. Knockdown of Met1 in larvae causes precocious pupation, decrease in JH pathway gene expression, and increase in 20E pathway gene expression. Met1 interacts with heat shock protein 90 and binds to JH response element to regulate Krüppel homolog 1 transcription in JH III induction. Met1 interacts with ultraspiracle protein 1 (USP1) to repress 20E transcription complex EcRB1/USP1 formation and binding to ecdysone response element. These data indicate that JH via Met1 regulates JH pathway gene expression and represses 20E pathway gene expression to maintain the larval status. PMID:24872508

  12. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  13. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  14. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  15. The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Anthon K.

    1975-01-01

    Examines early childhood education in the Netherlands: its history, general conceptions of child upbringing and developmental psychology, organizational patterns, main research projects, and goals. (JH)

  16. Sources of propionate for the biogenesis of ethyl-braced insect juvenile hormones: role of isoleucine and valine

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Baker, F.C.; Tsai, L.W.; Reuter, C.C.; Schooley, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    Corpora allata from adult female Manduca sexta biosynthesis the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) III and the unusual ethyl-branched homologue JH II in vitro. The authors maintained corpora allata in medium 199 using (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as the source of the JH methyl ester moiety and as a mass marker. This allowed measurement of the relative contributions of /sup 14/C-labeled precursors to the biogenesis of JH II and III carbon skeletons. They showed efficient incorporation of a propionate equivalent, from isoleucine or valine catabolism, into the ethyl-branched portion of JH II, using double-label liquid scintillation counting of isolated JHs and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of JH deuteromethoxyhydrin derivatives. Methionine was a poor source of propionate for JH II biosynthesis, while glucose, succinate, threonine, and ..beta..-alanine did not contribute propionate at all. Leucine, isoleucine, and glucose incorporated into JH III and the acetate-derivative portion of JH II.

  17. Gonadotropic and Physiological Functions of Juvenile Hormone in Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shpigler, Hagai; Amsalem, Etya; Huang, Zachary Y.; Cohen, Mira; Siegel, Adam J.; Hefetz, Abraham; Bloch, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of advanced sociality in bees is associated with apparent modifications in juvenile hormone (JH) signaling. By contrast to most insects in which JH is a gonadotropin regulating female fertility, in the highly eusocial honey bee (Apis mellifera) JH has lost its gonadotrophic function in adult females, and instead regulates age-related division of labor among worker bees. In order to shed light on the evolution of JH signaling in bees we performed allatectomy and replacement therapies to manipulate JH levels in workers of the "primitively eusocial" bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Allatectomized worker bees showed remarkable reduction in ovarian development, egg laying, Vitellogenin and Krüppel homolog 1 fat body transcript levels, hemolymph Vitellogenin protein abundance, wax secretion, and egg-cell construction. These effects were reverted, at least partially, by treating allatectomized bees with JH-III, the natural JH of bees. Allatectomy also affected the amount of ester component in Dufour's gland secretion, which is thought to convey a social signal relating to worker fertility. These findings provide a strong support for the hypothesis that in contrast to honey bees, JH is a gonadotropin in bumblebees and lend credence to the hypothesis that the evolution of advanced eusociality in honey bees was associated with major modifications in JH signaling. PMID:24959888

  18. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kenji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Ryohei; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Daphnia magna has been used extensively to evaluate organism- and population-level responses to pollutants in acute toxicity and reproductive toxicity tests. We have previously reported that exposure to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists results in a reduction of reproductive function and production of male offspring in a cyclic parthenogenesis, D. magna. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided tools to understand better the responses to pollutants in aquatic organisms, including D. magna. DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal daphnids exposed to JH agonists: methoprene (125, 250 and 500 ppb), fenoxycarb (0.5, 1 and 2 ppb) and epofenonane (50, 100 and 200 ppb). Exposure to these JH analogs resulted in chemical-specific patterns of gene expression. The heat map analyses based on hierarchical clustering revealed a similar pattern between treatments with a high dose of methoprene and with epofenonane. In contrast, treatment with low to middle doses of methoprene resulted in similar profiles to fenoxycarb treatments. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered as JH-responsive genes. These data suggest that fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism compared with other JH analogs, agreeing with data of previously reported toxicity tests. In conclusion, D. magna DNA microarray is useful for the classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes. PMID:24038158

  19. Use of NOESY for estimation of coupling constants in the DNA backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.; Majumdar, A.; Hosur, R. V.

    1992-12-01

    We demonstrate here the use of the two-dimensional NOESY technique for measurement of the most elusive coupling constants, J(H4'-H5'), J(H4'-H5″), J(H3'-H4') and J(H3'-P) in long DNA segments. The band selective BURP family of pulses has been used in the NOESY pulse sequence for achieving high resolution in the spectra and the coupling constants have been estimated by simulating cross-sections through H1'-H4' and H8-H3' cross-peaks in two illustrative cases.

  20. Nutritional Signaling Regulates Vitellogenin Synthesis and Egg Development through Juvenile Hormone in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Xiao; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Insect female reproduction which comprises the synthesis of vitellogenein (Vg) in the fat body and its incorporation into developing oocytes, needs a large amount of energy and food resources. Our previous studies found that juvenile hormone (JH) regulates vitellogenesis in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Here, we report on the role of JH in nutrient-regulated Vg synthesis and egg development. We first cloned the genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) which is involved in JH biosynthesis and methoprene-tolerant (Met) for JH action. Amino acids (AAs) induced the expression of jmtN, while showing no effects on the expression of met using an artificial diet culture system. Reduction in JH biosynthesis or its action by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of jmtN or met led to a severe inhibition of AAs-induced Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation, together with lower fecundity. Furthermore, exogenous application of JH III partially restored Vg expression levels in jmtN RNAi females. However, JH III application did not rescue Vg synthesis in these met RNAi insects. Our results show that AAs induce Vg synthesis in the fat body and egg development in concert with JH biosynthesis in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), rather than through JH action. PMID:26927076

  1. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  2. Juvenile hormone signaling during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Smykal, Vlastimil; Bajgar, Adam; Provaznik, Jan; Fexova, Silvie; Buricova, Marcela; Takaki, Keiko; Hodkova, Magdalena; Jindra, Marek; Dolezel, David

    2014-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the insect corpus allatum gland (CA), prevents metamorphosis in larvae and stimulates vitellogenesis in adult females. Whether the same JH signaling pathway regulates both processes is presently unknown. Here, we employ the robust JH response during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, to compare the function of key JH-signaling genes encoding the JH receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), its binding partner Taiman (Tai), and a JH-inducible protein, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1). RNA interference (RNAi) with Met or Tai, but not Kr-h1, blocked ovarian development and suppressed vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of females raised under reproduction-inducing conditions. Loss of Met and Tai matched the effects of CA ablation or the natural absence of JH during reproductive diapause. Stimulation of vitellogenesis by treatment of diapausing females with a JH mimic methoprene also required both Met and Tai in the fat body, whereas Kr-h1 RNAi had no effect. Therefore, the Met-Tai complex likely functions as a JH receptor during vitellogenesis. In contrast to Met and Kr-h1 that are both required for JH to prevent precocious metamorphosis in P. apterus larvae, removal of Tai disrupted larval ecdysis without causing premature adult development. Our results show that while Met operates during metamorphosis in larvae and reproduction in adult females, its partner Tai is only required for the latter. The diverse functions of JH thus likely rely on a common receptor whose actions are modulated by distinct components. PMID:24361539

  3. Genetic Evidence for Function of the bHLH-PAS Protein Gce/Met As a Juvenile Hormone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Jindra, Marek; Uhlirova, Mirka; Charles, Jean-Philippe; Smykal, Vlastimil; Hill, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) play a major role in controlling development and reproduction in insects and other arthropods. Synthetic JH-mimicking compounds such as methoprene are employed as potent insecticides against significant agricultural, household and disease vector pests. However, a receptor mediating effects of JH and its insecticidal mimics has long been the subject of controversy. The bHLH-PAS protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met), along with its Drosophila melanogaster paralog germ cell-expressed (Gce), has emerged as a prime JH receptor candidate, but critical evidence that this protein must bind JH to fulfill its role in normal insect development has been missing. Here, we show that Gce binds a native D. melanogaster JH, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and some synthetic JH mimics. Conditional on this ligand binding, Gce mediates JH-dependent gene expression and the hormone's vital role during development of the fly. Any one of three different single amino acid mutations in the ligand-binding pocket that prevent binding of JH to the protein block these functions. Only transgenic Gce capable of binding JH can restore sensitivity to JH mimics in D. melanogaster Met-null mutants and rescue viability in flies lacking both Gce and Met that would otherwise die at pupation. Similarly, the absence of Gce and Met can be compensated by expression of wild-type but not mutated transgenic D. melanogaster Met protein. This genetic evidence definitively establishes Gce/Met in a JH receptor role, thus resolving a long-standing question in arthropod biology. PMID:26161662

  4. Juvenile Hormone Activates the Transcription of Cell-division-cycle 6 (Cdc6) for Polyploidy-dependent Insect Vitellogenesis and Oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongxia; Guo, Wei; Xie, Yingtian; Zhou, Shutang

    2016-03-01

    Although juvenile hormone (JH) is known to prevent insect larval metamorphosis and stimulate adult reproduction, the molecular mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction remain largely unknown. Earlier, we reported that the JH-receptor complex, composed of methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor co-activator, acts on mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm) genes Mcm4 and Mcm7 to promote DNA replication and polyploidy for the massive vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis required for egg production in the migratory locust (Guo, W., Wu, Z., Song, J., Jiang, F., Wang, Z., Deng, S., Walker, V. K., and Zhou, S. (2014) PLoS Genet. 10, e1004702). In this study we have investigated the involvement of cell-division-cycle 6 (Cdc6) in JH-dependent vitellogenesis and oogenesis, as Cdc6 is essential for the formation of prereplication complex. We demonstrate here that Cdc6 is expressed in response to JH and methoprene-tolerant, and Cdc6 transcription is directly regulated by the JH-receptor complex. Knockdown of Cdc6 inhibits polyploidization of fat body and follicle cells, resulting in the substantial reduction of Vg expression in the fat body as well as severely impaired oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate the involvement of Cdc6 in JH pathway and a pivotal role of Cdc6 in JH-mediated polyploidization, vitellogenesis, and oogenesis. PMID:26728459

  5. Methoprene influences reproduction and flight capacity in adults of the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) influences many aspects of insect biology, including oogenesis-flight syndrome tradeoffs between migration and reproduction. Drawing on studies of many migratory insects, we posed the hypothesis that JH influences migratory capacity and oogenesis in the rice leaf roller, Cnapha...

  6. Juvenile hormone regulates body size and perturbs insulin signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mirth, Christen Kerry; Tang, Hui Yuan; Makohon-Moore, Sasha C; Salhadar, Samy; Gokhale, Rewatee H; Warner, Raechel D; Koyama, Takashi; Riddiford, Lynn M; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2014-05-13

    The role of juvenile hormone (JH) in regulating the timing and nature of insect molts is well-established. Increasing evidence suggests that JH is also involved in regulating final insect size. Here we elucidate the developmental mechanism through which JH regulates body size in developing Drosophila larvae by genetically ablating the JH-producing organ, the corpora allata (CA). We found that larvae that lack CA pupariated at smaller sizes than control larvae due to a reduced larval growth rate. Neither the timing of the metamorphic molt nor the duration of larval growth was affected by the loss of JH. Further, we show that the effects of JH on growth rate are dependent on the forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO), which is negatively regulated by the insulin-signaling pathway. Larvae that lacked the CA had elevated levels of FOXO activity, whereas a loss-of-function mutation of FOXO rescued the effects of CA ablation on final body size. Finally, the effect of JH on growth appears to be mediated, at least in part, via ecdysone synthesis in the prothoracic gland. These results indicate a role of JH in regulating growth rate via the ecdysone- and insulin-signaling pathways. PMID:24778227

  7. Methyl Farnesoate a naturally occurring juvenoid that accelerates reproductive development in Caribbean Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl farnesoate, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and the bisepoxide homolog of JH III was identified from hemolymph of adult males and females of the Caribbean fruit fly. Application of methyl farnesoate to newly eclosed flies resulted in precocious sexual dev...

  8. On the existence of T-direction of algebroid functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Zu-Xing

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we solve a problem of J.H. Zheng (see Problem 5.12 of [J.H. Zheng, On value distribution of meromorphic functions with respect to arguments, preprint]) by proving that for any [nu]-valued algebroid function satisfying , there exists a T-direction dealing with multiple values of w(z).

  9. Juvenile Hormone Regulates the Expression of Drosophila Epac– a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The juvenile hormones (JH) are a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Although well-studied from the physiological standpoint, the molecular actions of JH remain unclear. Using cDNA microchip array technology, we previously identifi...

  10. Role of Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) in Adult Morphogenesis and in Adult Ecdysis of Blattella germanica

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent. PMID:25072526

  11. Antifungal activity of a synthetic cationic peptide against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and three Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 µg ml 1, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 µg ml 1. Most conidia of Fusa...

  12. Juvenile Hormone Regulation of Drosophila Epac - A Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we utilized a microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze the effect of (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH) on genome-wide gene expression in Drosophila S2 cells. Treatment with JH yielded a collection of 32 gene transcripts that demonstrated a ...

  13. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent. PMID:25072526

  14. Nervous control of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed Central

    Horseman, G; Hartmann, R; Virant-Doberlet, M; Loher, W; Huber, F

    1994-01-01

    In Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. and F., two types of brain neurons innervate the juvenile hormone (JH)-producing corpora allata (CA). Thirteen cells in each pars lateralis (PL) innervate the ipsilateral CA, while four cells (two in each PL) innervate both glands. We investigated possible influences of these two neuronal types on JH production by a newly developed method. A radiochemical assay was used to measure hourly JH production by a CA with intact nerve connections to the brain. Then, changes in hormone production due to selective nerve stimulation or transection were assessed. In control preparations JH production per h remained approximately constant for at least 9 h. Simultaneous electrical stimulation of all neurons innervating one CA (i.e., 13 ipsilateral plus 4 bilaterally innervating cells) always inhibited JH production, while their transection led to a rapid progressive increase in JH biosynthesis in CA from females with oocytes longer than 4.5 mm. Thus, there is strong neurally mediated inhibition of the CA at certain phases of the vitellogenic cycle. The dramatic effects of nerve transection show that in vitro rates of JH production are an unreliable indicator of in vivo levels. Selective stimulation of the four neurons innervating both CA suggests that they do modulate JH biosynthesis but the effect varies qualitatively depending on the phase of the vitellogenic cycle. Images PMID:8159687

  15. Nervous control of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Horseman, G; Hartmann, R; Virant-Doberlet, M; Loher, W; Huber, F

    1994-04-12

    In Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. and F., two types of brain neurons innervate the juvenile hormone (JH)-producing corpora allata (CA). Thirteen cells in each pars lateralis (PL) innervate the ipsilateral CA, while four cells (two in each PL) innervate both glands. We investigated possible influences of these two neuronal types on JH production by a newly developed method. A radiochemical assay was used to measure hourly JH production by a CA with intact nerve connections to the brain. Then, changes in hormone production due to selective nerve stimulation or transection were assessed. In control preparations JH production per h remained approximately constant for at least 9 h. Simultaneous electrical stimulation of all neurons innervating one CA (i.e., 13 ipsilateral plus 4 bilaterally innervating cells) always inhibited JH production, while their transection led to a rapid progressive increase in JH biosynthesis in CA from females with oocytes longer than 4.5 mm. Thus, there is strong neurally mediated inhibition of the CA at certain phases of the vitellogenic cycle. The dramatic effects of nerve transection show that in vitro rates of JH production are an unreliable indicator of in vivo levels. Selective stimulation of the four neurons innervating both CA suggests that they do modulate JH biosynthesis but the effect varies qualitatively depending on the phase of the vitellogenic cycle. PMID:8159687

  16. Advertised quality, caste and food availability influence the survival cost of juvenile hormone in paper wasps.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Banan, Maral

    2010-11-22

    Life-history trade-offs are often hormonally mediated. Here, we provide a comparative perspective on the endocrine basis of life-history trade-offs by examining the invertebrate hormone juvenile hormone (JH). JH is often associated with benefits, including increased dominance and reproductive success. We tested whether JH reduced survival of Polistes dominulus wasps and whether this survival cost was influenced by factors such as advertised quality, food availability, caste and body size. Overall, JH reduced individual survival. Among fed and unfed queens, JH reduced survival in a dose-dependent manner. Among workers, JH had a stronger effect on survival of fed workers than unfed workers. Unfed workers died quickly and body size was the best predictor of survival. Surprisingly, queens and workers treated with JH survived longer when they had signals advertising high quality than when they had signals advertising low quality. The relationship between advertised quality and ability to withstand high levels of JH suggests that there are differential physiological costs associated with ornament elaboration that could play a role in maintaining signal accuracy over evolutionary time. Overall, the convergence of endocrine-mediated costs across diverse systems suggests that endocrine-mediated trade-offs may be an adaptive way to optimize resource allocation rather than a non-adaptive constraint specific to a particular hormone. PMID:20534614

  17. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  18. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Altho...

  19. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  20. Radiochemical Assay of Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Rate in Ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important insect hormone known to have many effects on development, reproduction,and behavior in both solitary and social insects. This protocol describes how to quantify in vitro biosynthesis rates from excised corpora allata (CA), the glands responsible for JH productio...

  1. Precocene-I inhibits juvenile hormone biosynthesis, ovarian activation, aggression and alters sterility signal production in bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) workers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important regulator of development and physiology in insects. While in many insect species, including bumble bees, JH function as gonadotropin in adults, in some highly eusocial insects its role has shifted to regulate social behavior including division of labor, dominanc...

  2. Effect of specialization on genetic parameters of studbook-entry inspection in Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Rovere, G; Madsen, P; Norberg, E; van Arendonk, J A M; Ducro, B J

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies on data from the Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) have shown that the ongoing specialization of horses for either dressage (DH) or show jumping (JH) has led to a decreasing genetic relationship between the two subpopulations. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of the specialization process on the genetic parameters of traits measured in the studbook-entry inspection of KWPN during the last fifteen years. Data from 18 125 DH and 23 800 JH recorded from 1998 until 2013 were used to analyse 13 traits scored in both DH and JH. Analyses were performed in a Bayesian framework. Firstly, variance components were estimated based on the whole data set. Secondly, genetic correlations between traits measured in DH or JH were estimated using bivariate analyses. Thirdly, three time periods were defined and genetic correlations between subpopulations were estimated within each period. Heritability was moderate (0.17-0.39) for both DH and JH. Genetic correlations between traits measured in DH or JH were not different from one considering the posterior standard deviation of the estimation; however, in most of the traits, a clear trend in reduction of the genetic correlation for traits expressed in DH and JH and an increase in their posterior standard deviation for recent years was observed. These results suggest that specialization could lead to differences in traits measured in DH and JH in the recent years. PMID:26012787

  3. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... he would sign a check or legal document (e.g., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is...., J.H. Smith or John H. Smith). Where an oral order is not permitted, paper prescriptions shall...

  4. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects. PMID:26739685

  5. Coupling between H+ transport and anaerobic glycolysis in turtle urinary bladder: effect of inhibitors of H+ ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, P.R.; Husted, R.F.; Mueller, A.; Beauwens, R.

    1981-03-15

    The coupling between H+ transport (JH) and anaerobic glycolysis was examined in vitro in an anaerobic preparation of turtle urinary bladder. JH was measured as the short-circuit current after Na+ transport was abolished with ouabain and by pH stat titration. The media were gassed with N2 and 1% CO2 (PO2 less than 0.5 mm Hg) and contained 10 mM glucose. Under these conditions, JH was not inhibited by 3 mM serosal (S) cyanide or by 0.1 mM mucosal (M) dinitrophenol. Control anaerobic lactate production (Jlac) of 47 bladders was plotted as a function of simultaneously measured JH. The slope of Jlac on JH was 0.58

  6. Joule heating effects on electrokinetic focusing and trapping of particles in constriction microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junjie; Sridharan, Sriram; Hu, Guoqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2012-07-01

    Joule heating (JH) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in electrokinetic microfluidic devices. Its effects on fluid and ionic species transport in capillary and microchip electrophoresis have been well studied. However, JH effects on the electrokinetic motion of microparticles in microchannels have been nearly unexplored in the literature. This paper presents an experimental investigation of JH effects on electrokinetic particle transport and manipulation in constriction microchannels under both pure dc and dc-biased ac electric fields. It is found that the JH effects reduce the dielectrophoretic focusing and trapping of particles, especially significant when dc-biased ac electric fields are used. These results are expected to provide a useful guidance for future designs of electrokinetic particle handling microdevices that will avoid JH effects or take advantage of them.

  7. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shemshedini, L.; Wilson, T.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. Five major mechanisms of insecticide resistance were examined in Met and susceptible Met{sup +} flies. These two strains showed only minor differences when penetration, excretion, tissue sequestration, or metabolism of ({sup 3}H)JH III was measured. In contrast, when we examined JH III binding by a cytosolic binding protein from a JH target tissue, Met strains had a 10-fold lower binding affinity than did Met{sup +} strains. Studies using deficiency-bearing chromosomes provide strong evidence that the Met locus controls the binding protein characteristics and may encode the protein. These studies indicate that resistance in Met flies results from reduced binding affinity of a cytosolic binding protein for JH III.

  8. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects. PMID:27180724

  9. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tusar T; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-02-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box-like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  10. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-05-17

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect's life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb'Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb'jhamt In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb'Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb'Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb'jhamt Gb'Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb'myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb'jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb'myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb'myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5-8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development. PMID:27140602

  11. Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from a volcanically active deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, You-Tae; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Park, Cheon-Seok; Holden, James F

    2015-04-01

    A hyperthermophilic methanogen, strain JH146(T), was isolated from 26 °C hydrothermal vent fluid emanating from a crack in basaltic rock at Marker 113 vent, Axial Seamount in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. It was identified as an obligate anaerobe that uses only H2 and CO2 for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain is more than 97% similar to other species of the genus Methanocaldococcus . Therefore, overall genome relatedness index analyses were performed to establish that strain JH146(T) represents a novel species. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was most similar to Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22, which can fix N2 and also comes from Marker 113 vent. However, strain JH146(T) differs from strain FS406-22 in that it cannot fix N2. The average nucleotide identity score for strain JH146(T) was 87%, the genome-to-genome direct comparison score was 33-55% and the species identification score was 93%. For each analysis, strain JH146(T) was below the species delineation cut-off. Full-genome gene synteny analysis showed that strain JH146(T) and strain FS406-22 have 97% genome synteny, but strain JH146(T) was missing the operons necessary for N2 fixation and assimilatory nitrate reduction that are present in strain FS406-22. Based on its whole genome sequence, strain JH146(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Methanocaldococcus for which the name Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens is proposed. The type strain is JH146(T) ( = DSM 27223(T) = KACC 18232(T)). PMID:25634941

  12. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tusar T.; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box–like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  13. Expressional and functional analysis of CYP15A1, a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion. PMID:25921675

  14. Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michael V.; Jonassaint, Charles R.; Williams, Redford B.; James, Sherman A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate associations between John Henryism (JH) and NEO PI-R personality domains. JH—a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial and economic stressors—has been associated with poor health, particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH. METHODS Hypotheses were examined using data from a sample of 233 community volunteers (mean age: 33 years; 61% black and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active coping (12-item John Henryism scale) measures and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis, independent of SES JH was positively associated with Conscientiousness (C; p<.001) and Extraversion (E; p<.001), while the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N; p=0.02) When examining associations between JH and combinations of NEO PI-R domains called “styles,” high JH was most strongly associated with a high E/high C “Go-Getters” style of activity while low JH was associated with the low E/high O “Introspectors” style. In facet level data, the most robust associations with JH were found for five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS High JH was associated with higher scores on C and E, but the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with higher scores on N. PMID:20100884

  15. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect’s life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb’Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb’jhamt. In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb’Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb’Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb’jhamt. Gb’Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb’myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb’jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb’myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb’myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5–8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development. PMID:27140602

  16. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  17. Isolation of an IgH gene circular DNA clone from human bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, M; Shiku, H

    1989-01-01

    Circular DNA was obtained from human bone marrow. Then a phage library was prepared and screened by use of two probes of the IgH gene; 5'-DHQ52, containing the 5' flanking region of DHQ52, and JH4.3, containing the sequence from JH3 to the 3' flanking region of JH6. One clone, HBMC-1, that was DHQ52+JH4.3- was obtained. HBMC-1 had the germline IgH region upstream of JH1 and the 3' flanking region of DXP1. A recombination signal sequence flanking the 5' side of the JH1 segment was attached to the recombination signal sequence flanking the 3' side of DXP1 forming a head-to-head structure of two 7mers with 10 nucleotides in-between. HBMC-1 is thus considered to be a circular DNA deleted as a consequence of DXP1-JH1 joining of the IgH gene. Images PMID:2492093

  18. Changes in juvenile hormone biosynthetic rate and whole body content in maturing virgin queens of Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Brent, Colin S; Vargo, Edward L

    2003-10-01

    Studies were conducted on the physiological and hormonal changes following the release of alates from developmentally suppressive pheromones produced by mature queens of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. Winged virgin queens were removed from the pheromonal signal and placed in colony fragments. The time for dealation, degree of ovarian development, and biosynthesis rate and whole body content of juvenile hormone (JH) were measured. The production rate and content of JH were highly correlated. Dealation and the initiation of oviposition corresponded to peak production of JH. JH production rose sharply following separation from the natal nest, peaking after 3 days. After 8 days of isolation, JH production gradually subsided to levels similar to that found in pre-release queens, but began to increase again after 12 days. Mature queens had highly elevated levels of JH relative to recently dealate females, probably reflecting the increased reproductive capability of these older females. The results support the hypothesis that the pheromone released by functional queens inhibits reproduction in virgin alates by suppressing corpora allata activity and the production of JH. PMID:14511829

  19. Diofenolan induces male offspring production through binding to the juvenile hormone receptor in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoko; Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Haruna; Oka, Tomohiro; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Nishide, Hiroyo; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and JH agonists have been reported to induce male offspring production in various daphnid species including Daphnia magna. We recently established a short-term in vivo screening assay to detect chemicals having male offspring induction activity in adult D. magna. Diofenolan has been developed as a JH agonist for insect pest control, but its male offspring induction activity in daphnids has not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that the insect growth regulator (IGR) diofenolan exhibited a potent male offspring induction activity at low ng/L to μg/L concentrations, as demonstrated by the short-term in vivo screening assay and the recently developed TG211 ANNEX 7 test protocol. A two-hybrid assay performed using the D. magna JH receptor confirmed that diofenolan had a strong JH activity. Global whole body transcriptome analysis of D. magna exposed to 10 ng/L diofenolan showed an up-regulation of JH-responsive genes and modulation of several genes involved in the ecdysone receptor signaling pathway. These results clearly demonstrate that diofenolan has strong JH activity and male offspring induction activity, and that a combination of modified standardized regulatory testing protocols and rapid in vitro and in vivo screening assays are able to identify potential endocrine disruptors in D. magna. The observation that diofenolan modulates multiple endocrine signaling pathways in D. magna suggests that further investigation of potential interference with growth, development and reproduction is warranted. PMID:25506888

  20. Krüppel-homolog 1 mediates juvenile hormone action to promote vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Wu, Zhongxia; Wang, Zhiming; Deng, Shun; Zhou, Shutang

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) prevents insect larval metamorphosis and stimulates processes for adult reproduction. Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a zinc finger transcription factor, is shown to mediate the anti-metamorphic effect of JH in both holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects. However, the role of Kr-h1 in JH-mediated reproduction has not been determined. Using the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we showed here that Kr-h1 was expressed in response to JH in female adults, and Kr-h1 transcription was directly regulated by the JH-receptor complex comprised of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and steroid receptor co-activator. We demonstrated that Kr-h1 RNAi phenocopied Met RNAi and JH-deprived condition during post-eclosion development and vitellogenesis of female locusts. Knockdown of Kr-h1 resulted in substantial reduction of Vg expression in the fat body and lipid accumulation in the primary oocytes, accompanied by blocked follicular epithelium development, oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data therefore reveal a crucial role of Kr-h1 in insect vitellogenesis and egg production. This study suggests that JH-Met-Kr-h1 signaling pathway is also functional in insect reproduction. PMID:25017142

  1. Identification of a juvenile hormone esterase-like gene in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L.--expression analysis and functional assays.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Aline; do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2008-05-01

    Tight control over circulating juvenile hormone (JH) levels is of prime importance in an insect's life cycle. Consequently, enzymes involved in JH metabolism, especially juvenile hormone esterases (JHEs), play major roles during metamorphosis and reproduction. In the highly eusocial Hymenoptera, JH has been co-opted into additional functions, primarily in the development of the queen and worker castes and in age-related behavioral development of workers. Within a set of 21 carboxylesterases predicted in the honey bee genome we identified one gene (Amjhe-like) that contained the main functional motifs of insect JHEs. Its transcript levels during larval development showed a maximum at the switch from feeding to spinning behavior, coinciding with a JH titer minimum. In adult workers, the highest levels were observed in nurse bees, where a low JH titer is required to prevent the switch to foraging. Functional assays showed that Amjhe-like expression is induced by JH-III and suppressed by 20-hydroxyecdysone. RNAi-mediated silencing of Amjhe-like gene function resulted in a six-fold increase in the JH titer in adult worker bees. The temporal profile of Amjhe-like expression in larval and adult workers, the pattern of hormonal regulation and the knockdown phenotype are consistent with the function of this gene as an authentic JHE. PMID:18308604

  2. Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Hua-Jun, Yang; Fang, Zhou; Awquib, Sabhat; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Roy, Bhaskar; Xing-Hua, Li; Jia-Biao, Hu; Chun-Guang, Sun; Niu, Yan-Shan; Yun-Gen, Miao

    2011-10-01

    The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost all the tissues. This indicated that JHE and JHEH might degrade JH simultaneously. In addition, the highest levels of JHDK were observed in the midgut, with trace level being found in the malpighian tubule and haemocytes. Since the midgut is a digestive organ and not a JH target, it was hypothesized that both JHE and JHEH hydrolyzed JH to JH diol (JHd) which was then transported to midgut and hydrolyzed further by JHDK, to be finally excreted out of the body. Also the expression studies on JH degradation enzymes in different tissues and stages indicated that the activities of the three enzymes are specific and coincident with the JH functions in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. PMID:21107706

  3. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone promotes higher calcium mobilization to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Pei, Xu-Yang; Zhao, Wen-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-07-01

    Calcium ions are essential secondary messengers that regulate diverse cellular processes including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes programmed cell death during insect metamorphosis, whereas juvenile hormone (JH) counteracts 20E activity to prevent metamorphosis. Both 20E and JH can induce cellular calcium increase; however, the mechanisms and physiological consequences resulting from calcium increase caused by the two counteracting hormones are unclear. Here, using Helicoverpa armigera epidermal cell line, we show that 20E via a G-protein-coupled receptor induced a major calcium rise in the cells, whereas JH via receptor tyrosine kinase induced a minor calcium increase. The calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orai1) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels were necessary for 20E-induced rapid calcium influx. A higher calcium level was maintained in a long time and more genes including Orai1 and TRP channels showed elevated expression after the treatment of 20E than did after JH treatment. Caspase3/7 activation, cell death and pro-apoptotic gene expression were elicited by 20E induction, but not by JH. JH could repress 20E-induced calcium influx, caspase3/7 activation and gene expression. Higher calcium levels induced apoptosis. These results suggest that 20E and JH via different pathways regulate calcium mobilization and homeostasis at different levels, thus inform different gene expression and cellular responses. PMID:27209368

  4. Juvenile hormone diol kinase, a calcium-binding protein with kinase activity, from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Zhang, Qi-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hua; Schooley, David A

    2005-11-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) diol kinase (JHDK) is an important enzyme involved in the JH degradation pathway. Bombyx mori (Bommo)-JHDK cDNA (637bp) contains an open reading frame encoding a 183-amino acid protein, which reveals a high degree of identity to the two previously reported JHDKs. JHDK is similar to GTP-binding proteins with three conserved sequence elements involved in purine nucleotide binding, contains eight alpha-helices and three EF-hand motifs, and resembles the three-dimensional model of 2SCP and some other calcium-binding proteins. The Bommo-JHDK gene has only a single copy in the silkworm haploid genome, contains only one exon, and its 5'-upstream sequence does not have a JH response element. Although Bommo-JHDK is highly expressed in the gut of the silkworm, its mRNA expression remains at a constant level during larval development suggesting this enzyme is constitutive and not regulated by JH, at least at the transcriptional level. Recombinant Bommo-JHDK catalyzed the conversion of 10S-JH diol into JH diol phosphate, confirming its enzymatic function. Recombinant enzyme formed a dimer and had biochemical characteristics similar to other JHDKs. Bommo-JHDK, a calcium-binding protein with kinase activity, provides unique insights on how JH levels are regulated in the silkworm. PMID:16203205

  5. Hydroxy juvenile hormones: new putative juvenile hormones biosynthesized by locust corpora allata in vitro.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet, E; Mauchamp, B; Prestwich, G D; Kerhoas, L; Ujváry, I; Couillaud, F

    1997-11-26

    The in vitro production of sesquiterpenoids was investigated by using corpora allata (CA) of the African locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides. Labeled products from unstimulated biosynthesis were extracted, purified by normal phase HPLC, and derivatized to determine the functional groups present. An extra hydroxyl group was detected in each of two juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthetic products. One compound, NP-8, was found to co-migrate with a chemically-synthesized (Z)-hydroxymethyl isomer, 12'-OH JH-III, but not with the (E)-hydroxymethyl isomer, 12-OH JH III. Mass spectral analyses further supported the identity of the synthetic material with that biosynthesized by the corpora allata. A second compound was identified as the 8'-OH JH-III based on spectroscopic analyses. 12'-OH JH-III exhibited morphogenetic activity when tested on the heterospecific Tenebrio test. These data suggest that 12'-OH JH-III and 8'-OH JH-III are additional biosynthetically-produced and biologically-active juvenile hormones, and constitute the first known members of the class of hydroxy juvenile hormones (HJHs). PMID:9398639

  6. Juvenile Hormone Is Required in Adult Males for Drosophila Courtship

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Thilini P.; Saurabh, Sumit; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) has a prominent role in the regulation of insect development. Much less is known about its roles in adults, although functions in reproductive maturation have been described. In adult females, JH has been shown to regulate egg maturation and mating. To examine a role for JH in male reproductive behavior we created males with reduced levels of Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyl Transferase (JHAMT) and tested them for courtship. JHAMT regulates the last step of JH biosynthesis in the Corpora Allata (CA), the organ of JH synthesis. Males with reduced levels of JHAMT showed a reduction in courtship that could be rescued by application of Methoprene, a JH analog, shortly before the courtship assays were performed. In agreement with this, reducing JHAMT conditionally in mature flies led to courtship defects that were rescuable by Methoprene. The same result was also observed when the CA were conditionally ablated by the expression of a cellular toxin. Our findings demonstrate that JH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of male mating behavior. PMID:27003411

  7. Role of juvenile hormone esterase and epoxide hydrolase in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Sayed M S; Anspaugh, Douglas D; Michael Roe, R

    2006-07-01

    The role of juvenile hormone (JH) esterase (JHE) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) in reproduction of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, was investigated. Peak emergence of male and female bollworm adults occurred early in the scotophase. Female adults were added to males in a 1:2 ratio, respectively, at the beginning of the first photophase after emergence (d0). The highest oviposition rates for mated females were noted on d 2-4. The in vitro JH III esterase and JH III EH activity was measured in whole body homogenates of virgin and mated females from d0 to d8 post-emergence. Maximal JHE activity for virgin females occurred on d2 (1.09+/-0.14(+/-1 SEM) nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein), which was approximately twice that of mated females on the same day. The same results were observed for EH where the activity peaked on d2 at 0.053+/-0.003 as compared to 0.033+/-0.003 nmol of JH III degraded/min/mg protein, respectively. By d4, both JHE and JH EH activities declined significantly in virgin and mated females and were the same through d7. The developmental changes and effects of mating on JH degradation were similar when measured per insect. The highest levels of JHE and JH EH activity/min/mg protein in d2 virgin and mated females was found in ovaries followed by the carcass and then haemolymph; no EH activity was found in haemolymph as expected. For ovary, the JHE and JH EH activity was highest in virgin compared to mated females. The role of both enzymes in the regulation of reproduction is discussed. PMID:16678198

  8. Effect of juvenile hormone on senescence in males with terminal investment.

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, D; González-Santoyo, I; Munguía-Steyer, R; Córdoba-Aguilar, A

    2013-11-01

    Senescence, a decline in survival and reproductive prospects with age, is controlled by hormones. In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in senescence with captive individuals, but its effect under natural conditions is unknown. We have addressed this gap by increasing JH levels in young and old wild males of the damselfly Hetaerina americana. We assessed survival in males that were treated with a JH analogue (methoprene), which is known to promote sexual activity, and an immune challenge, which is known to promote terminal investment in reproduction in the studied species. We replicated the same procedure in captivity (to control for environmental variation), where males were deprived of any activity or food. We expected old males to show the lowest survival after being treated with JH and immune-challenged, because the effect of terminal investment on senescence would be exacerbated by JH. However, this should be the case for wild animals, but not for captive animals, as the effects of JH and immune challenge should lead to an increase in high energetic-demanding activities only occurring in the wild. Old animals died sooner compared with young animals in both the wild and captivity, confirming that males are subject to senescence. In wild but not captive animals, JH decreased survival in young males and increased it in old males, confirming that JH is sensitive to the environment when shaping animal senescence. Immune challenge had no effect on survival, suggesting no effect of terminal investment on senescence. Additionally, contrary to the expected effects of terminal investment, with an immune challenge, recapture rates increased in young males and decreased in old males. Our results show that male senescence in the wild is mediated by JH and that terminal investment does not cause senescence. One explanation is that animals undergoing senescence and terminal investment modify their feeding behaviour to compensate for their physiological state. PMID

  9. Characterization of two juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases by RNA interference in the Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Lü, Feng-Gong; Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-10-10

    In insect, juvenile hormone (JH) titers are tightly regulated in different development stages through synthesis and degradation pathways. During JH degradation, JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) converts JH to JH diol, and hydrolyses JH acid to JH acid diol. In this study, two full length LdJHEH cDNAs were cloned from Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and were provisionally designated LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2. Both mRNAs were detectable in the thoracic muscles, brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, foregut, midgut, hindgut, ventral ganglia, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, epidermis, and hemocytes of the day 2 fourth-instar larvae, and in female ovaries as well as male reproductive organs of the adults. Moreover, both LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 were expressed throughout all larval life, with the highest peaks occurring 32h after ecdysis of the final (fourth) instar larvae. Four double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsJHEH1-1, dsJHEH1-2, dsJHEH2-1, dsJHEH2-2) respectively targeting LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 were constructed and bacterially expressed. Ingestion of dsJHEH1-1, dsJHEH1-2, dsJHEH2-1, dsJHEH2-2, and a mixture of dsJHEH1-1+dsJHEH2-1 successfully knocked down corresponding target gene function, and significantly increased JH titer and upregulated Krüppel homolog 1 (LdKr-h1) mRNA level. Knockdown of either LdJHEH1 or LdJHEH2, or both genes slightly reduced larval weight and delayed larval development, and significantly impaired adult emergence. Therefore, it is suggested that knockdown LdJHEH1 and LdJHEH2 affected JH degradation in the Colorado potato beetle. PMID:26079572

  10. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  11. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M.; Mitchell, Robert D.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  12. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M; Mitchell, Robert D; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  13. Functional binding of a vertebrate hormone, L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), on insect follicle cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Davari, E D; Sevala, V; Davey, K G

    1999-10-01

    A vertebrate hormone, L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), induces volume reduction in the follicle cells of Locusta migratoria and Rhodnius prolixus. The effect of T3 on locust follicle cells is inhibited by ouabain and by antibodies raised against a membrane binding protein for juvenile hormone (JH). [125I]-T3 binds to membrane preparations of vitellogenic follicles in a specific and saturable fashion, with a KD in the low nanomolar range. T3 and JH III exhibited equivalent abilities to compete for the T3 binding site. These findings strongly suggest that T3 and JH act via the same receptor in follicle cells. PMID:10528413

  14. Necrotizing vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045170 . Stone JH. Classification and epidemiology of systemic vasculitis. In: Firestein GS, ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  15. The Reading University Macro-economic Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    Using a university-owned computer, English secondary schools participate in a game to stabilise the course of their "nation's" economy over a 20 year period. Information provided to participating students is included in the article. (JH)

  16. Sinus MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thomsen HS, Reimer P. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, ... JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  17. Dogmatism, Self-Acceptance, and Acceptance of Others Among Spanish and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tamayo, Eulogy

    1974-01-01

    A cross cultural study of 16-year-olds in Spain and the United States assesses the extent to which open or closed societies effect performance on the Dogmatism Scale, and the Acceptance of Self and Others Attitude Scale. (JH)

  18. A Hierarchy of Basic Organizational Needs in Liberal Arts Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Hugh L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study, designed to test the hypothesis that decision making in formal organizations is related to a hierarchy of needs, gained empirical support for the hypothesis from the results of a sampling of 139 private liberal arts college presidents. (JH)

  19. Do Principals' Interpersonal Attitudes Agree with Those of Teachers and Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H.

    1970-01-01

    This study of interpersonal relationships between teachers, principals, and students finds that attitudes of teachers and principals toward children are correlated positively although pupils' and principals' ratings of teachers lack significant correlation. (JH)

  20. The Ground on Which I Stand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    tate, Willis M.

    1970-01-01

    The university, public or private, is a voluntary organization. All members of the university community must guard against reckless disruption of academic freedom that is essential to stable governance in higher education. (JH)

  1. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  2. An Evaluation Procedure for a New Program To Prepare Administrator Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Larry W.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    This article describes a new program directed toward preparing principals to function as change agents in elementary and secondary schools in Appalachia. Program evaluation procedures that include cost effectiveness analysis based on Bayesian statistics are described in detail. (JH)

  3. The University, the City, and the Arts. (Part of a Symposium: Government and the Arts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, William O.

    1970-01-01

    The university must devote increased, multidisciplinary attention to urban needs in order to train urban administrators effectively. Significant progress can thus be made toward revitalization of the arts, the university, and the city. (JH)

  4. The Palaestric Design Conference: A Description of the Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jeffrey

    1974-01-01

    An integration of "systems" and "synectic" approaches and an unconventional use of role-playing are salient features of the problem solving workshop, looking for fresh approaches to the improvement of undergraduate education. (JH)

  5. Krabbe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walter JH, eds. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 39. Read ... by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on ...

  6. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  7. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Surgery . 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 22. Holmes JH, Heimbach DM. Burns. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, et al, eds. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery . 9th ed. New ...

  8. Some Reflections on the Crisis of the University Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Gabriel A.

    1974-01-01

    Specialization and reductionism are characteristics of higher education which can not be ignored but which must be related and interpreted in a higher order of disciplined sysnthesis and speculation. (Author/JH)

  9. Changing Formulations of the Man-Environment Relationship in Anglo-American Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeans, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    The following six formulations of the Man-Environment relationship have held successive favor in Geography since the 1900's: Economic Determinism, Possibilism, Cultural Relativism, the Landscape School, Perception of Environment, and Ecological Approach. (JH)

  10. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    MedlinePlus

    CLL; Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL) ... Byrd JC, Flynn JM. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Leg amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.healthquality.va.gov/amputation/amp_sum_508.pdf . January 2008. Accessed July 1, 2014. Toy PC. General Principles of Amputations. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap ...

  12. Hammer toe

    MedlinePlus

    ... toe References Murphy AG. Lesser toe abnormalities. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ... Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  13. Flat feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... fascia and adolescent and adult pes planus. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  14. Tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cannon DL. Flexor and extensor tendon injuries. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . ... Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  15. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobe MT. Compartment syndromes and Volkmann contracture. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. ... and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  16. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ... Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Ureolytic Bacteria Isolated from Concrete Block Waste

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeonghyeok; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced genomes of two ureolytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. JH7 and Sporosarcina sp. HYO08, which were isolated from concrete waste and have a potential for biocementation applications. PMID:27491992

  18. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 6. Kramer CM, Beller GA. Noninvasive cardiac imaging. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. ...

  19. Headaches -- danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 398. Garza I, Schwedt TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Daroff ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  20. Cluster Colleges: Viable Step into the Future. Redesigning the Halls of Ivy: Innovations in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Lloyd J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes attempts at the University of California at Santa Cruz to integrate traditional and innovative educational practices through cluster colleges.'' Details the university's organizational structure and selected academic innovations, and forecasts future growth and development. (JH)

  1. Mini Courses Without Maxi Headaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, R. David; Carney, Loretta

    1974-01-01

    "The Principal," a publication of the School Administration Association of New York State, contains this article clarifying goals for the organizational change involved in instituting mini courses and providing suggestions for successful mini course implementation. (JH)

  2. Branchiootorenal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a specialist? See answer References References Husein M, Smith JH. Genetic Sensorineural Hearing Loss. In: Cummings et ... Surgery, 4th ed . Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, Inc; 2005; Smith RJH, Van Camp G. Deafness and Hereditary Hearing ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, van Hillegersberg R, Dekker E, Oliveira C, Cats A, Hoogerbrugge N; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary ... JH, van Hillegersberg R, Ligtenberg M, Bleiker E, Cats A; Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer. ...

  4. From Germany to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veysey, Laurence

    1973-01-01

    German-American intellectual relations from the nineteenth century to the present are discussed in this literature review of books dealing with German refugees to the United States, the German academic system, and the German intelligentsia. (JH)

  5. Food and History: Teaching Social History Through the Study of Cuisine Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bertram M.

    1974-01-01

    Some interesting relationships between food and history -- working women and convenience food, exploration and the importation of new vegetables, reliance on potatoes and Irish emigration -- are suggested to indicate the usefulness of exploring history through eating habits. (JH)

  6. Paper-making in Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Making paper becomes a means for overcoming lack of money in a rural community: Students make money and gain scientific knowledge and practice learning skills by implementing paper-making technology. (JH)

  7. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  8. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Trichuris trichiura egg References Diemert DJ. Intestinal nematode infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 365. Maguire JH. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Ureolytic Bacteria Isolated from Concrete Block Waste.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeonghyeok; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Woojun; Choi, In-Geol

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced genomes of two ureolytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. JH7 and Sporosarcina sp. HYO08, which were isolated from concrete waste and have a potential for biocementation applications. PMID:27491992

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... JH, Papadia F, Breuning MH, Niedrist D, Hennekam RC, Schinzel A, Peters DJ. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein- ... 15):1725-35. Review. Citation on PubMed Hennekam RC. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006 ...

  11. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  12. Recent Growth of Aerial Photographic Interpretation/Remote Sensing in Geography in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai

    1974-01-01

    This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)

  13. The New Religious Consciousness and the Secular University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1974-01-01

    Talcott Parson's concept of cognitive rationality as the main purpose of the university is considered and juxtaposed with a new religious conciousness, born of the critical intellect and housed in the contemporary university. (JH)

  14. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... AK, Gillard JH, et al, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 3. Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ. Diagnostic imaging procedures in gastroenterology. In: Goldman L, Ausiello ...

  16. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ... In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New ...

  17. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  18. Selected Resource Materials for Teaching Urban Geography in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, M. H.; Deer, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion of non-book materials available in Australia for secondary instruction in urban geography emphasizes their suitability for conveying particular concepts as well as appropriateness at particular curricular levels. (JH)

  19. Hurler syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... oligosaccharidoses. In: Saudubray JM, van den Berghe G, Walter JH, eds. Inborn Metabolic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment . ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  20. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  1. Paradoxes of Plenty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quine, Willard

    1974-01-01

    Prodigality of funds in academic channels has led to unexpected results: while some improved scholarship has been accomplished, mass subsidy has changed the tone of the university and the attitudes and activities of its participants. (JH)

  2. The Indians of New Mexico: Apache, Navaho, Pueblo, Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Robert G., Ed.

    Brief descriptions of American Indians inhabiting New Mexico give current and historical information on geographical location, population, language, cultural background, and income sources. Eighteen pueblo communities and four Federal Indian reservations are discussed. (JH)

  3. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... Saunders; 2015:chap 93. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  4. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  5. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan; Computed axial tomography scan; Computed tomography scan ... Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ...

  6. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  7. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Mosby; 2012:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  8. Historical Interpretations of Social Change in Colonial America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwell, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Puritan effort to establish a Bible state in the wilderness offers a paradign of the forces of change, which the student may study if he is interested in understanding change instead of dismissing it as inevitable. (JH)

  9. New Thinking for Old Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne R.

    1976-01-01

    Teachers need to fuse creative thinking with multi-ethnic education, so students do not see cultures as monolithic groups but learn to see beyond the generalizations to the individuality of minority group people. (JH)

  10. Responses of Chinese University Students to the Thematic Apperception Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Elizabeth Yeo-hsien

    1974-01-01

    Murray's original Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Cards I to XX, was administered in two sessions to 80 Chinese male and female undergraduate students at the National Taiwan Normal University. The results are compared with American averages. (Author/JH)

  11. "Roots" Touched Children: Planned or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathouse, Betty

    1977-01-01

    Explores children's reactions to the televised version of Alex Haley's "Roots" through interviews with thirty 8-year-old third-graders (10 Black, 10 Mexican-American, 10 White) from two classrooms in South Phoenix, Arizona. (BF/JH)

  12. Retinoblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is especially important when more than 1 family member has had the disease, or if retinoblastoma occurs in both ... 8.1. Karcioglu ZA, Haik BG. Eye, orbit, and adnexal structures. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  13. The Relation of Birth Order, Social Class, and Need Achievement to Independent Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhine, W. Ray

    1974-01-01

    This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)

  14. Strong Men of the Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmendinger, David F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nicholas Murray Butler, G. Stanley Hall, Charles W. Eliot, the respective subjects of three biographies reviewed here, were university presidents whose personal dominance has too often impeded the biographer in his task of objective historical inquiry. (JH)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: chordoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called the notochord is the precursor of the spinal column. The notochord disappears before birth, but in a ... JH, Rhines LD, Gokaslan ZL. Chordoma of the spinal column. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan;19(1): ...

  16. Change in French Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of attitudes toward education reflects the change from elitism to egalitarianism and points up the problem of redoublement or grade repetition. The French government is taking action in response to these phenomena. (JH)

  17. Life Cycle Leadership Theory: Some Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Keith F.; Ducharme, David J.

    1972-01-01

    Limited support is found for two hypotheses suggesting inverse relationships between the maturity level of teachers, and the degree to which they prefer task and relationship oriented leadership behavior. (Author/JH)

  18. Out-of-School Learning: Credit Granting Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the search of many postsecondary educational institutions to find acceptable ways to grant credit for out-of-school learning. Describes sources of potential credit, assessment approaches, and structuring of the credit granting process. (JH)

  19. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... by helping your blood clot. Chemotherapy , radiation , and bone marrow transplants can destroy some of your platelets. If you ... Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow transplant - bleeding; Thrombocytopenia - cancer treatment References Doroshow JH. Approach ...

  20. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 365. Maguire JH. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  1. Classroom Curriculum Development in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Brian

    1974-01-01

    A review of reference literature in curriculum development and a short sample curriculum, "Economic Aspects of the Local Environment," are presented to help guide economics teachers in making curriculum revisions. (JH)

  2. Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Chou, Szu-Ying; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Kou, Rong

    2007-08-01

    On any given day, about 35% of 80- to 85-day-old socially naïve male (SNM) lobster cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) spontaneously adopted an aggressive posture (AP) without encountering another male [spontaneous AP (SAP)]. Although SAP SNMs showed significantly higher release of the pheromone 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) than non-SAP SNMs, there was no significant difference in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) III titer. When different body parts were tested for induction of the attack behavior, the antenna was found to be the most effective. After 1 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 76.2% of non-SAP SNMs, and the JH III titer was significantly increased in all responders. Among the non-SAP SNMs, the JH III titer before antenna contact was significantly lower in the non-responders than in the responders, and, although the JH III increase induced by 1 min antenna contact was similar between responders and non-responders, the final JH III titer of the non-responders was significantly lower. A similar attack response, JH III titer change, and 3H-2B release were seen when the individual's own antenna was used. After 5 min of contact with an antenna from another SAP SNM, attack behavior was induced in 100% of SAP and 82% of non-SAP SNMs; in the former, 3H-2B release was similar before and after antenna contact, but the JH III titer was significantly increased after antenna contact, while, in the latter, both 3H-2B release and JH III titer were significantly increased after antenna contact. Among the non-SAP SNMs, JH III titer in the non-responders was not elevated after 5 min antenna contact, and was significantly lower than that in the responders. A pentane-washed antenna did not induce attack behavior or increase the hemolymph JH III titer, and a pentane-washed antenna coated with 3H-2B also failed to induce attack behavior. These results indicate that N. cinerea male-male agonistic interactions, to

  3. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is a stage-specific suppressor for juvenile hormone biosynthesis by corpora allata, and a critical factor for the initiation of insect metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    Molting and metamorphosis are essential events for arthropod development, and juvenile hormone (JH) and its precursors play critical roles for these events. We examined the regulation of JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) in Bombyx mori, and found that intact brain-corpora cardiaca (CC)-CA complexes produced a smaller amount of JH than that in CC-CA complexes and CA alone throughout the 4th and 5th (last) instar stadium. The smaller amount of synthesis was due to allatostatin-C (AST-C) produced by the brain. The CC synthesized short neuropeptide F (sNPF) that also suppressed the JH synthesis, but only in day 3 4th stadium and after the last larval ecdysis. For the suppression, both peptides prevented the expression of some of the distinct JH biosynthetic enzymes in the mevalonate pathway. Allatotropin (AT) stimulated sNPF expression in the CC of day 1 5th instar stadium, not of day 3 4th; therefore the stage-specific inhibition of JH synthesis by sNPF was partly due to the stimulative action of AT on the sNPF expression besides the stage-specific expression of the sNPF receptors in the CA, the level of which was high in day 2 4th and day 0 5th instar larvae. The cessation of JH biosynthesis in the last instar larvae is a key event to initiate pupal metamorphosis, and both sNPF and AST-C are key factors in shutting down JH synthesis, along with the decline of ecdysone titer and dopamine. PMID:25072626

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): J. H. Baxter Superfund site, Weed, CA. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-27

    The J.H. Baxter site is in Weed Siskiyou County, north-central California, and consists of the 33-acre J.H. Baxter facility and the adjacent 870-acre Roseburg Forest Products facility. Since 1937, wood treatment operations at the site have involved a variety of chemicals including ammonical copper-zinc-arsenate, creosote, and PCP. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are organics including PAHs and dioxins; and metals including arsenic.

  5. Diploptera punctata as a model for studying the endocrinology of arthropod reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Huang, Juan; Stay, Barbara; Tobe, Stephen S

    2013-07-01

    The Pacific beetle cockroach, Diploptera punctata, has proven to be a valuable model insect in the study of the dynamics regulating juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and metabolism, particularly during late nymphal development and reproduction. This stems in part from its unusual mode of reproduction, adenotrophic viviparity, in which females give birth to live young that have been nourished throughout embryonic development by a protein-rich 'milk' secreted by the wall of the brood sac or uterus. In this animal, as in most insects, JH regulates both vitellogenin production and its uptake by developing oocytes. However, JH has an antagonistic effect on embryonic development and following oviposition of the fertilized oocytes into the brood sac, JH production halts, in part through the action of a peptide family, the FGLa allatostatins. JH production remains at a low level throughout pregnancy and is only reinstated at the end of gestation, at which time, the next wave of oocytes begins to develop and enter vitellogenesis. Thus, JH production in this species is precisely regulated, since the appearance of JH at inappropriate times would result in abortion of the embryos. Numerous factors are responsible for the regulation of JH biosynthesis, including peptides, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, ecdysteroids and second messenger effectors. In this review, we discuss these factors and highlight potentially fruitful areas of future research. Although several of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, the precise points of rate limitation remain uncertain. The dissection of the biosynthetic pathway and its control awaits the completion of the genome and transcriptome of this important model insect. PMID:23644152

  6. ATP binding to the pseudokinase domain of JAK2 is critical for pathogenic activation.

    PubMed

    Hammarén, Henrik M; Ungureanu, Daniela; Grisouard, Jean; Skoda, Radek C; Hubbard, Stevan R; Silvennoinen, Olli

    2015-04-14

    Pseudokinases lack conserved motifs typically required for kinase activity. Nearly half of pseudokinases bind ATP, but only few retain phosphotransfer activity, leaving the functional role of nucleotide binding in most cases unknown. Janus kinases (JAKs) are nonreceptor tyrosine kinases with a tandem pseudokinase-kinase domain configuration, where the pseudokinase domain (JAK homology 2, JH2) has important regulatory functions and harbors mutations underlying hematological and immunological diseases. JH2 of JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2 all bind ATP, but the significance of this is unclear. We characterize the role of nucleotide binding in normal and pathogenic JAK signaling using comprehensive structure-based mutagenesis. Disruption of JH2 ATP binding in wild-type JAK2 has only minor effects, and in the presence of type I cytokine receptors, the mutations do not affect JAK2 activation. However, JH2 mutants devoid of ATP binding ameliorate the hyperactivation of JAK2 V617F. Disrupting ATP binding in JH2 also inhibits the hyperactivity of other pathogenic JAK2 mutants, as well as of JAK1 V658F, and prevents induction of erythrocytosis in a JAK2 V617F myeloproliferative neoplasm mouse model. Molecular dynamic simulations and thermal-shift analysis indicate that ATP binding stabilizes JH2, with a pronounced effect on the C helix region, which plays a critical role in pathogenic activation of JAK2. Taken together, our results suggest that ATP binding to JH2 serves a structural role in JAKs, which is required for aberrant activity of pathogenic JAK mutants. The inhibitory effect of abrogating JH2 ATP binding in pathogenic JAK mutants may warrant novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25825724

  7. Identification of ten mevalonate enzyme-encoding genes and their expression in response to juvenile hormone levels in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Meng, Qing-Wei; Lü, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-06-15

    The mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many essential molecules important in insect development, reproduction, chemical communication and defense. Based on Leptinotarsa decemlineata transcriptome and genome data, we identified ten genes that encoded acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (LdAACT1 and LdAACT2), hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMA)-CoA synthase (LdHMGS), HMG-CoA reductase (LdHMGR1 and LdHMGR2), mevalonate kinase (LdMevK), phospho-mevalonate kinase (LdPMK), mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (LdMDD), isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase (LdIDI) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (LdFPPS). Nine of these genes (except for LdAACT1) were mainly expressed in the larval brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, and adult ovary and testis. The 9 genes were transcribed at high levels right after each ecdysis, and at low levels in the mid instar. Therefore, the 9 genes were indicated to be involved in JH biosynthesis. Moreover, knockdown of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT to lower JH titer significantly downregulated the transcription of the 9 genes. Ingestion of JH to activate JH signaling also significantly suppressed the expression of the 9 genes. It appears that the accumulation of JH precursors in LdJHAMT RNAi larvae and a high JH titer in JH-fed specimens may cause negative feedbacks to repress the expression of the 9 mevalonate enzyme-encoding genes (excluding LdAACT1) to balance the enzyme quantity in L. decemlineata. PMID:26899871

  8. Differential gene expression in response to juvenile hormone analog treatment in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Termite societies are characterized by a highly organized division of labor among conspicuous castes, groups of individuals with various morphological specializations. Termite caste differentiation is under control of juvenile hormone (JH), but the molecular mechanism underlying the response to JH and early events triggering caste differentiation are still poorly understood. In order to profile candidate gene expression during early soldier caste differentiation of the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we treated pseudergates (workers) with a juvenile hormone analog (JHA) to induce soldier caste differentiation. We then used Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization to create two cDNA libraries enriched for transcripts that were either up- or downregulated at 24h after treatment. Finally, we used quantitative PCR to confirm temporal expression patterns. Hexamerins represent a large proportion of the genes upregulated following JHA treatment and have an expression pattern that shows roughly an inverse correlation to intrinsic JH titers. This data is consistent with the role of a JH "sink", which was demonstrated for hexamerins in another termite, Reticulitermes flavipes. A putative nuclear protein was also upregulated a few hours after JHA treatment, which suggests a role in the early response to JH and subsequent regulation of transcriptional events associated with soldier caste differentiation. Some digestive enzymes, such as endogenous beta-endoglucanase and chymotrypsin, as well as a protein associated to digestion were identified among genes downregulated after JHA treatment. This suggests that JH may directly influence the pseudergate-specific digestive system. PMID:23481672

  9. Juvenile hormone receptors in insect larval epidermis: Identification by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Palli, S.R.; Osir, E.O.; Edwards, M.; Hiruma, K.; Riddiford, L.M. ); Eng, W.; Boehm, M.F.; Kulscar, P.; Ujvary, I.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated photoaffinity analogs of the natural lepidopteran juvenile hormones, JH I and II (epoxy({sup 3}H)bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA) and epoxy({sup 3}H)homofarnesyl diazoacetate (({sup 3}H)EHDA)), and of the JH analog methoprene (({sup 3}H)methoprene diazoketone (({sup 3}H)MDK)) were synthesized and used to identify specific JH binding proteins in the larval epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). EBDA and EHDA specifically photolabeled a 29-kDa nuclear protein (pI 5.8). This protein and a second 29-kDa protein (pI 6.0) were labeled by MDK, but excess unlabeled methoprene or MDK only prevented binding to the latter. These 29-kDa proteins are also present in larval fat body but not in epidermis from either wandering stage or allatectomized larvae, which lack high-affinity JH binding sites. A 29-kDa nuclear protein with the same developmental specificity as this JH binder bound the DNA of two larval endocuticle genes. A 38-kDa cytosolic protein was also specifically photolabeled by these photoaffinity analogs. The 29-kDa nuclear protein is likely the high-affinity receptor for JH that mediates its genomic action, whereas the 38-kDa cytosolic protein may serve as an intracellular carrier for these highly lipophilic hormones and hormone analogs.

  10. Immunoglobulin genomics in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Qin, Tong; Zhao, Huijing; Zhu, Huabin; Wang, Dong; Du, Weihua; Hao, Haisheng

    2015-08-01

    In science, the prairie voles are ideal models for studying the regulatory mechanisms of social behavior in humans. The utility of the prairie vole as a biology model can be further enhanced by characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the prairie vole immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The prairie vole IgH locus on chromosome 1 spans over 1600kb, and consists of at least 79 VH segments (28 potentially functional genes, 2 ORFs and 49 pseudogenes), 7 DH segments, 4 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ɛ, and α), and two transmembrane regions of δ gene. The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (JH996430, JH996605 and JH996566), contains a totle of 124 Vκ segments (47 potentially functional genes, 1 ORF and 76 pseudogenes), 5 Jκ segments and a single Cκ gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these Vκ gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold JH996473 and JH996489 includes 21 Vλ gene segments (14 potentially functional genes, 1 ORF and 6 pseudogenes), all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream Jλ-Cλ cluster. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignments suggested the prairie vole's large germline VH, Vκ and Vλ gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:26073565

  11. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor. PMID:26195792

  12. A Steroid Receptor Coactivator Acts as the DNA-binding Partner of the Methoprene-tolerant Protein in Regulating Juvenile Hormone Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Liu, Pengcheng; Wiley, Jessica D.; Ojani, Reyhaneh; Bevan, David R.; Li, Jianyong; Zhu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein is a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor in insects. JH-bound Met forms a complex with the βFtz-F1-interacting steroid receptor coactivator (FISC) and together they regulate JH response genes in mosquitoes. Both proteins contain basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PAS motifs. Here we demonstrated that FISC is the obligatory partner of Met for binding to JH-response elements (JHREs). Met or FISC alone could not bind a previously characterized JHRE, while formation of the Met-FISC complex was necessary and sufficient to bind to the JHRE. This binding required participation of the DNA-binding domains of both Met and FISC. The optimal DNA sequence recognized by Met and FISC contained a core consensus sequence GCACGTG. While formation of the Met-FISC complex in mosquito cells was induced by JH, heterodimerization and DNA binding of bacterially expressed Met and FISC were JH-independent, implying that additional mosquito proteins were required to modulate formation of the receptor complex. PMID:25004255

  13. A juvenile hormone transcription factor Bmdimm-fibroin H chain pathway is involved in the synthesis of silk protein in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Li-Jun; Li, Qiong-Yan; Zhou, Meng-Ting; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

    2015-01-01

    The genes responsible for silk biosynthesis are switched on and off at particular times in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. This switch appears to be under the control of endogenous and exogenous hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which silk protein synthesis is regulated by the juvenile hormone (JH) are largely unknown. Here, we report a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmdimm, its silk gland-specific expression, and its direct involvement in the regulation of fibroin H-chain (fib-H) by binding to an E-box (CAAATG) element of the fib-H gene promoter. Far-Western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmdimm protein interacted with another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmsage. Immunostaining revealed that Bmdimm and Bmsage proteins are co-localized in nuclei. Bmdimm expression was induced in larval silk glands in vivo, in silk glands cultured in vitro, and in B. mori cell lines after treatment with a JH analog. The JH effect on Bmdimm was mediated by the JH-Met-Kr-h1 signaling pathway, and Bmdimm expression did not respond to JH by RNA interference with double-stranded BmKr-h1 RNA. These data suggest that the JH regulatory pathway, the transcription factor Bmdimm, and the targeted fib-H gene contribute to the synthesis of fibroin H-chain protein in B. mori. PMID:25371208

  14. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M3) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M3 mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M3 locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M3 and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm. PMID:26540044

  15. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor. PMID:26195792

  16. A steroid receptor coactivator acts as the DNA-binding partner of the methoprene-tolerant protein in regulating juvenile hormone response genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Liu, Pengcheng; Wiley, Jessica D; Ojani, Reyhaneh; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong; Zhu, Jinsong

    2014-08-25

    Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein is a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor in insects. JH-bound Met forms a complex with the βFtz-F1-interacting steroid receptor coactivator (FISC) and together they regulate JH response genes in mosquitoes. Both proteins contain basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PAS motifs. Here we demonstrated that FISC is the obligatory partner of Met for binding to JH-response elements (JHREs). Met or FISC alone could not bind a previously characterized JHRE, while formation of the Met-FISC complex was necessary and sufficient to bind to the JHRE. This binding required participation of the DNA-binding domains of both Met and FISC. The optimal DNA sequence recognized by Met and FISC contained a core consensus sequence GCACGTG. While formation of the Met-FISC complex in mosquito cells was induced by JH, heterodimerization and DNA binding of bacterially expressed Met and FISC were JH-independent, implying that additional mosquito proteins were required to modulate formation of the receptor complex. PMID:25004255

  17. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Evans, Kervin O; Dowd, Patrick F

    2015-09-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens. PMID:26361481

  18. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric T.; Evans, Kervin O.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    2015-01-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens. PMID:26361481

  19. Pheromone, juvenile hormone, and social status in the male lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Huang, Zachary Y; Yang, Rou-Ling

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the major pheromone component, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B), released by dominants was measured during early scotophase. Both the JH III titer in the hemolymph and the 3H-2B content of the sternal glands of the dominants and subordinates were then measured during late scotophase and late photophase. These investigations were performed on encounter days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 20. The results showed that, for non-aggressive posture (AP)-adopting socially naïve males (SNMs), both the 3H-2B release and the hemolymph JH III titer were maintained at a low level. Once a fight occurred, 3H-2B release was raised significantly in the AP-adopting dominants, but not in non-AP-adopting subordinates, and remained raised throughout the entire experimental period. At 30 min after the first encounter, the hemolymph JH III titer was significantly increased in dominants, but not in subordinates. A significantly higher hemolymph JH III titer was observed in dominants during late scotophase on days 3, 5, 12, and 20 and during late photophase on days 3, 5, and 20. After fighting, the sternal gland 3H-2B content of the dominants or subordinates was significantly lower than in SNMs. In dominants, the sternal gland 3H-2B content during late scotophase was significantly lower than that during late photophase in the first 9 domination days, while, in the subordinates, the 3H-2B content during late scotophase was either similar to, or significantly higher than, that in late photophase. In the dominants, 3H-2B release and JH III titer were positively correlated. In rank switchers, the switched social status was positively correlated with both 3H-2B release and JH III titer. Comparison of 3H-2B release and JH III titer in 1-time, 3-time, or 5-time dominants showed that, although winning significantly increased both 3H-2B release and JH III titer, there is no significant difference in 3H-2B release between 3- and 5-time winners, while the JH III titer was most significantly

  20. Knockdown of the juvenile hormone receptor gene inhibits soldier-specific morphogenesis in the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Isoptera: Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Yudai; Yaguchi, Hajime; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2015-09-01

    The Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein has been established as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. Knockdown of the Met gene caused precocious metamorphosis and suppression of ovarian development. However, the function of Met in caste development of social insects is unclear. In termites, JH acts as a central factor for caste development, especially for soldier differentiation, which involves two molts from workers via a presoldier stage. Increased JH titer in workers is needed for the presoldier molt, and the high JH titer is maintained throughout the presoldier period. Although presoldiers have the fundamental morphological features of soldiers, the nature of the cuticle is completely different from that of soldiers. We expected that JH signals via Met are involved in soldier-specific morphogenesis of the head and mandibles during soldier differentiation, especially in the presoldier period, in natural conditions. To test this hypothesis, we focused on soldier differentiation in an incipient colony of the damp-wood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Met homolog (ZnMet) expression in heads increased just after the presoldier molt. This high expression was reduced by ZnMet double stranded (dsRNA) injection before the presoldier molt. Although this treatment did not cause any morphological changes in presoldiers, it caused strong effects on soldiers, their mandibles being significantly shorter and head capsules smaller than those of control soldiers. Injection of ZnMet dsRNA throughout the presoldier stage did not affect the formation of soldier morphology, including cuticle formation. These results suggested that the rapid increase in ZnMet expression and subsequent activation of JH signaling just after the presoldier molt are needed for the formation of soldier-specific weapons. Therefore, besides its established role in insect metamorphosis, the JH receptor signaling also underlies soldier development in termites. PMID:26188329

  1. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  2. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) knockdown in the adult female cockroach, Diploptera punctata completely inhibits ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F; Huang, Juan; Pang, Zhenguo; Stay, Barbara; Tobe, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Independent of the design of the life cycle of any insect, their growth and reproduction are highly choreographed through the action of two versatile hormones: ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JH). However, the means by which JH can target tissues and exert its pleiotropic physiological effects is currently still not completely elucidated. Although the identity of the one JH receptor is currently still elusive, recent evidence seems to point to the product of the Methoprene-tolerant gene (Met) as the most likely contender in transducing the action of JH. Studies on the role of this transcription factor have mostly been focused on immature insect stages. In this study we used the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata, a favorite model in studying JH endocrinology, to examine the role of Met during reproduction. A tissue distribution and developmental profile of transcript levels was determined for Met and its downstream partners during the first gonadotropic cycle of this cockroach. Using RNA interference, our study shows that silencing Met results in an arrest of basal oocyte development; vitellogenin is no longer transcribed in the fat body and no longer taken up by the ovary. Patency is not induced in these animals which fail to produce the characteristic profile of JH biosynthesis typical of the first gonadotropic cycle. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the follicle cells showed conspicuous whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum and a failure to form chorion. Our study describes the role of Met on a cellular and physiological level during insect reproduction, and confirms the role of Met as a key factor in the JH signaling pathway. PMID:25197795

  3. Krüppel Homolog 1 Inhibits Insect Metamorphosis via Direct Transcriptional Repression of Broad-Complex, a Pupal Specifier Gene.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Nagamine, Keisuke; Ito, Yuka; Nishita, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2016-01-22

    The Broad-Complex gene (BR-C) encodes transcription factors that dictate larval-pupal metamorphosis in insects. The expression of BR-C is induced by molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)), and this induction is repressed by juvenile hormone (JH), which exists during the premature larval stage. Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) has been known as a JH-early inducible gene responsible for repression of metamorphosis; however, the functional relationship between Kr-h1 and repression of BR-C has remained unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we analyzed cis- and trans elements involved in the repression of BR-C using a Bombyx mori cell line. In the cells, as observed in larvae, JH induced the expression of Kr-h1 and concurrently suppressed 20E-induced expression of BR-C. Forced expression of Kr-h1 repressed the 20E-dependent activation of the BR-C promoter in the absence of JH, and Kr-h1 RNAi inhibited the JH-mediated repression, suggesting that Kr-h1 controlled the repression of BR-C. A survey of the upstream sequence of BR-C gene revealed a Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) in the BR-C promoter. When KBS was deleted from the promoter, the repression of BR-C was abolished. Electrophoresis mobility shift demonstrated that two Kr-h1 molecules bound to KBS in the BR-C promoter. Based on these results, we conclude that Kr-h1 protein molecules directly bind to the KBS sequence in the BR-C promoter and thereby repress 20E-dependent activation of the pupal specifier, BR-C. This study has revealed a considerable portion of the picture of JH signaling pathways from the reception of JH to the repression of metamorphosis. PMID:26518872

  4. Molecular Determinants of Juvenile Hormone Action as Revealed by 3D QSAR Analysis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Beňo, Milan; Farkaš, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH). While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 Å or longer than 13.5 Å, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. Conclusions/Significance The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions. PMID:19547707

  5. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  6. The POU Factor Ventral Veins Lacking/Drifter Directs the Timing of Metamorphosis through Ecdysteroid and Juvenile Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K.; Smith, Wendy A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation. PMID:24945490

  7. Feasibility of a wireless gamma probe in radioguided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-01

    Radioguided surgery through the use of a gamma probe is an established practice, and has been widely applied in the case of sentinel lymph node biopsies. A wide range of intraoperative gamma probes is commercially available. The primary characteristics of the gamma probes include their sensitivity, spatial resolution, and energy resolution. We present the results obtained from a prototype of a new wireless gamma probe. This prototype is composed of a 20 mm thick cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG) inorganic scintillation crystal from Furukawa Denshi and a Hamamatsu S12572-100C multi-pixel photon counter equipped with a designed electronics. The measured performance characteristics include the energy resolution, energy linearity, angular aperture, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Measurements were carried out using 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, and 137Cs sources. The energy resolutions for 0.122 and 0.511 MeV were 17.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The designed prototype consumes an energy of approximately 4.4 W, weighs about 310 g (including battery) having a dimension of 20 mm (D)  ×  130 mm (L).

  8. Feasibility of a wireless gamma probe in radioguided surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    Radioguided surgery through the use of a gamma probe is an established practice, and has been widely applied in the case of sentinel lymph node biopsies. A wide range of intraoperative gamma probes is commercially available. The primary characteristics of the gamma probes include their sensitivity, spatial resolution, and energy resolution. We present the results obtained from a prototype of a new wireless gamma probe. This prototype is composed of a 20 mm thick cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG) inorganic scintillation crystal from Furukawa Denshi and a Hamamatsu S12572-100C multi-pixel photon counter equipped with a designed electronics. The measured performance characteristics include the energy resolution, energy linearity, angular aperture, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Measurements were carried out using (57)Co, (133)Ba, (22)Na, and (137)Cs sources. The energy resolutions for 0.122 and 0.511 MeV were 17.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The designed prototype consumes an energy of approximately 4.4 W, weighs about 310 g (including battery) having a dimension of 20 mm (D)  ×  130 mm (L). PMID:27245331

  9. Validation of the FM-800 ambulatory blood pressure monitor according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criteria and the International Protocol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kaori; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hara, Azusa; Hirose, Takuo; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    To validate the FM-800 device (Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), this validation study was performed based on the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) criteria. Thirty-three participants were included (15 in phase 1 and an additional 18 in phase 2) in the ESH protocol. The device was tested on 85 participants according to the AAMI criteria, which require a mean device-observers discrepancy within 5 ± 8 mmHg. The tested device passed all the criteria for both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and for the Korotkoff and oscillometric methods according to the ESH protocol. The test device also fulfilled the AAMI accuracy criteria for the 85 participants; the mean ± SD of the SBP/DBP differences between the tested device and the mean of the observer readings were -1.1 ± 4.2/-0.8 ± 4.2 mmHg for the Korotkoff method and 2.3 ± 3.9/-2.3 ± 3.9 mmHg for the oscillometric method. The FM-800 device for ABPM passed all the validation criteria of the ESH and AAMI and can, therefore, be recommended for clinical use in an adult population. PMID:21091358

  10. Differential impacts of juvenile hormone, soldier head extract and alternate caste phenotypes on host and symbiont transcriptome composition in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Termites are highly eusocial insects and show a division of labor whereby morphologically distinct individuals specialize in distinct tasks. In the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae), non-reproducing individuals form the worker and soldier castes, which specialize in helping (e.g., brood care, cleaning, foraging) and defense behaviors, respectively. Workers are totipotent juveniles that can either undergo status quo molts or develop into soldiers or neotenic reproductives. This caste differentiation can be regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and primer pheromones contained in soldier head extracts (SHE). Here we offered worker termites a cellulose diet treated with JH or SHE for 24-hr, or held them with live soldiers (LS) or live neotenic reproductives (LR). We then determined gene expression profiles of the host termite gut and protozoan symbionts concurrently using custom cDNA oligo-microarrays containing 10,990 individual ESTs. Results JH was the most influential treatment (501 total ESTs affected), followed by LS (24 ESTs), LR (12 ESTs) and SHE treatments (6 ESTs). The majority of JH up- and downregulated ESTs were of host and symbiont origin, respectively; in contrast, SHE, LR and LS treatments had more uniform impacts on host and symbiont gene expression. Repeat “follow-up” bioassays investigating combined JH + SHE impacts in relation to individual JH and SHE treatments on a subset of array-positive genes revealed (i) JH and SHE treatments had opposite impacts on gene expression and (ii) JH + SHE impacts on gene expression were generally intermediate between JH and SHE. Conclusions Our results show that JH impacts hundreds of termite and symbiont genes within 24-hr, strongly suggesting a role for the termite gut in JH-dependent caste determination. Additionally, differential impacts of SHE and LS treatments were observed that are in strong agreement with previous studies that specifically investigated soldier caste