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Sample records for densification additive estudo

  1. Densification of silicon carbide using oxy-nitride additives for space-based telescope mirror applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Suresh; Shukla, Anoop K.; Babu, Sankaranarayanan; Sivakumar, Dhenuvakonda; Gandhi, Ashutosh S.

    2011-07-01

    Densification behavior of alpha silicon carbide (SiC) during vacuum hot pressing was studied up to 1900ºC with sintering additives based on AlN and Y2O3 in different proportions. Near theoretical density was obtained with a total sintering additive content of < 4 vol.%. The microstructure of SiC sintered with AlN+Y2O3 revealed fine equiaxed grains against the additional elongated grains exhibited by SiC sintered with AlN alone. The SiC having high density exhibited very good strength, elastic modulus, high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent polishability for telescope mirror applications.

  2. Influence of oxide-based sintering additives on densification and mechanical behavior of tricalcium phosphate (TCP).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himesh A; Kalita, Samar J

    2007-05-01

    In this research, we studied and analyzed the effects of four different oxide-based sintering additives on densification, mechanical behavior, biodegradation and biocompatibility of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics. Selective sintering additives were introduced into pure TCP ceramics, in small quantities, through homogeneous mixing, using a mortar and pestle. The consequent powders of different compositions were pressed into cylindrical compacts, uniaxially and sintered at elevated temperatures, 1150 degrees C and 1250 degrees C, separately in a muffle furnace. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to analyze the phase-purity of TCP after sintering. Hardness of these sintered specimens was evaluated using a Vickers hardness tester. Sintered cylindrical samples were tested under uniaxial compressive loading, as a function of composition to determine their failure strength. Biodegradation studies conducted using simulated body fluid under dynamic environment, revealed that these additives could control the rate of resorption and hardness degradation of TCP ceramics. PMID:17211718

  3. Densification of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride with the Addition of Fine Si Powder Effects on the Sinterability and Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sea-Hoon; Cho, Chun-Rae; Park, Young-Jo; Ko, Jae-Woong; Kim, Hai-Doo; Lin, Hua-Tay; Becher, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    The densification behavior and strength of sintered reaction bonded silicon nitrides (SRBSN) that contain Lu2O3-SiO2 additives were improved by the addition of fine Si powder. Dense specimens (relative density: 99.5%) were obtained by gas-pressure sintering (GPS) at 1850oC through the addition of fine Si. In contrast, the densification of conventional specimens did not complete at 1950oC. The fine Si decreased the onset temperature of shrinkage and increased the shrinkage rate because the additive helped the compaction of green bodies and induced the formation of fine Si3N4 particles after nitridation and sintering at and above 1600oC. The amount of residual SiO2 within the specimens was not strongly affected by adding fine Si powder because most of the SiO2 layer that had formed on the fine Si particles decomposed during nitridation. The maximum strength and fracture toughness of the specimens were 991 MPa and 8.0 MPa m1/2, respectively.

  4. Enhanced densification of metal powders by transformation-mismatch plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, C.; Noel, P.; Dunand, D.C.

    2000-05-11

    The densification of titanium powders is investigated in uniaxial die pressing experiments carried out isothermally at 980 C (in the {beta}-field of titanium) and during thermal cycling between 860 and 980 C (about the {alpha}/{beta} phase transformation of titanium). Thermal cycling is found to enhance densification kinetics through the emergence of transformation-mismatch plasticity (the mechanism responsible for transformation superplasticity) as a densification mechanism. The isothermal hot-pressing data compare favorably with existing models of powder densification, and these models are successfully adapted to the case of transformation-mismatch plasticity during thermal cycling. Similar conclusions are reached for the densification of titanium powders containing 1, 5, or 10 vol.% ZrO{sub 2} particles. However, the addition of ZrO{sub 2} hinders densification by dissolving in the titanium matrix during the hot-pressing procedure.

  5. Effect of an organic additive on the rheology of an aluminous cement paste and consequences on the densification of the hardened material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hafiane, Y.; Smith, A.; Bonnet, J. P.; Tanouti, B.

    2005-03-01

    The material used in the present work is Secar 71 (Lafarge) mixed with water containing an organic additive (acetic acid noted HOAc). The rheological behavior of these pastes is studied. The best dispersion is obtained when the mass content of the additive with respect to the cement is equal to 0.5%. The microstructural characterizations of samples aged 4 days at 20° C and 95 % relative humidity reveal a significant increase in the density and a reduction in porosity for very small percentages of additive. The remarkable effect of the acetic acid on the microstructure of hardened material is correlated with its good dispersing action.

  6. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the

  7. Snow Densification in Greenland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, E.; Wingham, D.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the calibration and validation experiments for the radar altimeter carried by the ESA Cryosat-2 satellite, snow density profiles have been measured along the EGIG line from Spring 2004 to Summer 2010. Repeated measurements at the same site allow the development of the characteristic stratigraphy of the dry snow zone to be observed and the rate of densification to be measured directly. Densification rates below the surface layer are found to be compatible with a physics-based grain boundary sliding model (Alley, 1987) but near-surface rates are enhanced. Alley, R.B. (1987). Firn densification by grain-boundary sliding: A First Model. J. de. Physique 48 (Coll. C1, Suppl. No.3) 249-256.

  8. Isothermal densification and metamorphism of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Loewe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-12-01

    The interplay between overburden stress and surface energy induced growth and coarsening is relevant for the densification of snow and porous ice at all densities. The densification of new snow is amenable to high precision experiments on short time scales. To this end we investigate the coupling of densification and metamorphism of new snow via time-lapse tomography experiments in the laboratory. We compare the evolution of density, strain, and specific surface area to previous long-time metamorphism experiments of snow and creep of polycrystalline ice. Experimental conditions are tailored to the requirements of time-lapse tomography and the measurements are conducted under nearly isothermal conditions at -20°C with a duration of two days. Images were taken with temporal resolution of a few hours which reveal precise details of the microstructure evolution due to sintering and compaction. We used different crystal shapes of natural new snow and snow samples obtained by sieving crystals grown in a snowmaker in the laboratory. To simulate the effect of overburden stress due to an overlying snowpack additional weights were applied to the sample. As expected we find an influence of the densification rate on initial density and overburden stress. We calculated strain rates and identified a transient creep behavior with a similar power law for all crystal types which substantially differs from the Andrade creep of polycrystalline ice. As a main result we found that the evolution of the specific surface area is independent of the density and follows a unique decay form for all measurements of each crystal type. The accuracy of the measurements allows to obtain a decay exponent for the SSA which is the same as previously obtained from the long-time regime during isothermal metamorphism after several months. Our preliminary results for all available types of new snow suggest a correlation between the initial density and SSA. We also find snow samples which coincide in

  9. Liquid propellant densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor); Petrilla, Steve P. (Inventor); Lozano, Martin E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Super cooling the cryogenic liquid propellant in a vehicle propellant tank densities the propellant allowing the vehicle propellant tank to carry more fuel in the same volume tank while lowering the vapor pressure and thus the tank operating pressure. Lowering the tank operating pressure reduces the stress and therefore allows the walls of the tank to be thinner. Both the smaller tank volume and thinner tank wall results in an overall smaller and lighter vehicle with increased payload capability. The cryogenic propellant can be supercooled well below the normal boiling point temperature level by transporting the liquid propellant from the vehicle tanks to a ground based cooling unit which utilizes a combination of heat exchanger and compressor. The compressor lowers the coolant fluid bath pressure resulting in a low temperature boiling liquid which is subsequently used to cool the recirculating liquid. The cooled propellant is then returned to the vehicle propellant tank. In addition to reducing the vehicle size and weight the invention also allows location of the vent valve on the ground, elimination of on-board recirculation pumps or bleed systems, smaller and lighter engine pumps and valves, lighter and more stable ullage gas, and significant reduction in tank fill operation. All of these mentioned attributes provide lower vehicle weight and cost.

  10. Controlled densification of mullite for composite applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, T. A.

    1999-05-19

    As part of an effort to fabricate oxide-based fibrous monolithic ceramics, sintering of mullite has been examined. The effects of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions on sinterability of sol-gel-derived mullite and on the resulting microstructure were evaluated over a range of compositions, sintering times, and temperatures. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and density measurements indicated that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions promoted densification through formation of a Y-Si-Al-O liquid phase. This phase tended to solidify as a glass during normal processing, but could be crystallized by a two-step annealing process at 1300 and 1200 C. The four-point flexural strengths of mullite and mullite-5 Wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also examined.

  11. The affect of densification and dehydroxylation on the mechanical properties of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Laasri, S.; Taha, M.; Laghzizil, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Chevalier, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper reports the effects of processing densification on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite bioceramics. Densification of synthetic hydroxyapatite is conducted in the range 1000-1300 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy are used to check the microstructure transformations. Vickers hardness, toughness and Young's modulus are analyzed versus the density and grain size. The sintering temperature and the particle size influence strongly the densification and the resulting mechanical properties. In addition, the critical sintering temperature appears around 1200 {sup o}C and the declined strength at the temperature up to 1200 {sup o}C is found sensitive to the dehydroxylation process of hydroxyapatite.

  12. A community firn densification and gas transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C.; Lundin, J.; Harris, P.; Leahy, W.; Waddington, E. D.

    2012-12-01

    Gas bubbles trapped in ice preserve a record of Earth's climate history. Interpretation of ice-core records is complicated by the difference in age (called delta age) between the gas trapped in bubbles and the ice enclosing the gas. Determining delta age requires understanding both densification of polar firn and gas transport through the firn. Independent models of firn densification and firn gas transport have been developed in the past by individual research groups. We are developing a web-based model of firn densification and gas transport that combines the best features of those models and is freely accessible to research teams. Users input site-specific data, and the model provides depth-density-age and delta-age results. In addition to the web-based model, state-of-the-art transient firn-densification and gas-transport models are in development. These models allow physical properties to evolve, which results in more accurate delta-age approximations at times of rapid climate change in the past. These community models will be downloadable as open-source code. They will provide a baseline to make intercomparisons between datasets or other models. The models are modular, allowing users to choose preferred physical models and physical processes to include, based on available pre-coded options. Alternatively, users can adapt the code to include new or different physics. Here, we present results from the web-based model and early stages of the transient models and compare with known firn-density and gas-concentration profiles.

  13. Propellant Densification for Shuttle: The SSME Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D.; Boxx, Dayna L.; Tiller, Bruce K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The subject of cryogenic propellant densification as a potential upgrade to the Space Shuttle is a subject that has been raised on several occasions over the last decade. Due to advancements in densification technology made as a part of and in parallel to the X-33 project, the subject was raised and studied once again in May 2001. Across the Space Shuttle program people from many disciplines converged to discuss issues and perform trade studies to determine whether densified propellants was worth pursuing. This paper discusses one of these areas, specifically the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The effects of propellant densification on steady state performance are presented along with discussions of potential transient performance issues. Engine component redesign and retrofit issues are discussed as well the high level requirements to modify the ground test stands to accommodate propellant densification hardware and tanks. And finally, the matter of programmatic concerns enters the subject at hand as part of a discussion of SSME recertification requirements. In the end, potential benefits to SSME performance can be demonstrated and, subject to the densification scheme chosen, there does not appear to insurmountable technical obstacles.

  14. Task 4 supporting technology. Densification requirements definition and test objectives. Propellant densification requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor; Weeks, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    The primary challenge of the X-33 CAN is to build and test a prototype LO2 and LH2 densification ground support equipment (GSE) unit, and perform tank thermodynamic testing within the 15 month phase 1 period. The LO2 and LH2 propellant densification system will be scaled for the IPTD LO2 and LH2 tank configurations. The IPTD tanks were selected for the propellant technology demonstration because of the potential benefits to the phase 1 plan: tanks will be built in time to support thermodynamic testing; minimum cost; minimum schedule risk; future testing at MSFC will build on phase 1 data base; and densification system will be available to support X-33 and RLV engine test at IPTD. The objective of the task 1 effort is to define the preliminary requirements of the propellant densification GSE and tank recirculation system. The key densification system design parameters to be established in Task 1 are: recirculation flow rate; heat exchanger inlet temperature; heat exchanger outlet temperature; maximum heat rejection rate; vent flow rate (GN2 and GH2); densification time; and tank pressure level.

  15. Task 4 supporting technology. Densification requirements definition and test objectives. Propellant densification requirements definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lak, Tibor; Weeks, D. P.

    1995-05-01

    The primary challenge of the X-33 CAN is to build and test a prototype LO2 and LH2 densification ground support equipment (GSE) unit, and perform tank thermodynamic testing within the 15 month phase 1 period. The LO2 and LH2 propellant densification system will be scaled for the IPTD LO2 and LH2 tank configurations. The IPTD tanks were selected for the propellant technology demonstration because of the potential benefits to the phase 1 plan: tanks will be built in time to support thermodynamic testing; minimum cost; minimum schedule risk; future testing at MSFC will build on phase 1 data base; and densification system will be available to support X-33 and RLV engine test at IPTD. The objective of the task 1 effort is to define the preliminary requirements of the propellant densification GSE and tank recirculation system. The key densification system design parameters to be established in Task 1 are: recirculation flow rate; heat exchanger inlet temperature; heat exchanger outlet temperature; maximum heat rejection rate; vent flow rate (GN2 and GH2); densification time; and tank pressure level.

  16. Grain growth, densification, and gyromagnetic properties of LiZnTi ferrites with H3BO3-Bi2O3-SiO2-ZnO glass addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tingchuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jie; Liao, Yulong; Jin, LiChuan; Su, Hua

    2014-05-01

    LiZnTi (Li0.43Zn0.27Ti0.13Fe2.17O4) ferrites doped with 0.35 wt. %-1.5 wt. % H3BO3-Bi2O3-SiO2-ZnO (BBSZ) were synthesized through a low temperature ceramic sintering process. The grain growth of LiZnTi ferrites was discussed by using the liquid phase sintering mechanism. BBSZ promoted grain growth via liquid phase sintering, and the optimum addition of BBSZ could reduce porosity of the sample. Meanwhile, selected parameters including saturation induction (BS), coercivity (HC) and ferromagnetic resonance line width (ΔH) were measured as functions of doping content, and their relationships with ferrite porosity and microstructure were also discussed. The LiZnTi ferrite samples containing x = 0.5, 0.65, and 0.8 sintered at 920 °C, 900 °C, and 880 °C, respectively, exhibited high BS and low ΔH values at 9.3 GHz. The addition of proper content of BBSZ can not only improve BS but also reduce HC and ferromagnetic resonance line width (ΔH) by low temperature (˜900 °C) liquid phase sintering.

  17. Densification of pond ash by blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

  18. Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sands after Blast Densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Posada, Carlos Alberto

    The effect of earthquakes on infrastructure facilities is an important topic of interest in geotechnical research. A key design issue for such facilities is whether or not liquefaction will occur during an earthquake. The consequences of this type of ground failure are usually severe, resulting in severe damage to a facility and in some cases the loss of human life. One approach to minimize the effect of liquefaction is to improve the ground condition by controlled blasting. The main limitations of the blast densification technique are that the design is mostly empirical and verification studies of densification have resulted in contradictory results in some case studies. In such cases, even though the ground surface settles almost immediately after blasting, common verification tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), and shear wave velocity test (Vs) suggest that the soil mass has not been improved at all. This raises concerns regarding the future performance of the soil and casts doubts on whether or not the improved deposit is still susceptible to liquefaction. In this work, a blast densification program was implemented at the Oakridge Landfill located in Dorchester County, SC, to gain information regarding the condition of a loose sand deposit during and after each blast event. In addition, an extensive laboratory testing program was conducted on reconstituted sand specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior of saturated and gassy, medium dense sands during monotonic and cyclic loading. The results from the field and laboratory program indicate that gas released during blasting can remain trapped in the soil mass for several years, and this gas greatly affects the mechanical behavior of the sand. Gas greatly increases the liquefaction resistance of the soil. If the gas remains in the sand over the life of a project, then it will maintain this increased resistance to liquefaction, whether or not the penetration

  19. Role of solubility and tungsten powder size on densification of tungsten-based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Griffo, A.; Liu, Y.; German, R.M.

    1994-10-19

    The densification behavior of new tungsten-based alloys was evaluated as a function of the solubility of tungsten in the liquid and the particle size of the tungsten powder. The matrix phase was a combination of nickel or iron, and an aluminide-based intermetallics, Ni3A1, Ni2Al3, and Fe3Al. The aluminides were used to lower the matrix solubility for tungsten to inhibit grain coarsening. In addition, the low solubility systems used two different tungsten powders to examine the role of powder size on densification. Dilatometric experiments were performed to determined the liquid formation temperatures and to study the densification dynamics. A low solubility matrix required higher sintering temperatures and smaller tungsten particles to achieve near full density.

  20. Microwave sintering versus conventional sintering of NiCuZn ferrites. Part I: Densification evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Ouyang, Chenxin; Xiao, Shumin; Gao, Yongyi

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the recent study on the microwave sintering (MS) versus conventional sintering (CS) of NiCuZn ferrites, with particular interests in the densification evolution. NiCuZn ferrite powders were synthesized through the solid state reaction route. Densification behaviors of ferrite samples under the two types of thermal sources were monitored in real-time. Meanwhile, the influences of additives (1 wt% BSZ glass or 1 wt% Bi2O3) on the densifications were also investigated. Both constant heating rate (CHR) and master sintering curve (MSC) models were used to evaluate the sintering activation energy (Q). Results demonstrated that the microwave-enhanced diffusion mainly occurs at the intermediate sintering stage. The Q-value estimated by MSC method agreed well with that from CHR method. With the influence of microwave electromagnetic field, the activation energy of NiCuZn ferrites was decreased by roughly 100-150 kJ/mol. In addition, doping a small amount of additives could improve densification degree and reduce the minimal energy to activate diffusion mechanisms.

  1. Sol-gel synthesis and densification of aluminoborosilicate powders. Part 2: Densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Selvaduray, Guna; Leiser, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Aluminoborosilicate (ABS) powders, high in alumina content, were synthesized by the sol-gel process utilizing four different methods of synthesis. The effect of these methods on the densification behavior of ABS powder compacts was studied. Five regions of shrinkage in the temperature range 25-1184 C were identified. In these regions, the greatest shrinkage occurred between the gel-to-glass transition temperature (T sub g approximately equal to 835 C) and the crystallization transformation temperature (T sub t approximately equal 900 C). The dominant mechanism of densification in this range was found to be viscous sintering. ABS powders were amorphous to x-rays up to T sub t at which a multiphasic structure crystallized. No 2Al2O3.B2O3 was found in these powders as predicted in the phase diagram. Above T sub t, densification was the result of competing mechanisms including grain growth and boria fluxed viscous sintering. Apparent activation energies for densification in each region varied according to the method of synthesis.

  2. Characterization of CVI densification of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Stock, S.R.; Lee, S.

    1995-05-01

    Ceramic matrix composites promise higher operating temperature and better thermodynamic efficiency in many enregy conversion systems. In particular, composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process have excellent mechanical properties and, using the forced flow-thermal gradient variation, good processing economics in small scale demonstrations. Scale-up to larger, more complex shapes requires understanding of gas flow through the fiber preform and of the relationship between fiber architecture and densification behavior. This understanding is needed for design of preforms for optimum infiltration. The objective of this research is to observe the deposition of matrix material in the pores of a ceramic fiber preform at various stages of the CVI process. These observations allow us to relate local deposition rates in various regions of the composite to the connectivity of the surrounding network of porosity and to better model the relationship between gas transport and fiber architecture in CVI preforms. Our observation of the CVI process utilizes high resolution X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM) in collaboration with Dr. John Kinney at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with repeated imaging of a small preform specimens after various processing times. We use these images to determine geometry and dimensions of channels between and through layers in cloth lay-up preform during CVI densification and relate these to a transport model.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Experimental Studies of Liquefaction and Densification of Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan Koert

    2010-01-01

    The propellant combination that offers optimum performance is very reactive with a low average molecular weight of the resulting combustion products. Propellant combinations such as oxygen and hydrogen meet the above criteria, however, the propellants in gaseous form require large propellant tanks due to the low density of gas. Thus, rocketry employs cryogenic refrigeration to provide a more dense propellant stored as a liquid. In addition to propellant liquefaction, cryogenic refrigeration can also conserve propellant and provide propellant subcooling and propellant densification. Previous studies analyzed vapor conditioning of a cryogenic propellant, with the vapor conditioning by either a heat exchanger position in the vapor or by using the vapor in a refrigeration cycle as the working fluid. This study analyzes the effects of refrigeration heat exchanger located in the liquid of the common propellant oxidizer, liquid oxygen. This study predicted and determined the mass condensation rate and heat transfer coefficient for liquid oxygen.

  5. Selective laser densification of lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Andrea; Colombo, Paolo; Günster, Jens; Mühler, Thomas; Heinrich, Jürgen G.

    2013-01-01

    Tapes, cast by blade deposition of a lithium aluminosilicate glass slurry, were sintered using a YAG-fiber laser, with the aim of finding suitable parameters for an additive manufacturing process based on layer-wise slurry deposition and selective laser densification. The influence of the laser parameters (output power and scan velocity) on the sintering was evaluated, by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction, on the basis of the quality of the processed layer. Well densified samples could be obtained only in a small window of values for the output power and the scan velocity. The measurement of the width of a set of single scanned lines allowed also to estimate the minimum resolution of the system along the layer plane.

  6. LIBRA: An inexpensive geodetic network densification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliegel, H. F.; Gantsweg, M.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the Libra (Locations Interposed by Ranging Aircraft) system, by which geodesy and earth strain measurements can be performed rapidly and inexpensively to several hundred auxiliary points with respect to a few fundamental control points established by any other technique, such as radio interferometry or satellite ranging. This low-cost means of extending the accuracy of space age geodesy to local surveys provides speed and spatial resolution useful, for example, for earthquake hazards estimation. Libra may be combined with an existing system, Aries (Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) to provide a balanced system adequate to meet the geophysical needs, and applicable to conventional surveying. The basic hardware design was outlined and specifications were defined. Then need for network densification was described. The following activities required to implement the proposed Libra system are also described: hardware development, data reduction, tropospheric calibrations, schedule of development and estimated costs.

  7. Pre-eutectic densification in MgF/sub 2/-CaF/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S C; De Jonghe, L C

    1982-04-01

    Increased densification rates were found as much as 200/sup 0/C below the eutectic temperature (980/sup 0/C) for MgF/sub 2/ containing small amounts of CaF/sub 2/. Constant heating rate and constant temperature sintering data, as well as microstructural developments indicated that solid state grain-boundary transport rates had been enhanced by the eutectic forming additive. The effect saturated at about 1 wt % CaF/sub 2/. The results suggest that densification of ceramic powders could be favorably affected without a substantial increase in the grain growth rate, by the addition of small amounts of eutectic forming additives, and sintering below the eutectic temperature. 6 figures.

  8. Densification and shape distortion in liquid-phase sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; German, R.M.

    1999-12-01

    Densification and dimensional control are important aspects of liquid-phase sintering. The capillary force and the solid bonding affect both densification and shape preservation. Capillarity, which is orientated isotropically, causes uniform shrinkage and holds grains together to preserve the component shape in the early stage of sintering. On the other hand, solid bonding resists viscous flow and inhibits densification and shape distortion. The capillary force decreases with densification and approaches zero as pores are eliminated. Thus, shape retention eventually requires solid-grain bonding. The solid-grain bonding provides compact rigidity, which is represented by compact strength. Shape distortion occurs when the compact loses its strength. For every situation, there is a critical compact strength above which no shape distortion occurs. Distortion in liquid-phase sintering indicates that the compact strength passed below a critical level.

  9. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  10. STS propellant densification feasibility study data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazah, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of using densification or subcooling with respect to standard temperature propellants on the Space Transportation System (STS) in order to achieve a payload gain is discussed in this report. The objective is to determine the magnitude of the payload gain and to identify any system impacts to the space shuttle on either flight systems or ground systems. Results show that a payload benefit can be obtained by subcooling the liquid hydrogen (LH2) from a nominal temperature of 36.4 R to 28.5 R and by subcooling the liquid oxygen (LO2) from a nominal temperature of 164 R to either 132.1 R or 141.4 R. When the propellants are subcooled to 28.5 R and 132.1 R for the LH2 and LO2, respectively, a maximum payload gain of 7,324 lb can be achieved, and when the propellants are subcooled to 28.5 R and 141.5 R for the LH2 and LO2, respectively, a maximum payload gain of 6,841 lb can be achieved. If the LH2 is subcooled to 28.5 R while the LH2 and LO2 remains at the nominal conditions, a maximum payload gain of 1,303 lb can be achieved.

  11. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  12. Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: A DEM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, P. K.; Vinod, J. S.; Indraratna, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of particle breakage on densification behaviour of ballast under cyclic loading using Discrete Element Method (DEM). Numerical simulations using PFC2D have been carried out on an assembly of angular particles with and without incorporation of particle breakage. Two-dimensional projection of angular ballast particles were simulated using clusters of bonded circular particles. Degradation of the bonds within a cluster was considered to represent particle breakage. Clump logic was used to make the cluster of particles unbreakable. DEM simulation results highlight that the particle breakage has a profound influence on the cyclic densification behaviour of ballast. The deformation behaviour exhibited by the assembly with breakage is in good agreement with the laboratory experiments. In addition, the evolution of particle displacement vectors clearly explains the breakage mechanism and associated deformations during cyclic loading.

  13. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    solution for station coordinates (i.e., coordinates for all stations are constrained to 1 m). This solution in SINEX format is submitted to IGS for the global polyhedron. 8) Combination obtained in (7) is constrained by applying NNR+NNT conditions with respect to the IGS05 stations included the SIRGAS region to provide constrained coordinates for all SIRGAS-CON (core + densification) stations. The applied IGS05 reference coordinates correspond to the weekly IGS solution for the global network, i.e., coordinates included in the igsYYPwwww.snx files. This constrained solution provides the final weekly SIRGAS-CON coordinates for practical applications. The DGFI (i.e. IGS RNAAC SIR) weekly combinations are delivered to the IGS Data Centres for combination in the global polyhedron, and made available for users as official SIRGAS products, respectively. The IBGE weekly combinations provide control and back-up. The above described analysis strategy is applied since GPS week 1495. Before (since June 1996 to August 2008), the SIRGAS-CON network was totally processed by DGFI. Until now, results show a very good agreement with previous computations; however, the present sub-networks distribution has two main disadvantages: 1) Not all SIRGAS-CON stations are included in the same number of individual solutions, i.e., they are unequally weighted in the weekly combinations, and 2) since there are not enough Local Processing Centres, the required redundancy (each station processed by at least three processing centres) is not fulfilled. Therefore, efforts are being made to install additional Local Processing Centres in Latin American countries as Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  14. Permeability during densification of viscous droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Fabian; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Ed; Dobson, Katherine; Schauroth, Jenny; Heap, Michael; Farquharson, Jamie; Scheu, Bettina; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; von Aulock, Felix; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Fragmentation of magma can yield a transiently granular material, which can subsequently weld back to a fluid-continuum. This process results in dramatic changes in the porosity of the material, which impacts its fluid permeability. We collate published data for the porosity and permeability of volcanic and synthetic materials which have undergone this process to different amounts. By discriminating data for which good microstructural information are provided, we use simple scaling arguments to collapse the data in both the still-granular, high porosity region, and the fluid-continuum low porosity region, such that a universal description can be provided. This allows us to describe the microstructural meaning of permeability scaling, and to infer the controls on the position of this transition between dominantly granular (dispersion) and dominantly fluid-continuum materials. Fractures in coherent magmas are thought to be a primary degassing pathway in high viscosity systems. As a specific application, we consider transiently granular magma being transported through and deposited in these fractures. We finally present a physical model for the kinetics of porosity changes in arrays of viscous droplets and compare this with our experimental data. The combination of the physical model for the evolution of porosity with the scaling between porosity and permeability permits us to describe the evolution of permeability during densification. We anticipate that this will be a useful tool for predicting the longevity of degassing pathways in granular filled cracks, both in conduits and shallow lava domes, as well as during the sedimentation of exceptionally hot ignimbrites undergoing compaction and welding.

  15. Densification Kinetics and Structural Evolution During Microwave and Pressureless Sintering of 15 nm Titanium Nitride Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgalat-Lozynskyy, Ostap; Ragulya, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    Microwave sintering (MWS) of commercially available 15-nm-size nanocrystalline TiN powder was studied. Densification kinetics and grain growth mechanisms of nano-TiN were evaluated using non-isothermal heating up to 1500 °C with variable heating rates. A true nanocrystalline ceramic with ~80-nm-size grains and 94.5 % theoretical density was obtained via MWS consolidation at 1400 °C. At higher temperatures, however, an uncontrolled grain growth and a formation of bimodal microstructure were noticed. A temperature dependence of grain growth suggested grain boundary sliding as a primary mechanism of densification below 1100-1200 °C. An activation energy of nano-TiN densification under MWS varied from 26 ± 3 kJ/mol at the initial stage of sintering (900-1200 °C) to 162 ± 22 kJ/mol at higher temperatures. In addition, a relationship coupling microstructural characteristics (grain size, grain boundary) with mechanical properties of titanium nitride ceramics obtained via both microwave and pressureless sintering techniques was discussed.

  16. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  17. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis. PMID:25463807

  18. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    DOEpatents

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  19. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lane, J. Matthew; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-10-27

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. The mechanism driving this behavior was not completely determined. We present evidence from atomistic simulation that pure silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials and demonstrate the associated mechanisms responsible for the effect in porous silicon. Atomistic response indicates that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores catalyzes a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamicmore » phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.« less

  20. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J. Matthew; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-10-27

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. The mechanism driving this behavior was not completely determined. We present evidence from atomistic simulation that pure silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials and demonstrate the associated mechanisms responsible for the effect in porous silicon. Atomistic response indicates that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores catalyzes a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamic phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.

  1. Enhanced densification under shock compression in porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Vogler, Tracy J.

    2014-10-01

    Under shock compression, most porous materials exhibit lower densities for a given pressure than that of a full-dense sample of the same material. However, some porous materials exhibit an anomalous, or enhanced, densification under shock compression. We demonstrate a molecular mechanism that drives this behavior. We also present evidence from atomistic simulation that silicon belongs to this anomalous class of materials. Atomistic simulations indicate that local shear strain in the neighborhood of collapsing pores nucleates a local solid-solid phase transformation even when bulk pressures are below the thermodynamic phase transformation pressure. This metastable, local, and partial, solid-solid phase transformation, which accounts for the enhanced densification in silicon, is driven by the local stress state near the void, not equilibrium thermodynamics. This mechanism may also explain the phenomenon in other covalently bonded materials.

  2. Atomistic pathways of the pressure-induced densification of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Miranda, Caetano R.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2015-10-01

    When quartz is compressed at room temperature it retains its crystal structure at pressures well above its stability domain (0-2 GPa), and collapses into denser structures only when pressure reaches 20 GPa. Depending on the experimental conditions, pressure-induced densification can be accompanied by amorphization; by the formation of crystalline, metastable polymorphs; and can be preceded by the appearance of an intermediate phase, quartz II, with unknown structure. Based on molecular dynamic simulations, we show that this rich phenomenology can be rationalized through a unified theoretical framework of the atomistic pathways leading to densification. The model emphasizes the role played by the oxygen sublattice, which transforms from a bcc-like order in quartz into close-packed arrangements in the denser structures, through a ferroelastic instability of martensitic nature.

  3. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis productsmore » increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.« less

  4. Dynamic elastic moduli during isotropic densification of initially granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The elastic properties of homogeneous, isotropic materials are well constrained. However, in heterogeneous and evolving materials, these essential properties are less well-explored. During sintering of volcanic ash particles by viscous processes as well as during compaction and cementation of sediments, microstructure and porosity undergo changes that affect bulk dynamic elastic properties. Here using a model system of glass particles as an analogue for initially granular rock-forming materials, we have determined porosity and P-wave velocity during densification. Using these results, we test models for the kinetics of densification and the resultant evolution of the elastic properties to derive a quantitative description of the coupling between the kinetics of isotropic densification and the evolving dynamic elastic moduli. We demonstrate the power of the resultant model on a wide range of data for non-coherent sediments as well as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. We propose that such constraints be viewed as an essential ingredient of time-dependent models for the deformation of evolving materials in volcanoes and sedimentary basins.

  5. Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

  6. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  7. The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.

    PubMed

    Picker, Katharina M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are

  8. The densification of bio-char: Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the qualities of pellets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiang; Yang, Haiping; Yao, Dingding; Zhu, Danchen; Wang, Xianhua; Shao, Jingai; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    The densification of bio-chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures were investigated to elucidate the effect of temperature on the properties of bio-char pellets and determine the bonding mechanism of pellets. Optimized process conditions were obtained with 128MPa compressive pressure and 35% water addition content. Results showed that both the volume density and compressive strength of bio-char pellets initially decreased and subsequently increased, while the energy consumption increased first and then decreased, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The moisture adsorption of bio-char pellets was noticeably lower than raw woody shavings but had elevated than the corresponding char particles. Hydrophilic functional groups, particle size and binder were the main factors that contributed to the cementation of bio-char particles at different temperatures. The result indicated that pyrolysis of woody shavings at 550-650°C and followed by densification was suitable to form bio-char pellets for application as renewable biofuels. PMID:26524250

  9. Densification of nanocrystalline ITO powders in fast firing: effect of specimen mass and sintering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bong-Chull; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Joo . E-mail: jjkim@knu.ac.kr; Lee, Hee Young; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2005-02-15

    Nano-sized indium tin oxide (ITO) powders were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and the sintering characteristics in fast firing were examined. The mass of the specimen, sintering atmosphere and sintering temperature varied. Oxygen atmosphere promoted the densification in normal rate sintering, while oxygen inhibited the densification in fast firing. Fast firing severely retarded densification as the mass of the specimen and the sintering temperature increased. This was explained by differential densification, which could easily occur in conditions with a high densification rate and a high thermal gradient in the specimen, where the outer region of the specimen densifies much faster than the center. Once the highly densified outer skeleton is formed, the inside of the specimen is difficult to densify because the outer skeleton geometrically constrains densification.

  10. Densification Kinetics and Structural Evolution During Microwave and Pressureless Sintering of 15 nm Titanium Nitride Powder.

    PubMed

    Zgalat-Lozynskyy, Ostap; Ragulya, Andrey

    2016-12-01

    Microwave sintering (MWS) of commercially available 15-nm-size nanocrystalline TiN powder was studied. Densification kinetics and grain growth mechanisms of nano-TiN were evaluated using non-isothermal heating up to 1500 °C with variable heating rates. A true nanocrystalline ceramic with ~80-nm-size grains and 94.5 % theoretical density was obtained via MWS consolidation at 1400 °C. At higher temperatures, however, an uncontrolled grain growth and a formation of bimodal microstructure were noticed. A temperature dependence of grain growth suggested grain boundary sliding as a primary mechanism of densification below 1100-1200 °C. An activation energy of nano-TiN densification under MWS varied from 26 ± 3 kJ/mol at the initial stage of sintering (900-1200 °C) to 162 ± 22 kJ/mol at higher temperatures. In addition, a relationship coupling microstructural characteristics (grain size, grain boundary) with mechanical properties of titanium nitride ceramics obtained via both microwave and pressureless sintering techniques was discussed. PMID:26909779

  11. Propellant Densification for Launch Vehicles: Simulation and Testing 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy E.; Tomisk, Thomas M.; Greene, William D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the many key technologies required to make single-stage to orbit an actuality, the technology of sub-cooling cryogenic propellants below their normal saturation temperatures and thereby making them more dense, is unquestionably on its way towards full and practical realization. The technology of Propellant Densification has been the subject of an extensive research and development program overseen by Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center over the past several years. This paper presents a status report of this research and development. Specifically examined within this paper is the status of the current and continuing efforts on the mathematical simulation of the in-tank propellant densification process currently baselined for the Lockheed Martin VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Keys to this modeling effort are an understanding and quantification of the effects of thermal stratification and the ability to capture the complex and unique multiple section tank geometries being proposed for future launch vehicles. A simulation that properly captures these phenomena has been developed by Lockheed Martin. Also discussed is the significant test program that has been undertaken in coordination with NASA Glenn Research Center. In this testing, the liquid hydrogen recirculation and densification process was simulated and the thermal stratification of the densified propellant was recorded throughout the tank. This testing marks the first time that such a process has been carried out within a multiple-lobe, flight-similar tank. The results from this testing have gone a long way towards grounding the mathematical models and towards demonstrating the readiness of the technology for near-term use. A further and even more ambitious test program examining the production and utilization of densified propellants is being planned for late-autumn 1999. An overview of these plans is presented.

  12. Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Rouxel, T.; Ji, H.; Hammouda, T.; Moreac, A.

    2008-06-06

    Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

  13. Volcanic sintering: Timescales of viscous densification and strength recovery

    PubMed Central

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2013-01-01

    [1] Sintering and densification are ubiquitous processes influencing the emplacement of both effusive and explosive products of volcanic eruptions. Here we sinter ash-size fragments of a synthetic National Institute of Standards and Technology viscosity standard glass at temperatures at which the resultant melt has a viscosity of ∼108–109 Pa.s at 1bar to assess sintering dynamics under near-surface volcanic conditions. We track the strength recovery via uniaxial compressive tests. We observe that volcanic ash sintering is dominantly time dependent, temperature dependent, and grain size dependent and may thus be interpreted to be controlled by melt viscosity and surface tension. Sintering evolves from particle agglutination to viscous pore collapse and is accompanied by a reduction in connected porosity and an increase in isolated pores. Sintering and densification result in a nonlinear increase in strength. Micromechanical modeling shows that the pore-emanated crack model explains the strength of porous lava as a function of pore fraction and size. PMID:25821262

  14. Recent Advances and Applications in Cryogenic Propellant Densification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review several historical cryogenic test programs that were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio over the past fifty years. More recently these technology programs were intended to study new and improved denser forms of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic rocket fuels. Of particular interest are subcooled cryogenic propellants. This is due to the fact that they have a significantly higher density (eg. triple-point hydrogen, slush etc.), a lower vapor pressure and improved cooling capacity over the normal boiling point cryogen. This paper, which is intended to be a historical technology overview, will trace the past and recent development and testing of small and large-scale propellant densification production systems. Densifier units in the current GRC fuels program, were designed and are capable of processing subcooled LH2 and L02 propellant at the X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) scale. One final objective of this technical briefing is to discuss some of the potential benefits and application which propellant densification technology may offer the industrial cryogenics production and end-user community. Density enhancements to cryogenic propellants (LH2, LO2, CH4) in rocket propulsion and aerospace application have provided the opportunity to either increase performance of existing launch vehicles or to reduce the overall size, mass and cost of a new vehicle system.

  15. Application of densification process in organic waste management.

    PubMed

    Zafari, Abedin; Kianmehr, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Densification of biomass material that usually has a low density is good way of increasing density, reducing the cost of transportation, and simplifying the storage and distribution of this material. The current study was conducted to investigate the influence of raw material parameters (moisture content and particle size), and densification process parameters (piston speed and die length) on the density and durability of pellets from compost manure. A hydraulic press and a single pelleter were used to produce pellets in controlled conditions. Ground biomass samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content [35%, 40% and 45% (wet basis)], piston speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12 mm) and particle size (0.3., 0.9 and 1.5 mm) to establish density and durability of pellets. A response surface methodology based on the Box Behnken design was used to study the responses pattern and to understand the influence of parameters. The results revealed that all independent variables have significant (P < 0.01) effects on studied responses in this research. PMID:23609176

  16. Volcanic sintering: Timescales of viscous densification and strength recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2013-11-01

    Sintering and densification are ubiquitous processes influencing the emplacement of both effusive and explosive products of volcanic eruptions. Here we sinter ash-size fragments of a synthetic National Institute of Standards and Technology viscosity standard glass at temperatures at which the resultant melt has a viscosity of ˜108-109 Pa.s at 1bar to assess sintering dynamics under near-surface volcanic conditions. We track the strength recovery via uniaxial compressive tests. We observe that volcanic ash sintering is dominantly time dependent, temperature dependent, and grain size dependent and may thus be interpreted to be controlled by melt viscosity and surface tension. Sintering evolves from particle agglutination to viscous pore collapse and is accompanied by a reduction in connected porosity and an increase in isolated pores. Sintering and densification result in a nonlinear increase in strength. Micromechanical modeling shows that the pore-emanated crack model explains the strength of porous lava as a function of pore fraction and size.

  17. Hydrogen confinement in carbon nanopores: extreme densification at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Nidia C; He, Lilin; Saha, Dipendu; Contescu, Cristian I; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2011-09-01

    In-situ small-angle neutron scattering studies of H(2) confined in small pores of polyfurfuryl alcohol-derived activated carbon at room temperature have provided for the first time its phase behavior in equilibrium with external H(2) at pressures up to 200 bar. The data were used to evaluate the density of the adsorbed fluid, which appears to be a function of both pore size and pressure and is comparable to the density of liquid H(2) in narrow nanopores at ∼200 bar. The surface-molecule interactions responsible for densification of H(2) within the pores create internal pressures that exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to ∼50, confirming the benefits of adsorptive storage over compressive storage. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored for maximum H(2) storage capacities at near-ambient temperatures. PMID:21819066

  18. Hydrogen Confinement in Carbon Nanopores: Extreme Densification at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; He, Lilin; Saha, Dipendu; Contescu, Cristian I; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2011-01-01

    In-situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of hydrogen confined in small pores of polyfurfuryl alcohol-derived activated carbon (PFAC) at room-temperature provided for the first time its phase behavior in equilibrium with external H2 at pressures up to 200 bar. The data was used to evaluate the density of the adsorbed fluid, which appears to be a function of both pore size and pressure, and approaches the liquid hydrogen density in narrow nanopores at 200 bar. The surface-molecule interactions responsible for densification of hydrogen within the pores create internal pressures which exceed by a factor of up to ~ 60 the external gas pressures, confirming the benefits of adsorptive over compressive storage. These results can be utilized to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored for maximum hydrogen storage capacities at near ambient temperatures.

  19. On the Densification Behavior of (0.2, 0.5, and 1 Wt Pct) CNT-YSZ Ceramic Composites Processed via Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanam, Abhinav; Bichler, Lukas; Fong, Randy

    2015-08-01

    Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is a promising thermal insulating ceramic for high temperature applications due to its stability and chemical inertness. As was demonstrated with other technical ceramics ( e.g., Alumina), addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) to a ceramic matrix may significantly enhance its mechanical properties. In this work, 8 mol pct YSZ with 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt pct CNT composites were fabricated via the spark plasma sintering process. The densification, Vicker's microhardness, specific gravity, and microstructure evolution of the composites were investigated. The results suggest that the addition of CNTs to YSZ hindered densification and grain growth during SPS processing leading to inhomogeneous grain size distribution. However, the CNTs had a profound impact on the hardness of the composite ceramics, with an increase from 697 HV (YSZ) to 1195 HV (1 wt pctCNT-YSZ).

  20. Particle interaction of lubricated or unlubricated binary mixtures according to their particle size and densification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Piera; Joiris, Etienne; Martelli, Sante

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess an experimental approach for technological development of a direct compression formulation. A simple formula was considered composed by an active ingredient, a diluent and a lubricant. The active ingredient and diluent were selected as an example according to their typical densification mechanism: the nitrofurantoine, a fragmenting material, and the cellulose microcrystalline (Vivapur), which is a typical visco-elastic material, equally displaying good bind and disintegrant properties. For each ingredient, samples of different particle size distribution were selected. Initially, tabletability of pure materials was studied by a rotary press without magnesium stearate. Vivapur tabletability decreases with increase in particle size. The addition of magnesium stearate as lubricant decreases tabletability of Vivapur of greater particle size, while it kept unmodified that of Vivapur of lower particle size. Differences in tabletability can be related to differences in particle-particle interactions; for Vivapur of higher particle size (Vivapur 200, 102 and 101), the lower surface area develops lower surface available for bonds, while for Vivapur of lower particle size (99 and 105) the greater surface area allows high particle proximity favouring particle cohesivity. Nitrofurantoine shows great differences in compression behaviour according to its particle size distribution. Large crystals show poorer tabletability than fine crystals, further decreased by lubricant addition. The large crystals poor tabletability is due to their poor compactibility, in spite of high compressibility and plastic intrinsic deformability; in fact, in spite of the high densification tendency, the nature of the involved bonds is very weak. Nitrofurantoine samples were then mixed with Vivapurs in different proportions. Compression behaviour of binary mixes (tabletability and compressibility) was then evaluated according to diluents proportion in the mixes. The

  1. Full Densification of Molybdenum Powders Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouawad, B.; Soueidan, M.; Fabrègue, D.; Buttay, C.; Bley, V.; Allard, B.; Morel, H.

    2012-09-01

    Pure molybdenum powder was sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) under various temperatures and holding times, under a pressure of 77 MPa and a heating rate at 700 K/min (700 °C/min). After sintering, a carbide layer was observed at the surface. The carbide layer thickness, the relative density of the sample as well as the microhardness, and the grain size of Mo were measured. The carbide thickness depends on time and temperature, and it was found that the carbide layer grows in a parabolic manner, with the activation energy of carbon diffusion in Mo being equal to 34 Kcal/mol. The densification of Mo is controlled mainly by the sintering temperature and the holding time. The molybdenum powder was successfully consolidated by SPS in short times. A relative density of 100 pct is achieved at a sintering temperature of 2123.15 K (1850 °C) and a holding time of 30 minutes. It was shown that the hardness decreases slightly with temperature and time. It should be related to the increase in grain size with the sintering temperature and time.

  2. Full Densification of Molybdenum Powders Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouawad, B.; Soueidan, M.; Fabrègue, D.; Buttay, C.; Bley, V.; Allard, B.; Morel, H.

    2012-05-01

    Pure molybdenum powder was sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) under various temperatures and holding times, under a pressure of 77 MPa and a heating rate at 700 K/min (700 °C/min). After sintering, a carbide layer was observed at the surface. The carbide layer thickness, the relative density of the sample as well as the microhardness, and the grain size of Mo were measured. The carbide thickness depends on time and temperature, and it was found that the carbide layer grows in a parabolic manner, with the activation energy of carbon diffusion in Mo being equal to 34 Kcal/mol. The densification of Mo is controlled mainly by the sintering temperature and the holding time. The molybdenum powder was successfully consolidated by SPS in short times. A relative density of 100 pct is achieved at a sintering temperature of 2123.15 K (1850 °C) and a holding time of 30 minutes. It was shown that the hardness decreases slightly with temperature and time. It should be related to the increase in grain size with the sintering temperature and time.

  3. On the self-damping nature of densification in photonic sintering of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeill, William; Choi, Chang-Ho; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-10-01

    Sintering of nanoparticle inks over large area-substrates is a key enabler for scalable fabrication of patterned and continuous films, with multiple emerging applications. The high speed and ambient condition operation of photonic sintering has elicited significant interest for this purpose. In this work, we experimentally characterize the temperature evolution and densification in photonic sintering of silver nanoparticle inks, as a function of nanoparticle size. It is shown that smaller nanoparticles result in faster densification, with lower temperatures during sintering, as compared to larger nanoparticles. Further, high densification can be achieved even without nanoparticle melting. Electromagnetic Finite Element Analysis of photonic heating is coupled to an analytical sintering model, to examine the role of interparticle neck growth in photonic sintering. It is shown that photonic sintering is an inherently self-damping process, i.e., the progress of densification reduces the magnitude of subsequent photonic heating even before full density is reached. By accounting for this phenomenon, the developed coupled model better captures the experimentally observed sintering temperature and densification as compared to conventional photonic sintering models. Further, this model is used to uncover the reason behind the experimentally observed increase in densification with increasing weight ratio of smaller to larger nanoparticles.

  4. On the self-damping nature of densification in photonic sintering of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    MacNeill, William; Choi, Chang-Ho; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Sintering of nanoparticle inks over large area-substrates is a key enabler for scalable fabrication of patterned and continuous films, with multiple emerging applications. The high speed and ambient condition operation of photonic sintering has elicited significant interest for this purpose. In this work, we experimentally characterize the temperature evolution and densification in photonic sintering of silver nanoparticle inks, as a function of nanoparticle size. It is shown that smaller nanoparticles result in faster densification, with lower temperatures during sintering, as compared to larger nanoparticles. Further, high densification can be achieved even without nanoparticle melting. Electromagnetic Finite Element Analysis of photonic heating is coupled to an analytical sintering model, to examine the role of interparticle neck growth in photonic sintering. It is shown that photonic sintering is an inherently self-damping process, i.e., the progress of densification reduces the magnitude of subsequent photonic heating even before full density is reached. By accounting for this phenomenon, the developed coupled model better captures the experimentally observed sintering temperature and densification as compared to conventional photonic sintering models. Further, this model is used to uncover the reason behind the experimentally observed increase in densification with increasing weight ratio of smaller to larger nanoparticles. PMID:26443492

  5. Real-time assessment of granule densification in high shear wet granulation and application to scale-up of a placebo and a brivanib alaninate formulation.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery A; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Badawy, Sherif; Stevens, Tim; Macias, Kevin; Wolf, Avi; Pandey, Preetanshu; Bindra, Dilbir; Varia, Sailesh

    2015-03-01

    Real-time monitoring and control of high shear wet granulation (HSWG) using process analytical technologies is crucial to process design, scale-up, and reproducible manufacture. Although significant progress has been made in real-time measurement of granule size distribution using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), real-time in-line assessment of granule densification remains challenging. In this study, a drag force flow (DFF) sensor was developed and used to probe wet mass consistency in real-time. In addition, responses from FBRM and DFF sensors were compared to assess complementarity of information on granulation progress from the two probes. A placebo and a brivanib alaninate formulation were granulated with different concentrations of binder or water, respectively, while measuring granule size growth, densification, and DFF sensor response. The DFF sensor was able to quantitatively characterize with high resolution a response of wet mass consistency distinct from granule size distribution. The wet mass consistency parameter correlated well with granule densification, which was shown as a critical material attribute that correlated with tablet dissolution. In addition, application of DFF sensor to scale-up of granulation was demonstrated. These results showed the value of wet mass consistency measurement using DFF for WG monitoring and control. PMID:25470221

  6. Effect of Heating Rate on the Pressureless Sintering Densification of a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, David; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Pressureless sintering of Inconel 718 has important technological applications for the densification of metal injection molding or additive manufacturing of parts with powder/binder systems. The effect of heating rates ranging from 15 to 200 K/minute on the sintering behavior of fine (-325 mesh) Inconel 718 powders was studied using the master sintering curve (MSC) concept. A pressureless pulsed electric current sintering setup was used to heat samples. The temperature at the onset of sintering increased as the heating rate increased. The formation of a supersolidus liquid fraction was shifted toward higher temperatures for increased heating rates. The apparent activation energy of sintering was obtained by least squares fitting of the sintering data to the MSC and was in good agreement with the lattice diffusion activation energy of the alloying elements present in Inconel 718. The MSC followed different kinetics for low heating rates (≤50 K/minute) and high heating rates (≥75 K/minute), and these differences were related to liquation kinetics.

  7. [Densification of autotrophic bacteria sludge and its characteristics for wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-hua; Guo, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Zhou-quan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2010-03-01

    Autotrophic granular sludge was developed in an SBR reactor using inorganic carbonal substrate. The variation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) during the densification process and their effects on granulation have been evaluated. It was found that the autotrophic bacteria granular sludge was compact with the density reached up to 1.06 g/mL, and the rod-like bacteria predominated in granules on the evidence of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results. Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in the effluent were 4.5-15.2 mg/L, 10.2-20.3 mg/L and 17.9-30.1 mg/L, respectively, and the ammonia removal efficiency was 78% -92%. By evaluating the profile of various types of nitrogen and their conversion rates, it was found that short settling time was the main factor that enriched the AOB at the beginning of this experiment, and the granulation did not correlate with AOB. On the contrary, nitrification rate well correlated with granulation, and evidence demonstrated that the formation of granulation was in favorate of immoblization of NOB and the metabolite of NOB stabilized granules, therefore granules and NOB mutually enhanced. Additionally, it was found that the autotrophic denitrification was gradually increased with the process of granulation. PMID:20358836

  8. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  9. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  10. Application of powder densification models to the consolidation processing of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadley, H. N. G.; Elzey, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unidirectional fiber reinforced metal matrix composite tapes (containing a single layer of parallel fibers) can now be produced by plasma deposition. These tapes can be stacked and subjected to a thermomechanical treatment that results in a fully dense near net shape component. The mechanisms by which this consolidation step occurs are explored, and models to predict the effect of different thermomechanical conditions (during consolidation) upon the kinetics of densification are developed. The approach is based upon a methodology developed by Ashby and others for the simpler problem of HIP of spherical powders. The complex problem is devided into six, much simpler, subproblems, and then their predicted contributions are added to densification. The initial problem decomposition is to treat the two extreme geometries encountered (contact deformation occurring between foils and shrinkage of isolated, internal pores). Deformation of these two geometries is modelled for plastic, power law creep and diffusional flow. The results are reported in the form of a densification map.

  11. Densification characteristics of chromia/alumina castables by particle size distribution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the refractories applied on integrated gasification combined cycle should be a key factor that affects both the reliability and the economics of gasifier operation. To enhance the workability of chromia/alumina castables, three types of ultrafine alumina powder were added to improve the workability. Densification behavior of such castables in the presence of ultrafine alumina was assessed through the measurement of parameters like flow value, viscosity, bulk density, apparent porosity, and microstructure evaluation by an SEM study. It's proved that the specific surface area and particle size distribution of ultrafine powders in matrix parts greatly influence the densification behavior of these castables. PMID:22221548

  12. The effects of sintering aids on defects, densification, and single crystal conversion of transparent neodymium:YAG ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Adam J.

    Nd:YAG transparent ceramics have the potential to replace Czochralski grown single crystals in high power laser applications. However, after more than 20 years of development, there has been only limited application of these potentially revolutionary materials. In order to improve the processing and properties of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics and facilitate increased adoption, this dissertation explores the effects of sintering aids on defects, densification and single crystal conversion (SCC) of Nd:YAG ceramics. To explore the role of SiO2 doping in densification and microstructure development of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics, 1 at% Nd:YAG powders were doped with 0.035--0.28 wt% SiO2 and vacuum sintered between 1484°C and 1750°C. 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance showed that Si4+ substitutes onto tetrahedrally coordinated Al 3+ sites at sintering temperatures ≥1600°C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy showed no grain boundary second phases for all silica levels in samples sintered at 1600--1750°C. Coarsening was limited by a solute drag mechanism as suggested by cubic grain growth kinetics and TEM energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy observations of increased Nd3+ concentration near grain boundaries. Increasing SiO 2 content increased both densification and grain growth rate and led to increasingly coarsening-dominated sintering trajectories. The average grain size could be controlled (2.8 microm--18 microm) in highly transparent ceramics using a combination of SiO2 content, sintering temperature, and sintering time. B2O3-SiO2 was shown to act as a transient liquid phase sintering aid that reduces the sintering temperature of Nd:YAG ceramics to 1600°C. 1 at% Nd:YAG ceramics were doped with 0.34--1.35 mol% B2O3-SiO2 and sintered between 1100°C and 1700°C. Dilatometric measurements showed that B2O 3-SiO2 additions increase the densification rate during intermediate stage sintering relative to SiO2 doped samples. B3+ content is

  13. The CEGRN 2011 Campaign and the densification of ETRF2000 in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, A.; Barlik, M.; Becker, M.; Gerhatova, L.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, A.; Legovini, P.; Medac, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Odalovic, O.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Stangl, G.; Stopar, B.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.

    2012-04-01

    The CEGRN 2011 Campaign took place from 20 to 25 June 2011. It was a coordinated effort of 14 Central European Countries: Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine, with the involvement of some 85 stations. Data processing with state of the art software, and IGS08 orbits and antenna models according to the EPN standards is being completed by independent Analysis Centers in Austria, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia, with the Center in Graz acting as a Combination Center. The paper presents the results of the analysis and of the multiyear combination, with time series spanning a timeline of up to 17 years (1994-2011). Since all data up to and including the 2009 Campaign have been re-analysed with the reprocessed orbits and IGS05 antenna models, the derived velocity field represents a particularly valid example of evolution of the ITRF reference frame in Central Europe. The addition of the 2011 data set, based on IGS08, is not obvious. In a first step the solution, inclusive of the 2011 campaign, can be aligned to the EPN (European Permanent Network of EUREF) cumulative solution in ITRF2005 and can be transformed into the ETRF2000 frame. In a second step, the CEGRN campaigns are planned to be reprocessed with the IGS08 antenna models, provided the IGS and EPN reprocessing solutions (REPRO2) are available for the orbits. Once completed, a densification of the European regional velocity field will become available for both geodynamic studies and widespread dissemination of the ETRS89 standard of coordinates, in compliance with the EU Directive INSPIRE.

  14. Performance Tests of a Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Densification Ground System for the X33/RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    A concept for improving the performance of propulsion systems in expendable and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles much like the X33/RLV has been identified. The approach is to utilize densified cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants to fuel the propulsion stage. The primary benefit for using this relatively high specific impulse densified propellant mixture is the subsequent reduction of the launch vehicle gross lift-off weight. Production of densified propellants however requires specialized equipment to actively subcool both the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to temperatures below their normal boiling point. A propellant densification unit based on an external thermodynamic vent principle which operates at subatmospheric pressure and supercold temperatures provides a means for the LH2 and LOX densification process to occur. To demonstrate the production concept for the densification of the liquid hydrogen propellant, a system comprised of a multistage gaseous hydrogen compressor, LH2 recirculation pumps and a cryogenic LH2 heat exchanger was designed, built and tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This paper presents the design configuration of the LH2 propellant densification production hardware, analytical details and results of performance testing conducted with the hydrogen densifier Ground Support Equipment (GSE).

  15. Bond-breaking mechanism of vitreous silica densification by IR femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheblanov, Nikita S.; Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.

    2016-04-01

    The densification of the vitreous silica (v-SiO2) due to laser irradiation appears reasonable to cause the change in refractive index. In this letter, the v-SiO2 densification under IR femtosecond laser irradiation is studied within molecular-dynamics simulation. The single- and multi-pulse interactions are explored numerically with an account of the bond-breaking mechanism. By analyzing the network at nanoscale, the nature of v-SiO2 densification is assigned to the reduction of major ring fractions of six- and seven-membered rings to minor fractions of three- and four-membered rings (related to D 2 and D 1 Raman signatures, respectively). The athermal behavior of v-SiO2 densification is disclosed at different degrees of ionization for both the single- and multi-pulse cases at sub-threshold regimes. The good agreement between calculated and measured D2 defect line and Si-O-Si angle changes argues in favor of the found mechanism.

  16. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  17. The Influence of Simulated Home and Neighbourhood Densification on Perceived Liveability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. A.; Walton, D.; Lamb, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study experimentally manipulated neighbourhood density and home location to reveal the effect of these changes on perceived liveability. Two hypothetical scenarios were provided to 106 households using a Computer-Aided Personal Interview (CAPI). The first scenario examined a densification of the participant's current property, and the second…

  18. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  19. Silicon nitride-aluminum oxide solid solution (SiAION) formation and densification by pressure sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Sanders, W. A.; Fiyalko, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Stirred-ball-mill-blended Si3N4 and Al2O3 powders were pressure sintered in order to investigate the mechanism of solid solution formation and densification in the Si3N4-Al2O3 system. Powder blends with Si3N4:Al2O3 mole ratios of 4:1, 3:2, and 2:3 were pressure sintered at 27.6-MN/sq m pressure at temperatures to 17000 C (3090 F). The compaction behavior of the powder blends during pressure sintering was determined by observing the density of the powder compact as a function of temperature and time starting from room temperature. This information, combined with the results of X-ray diffraction and metallographic analyses regarding solutioning and phase transformation phenomena in the Si3N4-Al2O3 system, was used to describe the densification behavior.

  20. The effect of powder sintering method on the densification and microstructure of pewter alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Ariff, Tasnim; Gabbitas, Brian; Zhang, Deliang

    2009-08-01

    Pewter alloys made from tin, copper and antimony powders were sintered using microwave and conventional vacuum sintering. Three different compositions of the pewter alloy were used; 91Sn6Cu3Sb, 94Sn4Cu2Sb and 97Sn2Cu1Sb. The effect of densification and microstructure of the pewter alloys from varying sintering time and sintering mode were examined and compared. Samples were compacted at 40kN and sintered at 220°C. Samples in the conventional furnace were sintered 60 minutes and 120 minutes, while samples in the microwave furnace were sintered for 15 and 30 minutes. Samples sintered at longer sintering times resulted in higher density for both sintering methods. Microwave sintering produced samples with slightly smaller grain size than the conventionally sintered samples resulting in a better densification. There were no new phases formed from the sintering of pewter alloy.

  1. Enhancing the tensile properties of continuous millimeter-scale carbon nanotube fibers by densification.

    PubMed

    Hill, Frances A; Havel, Timothy F; Hart, A John; Livermore, Carol

    2013-08-14

    This work presents a study of the tensile mechanical properties of millimeter-long fibers comprising carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These CNT fibers are made of aligned, loosely packed parallel networks of CNTs that are grown in and harvested from CNT forests without drawing or spinning. Unlike typical CNT yarn, the present fibers contain a large fraction of CNTs that span the fibers' entire gauge length. The fibers are densified after growth and network formation to study how increasing the degree of interaction among CNTs in a network by various methods influences and limits the mechanical behavior of macroscopic CNT materials, particularly for the case in which the continuity of a large fraction of CNTs across the gauge length prevents failure purely by slip. Densification is carried out using various combinations of capillary-driven densification, mechanical pressure, and twisting. All methods of densification increase the fiber density and modify the nanoscale order of the CNTs. The highest strength and stiffness values (1.8 and 88.7 N tex(-1), respectively) are observed for capillary-densified fibers, whereas the highest toughness values (94 J g(-1)) and maximum reversible energy density (1.35 kJ kg(-1) or 677 kJ m(-3)) are observed for fibers densified by mechanical pressure. The results suggest that the path to higher performance CNT materials may lie not only in the use of continuous and long CNTs but also in controlling their density and nanoscale ordering through modification of the as-grown networks, such as by capillary-driven densification. PMID:23876225

  2. Change in Firn Densification Rates to 80 m Depth Across the Percolation Zone of Western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.; Bradford, J. H.; Harper, J. T.; Pfeffer, T.; Humphrey, N. F.

    2008-12-01

    We conducted ground based georadar surveys at thirteen locations along a 70 km long transect of the EGIG line in the percolation zone of the western part of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The purpose of these surveys is both to gain an understanding of the hydrologic pathways of surface generated meltwater as well as to measure densification of the upper 80 m of the percolation zone, and how densification rates change with elevation. To determine the density of a layer we assume a lack of liquid water and use the CRIM equation to solve for overall density from electromagnetic (EM) velocity. In this study we used three methods to solve for the EM velocity 1) Common Mid-Point (CMP) reflection analysis solving for velocity with a ray-based model inversion technique, 2) multi-offset, single line acquisition solving for velocity with a reflection tomography inversion technique, and 3) impedance analysis of single offset data to determine radar velocity variation with depth along a single trace. We show that near surface density varies laterally over tens of meters and that density curves calculated from CMPs are representative of measured core densities. The CMP density curves are smoothed over depth and represent volumes that are orders of magnitude larger than traditional core density curves; therefore they may be better measures of densification rates for regions of the Ice Sheet. We also found that firn density increases at significantly higher rates at lower elevation sites and that the rates at lower sites deviate substantially from standard firn densification curves.

  3. Observation of Porosity Reduction in a Densification-Prone Test Fuel Rod: Data and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M. E.; Daniel, J. L.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-10-01

    Instrumented fuel assembly (IFA)-431 was irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) for the purpose of extending the steady-state data base. Rod 6 of this assembly began irradiation with UO{sub 2} fuel of 92% theoretical density (TD) that was unstable with respect to in-reactor densification. Thermal resintering tests resulted in a final density of 95.3% TD while post-irradiation examination (PIE) indicated a final density of 96.5% TD. Observed microstructural changes were consistent with published densification studies; there was a marked depletion of submicrometer diameter pores and total pore volume. However, grain size increased only slightly, indicating that internal pellet temperatures did not reach the 1875K applied in resintering tests. Oensification was observed to increase the temperatures in rod 6, but temperatures did not become as high as for a sibling rod that simulated instantaneous densification. Temperatures calculated with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel performance computer codes were generally higher than observed temperatures.

  4. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  5. Densification mechanism of BaTiO3 films on Cu substrates fabricated by aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Ki; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2015-05-01

    In order to achieve the aerosol deposition (AD) process as a thin film deposition process, the densification mechanism of the AD process was investigated. BaTiO3 films with thicknesses of 0.2, 0.5, and 2 μm on Cu substrates were fabricated using the AD process at room temperature in order to investigate the densification mechanism according to the increased the film thickness; we also investigated the resulting properties, including the microstructure, the electrical properties, and the hardness. As a result, we confirmed that the enhanced hammering effect (which is a densification procedure that works by continuous impaction of ceramic particles onto pre-impacted particles), formed dense BaTiO3 films with greater hardness and decreased leakage current characteristics. Furthermore, we concluded that the BaTiO3 particles, which were sufficiently fractured due to the hammering effect, were important in fabricating the dense BaTiO3 thin films. Therefore, we suggested the two-step deposition method (deposition and etching).[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Densification Process of OH Controlled Hydroxyapatite Ceramics by Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagoe, D.; Koga, Y.; Ishida, E. H.; Ioku, K.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2:HA, is the inorganic principle component of natural bones and teeth. It has been already suggested that the amount of OH ion in the crystal structure of HA is closely related to the biocompatibility. The amount of OH ion in current HA, however, has not been controlled. In order to prepare more functional HA ceramics, the amount of OH ion must be controlled. In this study, HA ceramics with different OH amount were prepared from fine HA crystals by spark plasma sintering (SPS). In order to reveal the ideal sintering conditions for preparation of transparent ceramics, densification process on SPS was investigated. The samples were pressed uniaxialy under 60 MPa, and then they were heated by SPS at 800 deg. C, 900 deg. C and 1000 deg. C for 10 min with the heating rate of 25 deg. C{center_dot}min-1. The quantity of OH ion in HA ceramics sintered by SPS was decreased with increasing temperature of sintering. Transparent HA ceramics were prepared by SPS at 900 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. In analysis of the densification behavior during sintering of HA by SPS, dominant sintering mechanism was plastic flow of densification. Transparent ceramics should be the most suitable materials to investigate the interface between human cells and ceramics.

  7. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-06-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  8. The effect of high-pressure devitrification and densification on ballistic-penetration resistance of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avuthu, Vasudeva Reddy

    perhaps alpha-quartz) within fused silica during ballistic impact. To rationalize the findings obtained, the all-atom molecular-level computational analysis is complemented by a series of quantum-mechanics density functional theory (DFT) computations. The latter computations enable determination of the relative potential energies of the fused silica, alpha-quartz and stishovite under ambient pressure (i.e. under their natural densities) as well as under imposed (as high as 50 GPa) pressures (i.e. under higher densities) and shear strains. In addition, the transition states associated with various fused-silica devitrification processes were identified. In the second part of the present work, the molecular-level computational results obtained in the first portion of the work are used to enrich a continuum-type constitutive model (that is, the so-called Johnson-Holmquist-2, JH2, model) for fused silica. Since the aforementioned devitrification and permanent-densification processes modify the response of fused silica to the pressure as well as to the deviatoric part of the stress, changes had to be made in both the JH2 equation of state and the strength model. To assess the potential improvements with respect to the ballistic-penetration resistance of this material brought about by the fused-silica devitrification and permanent-densification processes, a series of transient non-linear dynamics finite element analyses of the transverse impact of a fused-silica test plate with a solid right-circular cylindrical steel projectile was conducted. The results obtained revealed that, provided the projectile incident velocity and, hence, the attendant pressure, is sufficiently high, fused silica can undergo impact-induced energy-consuming devitrification, which improves its ballistic-penetration resistance.

  9. Experimental investigation of uranium dicarbide densification and the influence of free carbon diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, K.M.

    1991-04-01

    Because UC{sub 2} fuel is being considered for space reactor applications, an investigation of process parameters and densification mechanisms for this fuel was conducted for the DOE. Uranium dicarbide feed powder was prepared by carbothermic reduction of uranium dicarbide and graphite at 2050 K in vacuum. Uranium dicarbide pellets were prepared by cold pressing at 110 MPa and sintering at 2370 K in contact with niobium, tantalum, or tungsten substrates in argon, argon-hydrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. Argon proved to be the most effective for sintering. A high density front was observed to move through the pellets, starting from the pellet-metal substrate interface. The primary factor controlling this phenomenon is the diffusion of carbon from the uranium dicarbide pellet into the metal substrate. When the carbon level reduces so that no free carbon is present, rapid densification of the uranium dicarbide occurs. The movement of the high density front can be predicted with carbon diffusion equations using the error function. The activation energy for the high density front movement was determined to be {minus}130 to {minus}180 Kcal/mole. An effective diffusion coefficient for carbon diffusion in UC{sub 2} and the movement of the densified region was measured at 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s. This technique can be used to control densification of uranium dicarbide and to control carbon level and grain size in sintered compacts. More information on the fundamental carbon transport mechanism is necessary for complete understanding of the phenomenon. 54 refs., 67 figs.

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced stress-free ultra-densification inside porous glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, Vadim P.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Sergeev, Maksim M.; Zakoldaev, Roman A.; Danilov, Pavel A.; Ionin, Andrey A.; Antropova, Tatiana V.; Anfimova, Irina N.

    2016-05-01

    Unusually high densification  ⩽26% was obtained without lateral residual stresses within the laser beam waist inside porous glass during its multi-shot femtosecond laser irradiation, which may induce in the glass the related high refractive index change ~0.1. Corresponding laser irradiation regimes, resulting in such ultra-densification, decompaction and voids inside the glass, were revealed as a function of laser pulse energy and scanning rate, and were discussed in terms of thermal and hydrodynamic processes in the silica network.

  11. Impact of densification on microstructure and transport properties of CaFe5O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacotte, C.; Hébert, S.; Hardy, V.; Bréard, Y.; Maki, R.; Mori, T.; Pelloquin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monophasic CaFe5O7 ceramic has been synthesized by solid state route. Its microstructural features have been studied by diffraction techniques and electron microscopy images before and after Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) annealings. This work is completed by measurements of electrical and thermal properties. Especially, attention is focused around the structural and electronic transition at 360 K for which specific heat measurements have revealed a sharp peak. Densification by SPS techniques led to a significant improvement of electrical conductivity above 360 K.

  12. Multi-material laser densification (MMLD) of dental restorations: Process optimization and properties evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxuan

    This Ph.D. thesis proposes to investigate the feasibility of laser-assisted dental restoration and to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between laser beam and dental materials. Traditional dental restorations are produced by the porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) process, in which a dental restoration is cast from a metallic alloy and then coated with dental porcelains by multiple furnace-firing processes. PFM method is labor-intensive and hence very expensive. In order to fabricate dental restoration units faster and more cost-effectively, the Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technique has been employed in this study. In particular, a Multi-Material Laser Densification (MMLD) process has been investigated for its potential to fabricate artificial teeth automatically from 3-D computer dental tooth files. Based on the principle of SFF, the MMLD process utilizes a micro-extruder system to deliver commercial dental alloy and porcelain slurry in a computer-controlled pattern line by line and layer by layer. Instead of firing the artificial tooth/teeth in a furnace, the extruded dental materials are laser scanned to convert the loose powder to a fully dense body. Different laser densification parameters including the densification temperature, laser output power, laser beam size, line dimension, ratio of the beam size to line width, beam scanning rate, processing atmosphere and pressure, dental powder state (powder bed or slurry), powder particle size, etc. have been used to evaluate their effects on the microstructures and properties of the laser densified dental body, and hence to optimize MMLD conditions. Furthermore, laser-scanning induced phase transformations in dental porcelains have been studied because the transformations have great impact on coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of dental porcelains, which should match that of dental alloy substrate. Since a single dental material line delivered by the MMLD system functions as a "construction

  13. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal morphology on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow are scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main influences. To this end, we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series. In contrast to previous measurements on isothermal metamorphism on time scales of weeks to months, we analyzed the initial 24-48 h of snow evolution at a high temporal resolution of 3 hours. The data set comprised natural and laboratory-grown snow, and experimental conditions included systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a snowpack. For all conditions, we found a linear relation between density and SSA, indicating that metamorphism has an immediate influence for the densification of new snow. The slope of the linear relation, however, depends on the other parameters which were analyzed individually to derive a best-fit parameterization for the SSA decrease rate and densification rate. In the investigated parameter range, we found that the initial value of the SSA constituted the main morphological influence on the SSA decrease rate. In turn, the SSA decrease rate constituted the main influence on the densification rate.

  14. Spark-Plasma Sintering of W-5.6Ni-1.4Fe Heavy Alloys: Densification and Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ke; Li, Xiaoqiang; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Yuanyuan

    2013-02-01

    W-5.6Ni-1.4Fe heavy alloys were prepared by the method of spark-plasma sintering, and the densification and grain growth kinetics were analyzed as a function of various parameters such as sintering temperature and dwell duration. It is found that the local temperature gradient at the vicinity of the pores can cause the matrix phase melting or softening, resulting in a viscous layer coating the W particles and an improved solubility of W into the matrix phase. In the initial stage, particle rearrangement and neck formation and growth take place, and γ-(Ni, Fe) matrix phase has formed. Dissolution-precipitation and Ni-enhanced W grain boundary diffusion together with viscous process contribute to the simultaneous densification and grain growth in the intermediate stage. During the final stage, fast grain growth, controlled by both gas-phase diffusion and dissolution-precipitation mechanisms, dominates over the densification.

  15. Densification and coarsening during solid state sintering of ceramics: A review of the models. II - Grain growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Nancy J.

    1989-01-01

    Two processes occur simultaneously during the sintering of a ceramic powder compact: densification and coarsening (or grain growth). Both processes have as their driving force the reduction of the excess free surface energy of the powder particles. Several different mechanisms of atom transport, operating concurrently or consecutively, may be responsible for the two processes. Algebraic, geometric and topological models have been proposed and refined in attempts to determine the mechanism, or mechanisms, responsible for densification under defined processing conditions. These efforts have met with varying degrees of success. Recently, it has become apparent that more attention must be paid to the coarsening processes during sintering. The models for both densification and coarsening during solid state sintering are reviewed with particular emphasis on their applicability to engineering ceramics.

  16. Densification route and mechanical properties of Si3N4-bioglass biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D

    2002-02-01

    The processing route and the final microstructural and mechanical characteristics of a novel biomaterial composite are described. This new material is composed of 70 wt% Si3N4 ceramic phase and 30 wt% bioglass, the later performing as a liquid sintering aid system and simultaneously providing bioactivity characteristics to the composite. The conditions for fabrication of an almost fully dense material (approximately 98% of relative density) were pursued. Optimised parameters were 1350 degrees C-40 min-30 MPa by hot-pressing technique. The very fast densification rate of the process avoided the crystallisation of the bioglass intergranular phase and therefore its intrinsic properties were maintained. Also, the large amount of glassy phase assured the densification by liquid phase assisted grain rearrangement without Si3N4 phase transformation. The final mechanical properties of the Si3N4 bioglass were as follows: fracture toughness, K(IC) = 4.4 MPa m(1/2); Vickers hardness, Hv = 10.3 GPa; Young's modulus, E = 197 GPa; bending strength, sigma(g) = 383 MPa; Weibull modulus, m = 8.3. These values provide an attractive set of properties among other bioactive materials, namely by upgrading the main drawback of bioceramcs and bioglasses for high-load medical applications, which is the lack of satisfactory fracture toughness. PMID:11771704

  17. Temperature and speed of testing influence on the densification and recovery of polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Dragoş Alexandru; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane foams with densities of 35, 93, and 200 kg/m3 were tested in compression at three levels of temperatures as: -60 °C, 23 °C, and 80 °C. The influence of speed of testing from 2 mm/min up to 6 m/s (0.0014 to 545 s-1) on the response of the foams is analyzed. Testing is done separately on the rise direction and on the in-plane direction of the foams, and differences in their behavior are commented. With interpolation functions which approximate the plateau and densification region, the specific strain energy is calculated together with the energy efficiency and onset strain of densification. A Nagy-type phenomenological strain-rate-dependent model is proposed to generate engineering stress-strain curves and is validated through comparison with experimental stress-strain curves obtained at different speeds of testing. Starting from a reference experimental curve, two material parameters which are density and temperature dependent are established. Foam recovery for each density of the polyurethane foams is analyzed as a function of direction of testing, temperature, and speed of testing.

  18. GNSS-based densification of the ITRF velocity field through a collaborative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Craymer, Michael; Dawson, John; Griffiths, Jake; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Rebischung, Paul; Sánchez, Laura; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Saria, Elifuraha; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the IAG Working Group "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG combined the individual weekly solutions from 7 individual contributors (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS) and then stacked these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a ITRF2008 densification as well as the associated residual position time series for more than 2800 sites. Here we present the latest densification results.

  19. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND UNIAXIAL PRESSURE ON THE DENSIFICATION BEHAVIOR OF SILICA AEROGEL GRANULES

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Robinson, Matthew J.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-10-01

    Materials are being developed in U.S. for the removal and immobilization of iodine from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing in support of the Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. The silver-functionalized silica aerogel proved to be an excellent candidate for this treatment because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for radioiodine and its possible conversion to a durable silica-based waste form. The present study investigated with nitrogen sorption and helium pycnometry the effect of pressureless isothermal sintering at temperatures of 900-1400°C for 2.5-90 min or isothermal hot-pressing at 1200°C for 2.5 min on densification of raw and silver-functionalized silica aerogel granules. Rapid sintering was observed at 1050 and 1200°C. Only 15 min of pressureless sintering at 1200°C resulted in almost complete densification. The macropores disappeared, surface area decreased from 1114 m2/g to 25 m2/g, pore volume from 7.41 cm3/g to 0.09 cm3/g, and adsorption pore size from 18.7 to 7 nm. The skeletal density of sintered granules was similar to the bulk density of amorphous silica (2.2 g/cm3). The hot-pressing accelerated the sintering process, decreasing significantly the pore size and volume.

  20. Simulation of the densification of real open-celled foam microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydon, A. D.; Bardenhagen, S. G.; Miller, E. A.; Seidler, G. T.

    2005-12-01

    Ubiquitous in nature and finding applications in engineering systems, cellular solids are an increasingly important class of materials. Foams are an important subclass of cellular solids with applications as packing materials and energy absorbers due to their unique properties. A better understanding of foam mechanical properties and their dependence on microstructural details would facilitate manufacture of tailored materials and development of constitutive models for their bulk response. Numerical simulation of these materials, while offering great promise toward furthering understanding, has also served to convincingly demonstrate the inherent complexity and associated modeling challenges. The large range of deformations which foams are subjected to in routine engineering applications is a fundamental source of complication in modeling the details of foam deformation on the scale of foam struts. It requires accurate handling of large material deformations and complex contact mechanics, both well established numerical challenges. A further complication is the replication of complex foam microstructure geometry in numerical simulations. Here various advantages of certain particle methods, in particular their compatibility with the determination of three-dimensional geometry via X-ray microtomography, are exploited to simulate the compression of "real" foam microstructures into densification. With attention paid to representative volume element size, predictions are made regarding bulk response, dynamic effects, and deformed microstructural character, for real polymeric, open-cell foams. These predictions include a negative Poisson's ratio in the stress plateau, and increased difficulty in removing residual porosity during densification.

  1. Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 {mu}m intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Saliminia, A.; Nguyen, N.T.; Chin, S.L.; Vallee, R.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for waveguide formation in silica glass induced by 1 kHz intense femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti-sapphire laser at 0.8 {mu}m as well as from a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier at 1.5 {mu}m. It is demonstrated that the densification taking place at the irradiated region is the principal cause for refractive index change in the waveguides written with both 0.8 and 1.5 {mu}m pulses. The birefringence induced by the stress arising from such densification and its behavior against thermal annealing are also studied.

  2. Structural inhomogeneity and localization of densification in the liquid-phase sintering of tungsten-copper power mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Skorokhod, V.V.; Panichkina, V.V.; Prokushev, N.K.

    1986-08-01

    The object of this work was to study the kinetics of liquid-phase sintering (LPS) of tungsten-20 vol.% copper composites of various origins and to find out which of the two factors - small particle size of tungsten powder or homogeneity of the composite - is the dominant one in their densification. The study was made of the densification of mixtures of four types shown. An REM-200 scanning electron microscope was used to study the structures of the compacts and also the specimens sintered at 1400/sup 0/C. The results of calculations of the phase interfaces and degrees of homogeneity of the mixtures are presented.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of Si3N4 ceramics without additives by high pressure hot pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, M.; Tanaka, A.; Yamada, T.; Koizumi, M.

    1984-01-01

    High pressure hot-pressing of Si3N4 without additives was performed using various kinds of Si3N4 powder as starting materials, and the relation between densification and alpha-beta phase transformation was studied. The temperature dependences of Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness were also examined. Densification of Si3N4 was divided into three stages, and it was found that densification and phase transformation of Si3N4 under pressure were closely associated. The results of the temperature dependence of Vickers microhardness indicated that the high-temperature hardness was strongly influenced not only by the density and microstructure of sintered body but also by the purity of starting powder. The fracture toughness values of Si3N4 bodies without additives were 3.29-4.39 MN/m to the 3/2 power and independent of temperature up to 1400 C.

  4. Influence of stress, temperature and crystal habit on isothermal densification and specific surface area decrease of new snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleef, S.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow is scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main mechanism underlying the initial microstructural changes. To this end we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and compiled a comprehensive data set of 45 time series covering the practically relevant short time behavior within the first 24-48 h in high temporal resolution. The data set comprises natural and laboratory grown snow and experimental conditions include systematic variations of overburden stress, temperature and crystal habit to address the main influences on specific surface area (SSA) decrease rate and densification rate in a natural snowpack. For all conditions we find a linear increase of the density with the SSA, indicating that metamorphism has a key influence for the densification of new snow. Corroborated by the analysis of the individual influences of external conditions we derive a best-fit parametrization for the SSA decrease rate and the densification rate as required for applications.

  5. Hot impact densification: a new method for producing high density ceramic pellets with close shape tolerances

    SciTech Connect

    Hrovat, M.; Huschka, H.; Muhling, G.; Rachor, L.; Zimmerman, H.

    1982-07-01

    Density and correct diameter of nuclear fuel pellets are usually achieved by sintering and subsequent circular grinding. Hot impact densification (HID) thermally squatted ceramic bodies can be directly high speed precision-molded in a cold die. For thermoshock-sensitive materials, a controlled cooling down procedure of some minutes is added. The feasibility of HID has been demonstrated on the laboratory scale on UO/sub 2/, UC, and some more materials at temperatures between 1700 and 2300/sup 0/C, pressures up to 800 N/mm/sup 2/. Shape tolerances are close, density can be exactly reproduced within a wide range. Tool wear seems to be no problem. Currently, a prototype facility for continuous performance is being developed.

  6. Effects of densification on fluorescence spectra and glass structure of Eu3+-doped borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, N.; Hirao, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    1988-05-01

    Densified glass specimens of 90 B2O3ṡ10 Na2Oṡ1 Eu2O3 were obtained by applying hydrostatic pressure up to 6 GPa at various temperatures from 250 to 900 °C, and their densities and inhomogeneous bandwidths of Eu3+ fluorescence spectra were determined in order to follow a structural change taking place during densification. The results indicate that the role of hydrostatic pressure is first to eliminate the atomic scale voids usually appearing when quenched from high temperatures and then to increase the fluctuation of local fields around Eu3+ probably due to the distortion of glass network accompanied with a wide variation of bond length. The molecular dynamics simulation of the densified state was also carried out to support the above conclusion.

  7. A Collaborative Approach Toward the Densification of the ITRF Velocity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, J.; Bruyninx, C.; Saria, E.; Griffiths, J.; Craymer, M. R.; Dawson, J. H.; Kenyeres, A.; Santamaria-Gomez, A.; Sanchez, L.; Altamimi, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the IAG Working Group 'Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF' is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 'Regional Reference Frames' where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG combined the individual weekly solutions from 7 individual contributors (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS) and then stacked these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a ITRF2008 densification as well as the associated residual position time series for more than 2000 sites.

  8. Densification effects of the carbon nanotube pillar array on field-emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Liao, Chan-Yu; Li, Yu-Ren; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple densification method for carbon nanotube (CNT) pillars is proposed to achieve high-performance field emission characteristics and stable emission. Through capillary force during solution evaporation, the CNT density in each pillar can be increased by about six times without causing damage to the crystallinity of CNTs. The densified CNT pillars exhibit lower series resistance, sharper pillars, better contacts, higher thermal conductivity, and better mechanical stiffness than as-grown ones. Therefore, the threshold field of the field emitter with such CNT pillars of 50 µm height can be reduced to 1.98 V/µm, as compared with 2.2 V/µm for the undensified ones. Moreover, the fluctuation of field-emission current decreases from 15.5 to 9.4% after the stress tests at a field of 2 V/µm for 1800 s. These findings imply that the densified CNT pillars are promising for the field-emission applications.

  9. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  10. Fabrication, densification, and replica molding of 3D carbon nanotube microstructures.

    PubMed

    Copic, Davor; Park, Sei Jin; Tawfick, Sameh; De Volder, Michael; Hart, A John

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of new materials and processes to microfabrication has, in large part, enabled many important advances in microsystems, lab-on-a-chip devices, and their applications. In particular, capabilities for cost-effective fabrication of polymer microstructures were transformed by the advent of soft lithography and other micromolding techniques (1, 2), and this led a revolution in applications of microfabrication to biomedical engineering and biology. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to fabricate microstructures with well-defined nanoscale surface textures, and to fabricate arbitrary 3D shapes at the micro-scale. Robustness of master molds and maintenance of shape integrity is especially important to achieve high fidelity replication of complex structures and preserving their nanoscale surface texture. The combination of hierarchical textures, and heterogeneous shapes, is a profound challenge to existing microfabrication methods that largely rely upon top-down etching using fixed mask templates. On the other hand, the bottom-up synthesis of nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires can offer new capabilities to microfabrication, in particular by taking advantage of the collective self-organization of nanostructures, and local control of their growth behavior with respect to microfabricated patterns. Our goal is to introduce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which we refer to as CNT "forests", as a new microfabrication material. We present details of a suite of related methods recently developed by our group: fabrication of CNT forest microstructures by thermal CVD from lithographically patterned catalyst thin films; self-directed elastocapillary densification of CNT microstructures; and replica molding of polymer microstructures using CNT composite master molds. In particular, our work shows that self-directed capillary densification ("capillary forming"), which is performed by condensation of a solvent onto the substrate with CNT

  11. Densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar

    Fe-based amorphous alloys are gaining increasing attention due to their exceptional wear and corrosion resistance for potential structural applications. Two major challenges that are hindering the commercialization of these amorphous alloys are difficulty in processing of bulk shapes (diameter > 10 mm) and lack of ductility. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as a promising technique for processing bulk shapes of amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. The objective of this work is to investigate densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of SPS sintered Fe-based amorphous alloys of composition Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6. SPS processing was performed in three distinct temperature ranges of amorphous alloys: (a) below glass transition temperature (Tg), (b) between Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx), and (c) above Tx. Punch displacement data obtained during SPS sintering was correlated with the SPS processing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sintering time. Powder rearrangement, plastic deformation below T g, and viscous flow of the material between Tg and Tx were observed as the main densification stages during SPS sintering. Micro-scale temperature distributions at the point of contact and macro-scale temperature distribution throughout the sample during SPS of amorphous alloys were modeled. The bulk amorphous alloys are expected to undergo structural relaxation and nanocrystallization during SPS sintering. X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to investigate the evolution of nanocrystallites in SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS analysis showed significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural and compositional changes with the profuse nucleation of nano-clusters (~4 nm). Compression tests and microhardness were performed on the samples sintered at different

  12. On the plastic deformation of soda-lime glass-a Cr3+ luminescence study of densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perriot, A.; Barthel, E.; Kermouche, G.; Quérel, G.; Vandembroucq, D.

    2011-03-01

    Silicate glasses are known to experience anomalous plastic behavior at micron scales: (1) they exhibit densification when flowing plastically; and (2) hydrostatic pressure affects the yield point. We have previously shown that densification maps are useful to infer a reliable constitutive law for the plastic response of silicate glasses. It is shown here that for soda-lime glass Cr3+ luminescence microspectroscopy may be used for that purpose. We also show that the constitutive law we have previously developed for amorphous silica provides a qualitative description of normal glasses, although it is unable to account for the finer details. More work is needed to quantitatively model normal-glass plasticity at the continuum length-scale.

  13. Mathematical Model and Experimental Results for Cryogenic Densification and Sub-Cooling Using a Submerged Cooling Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, J. K.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tuttle, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Among the many factors that determine overall rocket performance, propellant density is important because it affects the size of the rocket. Thus, in order to decrease the size of a rocket, it may be desirable to increase the density of propellants. This study analyzes the concept of increasing the propellant density by employing a cooling source submerged in the liquid propellant. A simple, mathematical model was developed to predict the rate of densification and the propellant temperature profile. The mathematical model is generic and applicable to multiple propellants. The densification rate was determined experimentally by submerging a cooling source in liquid oxygen at constant, positive pressure, and measuring the time rate of change in temperature with respect to vertical position. The results from the mathematical model provided a reasonable fit when compared to experimental results.

  14. Densification and residual stress induced by CO2 laser-based mitigation of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; Matthews, M J; Soules, T F; Stolken, J S

    2010-10-21

    Knowing the ultimate surface morphology resulting from CO{sub 2} laser mitigation of induced laser damage is important both for determining adequate treatment protocols, and for preventing deleterious intensification upon subsequent illumination of downstream optics. Physical effects such as evaporation, viscous flow and densification can strongly affect the final morphology of the treated site. Evaporation is a strong function of temperature and will play a leading role in determining pit shapes when the evaporation rate is large, both because of material loss and redeposition. Viscous motion of the hot molten material during heating and cooling can redistribute material due to surface tension gradients (Marangoni effect) and vapor recoil pressure effects. Less well known, perhaps, is that silica can densify as a result of structural relaxation, to a degree depending on the local thermal history. The specific volume shrinkage due to structural relaxation can be mistaken for material loss due to evaporation. Unlike evaporation, however, local density change can be reversed by post annealing. All of these effects must be taken into account to adequately describe the final morphology and optical properties of single and multiple-pass mitigation protocols. We have investigated, experimentally and theoretically, the significance of such densification on residual stress and under what circumstances it can compete with evaporation in determining the ultimate post treatment surface shape. In general, understanding final surface configurations requires taking all these factors including local structural relaxation densification, and therefore the thermal history, into account. We find that surface depressions due to densification can dominate surface morphology in the non-evaporative regime when peak temperatures are below 2100K.

  15. Improved progressive TIN densification filtering algorithm for airborne LiDAR data in forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Guo, Qinghua; Su, Yanjun; Xue, Baolin

    2016-07-01

    Filtering of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into the ground and non-ground points is a fundamental step in processing raw airborne LiDAR data. This paper proposes an improved progressive triangulated irregular network (TIN) densification (IPTD) filtering algorithm that can cope with a variety of forested landscapes, particularly both topographically and environmentally complex regions. The IPTD filtering algorithm consists of three steps: (1) acquiring potential ground seed points using the morphological method; (2) obtaining accurate ground seed points; and (3) building a TIN-based model and iteratively densifying TIN. The IPTD filtering algorithm was tested in 15 forested sites with various terrains (i.e., elevation and slope) and vegetation conditions (i.e., canopy cover and tree height), and was compared with seven other commonly used filtering algorithms (including morphology-based, slope-based, and interpolation-based filtering algorithms). Results show that the IPTD achieves the highest filtering accuracy for nine of the 15 sites. In general, it outperforms the other filtering algorithms, yielding the lowest average total error of 3.15% and the highest average kappa coefficient of 89.53%.

  16. Crystallization kinetics and densification of YAG nanoparticles from various chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, J.G.; Kumar, R.V.; Qu, Y.F.; Krsmanovic, Dalibor

    2009-08-05

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) nanoparticles were prepared using sonochemical sol-gel method with three different chelating agents and the effect of crystallization kinetics was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry (DSC-TG). The activation energy values of crystallization for the as-synthesized YAG nanoparticles using citric acid (CA), glycine (G) or a mixture of citric acid-glycine (CA-G), as chelating agents were found to be 160.5, 142.2 and 140.4 kJ mol{sup -1} and the corresponding Avarami constants were 2.2, 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. Samples produced with the mixed chelating agent under sonification, could be crystallized to single phase YAG nanoparticles (10-65 nm) after annealing at 1100 deg. C. Pellets made from the annealed YAG particles could be sintered to a relative density greater than 99% at 1500 deg. C with a grain size of 4.5 {mu}m, made up of secondary particles formed from primary nano-crystals within the grains. Grain size and relative density increased with different chelating agents from CA to G and CA-G in the increasing order when YAG samples were sintered. Grain growth and densification occurred at a relatively low temperature of 1500 deg. C as compared to over 1800 deg. C in solid-state reactions.

  17. Hierarchical densification and negative thermal expansion in Ce-based metallic glass under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiang; Garbarino, Gaston; Sun, Baoan; Fan, Dawei; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Yajuan; Jiao, Jin; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Pengshan; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Jürgen; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The polyamorphsim in amorphous materials is one of the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. In amorphous metals, the nature of polyamorphic transformation is poorly understood. Here we investigate the structural evolution of a Ce-based metallic glass (MG) with pressure at room temperature (RT) and near the glass transition temperature by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, uncovering novel behaviours. The MG shows hierarchical densification processes at both temperatures, arising from the hierarchy of interatomic interactions. In contrast with a continuous and smooth process for the low- to medium-density amorphous state transformation at RT, a relatively abrupt and discontinuous transformation around 5.5 GPa is observed at 390 K, suggesting a possible weak first-order nature. Furthermore, both positive and abnormal-negative thermal expansion behaviours on medium-range order are observed in different pressure windows, which could be related to the low-energy vibrational motions and relaxation of the weakly linked solute-centred clusters. PMID:25641091

  18. Laser induced densification of cerium gadolinium oxide: Application to single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Mariana; Rieu, Mathilde; Viricelle, Jean-Paul; Garrelie, Florence

    2016-06-01

    In single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFC), anode and cathode are placed in a gas chamber where they are exposed to a fuel/air mixture. Similarly to conventional dual-chamber SOFC, the anode and the cathode are separated by an electrolyte. However, as in the SC-SOFC configuration the electrolyte does not play tightness role between compartments, this one can be a porous layer. Nevertheless, it is necessary to have a diffusion barrier to prevent the transportation of hydrogen produced locally at the anode to the cathode that reduces fuel cell performances. This study aims to obtain directly a diffusion barrier through the surface densification of the electrolyte Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) by a laser treatment. KrF excimer laser and Yb fiber laser irradiations were used at different fluences and number of pulses to modify the density of the electrolyte coating. Microstructural characterizations confirmed the modifications on the surface of the electrolyte for appropriate experimental conditions showing either grain growth or densified but cracked surfaces. Gas permeation and electrical conductivities of the modified electrolyte were evaluated. Finally SC-SOFC performances were improved for the cells presenting grain growth at the electrolyte surface.

  19. Rural settlements dynamics and the prospects of densification strategy in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, A F M Ashraful; Asad, Rumana; Enamul Kabir, Md

    2016-01-01

    Given the year on year decrease of rural farmland and various forms of land degradation through the intrusion of non-farm land uses, the government of Bangladesh has drafted the agrarian reform strategies, primarily to protect the agricultural land from encroachment, conversion, and indiscriminate use. The draft Agricultural Land Protection and Land Use Bill since its inception in 2011 is facing serious uncertainties of implementation due to its borrowed nature from the developed contexts and inadequacy to recognize the local complexities. With a particular focus on the densification component of the draft bill, a semester-long design studio was conducted in consultation with the existing villagers to explore the practicability of the draft bill in the villages of Tetultala and Chhoygharia in the south-western coastal Bangladesh. The findings from the two villages hint that in Bangladesh, the unique and evolving nature of rural settlements dynamics that are disintegrating the rural society from farming practices and the farmland, thereby, unsettling the traditional village-morphology. The settlements dynamics vary from those of the western context; hence, there is an emerging need to build locally situated knowledge towards a feasible rural land reform. PMID:27026946

  20. Frost Growth and Densification on a Flat Surface in Laminar Flow with Variable Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, M.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are performed concerning frost growth and densification in laminar flow over a flat surface under conditions of constant and variable humidity. The flat plate test specimen is made of aluminum-6031, and has dimensions of 0.3 mx0.3 mx6.35 mm. Results for the first variable humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 1.77 m/s, air temperature of 295.1 K, and a relative humidity continuously ranging from 81 to 54%. The second variable humidity test case corresponds to plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 2.44 m/s, air temperature of 291.8 K, and a relative humidity ranging from 66 to 59%. Results for the constant humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 263.7 K, air velocity of 1.7 m/s, air temperature of 295 K, and a relative humidity of 71.6 %. Comparisons of the data with the author's frost model extended to accommodate variable humidity suggest satisfactory agreement between the theory and the data for both constant and variable humidity.

  1. Enhanced densification, strength and molecular mechanisms in shock compressed porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Vogler, Tracy J.

    2015-06-01

    In most porous materials, void collapse during shock compression couples mechanical energy to thermal energy. Increased temperature drives up pressures and lowers densities in the final Hugoniot states as compared to full-density samples. Some materials, however, exhibit an anomalous enhanced densification in their Hugoniot states when porosity is introduced. We have recently shown that silicon is such a material, and demonstrated a molecular mechanism for the effect using molecular simulation. We will review results from large-scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and Hugoniotstat simulations of shock compressed porous silicon, highlighting the mechanism by which porosity produces local shear which nucleate partial phase transition and localized melting at shock pressures below typical thresholds in these materials. Further, we will characterize the stress states and strength of the material as a function of porosity from 5 to 50 percent and with various porosity microstructures. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Effect of the compaction platform on the densification parameters of tableting excipients with different deformation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Hernandez, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Several compaction models have been attempted to explain the compression and compaction phenomena of excipients. However, the resulting parameters could be influenced by the compaction platform such as dwell time, compact mass, geometry and type of material. The goal of this study is to assess the effect of these variables on the densification parameters obtained from key models such as Heckel, non-linear Heckel, Kawakita, Carstensen, and Leuenberger. The relationship among the parameters derived was determined by employing a Principal Component Analysis. Results indicated that factors such as compact geometry, consolidation time and compact mass had a negligible impact on parameters such as tensile strength, yield pressure and compressibility. On the contrary, the excipient type had the largest influence on these parameters. Further, the Leuenberger (γ) and Carstensen (f) parameters were highly correlated and related to the excipient deformation mechanism. Sorbitol and PVP-k30 were the most highly compactable excipients and were characterized for having a low yield pressure (P(y)), compressibility (a), and critical porosity (ε(c)). The magnitude of these parameters was highly dependent on the consolidation behavior of each material. PMID:24583783

  3. Densification and depression in glass transition temperature in polystyrene thin films.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, G; S Chebil, M; Bal, J K; Delorme, N; Beuvier, T; Grohens, Y; Gibaud, A

    2014-10-01

    Ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity were used to characterize the mass density and the glass transition temperature of supported polystyrene (PS) thin films as a function of their thickness. By measuring the critical wave vector (qc) on the plateau of total external reflection, we evidence that PS films get denser in a confined state when the film thickness is below 50 nm. Refractive indices (n) and electron density profiles measurements confirm this statement. The density of a 6 nm (0.4 gyration radius, Rg) thick film is 30% greater than that of a 150 nm (10Rg) film. A depression of 25 °C in glass transition temperature (Tg) was revealed as the film thickness is reduced. In the context of the free volume theory, this result seems to be in apparent contradiction with the fact that thinner films are denser. However, as the thermal expansion of thinner films is found to be greater than the one of thicker films, the increase in free volume is larger for thin films when temperature is raised. Therefore, the free volume reaches a critical value at a lower Tg for thinner films. This critical value corresponds to the onset of large cooperative movements of polymer chains. The link between the densification of ultrathin films and the drop in their Tg is thus reconciled. We finally show that at their respective Tg(h) all films exhibit a critical mass density of about 1.05 g/cm(3) whatever their thickness. The thickness dependent thermal expansion related to the free volume is consequently a key factor to understand the drop in the Tg of ultrathin films. PMID:25209183

  4. Densification and permeability reduction in hot-pressed calcite: A kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenlu; Evans, Brian; Bernabé, Yves

    1999-11-01

    Laboratory studies on hot isostatically pressed (HIP) calcite reveal that the evolution of porosity and permeability during mechanical compaction can be divided into two distinct regimes. At high porosities, permeability is related approximately to porosity raised to the third power. However, below a porosity called the crossover porosity, the power law relationship no longer applies, and permeability reduction is accelerated. At a porosity of ˜4%, permeability becomes too low to be measured, indicating that a percolation threshold has been reached. In previous studies the time evolutions of porosity and permeability were not predicted, and further, the crossover porosity was introduced as an empirical input parameter. In this study we developed a unified model combining crack healing with densification by power law creep to reproduce porosity evolution as a function of time. Both the healing and the creep are deterministically controlled by the pressure and temperature. Permeability can then be calculated by incorporating quantitative microstructural data (i.e., pore size distribution) into a three-dimensional cubic network model. We were able to reproduce the permeability-porosity relationship in hot-pressed calcite aggregates in both high- and low-porosity regimes. In particular, our model predicted a crossover porosity of ˜7% and a percolation threshold of ˜4%, both in a good agreement with the experimental data. However, we generally overestimated the absolute values of permeability. Because the model yielded correct absolute permeability values in the case when the pore size distribution was known, we suppose that at least part of the error arises from inadequate data for microstructure.

  5. Densification of molybdenum and molybdenum alloy powders using hot isostatic pressing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Ahmad, I.; Isserow, S.; Warenchak, R.

    1985-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine a superior erosion-resistant gun-barrel liner material with improved properties at higher temperatures. Four categories of powders were examined: 1. TZM spherical containing 0.5 titanium, 0.08 zirconium, and 0.02 carbon (wt. % nominally), balance molybdenum (Mo), produced by REP (Rotating Electrode Process), PREP (Plasma Rotating Electrode Process), and PMRS (Plasma Melted and Rapidly Solidified); 2. Mo reduced 2 and 5 microns; 3. Mo-0.1% cobalt, co-reduced; 4. Mo-5 wt. % alumina (A12O3), dispersion strengthened. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) densification occurred at 15-30 Ksi, 1300-1600 C, for 1.5 to 3.0 hours. The TZM REP/PREP powders (220/74 microns) were not fully densified even at 1600 C, 30 Ksi, 3 hours. Point-particle contact prevented complete void elimination. TZM PMRS powder (24.7 microns) achieved 99% of theoretical density while maintaining a small grain size (10.4 ASTM eq.) Bend deflection and fracture energies were approximately three times those for PREP powder at a bend rupture strength of about 120 Ksi. Mo reduced and Mo-0.1% Co powders showed less (or the same) ductility with increasing HIP temperatures. Fractures were intergranular with decreased bend rupture and compression strength. The Mo-5A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder maintained a fine grain size (13 ASTM eq.), but with fracture energies usually less than 0.6 in.-lbs. Included are results from bending and compression testing with metallographic and fracture mode interpretation.

  6. The Effect of High-Pressure Devitrification and Densification on Ballistic-Penetration Resistance of Fused Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Avuthu, V.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Galgalikar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experimental and molecular-level computational analyses have indicated that fused silica, when subjected to pressures of several tens of GPa, can experience irreversible devitrification and densification. Such changes in the fused-silica molecular-level structure are associated with absorption and/or dissipation of the strain energy acquired by fused silica during high-pressure compression. This finding may have important practical consequences in applications for fused silica such as windshields and windows of military vehicles, portholes in ships, ground vehicles, spacecraft, etc. In the present work, our prior molecular-level computational results pertaining to the response of fused silica to high pressures (and shear stresses) are used to enrich a continuum-type constitutive model (that is, the so-called Johnson-Holmquist-2, JH2, model) for this material. Since the aforementioned devitrification and permanent densification processes modify the response of fused silica to the pressure as well as to the deviatoric part of the stress, changes had to be made in both the JH2 equation of state and the strength model. To assess the potential improvements in respect to the ballistic-penetration resistance of this material brought about by the fused-silica devitrification and permanent densification processes, a series of transient non-linear dynamics finite-element analyses of the transverse impact of a fused-silica test plate with a solid right-circular cylindrical steel projectile were conducted. The results obtained revealed that, provided the projectile incident velocity and, hence, the attendant pressure, is sufficiently high, fused silica can undergo impact-induced devitrification, which improves its ballistic-penetration resistance.

  7. Remote sensing of impervious surface growth: A framework for quantifying urban expansion and re-densification mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahtahmassebi, Amir Reza; Song, Jie; Zheng, Qing; Blackburn, George Alan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Ling Yan; Pan, Yi; Moore, Nathan; Shahtahmassebi, Golnaz; Sadrabadi Haghighi, Reza; Deng, Jing Song

    2016-04-01

    A substantial body of literature has accumulated on the topic of using remotely sensed data to map impervious surfaces which are widely recognized as an important indicator of urbanization. However, the remote sensing of impervious surface growth has not been successfully addressed. This study proposes a new framework for deriving and summarizing urban expansion and re-densification using time series of impervious surface fractions (ISFs) derived from remotely sensed imagery. This approach integrates multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA), analysis of regression residuals, spatial statistics (Getis_Ord) and urban growth theories; hence, the framework is abbreviated as MRGU. The performance of MRGU was compared with commonly used change detection techniques in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. The results suggested that the ISF regression residuals were optimal for detecting impervious surface changes while Getis_Ord was effective for mapping hotspot regions in the regression residuals image. Moreover, the MRGU outputs agreed with the mechanisms proposed in several existing urban growth theories, but importantly the outputs enable the refinement of such models by explicitly accounting for the spatial distribution of both expansion and re-densification mechanisms. Based on Landsat data, the MRGU is somewhat restricted in its ability to measure re-densification in the urban core but this may be improved through the use of higher spatial resolution satellite imagery. The paper ends with an assessment of the present gaps in remote sensing of impervious surface growth and suggests some solutions. The application of impervious surface fractions in urban change detection is a stimulating new research idea which is driving future research with new models and algorithms.

  8. Atomistic Origins of Densification in Oxide Melts in Earth's Mantle: Insights from Synchrotron X-ray Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Mao, H.; Eng, P.; Shu, J.; Lin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Whereas the structure of oxide melts at high pressure is essential for understanding chemical evolution of the Earth system in the magma ocean in the mantle, little is known about their liquid structures and the densification mechanism due to the inherent structural disorder and the lack of suitable experimental probes at high pressures. We have recently shown that x-ray Raman scattering combined with diamond anvil cell technique, can yield a new opportunity to study the bonding changes in amorphous systems at high pressure (e.g. Lee SK et al.. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 98, 105502; Lee SK et al. Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci. 2008, 105, 7925). Here, we explore the pressure-induced structural changes in model oxide melt phases in mantle, such as borates, germanates, Na- and Mg- silicates up to 50 GPa using x-ray Raman scattering. The O-Kedge spectra for model oxide melts elucidate the marked difference in densification behavior with varying composition but all the oxide glasses studied here presents the first experimental evidence for the formation of the triply coordinate oxygen above 20 GPa. The increase in the fraction of the triply coordinated oxygen results in a reduced free volume needed to host elements that are more incompatible, leading to an increase in the crystal-melt partitioning coefficient of elements, such as radioactive nuclides thereby significantly affecting the process of the chemical differentiation in the Hadean magma oceans. Its formation can be an efficient densification mechanism in the oxide melt in Earth's mantle and explain the atomistic origin of the high-density Mg-silicate melts at the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Effect of the degree of microstructural Regularity of a porous powder solid on Its densification during sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Skorokhod, V.V.; Fridberg, I.D.; Panichking, V.V.

    1986-02-01

    A semiquantitative analysis is made, within the framework of a rheological approach, of the effect of microstructural regularity of a porous powder solid on the character of its sintering densification kinetics, and the results are compared of experiments on the sintering of various metal and oxide powders. Particular attention is given to possible changes in the structural regularity of sintering porous powder blanks due to variations in the particle size distribution and particle morphology of powders. Tungsten, nickel, and TL material were the powders used in the experiments.

  10. Low-temperature densification of ultrafine grained aluminum 6061-T6 by polymer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boumseock

    Ultrafine grained and nanocrytalline materials have many beneficial properties such as higher hardness, strength and wear resistance. A machining process has been developed as a new method to make nanostructured metals or alloys. Through the process, severe plastic deformation can be applied to metals or alloys and they become ultrafine grain and nanocrystalline in their structures. Because ultrafine grained alloys made by machining are made up to small chips, not bulk, to make bulk material, the alloy chips must be densified through processes such as sintering. Unfortunately, during the conventional sintering, the ultrafine grained alloys show grain growth at high rate and lose their hardness and strength. Therefore, low-temperature densification of ultrafine grained alloys has been pursued. In this thesis, ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al 6061-T6 particulate produced from machining chips have been consolidated and bonded using liquid epoxies that cure at 100?, below the coarsening temperature of the UFG structure. Two routes were explored---die-pressing premixed alloy particulate and epoxy and pressure infiltration of pre-pressed alloy particulate preforms. The effects of pressing pressure and epoxy viscosity were investigated. In order to reduce porosity and contamination, three treatments---application of pressure during curing of epoxy, the cleaning of the alloy powder with NaOH solution and degassing epoxy before pressing---were tried. In order to overcome limitation of diepressing, infiltration method was compared with die-pressing and the resulting properties of the composite discussed. Bond thickness between the alloy particles increases with the viscosity of the epoxies. In the hardness results by micro-indentor, the value of composite with more than 80% volume fraction of Al alloy chip (Va) was more than 120 kg/mm2. In those measurements, the hardness of the composite depends mainly on the volume fraction of Al alloy and was clearly influenced by the boundary

  11. Finite element modeling of dental restoration through multi-material laser densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Kun

    To provide guidance for intelligent selection of various parameters in the Multi-Material Laser Densification (MMLD) process for dental restorations, finite element modeling (FEM) has been carried out to investigate the MMLD process. These modeling investigations include the thermal analysis of the nominal surface temperature that should be adopted during experiments in order to achieve the desired microstructure; the effects of the volume shrinkage due to transformation from a powder compact to dense liquid on the temperature distribution and the size of the transformation zone; the evolution of transient temperature, transient stresses, residual stresses and distortions; and the effects of laser processing conditions, such as fabrication sequences, laser scanning patterns, component sizes, preheating temperatures, laser scanning rates, initial porosities, and thicknesses of each powder layer, on the final quality of the component fabricated via the MMLD process. The simulation results are compared with the experiments. It is found that the predicted temperature distribution matches the experiments very well. The nominal surface temperature applied on the dental porcelain body should be below 1273 K to prevent the forming of the un-desired microstructure (i.e., a leucite-free glassy phase). The simplified models that do not include the volume shrinkage effect provide good estimations of the temperature field and the size of the laser-densified body, although the shape of the laser-densified body predicted is different from that obtained in the experiment. It is also fount that warping and residual thermal stresses of the laser-densified component are more sensitive to the chamber preheating temperature and the thickness of each powder layer than to the laser scanning rate and the initial porosity of the powder layer. The major mechanism responsible for these phenomena is identified to be related to the change of the temperature gradient induced by these laser

  12. Effect of Heating Rate on Densification and Grain Growth During Spark Plasma Sintering of 93W-5.6Ni-1.4Fe Heavy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ke; Li, Xiaoqiang; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Yuanyuan

    2013-09-01

    Blended 93W-5.6Ni-1.4Fe powders were sintered via the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using heating rates from 10 K min-1 to 380 K min-1 (10 °C min-1 to 380 °C min-1). The kinetics of densification and grain growth were analyzed to identify heating rate effects during the SPS of 93W-5.6Ni-1.4Fe powders. The activation energies for densification were calculated and compared with the experimental values for diffusion and other mass transport phenomena. The results show that for the slowly heated specimens [heating rate <100 K min-1 (100 °C min-1)], densification occurs mainly through dissolution-precipitation of W through the matrix phase and W grain boundary diffusion. The concurrent grain growth is dominated by surface diffusion at a low sintering temperature and by solution-reprecipitation and Ni-enhanced W grain boundary diffusion at a higher temperature. For the specimens sintered with heating rates higher than 100 K min-1 (100 °C min-1), the apparent activation energy value for the mechanism controlling densification is a strong function of the relative density, and fast densification controlled by multiple diffusion mechanisms and intensive viscous flow dominates over the grain growth. High SPS heating rate is favorable to obtain high density and fine-grained tungsten heavy alloys.

  13. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  14. Sub-micron fracture mechanism in silica-based glass activated by permanent densification from high-strain loading

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Waters, Shirley B.; Parten, Randy J.; Pye, L. David

    2016-04-26

    Several silica-based glasses were fractured at high strain energy via drop-weight testing on small specimens. A cylindrical specimen geometry was chosen to promote initially simple, axisymmetric, and uniform compressive loading. The imposed uniaxial compressive strain at impact was sufficiently high to qualitatively cause permanent densification. Produced fragments were collected for postmortem and a fraction of them, for all the silica-based glasses, consistently had distinct sub-micron-sized fractures (~ 300–1000 nm), designated here as “microkernels”, on their surfaces. They would most often appear as a sub-micron pore on the fragment - apparently if the microkernel had popped out as a consequence ofmore » the local crack plane running through it, tensile-strain release, and the associated formation of the fragment it was on. No fractographic evidence was found to show the microkernels were associated with local failure initiation. However, their positioning and habit sometimes suggested they were associated with localized crack branching and that they could have influenced secondary fracturing that occurred during overall crushing and comminution and associated fragment size and shape creation. Furthermore, the size range of these microkernels is much too small to affect structural flexure strength of these glasses for most applications but are of a size and concentration that may affect their ballistic, shock, crush, and comminution responses when permanent densification is concomitantly occurring.« less

  15. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Automatic image analysis methods for the determination of stereological parameters - application to the analysis of densification during solid state sintering of WC-Co compacts

    PubMed

    Missiaen; Roure

    2000-08-01

    Automatic image analysis methods which were used to determine microstructural parameters of sintered materials are presented. Estimation of stereological parameters at interfaces, when the system contains more than two phases, is particularly detailed. It is shown that the specific surface areas and mean curvatures of the various interfaces can be estimated in the numerical space of the images. The methods are applied to the analysis of densification during solid state sintering of WC-Co compacts. The microstructural evolution is commented on. Application of microstructural measurements to the analysis of densification kinetics is also discussed. PMID:10947907

  18. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  19. Densification kinetics of glassy and crystalline volcanic ash and subsequent predictability associated with its fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jeremie; Wadsworth, Fabian; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald

    2014-05-01

    consideration permitted us to explore the effect of sintering on the stress required for dynamic macroscopic failure of synthesized samples at conditions relevant to volcanic conduits. Sintering and densification results in a non linear increase in strength and micromechanical modelling shows that the pore-emanated crack model explains this trend as a function of pore fraction and size. We also assessed the ability of precursory microseismic signals to be used as a failure forecast proxy according to drastic changes in porosity (˜40 to 0%) and material strength (>102 MPa). Homogeneous single-phase liquids to heterogeneous multi-phase (pores in glasses, pores and crystals in other volcanic rocks) liquids display different microseismic patterns preceding bulk sample failure, somewhat mimicking the range of seismic precursory signals observed at volcanoes with magma of similar viscosity and mechanical characteristics. Defect-free glass for example will rapidly accumulate a huge amount of strain energy as it requires to exceed an elevated strength for failure (˜500-700 MPa) and suddenly release it via localised microfracturing. Microseismic acceleration associated with defect-poor rocks/magmas display trial or occasionally little forewarning with the implication that seismic-based failure prediction may be difficult to make in real-time monitoring.

  20. Volcanic sintering and densification of glassy and crystalline ash: Kinetics, strength recovery and seismogenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, J.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Lavallee, Y.; Hess, K.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    consideration permitted us to explore the effect of sintering on the stress required for dynamic macroscopic failure of synthesized samples at conditions relevant to volcanic conduits. Sintering and densification results in a non linear increase in strength and micromechanical modelling shows that the pore-emanated crack model explains this trend as a function of pore fraction and size. We also assessed the ability of precursory microseismic signals to be used as a failure forecast proxy according to drastic changes in porosity (˜40 to 0%) and material strength (>100 MPa). Homogeneous single-phase liquids to heterogeneous multi-phase (pores in glasses, pores and crystals in other volcanic rocks) liquids display different microseismic patterns preceding bulk sample failure, somewhat mimicking the range of seismic precursory signals observed at volcanoes with magma of similar viscosity and mechanical characteristics. Defect-free glass for example will rapidly accumulate a huge amount of strain energy as it requires to exceed an elevated strength for failure (˜500-700 MPa) and suddenly release it via pervasing microfracturing. Associated microseismic acceleration will display almost no or very late forewarning and seismic-based failure prediction will be hard to make.

  1. Use of in-die powder densification parameters in the implementation of process analytical technologies for tablet production on industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Perinelli, Diego R; Casettari, Luca; Bonacucina, Giulia; Caporicci, Giuseppe; Rendina, Filippo; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2014-12-30

    The use of process analytical technologies (PAT) to ensure final product quality is by now a well established practice in pharmaceutical industry. To date, most of the efforts in this field have focused on development of analytical methods using spectroscopic techniques (i.e., NIR, Raman, etc.). This work evaluated the possibility of using the parameters derived from the processing of in-line raw compaction data (the forces and displacement of the punches) as a PAT tool for controlling the tableting process. To reach this goal, two commercially available formulations were used, changing the quantitative composition and compressing them on a fully instrumented rotary pressing machine. The Heckel yield pressure and the compaction energies, together with the tablets hardness and compaction pressure, were selected and evaluated as discriminating parameters in all the prepared formulations. The apparent yield pressure, as shown in the obtained results, has the necessary sensitivity to be effectively included in a PAT strategy to monitor the tableting process. Additional investigations were performed to understand the criticalities and the mechanisms beyond this performing parameter and the associated implications. Specifically, it was discovered that the efficiency of the apparent yield pressure depends on the nominal drug title, the drug densification mechanism and the error in pycnometric density. In this study, the potential of using some parameters derived from the compaction raw data has been demonstrated to be an attractive alternative and complementary method to the well established spectroscopic techniques to monitor and control the tableting process. The compaction data monitoring method is also easy to set up and very cost effective. PMID:25304091

  2. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  3. The effect of volume phase changes, mass transport, sunlight penetration, and densification on the thermal regime of icy regoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, Fraser P.; Salvail, James R.; Matson, Dennis L.; Brown, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The present quantitative modeling of convective, condensational, and sublimational effects on porous ice crust volumes subjected to solar radiation encompasses the effect of such insolation's penetration of visible bandpass-translucent light, but opaque to the IR bandpass. Quasi-steady-state temperatures, H2O mass fluxes, and ice mass-density change rates are computed as functions of time of day and ice depth. When the effects of latent heat and mass transport are included in the model, the enhancement of near-surface temperature due to the 'solid-state greenhouse effect' is substantially diminished. When latent heat, mass transport, and densification effects are considered, however, a significant solid-state greenhouse effect is shown to be compatible with both morphological evidence for high crust strengths and icy shell decoupling from the lithosphere.

  4. The effect of pressureless densification on mechanical and tribological properties of fine-grained silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, T.; Sopicka-Lizer, M.; Wieczorek, J.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents a new economic method of silicon nitride ceramic preparation for high wear resistant applications as sealing valves or the brake pad lining. The excellent mechanical properties and wear resistance of the resultant ceramic were improved by reduction of silicon nitride grain size to the one-two micrometer level as a result of mechanochemical processing and special procedure of compact densification. All experiments were conducted on specimens prepared from α-Si3N4-AlN-Y2O3 powders with application of mechanochemical processing (MCP). The chosen specimens were tested for hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength and wear resistance. The results showed mechanical properties in the range of hot-pressed ceramics and superior wear resistance due to micrometer-sized β-Si3N4 grains.

  5. Controllable film densification and interface flatness for high-performance amorphous indium oxide based thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ou-Yang, Wei E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2014-10-20

    To avoid the problem of air sensitive and wet-etched Zn and/or Ga contained amorphous oxide transistors, we propose an alternative amorphous semiconductor of indium silicon tungsten oxide as the channel material for thin film transistors. In this study, we employ the material to reveal the relation between the active thin film and the transistor performance with aid of x-ray reflectivity study. By adjusting the pre-annealing temperature, we find that the film densification and interface flatness between the film and gate insulator are crucial for achieving controllable high-performance transistors. The material and findings in the study are believed helpful for realizing controllable high-performance stable transistors.

  6. Simulation of the Densification of Semicrystalline Polymer Powders during the Selective Laser Sintering Process: Application to Nylon-12,

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, L.; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Remond, Y.; Sun, Xin

    2008-06-01

    The heating and densification processes of semi-crystalline polymer powders, during the selective laser sintering process, are simulated using the finite element method. Based on previously developed three-dimensional approach for the sintering of amorphous polymer powders, the modeling methodology is extended to semi-crystalline polymers by taking into account the effects of latent heat during melting. In these simulations, the temperature dependent thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and the effect of latent heat are computed then used as material constants for the integration of the heat equation. Results for temperature and density distribution using Nylon-12 powder are presented and discussed. The effects of processing parameters on the density distribution are also presented.

  7. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  8. Firn densification in a Late Noachian “icy highlands” Mars: Implications for ice sheet evolution and thermal response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.

    2015-06-01

    Recent modeling of a thicker early CO2 martian atmosphere and Late Noachian climate predicts that for pressures beyond a fraction of a bar, atmosphere-surface thermal coupling occurs, resulting in adiabatic cooling of high areas across Mars. This promotes the transport of water ice from relatively warmer low-lying areas to the highlands, where deposition and accumulation of water ice result in an "icy highlands" Late Noachian Mars. Deposits will remain stable in the highlands under nominal Late Noachian conditions, but the potential exists for punctuated heating by both top-down (e.g. impacts, volcanism) and bottom-up (e.g. elevated geothermal heat flux) processes. Important in understanding melt generation from these processes is the state of the accumulated snow and ice. Through modeling of the firn densification process in the "icy highlands" framework we assess: (1) the nature of snow accumulation and the physical growth and evolution of the predicted ice deposits, and (2) the implications for the thermal properties of the ice sheets and the response to heating events. Analysis of the firn densification process in the "icy highlands" context indicates that: (1) the upper layers of the ice sheet will be more vulnerable to melting from top-down heating processes because they are comprised of the least dense and least thermally conductive ice, and (2) even with a low thermal conductivity firn layer, basal melting is only likely to occur through a combination of top-down and bottom-up heating. This is because at the nominal mean annual surface temperatures and estimated effective thermal conductivities, the predicted ice sheet thicknesses do not produce enough basal warming to initiate melting for plausible geothermal heat fluxes. Variations in spin-axis/orbital parameters alone are not predicted to cause widespread ablation (melting and sublimation) of the icy highlands ice sheets.

  9. Gravity induced densification of floating crude oil by granular materials: Effect of particle size and surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    Densification and sedimentation of floating crude oil to the bottom of water column reduces the radius of a spill and its mobility, preventing direct contamination of beaches, coastal flora and fauna. Performances of different natural granular materials were evaluated for capturing efficiency of floating fresh South Louisiana crude oil. The granular materials studied were quartz sand with medium (20-30mesh) and fine (40-100mesh) particle size, limestone with coarse (4-10mesh) and medium (16-40mesh) particle size, beach sand (20-80mesh), and clay (kaolin with ferric oxide; passing 200mesh). Beach sand (mixture of quartz and limestone 20-80mesh) and limestone (16-40mesh) demonstrated better performance for capture, densification and submergence of the crude oil among the materials evaluated. The behavior of granular particles with the hydrophobic phase can be classified as (1) immersion entrapment inside the hydrophobic phase (slurry), and (2) partial encapsulation of the hydrophobic phase by a single layer of particles (raft). With crude oil, the particles were primarily entrapped within the hydrophobic phase. Study of the effect of particle size and morphology (i.e., porosity) of the granular materials on capture performance showed that average surface pore size did not have a significant effect on aggregation with oil, however, higher capture efficiency was observed with materials of higher surface porosity (beach sand and limestone). The experiments revealed that there is a critical particle size range (passing 10mesh) which resulted in more effective aggregation of the granular materials with crude oil. PMID:26971215

  10. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Sintering additives for zirconia ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an overview of sintering science and its application to zirconia materials including CaO, MgO, and Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-CeO/sub 2/ doped materials. This book is a reference for first-time exposure to zirconia materials technology, particularly densification.

  13. Network cation coordination in aluminoborosilicate and Mg- aluminosilicate glasses: pressure effects in recovered structural changes and densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, S.; Stebbins, J. F.; Sisson, T. W.; Hankins, W. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compare the aluminum and boron coordination of glass samples recovered from piston-cylinder experiments carried out at 1 to 3 GPa and near to their ambient glass transition temperature (Tg), which we have found gives a more accurate picture of high pressure structural changes than experiments involving quenching from above the liquidus, as large pressure drops can occur in the latter. Aluminoborosilicate glasses with excess modifier (Ca, La and Y- aluminoborosilicate) quenched from melts at 1-3 GPa were studied with B-11 and Al-27 MAS NMR to assess relative effects on two different network cations. Structural changes in the Y-aluminoborosilicate are dramatic, going from mostly AlO4 at low pressure to mostly AlO5 and AlO6 at 3 GPa. Large increases in BO4 (vs. BO3) are also seen. Mg-aluminosilicate glasses, both tectosilicate (Mg2Al4Si6O20) and with excess modifier composition (Mg3Al2Si6O18) quenched from melts at 1-3 GPa pressure were studied with Al-27 MAS NMR. In contrast to our previous study (Bista et al., Am. Min., in press) of jadeite glass, where only 0.5% of fivefold aluminum was seen in glass recovered from 3 GPa, five and six fold aluminum species increase significantly with increasing pressure in both Mg aluminosilicate glass compositions studied here. We observe that the tectosilicate Mg aluminosilicate glass has more higher coordinated aluminum than the excess modifier containing composition in the pressure range in our study. In the previous study (Bista et al., in press) of jadeite and calcium aluminosilicate (Ca3Al2Si6O18) glasses, 6-8% densification was observed in glasses recovered from 3 GPa. In this study of Mg aluminosilicate glasses, we observe 12% densification in glasses recovered from 3 GPa. Both types of observation confirm that structural and density changes with pressure are enhanced by higher field strength modifier cations, and will be especially important in Mg- and Fe-rich mantle melts.

  14. YAG laser surface densification of a zircon refractory by adding AlN nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.Y.; Wang, A.H. . E-mail: pmahwang@public.wh.hb.cn; Zeng, D.W.; Bai, Z.K.; Xie, C.S.; Song, W.L.; Zhu, X.C.

    2006-04-15

    A zircon refractory zirconium silicate was surface melted with a pulsed YAG laser to introduce AlN nanoparticles, with the aim of improving its surface density and modifying the corresponding microstructure. The microstructure and phase structure features of the refractory induced by the laser beam were studied by scanning transmission microscopy, incorporating energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analysis. Results show that the addition of AlN nanoparticles into the refractory surface significantly reduced the laser beam energy required to melt the surface of the refractory. The laser-melted depth was increased with an increase of laser power from 133 to 200 W. The microstructure of the laser-treated zone with the addition of AlN nanoparticles has a much finer dendritic structure with undeveloped primary dendrite arms while without the addition of AlN nanoparticles, a coarser dendrite with much long primary dendrite arms was observed. The phase structure of the laser-treated layer with the addition of AlN nanoparticles was found to be composed of m-ZrO{sub 2}, c-ZrO{sub 2}, ZrSiO{sub 4} and H-AlN.

  15. Characterization and densification studies on ThO 2-UO 2 pellets derived from ThO 2 and U 3O 8 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutty, T. R. G.; Hegde, P. V.; Khan, K. B.; Jarvis, T.; Sengupta, A. K.; Majumdar, S.; Kamath, H. S.

    2004-12-01

    ThO2 containing around 2-3% 233UO2 is the proposed fuel for the forthcoming Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). This fuel is prepared by powder metallurgy technique using ThO2 and U3O8 powders as the starting material. The densification behaviour of the fuel was evaluated using a high temperature dilatometer in four different atmospheres Ar, Ar-8%H2, CO2 and air. Air was found to be the best medium for sintering among them. For Ar and Ar-8%H2 atmospheres, the former gave a slightly higher densification. Thermogravimetric studies carried out on ThO2-2%U3O8 granules in air showed a continuous decrease in weight up to 1500 °C. The effectiveness of U3O8 in enhancing the sintering of ThO2 has been established.

  16. Engineering strain, densification, order parameter and magnetic properties of FePt thin films by dense electronic excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rekha; Sehdev, Neeru; Annapoorni, S.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-08-28

    FePt films prepared by DC sputtering on Si 〈100〉 substrates when annealed at 600 °C for 1 h exhibited a structurally ordered and magnetically hard L1{sub 0} phase. These FePt films were exposed to dense electronic excitations by using 100 MeV oxygen ions as a function of increasing fluences. Such excitations induce pressure and result in the enhancement of order parameter by increasing strain on the FePt films. Apart from this, the surface morphological images from field emission scanning electron microscopy reveal a densification of the films consequent to irradiation and are correlated with the details obtained from Rutherford back scattering analysis. The variation in the values of coercivity correlates well with the change in volume percentage of face centered tetragonal and face centered cubic phase. A coercivity of 14.7 kOe with order parameter 0.92 is achieved at a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The theoretical simulation of the demagnetization curve shows a strong correlation of coercivity and order parameter between the experimentally obtained values with that of simulation. The effect of irradiation induced strain, the structural ordering and coercivity of FePt films as a function of fluences have been discussed.

  17. Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Kazumasa Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi; Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2014-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

  18. Densification and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-SiC Nanocomposite with Silicon Carbaid as a Sintering Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Seyed Hashem; Baharvandi, Hamid Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein

    In this study, titanium diboride (TiB2) with silicon carbaid (SiC) nano particles as a sintering aid was isostatic-pressed, then sintered at a temperature of 1800°C. The amount of SiC had a significant influence on the sinterability and mechanical properties of TiB2. When a small amount (10 wt%) of SiC was added, SiC reacted with titania (TiO2) that was present on the surface of TiB2 powder to form titanium carbaid (TiC) and amorphous silica (SiO2). Elimination of TiO2 suppressed the grain growth effectively, which led to an improvement in the densification of TiB2. Vickers hardness was enhanced remarkably through these improvements in the sinterability and microstructure. On the other hand, when a large amount (≥10 wt%) of SiC was added, the density and hardness were not improved much, presumably because of the extensive formation of SiC phase at the grain boundaries.

  19. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

  20. Does densification influence the steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods to sugars?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Linoj; Tooyserkani, Zahra; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Saddler, Jack N

    2012-10-01

    The global trade in wood pellets continues to grow. However, their potential as a feedstock for large scale cellulosic ethanol production has not been evaluated. We anticipated that the reduced moisture content and pressure exerted on the wood biomass during the pelletisation process would result in some carbohydrate loss as well as making the biomass more recalcitrant to pretreatment and subsequent hydrolysis. However, when softwood chips and pellets were steam pretreated at medium severity, little hemicellulose loss occurred while more than two-thirds of the cellulose present in the cellulose rich water insoluble fractions were hydrolysed (at 20 FPU cellulase/g cellulose). In addition, prior steaming substantially reduced the particle size of the wood chips enabling direct pelletisation without the need for grinding. Surprisingly, it was also possible to apply a single steam pretreatment to facilitate both pelletisation and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis without the need for a further pretreatment step. PMID:22858485

  1. Revisiting Dosing Regimen Using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Mathematical Modeling: Densification and Intensification of Combination Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Freyer, Gilles; Iliadis, Athanassios

    2016-08-01

    Controlling effects of drugs administered in combination is particularly challenging with a densified regimen because of life-threatening hematological toxicities. We have developed a mathematical model to optimize drug dosing regimens and to redesign the dose intensification-dose escalation process, using densified cycles of combined anticancer drugs. A generic mathematical model was developed to describe the main components of the real process, including pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy pharmacodynamics, and non-hematological toxicity risk. This model allowed for computing the distribution of the total drug amount of each drug in combination, for each escalation dose level, in order to minimize the average tumor mass for each cycle. This was achieved while complying with absolute neutrophil count clinical constraints and without exceeding a fixed risk of non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity. The innovative part of this work was the development of densifying and intensifying designs in a unified procedure. This model enabled us to determine the appropriate regimen in a pilot phase I/II study in metastatic breast patients for a 2-week-cycle treatment of docetaxel plus epirubicin doublet, and to propose a new dose-ranging process. In addition to the present application, this method can be further used to achieve optimization of any combination therapy, thus improving the efficacy versus toxicity balance of such a regimen. PMID:26946136

  2. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  3. Effects of acetylacetone additions on PZT thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.W.; Assink, R.A.; Dimos, D.; Sinclair, M.B.; Boyle, T.J.; Buchheit, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    Sol-gel processing methods are frequently used for the fabrication of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films for many electronic applications. Our standard approach for film fabrication utilizes lead acetate and acetic acid modified metal alkoxides of zirconium and titanium in the preparation of our precursor solutions. This report highlights some of our recent results on the effects of the addition of a second chelating ligand, acetylacetone, to this process. The authors discuss the changes in film drying behavior, densification and ceramic microstructure which accompany acetylacetone additions to the precursor solution and relate the observed variations in processing behavior to differences in chemical precursor structure induced by the acetylacetone ligand. Improvements in thin film microstructure, ferroelectric and optical properties are observed when acetylacetone is added to the precursor solution.

  4. Study of Material Densification of In718 in the Higher Throughput Parameter Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordner, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process used increasingly in the aerospace industry to reduce the cost, weight, and fabrication time for complex propulsion components. Previous optimization studies for SLM using the Concept Laser M1 and M2 machines at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have centered on machine default parameters. The objective of this project is to characterize how heat treatment affects density and porosity from a microscopic point of view. This is performs using higher throughput parameters (a previously unexplored region of the manufacturing operating envelope for this application) on material consolidation. Density blocks were analyzed to explore the relationship between build parameters (laser power, scan speed, and hatch spacing) and material consolidation (assessed in terms of density and porosity). The study also considers the impact of post-processing, specifically hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, as well as deposition pattern on material consolidation in the higher energy parameter regime. Metallurgical evaluation of specimens will also be presented. This work will contribute to creating a knowledge base (understanding material behavior in all ranges of the AM equipment operating envelope) that is critical to transitioning AM from the custom low rate production sphere it currently occupies to the world of mass high rate production, where parts are fabricated at a rapid rate with confidence that they will meet or exceed all stringent functional requirements for spaceflight hardware. These studies will also provide important data on the sensitivity of material consolidation to process parameters that will inform the design and development of future flight articles using SLM.

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  6. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  7. The Impact of Densification by Means of Informal Shacks in the Backyards of Low-Cost Houses on the Environment and Service Delivery in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M.; Pieper, Clarissa H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the state-sponsored low cost housing provided to previously disadvantaged communities in the City of Cape Town. The strain imposed on municipal services by informal densification of unofficial backyard shacks was found to create unintended public health risks. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Data was obtained from 1080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Illegal electrical connections to backyard shacks that are made of flimsy materials posed increased fire risks. A high proportion of main house owners did not pay for water but sold water to backyard dwellers. The design of state-subsidised houses and the unplanned housing in the backyard added enormous pressure on the existing municipal infrastructure and the environment. Municipal water and sewerage systems and solid waste disposal cannot cope with the increased population density and poor sanitation behaviour of the inhabitants of these settlements. The low-cost housing program in South Africa requires improved management and prudent policies to cope with the densification of state-funded low-cost housing settlements. PMID:21695092

  8. Effect of powder characteristics on gas-pressure sintering of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with rare earth additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Nunn, S.D.; Walls, C.A.; Barker, D.; Davisson, C.; Jones, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    Several Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powders, synthesized by various methods and having different surface areas, oxygen contents and impurity levels, were examined. During early stage densification, all powders showed similar shrinkage with the diimide ederived powder exhibiting delayed {alpha}/{beta} transformation compared to the other powders. The diimide and gas-phase derived powders achieved the highest final densities. Improved densification was observed by increasing the oxygen content and this also resulted in high toughness for some materials with rare earth apatite additives. However, the increased oxygen resulted in reduced high temperature strength. Fracture toughnesses (K{sub Ic}) up to 10 MPa{radical}m were obtained for some compositions.

  9. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B{sub 4}C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B{sub 4}C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of {approximately} 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B{sub 4}C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ``Gelcasting`` developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ``gelled`` in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B{sub 4}C and ``conventionally`` die-pressed B{sub 4}C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B{sub 4}C specimens are discussed.

  10. Effects of cold high pressure densification on Cu sheathed Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Li, G. Z.; Yang, Y.; Kovacs, C. J.; Susner, M. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Sun, Y.; Zhuang, J. C.; Shi, Z. X.; Majoros, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2012-12-01

    Cu sheathed polycrystalline Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting wire was prepared by a two-step powder-in-tube method. A pressure of 2 GPa was applied to a short sample before heat treatment. Magnetization and transport measurements were performed to investigate the effects of cold high pressure densification on the microstructure and superconductivity. The cold pressed sample shows an improved self-field transport critical current density of 2.8 × 104 A/cm2 (Ic = 83 A) at 4.2 K, which is nearly as twice as the unpressed sample. However, both samples manifest pronounced weak-link behavior, suggesting the technique need to be further optimized. The comparison of properties between pressed and unpressed sample and related mechanism was discussed.

  11. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive.

  12. The effect of dielectric properties of sintering additives on microwave sintered silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar; George, Jacob; Earl, David; Amarakoon, Vasantha R W

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride requires the use of susceptive additives for microwave liquid phase sintering due to the material's low dielectric loss. In this article, we report the effect of complex dielectric properties of two compositions of sintering aids on 2.45 GHz microwave sintered Si3N4 with respect to power absorption, temperature distribution and densification behavior. The temperature dependent dielectric properties were measured from 25 degrees C to 1400 degrees C using a conventional cavity perturbation technique. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations coupled with a thermal solver was used to predict the microwave power absorption and the corresponding temperature evolution inside the samples. The additive with higher dielectric loss (4 wt% MgO, 6 wt% Y2O3 and 2.5 wt% ZrO2) produces a greater sintered density than the lower loss additive (4 wt% MgO and 6 wt% Y2O3) or pure Si3N4. Although microwave loss at temperatures below 600 degrees C is insignificant with or without the additives, the loss begins to increase at higher temperatures when the additives are present and has a strong upward trend above 1000 degrees C. Above 1200 degrees C the sample containing ZrO2 exhibited the greatest loss. Numerical simulations at the peak sintering temperature show greater microwave power absorption and higher temperature in the sample with the highest loss additive. The simulation results correlate to the difference in densification behavior observed. The simulation was also useful because the material temperature was not accurately provided by optical pyrometer measurements of the crucible sample holder. PMID:19227072

  13. Preparation of spherical ultrafine copper powder via hydrogen reduction-densification of Mg(OH)2-coated Cu2O powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-jun; Zhou, Kang-gen

    2012-11-01

    A novel process was developed to produce spherical copper powder for multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). Spherical ultrafine cuprous oxide (Cu2O) powder was prepared by glucose reduction of Cu(OH)2. The Cu2O particles were coated by Mg(OH)2 and reduced to metallic copper particles. At last, the copper particles were densified by high-temperature heat treatment. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tap density, and thermogravimetry (TG). It is found that the shape and size distribution of the copper powder are determined by the Cu2O powder and the copper particles do not agglomerate during high-temperature heat treatment because of the existence of Mg(OH)2 coating. After densification at high temperature, the particle tap density increases from 3.30 to 4.18 g/cm3 and the initial oxidation temperature rises from 125 to 150°C.

  14. Characterization of pore evolution in ceramics during creep failure and densification. Final report, April 15, 1984--April 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.A.; Chan, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    This research program was divided into two phases, one involving creep cavitation, the other cavity evolution during sintering. In the former, work was aimed at determining the effect of microstructure and stress state upon creep cavitation, while in the latter, the principal objective was the characterization of pore evolution during sintering. In order to meet these objectives, the creep cavitation portion of the program was centered around small-angle neutron scattering, supplemented by electron microscopy and precision density measurements. The neutron scattering measurements yielded cavity nucleation and growth rates, and average pore, size, distribution, and morphology. These data were used to evaluate current cavitation models, and to implement improved modelling efforts. Additionally, stereoimaging analysis was used to determine grain boundary sliding displacements, which appear to be the critical driving force responsible for cavity nucleation and early growth. Effort in the pore sintering phase focussed on characterization of pore evolution during intermediate and final stage sintering of alumina using both single and multiple scattering techniques. Electron microscopy, density measurements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements complemented the scattering results. The effects of sintering trajectory, green state, powder morphology, and additives were evaluated. These results were compared to current sintering models.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  17. Granular encapsulation of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) in LHL-salt water systems: Particle induced densification with quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin; Sukop, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Addition of granular materials to floating crude oil slicks can be effective in capturing and densifying the floating hydrophobic phase, which settles by gravity. Interaction of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) with quartz sand was investigated in LHL-salt water systems. The LHLs studied were decane, tetradecane, hexadecane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and 2-cholorotoluene. Experiments were conducted with fine quartz sand (passing sieve No. 40 with openings 0.425 mm). Each LHL was dyed with few crystals of Sudan IV dye for ease of visual observation. A volume of 0.5 mL of each LHL was added to 100 mL salt water (34 g/L). Addition of one gram of quartz sand to the floating hydrophobic liquid layer resulted in formation of sand-encapsulated globules, which settled due to increased density. All LHLs (except for a few globules of decane) formed globules covered with fine sand particles that were heavy enough to settle by gravity. The encapsulated globules were stable and retained their shape upon settling. Polarity of hydrophobic liquids as the main factor of aggregation with minerals was found to be insufficient to explain LHL aggregation with sand. Contact angle measurements were made by submerging a large quartz crystal with the LHL drop on its surface into salt water. A positive correlation was observed between the wetting angle of LHL and the LHL volume captured (r = 0.75). The dependence of the globule density on globule radius was analyzed in relation to the coverage (%) of globule surface (LHL-salt water interface) by fine quartz particles. PMID:26490430

  18. Sintered-reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride Densified by a Gas Pressure Sintering Process Effects of Rare Earth Oxide Sintering Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H.; Ko, J. W.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, H. D.; Lin, Hua-Tay; Becher, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitrides containing rare-earth oxide sintering additives were densified by gas pressure sintering. The sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant specimens were analyzed. For that purpose, Lu2O3-SiO2 (US), La2O3-MgO (AM) and Y2O3-Al2O3 (YA) additive systems were selected. Among the tested compositions, densification of silicon nitride occurred at the lowest temperature when using the La2O3-MgO system. Since the Lu2O3-SiO2 system has the highest melting temperature, full densification could not be achieved after sintering at 1950oC. However, the system had a reasonably high bending strength of 527 MPa at 1200oC in air and a high fracture toughness of 9.2 MPa m1/2. The Y2O3-Al2O3 system had the highest room temperature bending strength of 1.2 GPa

  19. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  20. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  1. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  2. Effects of Rare Earth (RE) Intergranular Adsorption on the Phase Transformation and Microstructure Evolution in Silicon Nitride with RE2O3 + MgO Additives: Fracture Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, Paul F; Painter, Gayle S; Shibata, Naoya; Waters, Shirley B; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2008-07-01

    Silicon nitride powders consist primarily of the alpha phase, which transforms to the beta phase during the densification and microstructural evolution of Si3N4 ceramics. The temperature at which the transformation initiates in the presence of a combination of MgO and RE2O3 densification additives is found to decrease with increasing atomic number of the rare earth (RE). This trend coincides with the predicted and observed decrease in the affinity of the rare earth to segregate to and absorb on the prism planes of hexagonal prism shaped beta grains with increase in the atomic number of the RE. When RE adsorption is diminished, Si (and N) attachment on the smooth prism planes is enhanced, which increases diametrical growth rates, normally reaction-rate limited by an attachment mechanism. Combined with the typically fast [0001] growth, it is this augmented grain growth that contributes towards the initiation of the alpha-beta transformation at lower temperatures. With the enhanced transformation, observations reveal an increase in the number of beta grains growing in the early stages of densification. On the other hand, increased RE adsorption leads to greater growth anisotropy resulting in the formation of higher aspect ratio grains. Thus, Lu2O3 generates larger diameter, yet elongated, reinforcing grains, while La2O3 results in reinforcing grains of higher aspect ratio. The Gd2O3 additive transformation and microstructual characteristics lie intermediate to those of the lanthanide end member elements. Despite these differences, a substantial fraction of large reinforcing grains were found for each additive composition. As a result, the mechanical properties of the resultant ceramics are similar with flexure strengths in excess of 1 GPa, fracture toughness values greater than 10 MPa m1/2 at room temperature and excellent strength retention (>800 MPa) at 1200 C.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  8. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  9. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  10. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  11. Ultrasonic sensing of powder densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai

    1992-01-01

    An independent scattering theory has been applied to the interpretation of ultrasonic velocity measurements made on porous metal samples produced either by a cold or a high-temperature compaction process. The results suggest that the pores in both processes are not spherical, an aspect ration of 1:3 fitting best with the data for low (less than 4 percent) pore volume fractions. For the hot compacted powders, the pores are smooth due to active diffusional processes during processing. For these types of voids, the results can be extended to a pore fraction of 10 percent, at which point voids form an interconnected network that violates the model assumptions. The cold pressed samples are not as well predicted by the theory because of poor particle bonding.

  12. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  13. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  14. LTCC processed CoTi substituted M-type barium ferrite composite with BBSZ glass powder additives for microwave device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Yingli; Li, Jie; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Huaiwu; Harris, Vincent. G.

    2016-05-01

    Hexagonal magnetoplumbite ferrites typically have sintering temperatures above 1100∘C in order to stabilize a single phase compound, which is much higher than the melting point of silver leading to device fabrication challenges. Application of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technologies may prove effective in decreasing the sintering temperature of hexagonal ferrites. Ferrite powders combined with glass frit powder is an effective pathway to lowering the sintering temperature. Here, hexagonal M-type barium ferrite (i.e., Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19) ceramics, combined with BBSZ glass powder as a sintering aid were synthesized. Co and Ti ions where used to substitute for Fe cations in order to modify the magnetic anisotropy field. The density, microstructure, magnetic properties and complex permeability are reported. The BBSZ glass addition was shown to improve the densification and magnetic properties of the barium ferrite. The densification of the BaM ferrite Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19 was further enhanced by the glass additive at low firing temperatures of below 900∘C because of the formation of a liquid phase. Complex permeability of ferrites sintered at 900∘C was also influenced by the BBSZ addition and the resonance frequency was shown to decrease with increased amounts of the glass modifier.

  15. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  16. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  17. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  18. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  19. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  20. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  1. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  2. Gas-Solid Interactions During Nonisothermal Heat Treatment of a High-Strength CrMnCN Austenitic Steel Powder: Influence of Atmospheric Conditions and Heating Rate on the Densification Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasokha, Nikolaj; Weber, Sebastian; Huth, Stephan; Zumsande, Kathrin; Theisen, Werner

    2012-11-01

    This work deals with gas-solid interactions between a high-alloyed steel powder and the surrounding atmosphere during continuous heating. It is motivated by the recently developed corrosion-resistant CrMnCN austenitic cast steels. Here, powder metallurgical processing would be desirable to manufacture highly homogeneous parts and/or novel corrosion-resistant metal-matrix composites. However, the successful use of this new production route calls for a comprehensive investigation of interactions between the sintering atmosphere and the metallic powder to prevent undesirable changes to the chemical composition, e.g., degassing of nitrogen or evaporation of manganese. In this study, dilatometric measurements combined with residual gas analysis, high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations provided detailed information about the influence of different atmospheric conditions on the microstructure, constitution, and densification behavior of a gas-atomized CrMnCN steel powder during continuous heating. Intensive desorption of nitrogen led to the conclusion that a vacuum atmosphere is not suitable for powder metallurgical (PM) processing. Exposure to an N2-containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of nitrides and lattice expansion. Experimental findings have shown that the N content can be controlled by the nitrogen partial pressure. Furthermore, the reduction of surface oxides because of a carbothermal reaction at elevated temperatures and the resulting enhancement of the powder's densification behavior are discussed in this work.

  3. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  4. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  7. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  8. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  9. Influence of nanogold additives on phase formation, microstructure and dielectric properties of perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2015-06-01

    The formation of perovskite phase, microstructure and dielectric properties of nanogold-modified barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics was examined as a function of gold nanoparticle contents by employing a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, Archimedes principle and dielectric measurement techniques. These ceramics were fabricated from a simple mixed-oxide method. The amount of gold nanoparticles was found to be one of the key factors controlling densification, grain growth and dielectric response in BaTiO3 ceramics. It was found that under suitable amount of nanogold addition (4 mol%), highly dense perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics with homogeneous microstructures of refined grains (~0.5-3.1 μm) and excellence dielectric properties can be produced.

  10. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In order to study Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate interactions and variability, getting access to high resolution surface temperature records of the Greenland ice sheet is an integral condition. For example, understanding the causes for changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and related effects for the NH [Broecker et al. (1985); Rahmstorf (2002)] or the origin and processes leading the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger events in glacial conditions [Johnsen et al. (1992); Dansgaard et al., 1982] demand accurate and reproducible temperature data. To reveal the surface temperature history, it is suitable to use the isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) from ancient air extracted from ice cores drilled at the Greenland ice sheet. The measured δ15N record of an ice core can be used as a paleothermometer due to the nearly constant isotopic composition of nitrogen in the atmosphere at orbital timescales changes only through firn processes [Severinghaus et. al. (1998); Mariotti (1983)]. To reconstruct the surface temperature for a special drilling site the use of firn models describing gas and temperature diffusion throughout the ice sheet is necessary. For this an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model [Schwander et. al. (1997)] is used. Thereby, a theoretical δ15N record is generated for different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios and compared with measurement data in terms of mean square error (MSE), which leads finally to an optimization problem, namely the finding of a minimal MSE. The goal of the presented study is a Matlab based automatization of this inverse modelling procedure. The crucial point hereby is to find the temperature and accumulation rate input time series which minimizes the MSE. For that, we follow two approaches. The first one is a Monte Carlo type input generator which varies each point in the input time series and calculates the MSE. Then the solutions that fulfil a given limit

  11. Matlab based automatization of an inverse surface temperature modelling procedure for Greenland ice cores using an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Michael; Kobashi, Takuro; Kindler, Philippe; Guillevic, Myriam; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In order to study Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate interactions and variability, getting access to high resolution surface temperature records of the Greenland ice sheet is an integral condition. For example, understanding the causes for changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and related effects for the NH [Broecker et al. (1985); Rahmstorf (2002)] or the origin and processes leading the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger events in glacial conditions [Johnsen et al. (1992); Dansgaard et al., 1982] demand accurate and reproducible temperature data. To reveal the surface temperature history, it is suitable to use the isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) from ancient air extracted from ice cores drilled at the Greenland ice sheet. The measured δ15N record of an ice core can be used as a paleothermometer due to the nearly constant isotopic composition of nitrogen in the atmosphere at orbital timescales changes only through firn processes [Severinghaus et. al. (1998); Mariotti (1983)]. To reconstruct the surface temperature for a special drilling site the use of firn models describing gas and temperature diffusion throughout the ice sheet is necessary. For this an existing firn densification and heat diffusion model [Schwander et. al. (1997)] is used. Thereby, a theoretical δ15N record is generated for different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios and compared with measurement data in terms of mean square error (MSE), which leads finally to an optimization problem, namely the finding of a minimal MSE. The goal of the presented study is a Matlab based automatization of this inverse modelling procedure. The crucial point hereby is to find the temperature and accumulation rate input time series which minimizes the MSE. For that, we follow two approaches. The first one is a Monte Carlo type input generator which varies each point in the input time series and calculates the MSE. Then the solutions that fulfil a given limit

  12. Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing of TiC/AlSi10Mg Bulk-form Nanocomposites with Tailored Microstructures and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Wang, Hongqiao; Chang, Fei; Dai, Donghua; Yuan, Pengpeng; Hagedorn, Yves-Christian; Meiners, Wilhelm

    The nanoscale TiC particle reinforced AlSi10Mg nanocomposite parts were produced by selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process. The influence of laser energy density (LED) on densification behavior, microstructural evolution, microhardness and wear properties of SLM-processed TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposites was studied. It showed that the near fully dense nanocomposite parts (>98% theoretical density) were achieved with increasing the applied LED. The TiC reinforcement in SLM-processed parts experienced a microstructural change from the standard nanoscale particle morphology (the average size 77-93 nm) to the relatively coarsened submicron structure (the mean particle size 154 nm) as the LED increased.The sufficiently high densification rate combined with the homogeneousdistribution of nanoscale TiC reinforcement throughout the matrix led to a high microhardness of 181.2 HV0.2, a considerably low coefficient of friction (COF) of 0.36, and a reduced wear rate of 2.94×10-5 mm3N-1m-1 for SLM-processed TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposite parts.

  13. A role of BNLT compound addition on structure and properties of PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaita, P.; Watcharapasorn, A.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2010-09-01

    In this research, effects of lead-free bismuth sodium lanthanum titanate (BNLT) addition on structure and properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were investigated. PZT ceramics with addition of 0.1-3.0 wt%BNLT were fabricated by a solid-state mixed oxide method and sintering at 1050-1200 °C for 2 h to obtain dense ceramics with at least 96% of theoretical density. X-ray diffraction indicated that complete solid solution occurred for all compositions. Phase identification showed both tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite structure of PZT with no BNLT phase detected. Scanning electron micrographs of fractured PZT/BNLT ceramics showed equiaxed grain shape with both transgranular and intergranular fracture modes. Addition of BNLT was also found to reduce densification and effectively limited grain growth of PZT ceramic. Optimum Hv and KIC values were found to be 4.85 GPa and 1.56 MPa.m 1/2 for PZT/0.5 wt%BNLT sample. Among PZT/BNLT samples, room temperature dielectric constant seemed to be improved with increasing BNLT content. The maximum piezoelectric coefficient values were observed in pure PZT ceramic and were slightly decreased in BNLT-added samples. Small reduction of remanent polarization and coercive field in hysteresis loops was observed in BNLT-added samples, indicating a slightly suppressed ferroelectric interaction in this material system.

  14. Hot-pressed silicon nitride with various lanthanide oxides as sintering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, K.; Toibana, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of addition of various lanthanide oxides and their mixture with Y2O3 on the sintering of Si3N4 were investigated. The addition of simple and mixed lanthanide oxides promoted the densification of Si3N4 in hot-pressing at 1800 C under 300-400kg/ centimeters squared for 60 min. The crystallization of yttrium and lanthanide-silicon oxynitrides which was observed inn the sintered body containing yttrium-lanthanide mixed oxides as additives led to the formation of a highly refractory Si3N4 ceramic having a bending strength of 82 and 84 kg/millimeters squared at room temperature and 1300 C respectively. In a Y2O3+La2O3 system, a higher molar ratio of La2O3 to Y2O3 gave a higher hardness and strength at high temperatures. It was found that 90 min was an optimum sintering time for the highest strength.

  15. Influence of CuO addition to BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} microwave ceramics on sintering behavior and dielectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Mingwen; Li Wei . E-mail: liwei@mail.sic.ac.cn; Shi Jianlin; Zeng Qun

    2006-06-15

    Microwave dielectric ceramics of tungsten-bronze-type BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} were prepared by doping CuO (up to 2 wt.%) as the liquid-phase sintering aid. The effects of CuO additive on the densification, micro structure and dielectric properties were investigated. Due to the liquid-phase effect, the sintering temperature of BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics with 1 wt.% CuO addition can be effectively reduced to 1160 deg. C, about 200 deg. C lower than that of pure BaSm{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics, while good microwave dielectric properties of {epsilon} {sub r} = 75.8, Q*f = 4914.6 GHz and {tau} {sub f} = -7.65 ppm/deg. C were still achieved.

  16. Effect of cobalt addition on the liquid-phase sintering of W-Cu prepared by the fluidized bed reduction method

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, S.K.; Lee, S.W.; Ihn, T.H. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-08-01

    A new process, fluidized bed reduction (FBR) method, was applied for fabrication of uniform W-Cu sintered material. Liquid-phase sintering was carried out to obtain fully densified W-Cu composite, and the effect of cobalt addition on the sintering behavior was investigated. It was found that fully densified material could not be obtained even after sintering at 1,200 C for 4 hours in the case of 75W-25Cu, while more than 96 pct density could be obtained as soon as the sintering temperature reached 1,200 C when 0.5 wt pct cobalt was added prior to the sintering. It has been found that the wetting angle of the liquid copper is reduced significantly by the addition of cobalt, and the formation reaction of Co[sub 7]W[sub 6] intermetallic compound at the surface of the tungsten powder is mainly responsible for the enhancement of the densification process.

  17. Effect of cobalt addition on the liquid-phase sintering of W-Cu prepared by the fluidized bed reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seung-Ki; Lee, Seok-Woon; Ihn, Tae-Hyoung

    1994-08-01

    A new process, fluidized bed reduction (FBR) method, was applied for fabrication of uniform W-Cu sintered material. Liquid-phase sintering was carried out to obtain fully densified W-Cu composite, and the effect of cobalt addition on the sintering behavior was investigated. It was found that fully densified material could not be obtained even after sintering at 1200 °C for 4 hours in the case of 75W-25Cu, while more than 96 pct density could be obtained as soon as the sintering temperature reached 1200 °C when 0.5 wt pct cobalt was added prior to the sintering. It has been found that the wetting angle of the liquid copper is reduced significantly by the addition of cobalt, and the formation reaction of Co7W6 intermetallic compound at the surface of the tungsten powder is mainly responsible for the enhancement of the densification process.

  18. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  19. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  20. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  1. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  2. EFFECT OF (Bi2O3)0.75(Y2O3)0.25 ADDITION ON MICROSTRUCTURES AND IONIC CONDUCTIVITIES OF CODOPED ZIRCONIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chen Chia; Huang, Chun Feng; Yeh, Tsung Her

    2012-09-01

    Variation of microstructures and ionic conductivities in (Bi2O3)0.75(Y2O3)0.25 (YSB) modified electrolyte of 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and YSB modified codoped zirconia (ZrO2)0.92(Y2O3)0.075(MgO)0.005 (YSZM) is investigated in this work. The results demonstrated that a small amount of δ-YSB addition is effective in reducing the sintering temperature of 8YSZ from 1500 to 1200°C and promoting the densification rate of ceramics. Compared to 8YSZ electrolyte, it is interesting that a very limited amount of monoclinic ZrO2 was observed due to the MgO stabilizer in YSB modified codoped zirconia electrolyte. Besides, enhancement of ionic conductivity in δ-YSB modified codoped zirconia is evidently increased by 67% in comparison to the specimen of 8YSZ electrolyte.

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  4. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  5. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  6. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  7. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  8. Effect of ZrO2 addition on the mechanical properties of porous TiO2 bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Hanna; Eder, Georg; Nilsen, Ola; Haugen, Håvard J

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the effect of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) addition on the mechanical properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) bone scaffolds. The highly biocompatible TiO2 has been identified as a promising material for bone scaffolds, whereas the more bioinert ZrO2 is known for its excellent mechanical properties. Ultra-porous TiO2 scaffolds (>89% porosity) were produced using polymer sponge replication with 0-40 wt.% of the TiO2 raw material substituted with ZrO2. Microstructure, chemical composition, and pore architectural features of the prepared ceramic foams were characterised and related to their mechanical strength. Addition of 1 wt.% of ZrO2 led to 16% increase in the mean compressive strength without significant changes in the pore architectural parameters of TiO2 scaffolds. Further ZrO2 additions resulted in reduction of compressive strength in comparison to containing no ZrO2. The appearance of zirconium titanate (ZrTiO4) phase was found to hinder the densification of the ceramic material during sintering resulting in poor intergranular connections and thus significantly reducing the compressive strength of the highly porous ceramic foam scaffolds. PMID:24364936

  9. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  10. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  13. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  14. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  15. Evaluation des apports solaires a l'echelle d'un quartier urbain en periode de chauffe selon sa typologie, son orientation et sa latitude dans un contexte de densification de la ville

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenard, Laurent

    Mass urbanization is a major issue for town administrators. Population increase will have an impact on the quality of the environment for citizens. Government will have to take decisions to limit those effects. Green energies are part of the solution to reach fixed goals by the public administration for sustainable development. Passive solar energy is studied in this work in an urban canopy located in five different towns: San Francisco, Montreal, Bordeaux, Lyon and Stockholm. Passive solar energy is calculated in the heating season. Direct and diffuse solar radiation is considered by using the Perez model. Radiosity is not taken into account. Heating demand is calculated by the heating degree day method. Seven urban forms have been created to determine the amount of solar energy entering in every window of the urban canopy while taking into account urban context and forms. Optimal orientation of the canopy shows an increase of 5% of the passive solar radiation from original orientation, 180 degrees rotation from first orientation straight south. This value goes lower when stories are added to the urban context. A rotation of 90 degrees from the first orientation shows a decrease of 6 to 15% in solar passive gain. Densification of the urban canopy by adding stories to the buildings results in a loss up to 65% of the solar gain for the first story. It is showed that solar passive energy has a low ratio of 5% for space heating for old buildings, 1960 constructions. Today's buildings have a difference between passive solar energy and heating demand of 10 to 75% depending on the model and location.

  16. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  17. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  18. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  19. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  20. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  1. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  2. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  4. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells. PMID:14741598

  5. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  6. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  7. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  8. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  10. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.