Hoffman, D.K. (Department of Chemistry Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (USA)); Sharafeddin, O.; Judson, R.S.; Kouri, D.J. (Department of Chemistry Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5641 (USA))
1990-04-01
The time-dependent form of the Lippmann--Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuration space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, David K.; Sharafeddin, Omar; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.
1990-01-01
The time-dependent form of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuratiaon space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.
Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I
2009-05-13
We present a time-dependent localized Hartree-Fock density-functional linear response approach for the treatment of photoionization of atomic systems. This approach employs a spin-dependent localized Hartree-Fock exchange ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinke, I.; Hoose, C.; Möhler, O.; Connolly, P.; Leisner, T.
2015-04-01
Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol surface area concentration. Additionally, a contact angle parameterization according to classical nucleation theory was fitted to the experimental data in order to relate the ice nucleation efficiencies to contact angle distributions. From this study it can be concluded that the INAS density formulation is a very useful tool to describe the temperature- and humidity-dependent ice nucleation efficiency of ATD particles. Deposition nucleation on ATD particles can be described by a temperature- and relative-humidity-dependent INAS density function ns(T, Sice) with ns(xtherm) = 1.88 ×105 · exp(0.2659 · xtherm) [m-2] , (1) where the temperature- and saturation-dependent function xtherm is defined as xtherm = -(T-273.2)+(Sice-1) ×100, (2) with the saturation ratio with respect to ice Sice >1 and within a temperature range between 226 and 250 K. For lower temperatures, xtherm deviates from a linear behavior with temperature and relative humidity over ice. Also, two different approaches for describing the time dependence of deposition nucleation initiated by ATD particles are proposed. Box model estimates suggest that the time-dependent contribution is only relevant for small cooling rates and low number fractions of ice-active particles.
Size dependence of yield strength simulated by a dislocation-density function dynamics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, P. S. S.; Leung, H. S.; Cheng, B.; Ngan, A. H. W.
2015-04-01
The size dependence of the strength of nano- and micron-sized crystals is studied using a new simulation approach in which the dynamics of the density functions of dislocations are modeled. Since any quantity of dislocations can be represented by a density, this approach can handle large systems containing large quantities of dislocations, which may handicap discrete dislocation dynamics schemes due to the excessive computation time involved. For this reason, pillar sizes spanning a large range, from the sub-micron to micron regimes, can be simulated. The simulation results reveal the power-law relationship between strength and specimen size up to a certain size, beyond which the strength varies much more slowly with size. For specimens smaller than ?4000b, their strength is found to be controlled by the dislocation depletion condition, in which the total dislocation density remains almost constant throughout the loading process. In specimens larger than ?4000b, the initial dislocation distribution is of critical importance since the presence of dislocation entanglements is found to obstruct deformation in the neighboring regions within a distance of ?2000b. This length scale suggests that the effects of dense dislocation clusters are greater in intermediate-sized specimens (e.g. 4000b and 8000b) than in larger specimens (e.g. 16?000b), according to the weakest-link concept.
A new temperature and humidity dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinke, I.; Hoose, C.; Möhler, O.; Connolly, P.; Leisner, T.
2014-07-01
Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol surface area concentration. Additionally, a contact angle parameterization according to classical nucleation theory was fitted to the experimental data in order to relate the ice nucleation efficiencies to contact angle distributions. From this study it can be concluded that the INAS density formulation is a very useful tool to decribe the temperature and humidity dependent ice nucleation efficiency of ATD particles. Deposition nucleation on ATD particles can be described by a temperature and relative humidity dependent INAS density function ns(T, Sice) with ns(xtherm) = 1.88 × 105 \\centerdot exp(0.2659 \\centerdot xtherm) [m-2] (1) where the thermodynamic variable xtherm is defined as xtherm = -(T - 273.2) + (Sice-1) × 100 (2) with Sice>1 and within a temperature range between 226 and 250 K. For lower temperatures, xtherm deviates from a linear behavior with temperature and relative humidity over ice. Two different approaches for describing the time dependence of deposition nucleation initiated by ATD particles are proposed. Box model estimates suggest that the time dependent contribution is only relevant for small cooling rates and low number fractions of ice-active particles.
Arianna Carbone; Arnau Rios; Artur Polls
2014-11-19
The properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are investigated within an extended self-consistent Green's function method that includes the effects of three-body forces. We use the ladder approximation for the study of infinite nuclear matter and incorporate the three-body interaction by means of a density-dependent two-body force. This force is obtained via a correlated average over the third particle, with an in-medium propagator consistent with the many-body calculation we perform. We analyze different prescriptions in the construction of the average and conclude that correlations provide small modifications at the level of the density-dependent force. Microscopic as well as bulk properties are studied, focusing on the changes introduced by the density dependent two-body force. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sum rule. Our results validate previously used uncorrelated averages and extend the availability of chirally motivated forces to a larger density regime.
A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism
Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.
2010-01-01
Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.
Why Density Dependent Propulsion?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, Glen A.
2011-01-01
In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.
Spatially explicit analyses unveil density dependence.
Veldtman, Ruan; McGeoch, Melodie A.
2004-01-01
Density-dependent processes are fundamental in the understanding of species population dynamics. Whereas the benefits of considering the spatial dimension in population biology are widely acknowledged, the implications of doing so for the statistical detection of spatial density dependence have not been examined. The outcome of traditional tests may therefore differ from those that include ecologically relevant locational information on both the prey species and natural enemy. Here, we explicitly incorporate spatial information on individual counts when testing for density dependence between an insect herbivore and its parasitoids. The spatially explicit approach used identified significant density dependence more frequently and in different instances than traditional methods. The form of density dependence detected also differed between methods. These results demonstrate that the explicit consideration of patch location in density-dependence analyses is likely to significantly alter current understanding of the prevalence and form of spatial density dependence in natural populations. PMID:15590593
Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M
2015-02-14
We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism. PMID:25681889
Sakko, Arto; Hakala, Mikko; Haemaelaeinen, Keijo; Rubio, Angel
2010-11-07
We apply time-dependent density functional theory to study the valence electron excitations of molecules and generalize the typically used time-propagation scheme and Casida's method to calculate the full wavevector dependent response function. This allows the computational study of dipole-forbidden valence electron transitions and the dispersion of spectral weight as a function of the wavevector. The method provides a novel analysis tool for spectroscopic methods such as inelastic x-ray scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy. We present results for benzene and CF{sub 3}Cl and make a comparison with experimental results.
The temperature dependence of equilibrium plasma density
B. V. Vasiliev
2002-03-17
Temperature dependence of an electron-nuclear plasma equilibrium density is considered basing on known approaches, which are given in (1)(2). It is shown that at a very high temperature, which is characteristic for a star interior, the equilibrium plasma density is almost constant and equals approximately to $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$. At a relatively low temperature, which is characteristic for star surface, the equilibrium plasma density is in several orders lower and depends on temperature as $T^{3/2}$.
Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction
Botti, Silvana
Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction Francesco Sottile LSI, Ecole Polytechnique (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 7 February 2012 1 / 32 #12;Outline 1 Frontiers 4 Perspectives and Resources Francesco Sottile (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory
Density-dependent effective interactions
Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 Victoria (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 Victoria (Australia)
1994-03-01
An effective two nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on- and half-off-of-the-energy shell {ital t} and {ital g} matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris two nucleon interaction as input. As such, it reproduces the interaction on which it is based better than other commonly used, density dependent effective interactions. This new (medium modified) effective interaction, when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton-{sup 12}C and proton-{sup 16}O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable.
Johannes Flick; Michael Ruggenthaler; Heiko Appel; Angel Rubio
2015-09-03
The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics is extending traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system which consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. While the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential which mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light, i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real-space in order to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malc?o?lu, Osman Bar??; Gebauer, Ralph; Rocca, Dario; Baroni, Stefano
2011-08-01
We introduce turboTDDFT, an implementation of the Liouville-Lanczos approach to linearized time-dependent density-functional theory, designed to simulate the optical spectra of molecular systems made of up to several hundred atoms. turboTDDFT is open-source software distributed under the terms of the GPL as a component of QUANTUM ESPRESSO. As with other components, turboTDDFT is optimized to run on a variety of different platforms, from laptops to massively parallel architectures, using native mathematical libraries (LAPACK and FFTW) and a hierarchy of custom parallelization layers built on top of MPI.
Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals
Lalazissis, G. A.
2012-10-20
Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.
Density Gradient Dependent Helicon Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panevsky, Martin; Bengtson, Roger
2002-11-01
Radially localized helicon modes have been proposed to provide a fuller description of helicon discharges over a wide span of operating conditions and gas types [1]. These plasma modes could be of vital importance to the VASIMR engine. They depend on a radial density gradient and appear to operate over a range of frequencies inaccessible to traditional helicon discharges. Our work focuses on confirming experimentally the existence and properties of these helicon modes in Argon, Helium, and Hydrogen. We investigate the density profile, power deposition, wavefields, and dispersion relation of the new helicon modes which differ substantially from the properties of the traditional helicon plasma. We are using a set of dual half-turn helical antennas driven at 13.56 MHz. Our diagnostics includes a system for monitoring the plasma impedance, a set of Langmuir probes, a set of magnetic probes, as well as sensors for monitoring the pressure and DC magnetic field. *Work supported in part by Advanced Space Propulsion Lab, Johnson Space Center, NASA [1] B. N. Breizman and A. V. Arefiev, Phys. Rev. 84, 3863 (2000)
Chu, Shih-I
for electron transport dynamics in molecular devices Zhongyuan Zhou(a) and Shih-I Chu Department of Chemistry and structures PACS 85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices PACS 71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Carr) approach in momentum (P) space for the study of electron transport in molecular devices under arbitrary
Chu, Shih-I; Zhou, Zhongyuan
2009-10-27
good care of by a transparent boundary condition. This scheme can indeed eliminate the explicit dependence of the equation of motion on the two-time self-energy function. However, the equation of motion still contains a memory term used to take...,40,43] on 3D grid points [0, 1, · · · , N?|?= x, y, z] in the finite 3D volume. Since the P-space electron wave function is localized, the boundary condition for solving eq. (2) is simply that the electron wave function is zero on the boundary. After...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse
2014-09-01
Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (?) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters {Ag_8} and {Ag_{20}} are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.
Li, Haijun
Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail Densities of Vines Concluding Remarks A tail density approach in extremal dependence analysis for vine copulas Haijun Li (Joint work with Peiling Wu) Department dependence analysis for vine copulas Munich, May 2011 1 / 21 #12;Tail Density Archimedean and t Copulas Tail
Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction
Botti, Silvana
Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction Francesco Sottile Laboratoire des Solides) Belfast, 29 Jun 2007 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Intro Formalism Linear Response Formalism 3 TDDFT in practice: The ALDA: Achievements and Shortcomings 4 Resources Time
Interspecific Competition Intraspecific competition = density dependence
Creel, Scott
Biol 303 1 Interspecific Competition Outline Intraspecific competition = density dependence Intraspecific and interspecific competition Limiting resources Interference vs exploitation Effects lecture showed that intraspecific competition can decrease survival and reproduction as a population
Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses
Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael
2015-01-01
Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428
Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses.
Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael
2015-01-01
Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators' densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428
Central Density Dependent Anisotropic Compact Stars
Mehedi Kalam; Farook Rahaman; Sk. Monowar Hossein; Saibal Ray
2012-12-27
Stars can be treated as self-gravitating fluid. In this connection, we propose a model for an anisotropic star under the relativistic framework of Krori-Barua (1975) spacetime. It is shown that the solutions are regular and singularity free. The uniqueness of the model is that interior physical properties of the star solely depend on the central density of the matter distribution.
Diffusion in polymers dependence on crosslink density
Vadim V. Krongauz
2010-01-01
Kinetics of N-methyl pyrrolidone evaporation from swollen photo-crosslinked polyacrylate was monitored thermogravimetrically at temperatures\\u000a ranging from 323 to 398 K. Crosslink density dependence of evaporation kinetics was investigated in photo-crosslinked polyacrylates\\u000a with crosslinked density ranging from ?1.2 × 102 to ?1.7 × 104 mol m?3 and number of main chain atoms between crosslinks ranging from ?70 atoms to ?6 atoms, respectively. As was shown, evaporation\\u000a kinetics was
Density functional approaches to atomic nuclei
Takashi Nakatsukasa
2012-09-22
Nuclear mean-field models are briefly reviewed to illustrate its foundation and necessity of state dependence in effective interactions. This state dependence is successfully taken into account by the density dependence, leading to the energy density functional. Recent results for photoabsorption cross sections in spherical and deformed Nd isotopes are shown.
Effective pairing interactions with isospin density dependence
Margueron, J.; Sagawa, H.; Hagino, K.
2008-05-15
We perform Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations for semi-magic calcium, nickel, tin, and lead isotopes and N=20,28,50, and 82 isotones using density-dependent pairing interactions recently derived from a microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction. These interactions have an isovector component so that the pairing gaps in symmetric and neutron matter are reproduced. Our calculations well account for the experimental data for the neutron number dependence of binding energy, two-neutron separation energy, and odd-even mass staggering of these isotopes. This result suggests that by introducing the isovector term in the pairing interaction, one can construct a global effective pairing interaction that is applicable to nuclei in a wide range of the nuclear chart. It is also shown with the local density approximation that the pairing field deduced from the pairing gaps in infinite matter reproduces qualitatively well the pairing field for finite nuclei obtained with the HFB method.
Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran
2015-01-01
A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (?16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.
Density Functional Approach Francesco Sottile
Botti, Silvana
[n] · ionic structure (lattice parameter) · surface reconstruction · molecular bonding · ... · "pseudo" band #12;Density Functional Theory - Kohn-Sham · total energy E[n] · ionic structure (lattice parameter) · surface reconstruction · molecular bonding · ... · "pseudo" band-structure nk photoemission energies
Density-dependent cladogenesis in birds.
Phillimore, Albert B; Price, Trevor D
2008-03-25
A characteristic signature of adaptive radiation is a slowing of the rate of speciation toward the present. On the basis of molecular phylogenies, studies of single clades have frequently found evidence for a slowdown in diversification rate and have interpreted this as evidence for density dependent speciation. However, we demonstrated via simulation that large clades are expected to show stronger slowdowns than small clades, even if the probability of speciation and extinction remains constant through time. This is a consequence of exponential growth: clades, which, by chance, diversify at above the average rate early in their history, will tend to be large. They will also tend to regress back to the average diversification rate later on, and therefore show a slowdown. We conducted a meta-analysis of the distribution of speciation events through time, focusing on sequence-based phylogenies for 45 clades of birds. Thirteen of the 23 clades (57%) that include more than 20 species show significant slowdowns. The high frequency of slowdowns observed in large clades is even more extreme than expected under a purely stochastic constant-rate model, but is consistent with the adaptive radiation model. Taken together, our data strongly support a model of density-dependent speciation in birds, whereby speciation slows as ecological opportunities and geographical space place limits on clade growth. PMID:18366256
Nguyen, Nam A.; Bandrauk, Andre D.
2006-03-15
Ionization and high-order harmonic generation of the one-dimensional (1D) H{sub 2} molecule in intense ultrashort laser fields are investigated using several current approximations for electron dynamics. Single- and double-ionization probabilities are compared with exact results. It is found that for the ground state X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, time-dependent extended Hartree-Fock gives generally comparable results except in the plateau region. The adiabatic local density approximation and time-dependent optimized effective potential with self-interaction correction (TDKLI) methods underestimate the ionization probabilities with no plateau and knee for double ionization contrary to the exact results. For the triplet excited state A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}, where exchange is important, the TDKLI results agree well with the exact results. The exact double-ionization probabilities suggest the need for accurate pair-correlation functions.
Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.
2014-01-01
A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001
Mukamel, Shaul
Quasiparticle density-matrix representation of nonlinear time-dependent density-functional response York 14627-0216 Received 14 October 2002; published 15 April 2003 The time-dependent density-electron density matrix in Liouville space. A collective-oscillator, quasi- particle, representation of the density
Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers
Rabosky, Daniel L.
Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers Daniel L. Rabosky1,2,* and Irby J diversification. This model predicts density-dependent declines in diversification rates, but has not been that distinguishes density dependence from alternative processes that also produce temporally declining
Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species
Teskey, Robert O.
.............................................................. Density-dependent mortality.B.) ............................................................................................................................................................................. Ecologists have long postulated that density-dependent mortality maintains high tree diversity in the tropics,2,79 . Agents of density-dependent mortality (such as host-specific predators, and pathogens) may be more
Mukamel, Shaul
Density-matrix representation of nonadiabatic couplings in time-dependent density functional of a molecule are derived by representing the time-dependent density functional TDDFT equations in a form of classical dynamics for the Kohn-Sham KS single-electron density matrix. Applicability of Krylov
Relativistic Coulomb excitation within Time Dependent Superfluid Local Density Approximation
I. Stetcu; C. Bertulani; A. Bulgac; P. Magierski; K. J. Roche
2015-01-13
Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus $^{238}$U. The approach is based on Superfluid Local Density Approximation (SLDA) formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We have computed the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance and giant quadrupole modes were excited during the process. The one body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width $\\Gamma_\\downarrow \\approx 0.4$ MeV and the number of pre-equilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.
THE DEPENDENCE OF STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY ON GAS SURFACE DENSITY
Burkert, Andreas; Hartmann, Lee E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu
2013-08-10
Studies by Lada et al. and Heiderman et al. have suggested that star formation mostly occurs above a threshold in gas surface density {Sigma} of {Sigma}{sub c} {approx} 120 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} (A{sub K} {approx} 0.8). Heiderman et al. infer a threshold by combining low-mass star-forming regions, which show a steep increase in the star formation rate per unit area {Sigma}{sub SFR} with increasing {Sigma}, and massive cores forming luminous stars which show a linear relation. We argue that these observations do not require a particular density threshold. The steep dependence of {Sigma}{sub SFR}, approaching unity at protostellar core densities, is a natural result of the increasing importance of self-gravity at high densities along with the corresponding decrease in evolutionary timescales. The linear behavior of {Sigma}{sub SFR} versus {Sigma} in massive cores is consistent with probing dense gas in gravitational collapse, forming stars at a characteristic free-fall timescale given by the use of a particular molecular tracer. The low-mass and high-mass regions show different correlations between gas surface density and the area A spanned at that density, with A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -3} for low-mass regions and A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -1} for the massive cores; this difference, along with the use of differing techniques to measure gas surface density and star formation, suggests that connecting the low-mass regions with massive cores is problematic. We show that the approximately linear relationship between dense gas mass and stellar mass used by Lada et al. similarly does not demand a particular threshold for star formation and requires continuing formation of dense gas. Our results are consistent with molecular clouds forming by galactic hydrodynamic flows with subsequent gravitational collapse.
Statistical approach to nuclear level density
Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Zelevinsky, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)
2014-10-15
We discuss the level density in a finite many-body system with strong interaction between the constituents. Our primary object of applications is the atomic nucleus but the same techniques can be applied to other mesoscopic systems. We calculate and compare nuclear level densities for given quantum numbers obtained by different methods, such as nuclear shell model (the most successful microscopic approach), our main instrument - moments method (statistical approach), and Fermi-gas model; the calculation with the moments method can use any shell-model Hamiltonian excluding the spurious states of the center-of-mass motion. Our goal is to investigate statistical properties of nuclear level density, define its phenomenological parameters, and offer an affordable and reliable way of calculation.
Limitations of methods to test density-dependent fecundity hypothesis.
Beja, Pedro; Palma, Luis
2008-03-01
1. Two main hypotheses are usually invoked to explain density dependence in fecundity: the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis (HHH) and the individual adjustment hypothesis (IAH). Although simple methods have been proposed to discriminate between the two hypotheses, their adequacy was tested for only a limited set of real and model populations. 2. In a computer simulation study based on a stochastic territory-based approach, Ferrer, Newton & Casado (2006, Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 111-117) argued that a strong negative relationship between mean fecundity and its skewness in stable or increasing populations provides critical support for HHH, as this relationship should be lacking under IAH. A negative relationship between mean fecundity and its coefficient of variation (CV) was predicted under both hypotheses, although with a lower slope under IAH. 3. We used a comparable simulation approach, with model populations parameterized from an increasing Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus population (1992-2006), to show that both HHH and IAH can produce indistinguishable relationships between mean fecundity and both its CV and its skewness. 4. Strong negative correlations between the mean and both its CV and its skewness can emerge as statistical artifacts under biologically plausible assumptions, and so they may be largely inadequate to infer mechanisms underlying density dependence in demographic parameters. PMID:18254920
Density-Dependent Growth in Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans)
Benkwitt, Cassandra E.
2013-01-01
Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604
Density-dependent growth in invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans).
Benkwitt, Cassandra E
2013-01-01
Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604
Extremal Dependence of Copulas: A Tail Density August 2011
Li, Haijun
for extremal dependence analysis on a vine copula, for which the tail density can be written recursively, vine copula. 1 Introduction The dependence among multivariate extremes can be described by the relative and vine copulas, are specified only by densities. Let X = (X1, . . . , Xd) be a random vector
Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy constrained by mean-field calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Jianmin; Zuo, Wei; Gu, Jianzhong; Lombardo, Umberto
2012-03-01
We establish a correlation for the symmetry energy at saturation density S0, slope parameter L, and curvature parameter Ksym based on widely different mean-field interactions. With the help of this correlation and available empirical and theoretical information, the density-dependent behavior around the saturation density is determined. We compare the results obtained with the present approach with those by other analyses. With this obtained density-dependent behavior of the symmetry energy, the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb and some properties of neutron stars are investigated. In addition, it is found that the expression S(?)=S0(?/?0)? or S(?)=12.5?/?02/3+Cp?/?0? does not reproduce the density dependence of the symmetry energy as predicted by the mean-field approach around nuclear saturation density.
Orbital-dependent density functionals: Theory and applications Stephan Kmmel*
Wu, Zhigang
: the motivation for orbital-dependent functionals in terms of limitations of semilocal functionals; the optimizedOrbital-dependent density functionals: Theory and applications Stephan Kümmel* Physikalisches provides a perspective on the use of orbital-dependent functionals, which is currently considered one
Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy
M. B. Tsang; Yingxun Zhang; P. Danielewicz; M. Famiano; Zhuxia Li; W. G. Lynch; A. W. Steiner
2009-02-12
Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.
Density-dependent acoustic properties of PBX 9502
Brown, Geoffrey W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagelberg, Stephanie I [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-07-31
We have measured the longitudinal and shear acoustic velocities of PBX 9502 as a function of density for die-pressed samples over the range 1.795 g/cc to 1.888 g/cc. The density dependence of the velocities is linear. Thermal cycling of PBX 9502 is known to induce irreversible volume growth. We have measured this volume growth dependence on density for a subset of the pressed parts and find that the most growth occurs for the samples with lowest initial density. The acoustic velocity changes due to the volume growth are significant and reflect damage in the samples.
Density-potential mapping in time-dependent density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maitra, N. T.; Todorov, T. N.; Woodward, C.; Burke, K.
2010-04-01
The key questions of uniqueness and existence in time-dependent density-functional theory are usually formulated only for potentials and densities that are analytic in time. Simple examples, standard in quantum mechanics, lead, however, to nonanalyticities. We reformulate these questions in terms of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a potential that depends nonlocally on the wave function.
Density-potential mapping in time-dependent density-functional theory
Maitra, N. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Todorov, T. N. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Woodward, C. [Department of Mathematics, Hill Center, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 110 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway New Jersey 08854 (United States); Burke, K. [Department of Chemistry, 1102 Natural Sciences 2, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2010-04-15
The key questions of uniqueness and existence in time-dependent density-functional theory are usually formulated only for potentials and densities that are analytic in time. Simple examples, standard in quantum mechanics, lead, however, to nonanalyticities. We reformulate these questions in terms of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a potential that depends nonlocally on the wave function.
Compressibility, effective mass and density dependence in Skyrme forces
B. Cochet; K. Bennaceur; P. Bonche; T. Duguet; J. Meyer
2003-09-05
Generalized density dependence in Skyrme effective interactions is investigated to get forces valid beyond the mean field approximation. Preliminary results are presented for infinite symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter up to pure neutron matter.
Density dependence of symmetry free energy of hot nuclei
S. K. Samaddar; J. N. De; X. Vinas; M. Centelles
2008-09-04
The density and excitation energy dependence of symmetry energy and symmetry free energy for finite nuclei are calculated microscopically in a microcanonical framework taking into account thermal and expansion effects. A finite-range momentum and density dependent two-body effective interaction is employed for this purpose. The role of mass, isospin and equation of state (EoS) on these quantities is also investigated; our calculated results are in consonance with the available experimental data.
Evolution of positive and negative density-dependent dispersal
Rodrigues, António M. M.; Johnstone, Rufus A.
2014-01-01
Understanding the evolution of density-dependent dispersal strategies has been a major challenge for evolutionary ecologists. Some existing models suggest that selection should favour positive and others negative density-dependence in dispersal. Here, we develop a general model that shows how and why selection may shift from positive to negative density-dependence in response to key ecological factors, in particular the temporal stability of the environment. We find that in temporally stable environments, particularly with low dispersal costs and large group sizes, habitat heterogeneity selects for negative density-dependent dispersal, whereas in temporally variable environments, particularly with high dispersal costs and small group sizes, habitat heterogeneity selects for positive density-dependent dispersal. This shift reflects the changing balance between the greater competition for breeding opportunities in more productive patches, versus the greater long-term value of offspring that establish themselves there, the latter being very sensitive to the temporal stability of the environment. In general, dispersal of individuals out of low-density patches is much more sensitive to habitat heterogeneity than is dispersal out of high-density patches. PMID:25100700
Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap.
Prentiss, M; Cable, A; Bjorkholm, J E; Chu, S; Raab, E L; Pritchard, D E
1988-06-01
We have observed that two-body collisions between cold sodium atoms confined within a magnetic-molasses optical trap lead to significant atomic-density-dependent trap losses. Such losses set an upper limit to the product of atomic density and confinement time that can be achieved in such a trap. PMID:19745929
Dynamical instabilities in density-dependent hadronic relativistic models
Santos, A. M.; Brito, L.; Providencia, C.
2008-04-15
Unstable modes in asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) at subsaturation densities are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field density-dependent hadron models. The size of the instabilities that drive the system are calculated and a comparison with results obtained within the nonlinear Walecka model is presented. The distillation and antidistillation effects are discussed.
Evolution of behavior by density-dependent natural selection
Pingzhong Guo; Mueller, L.D.; Ayala, F.J. )
1991-12-01
Theories of density-dependent natural selection predict that evolution should favor those genotypes with the highest per capita rates of population growth under the current density conditions. These theories are silent about the mechanisms that may give rise to these increases in density-dependent growth rates. The authors have observed the evolution of six populations of Drosophila melanogaster recently placed in crowded environments after nearly 200 generations at low-population density in the laboratory. After 25 generations in these crowded cultures all six populations showed the predicted increase in population growth rates at high-population density with the concomitant decrease in their growth rates at low densities. These changes in rates of population growth are accompanied by changes in the feeding and pupation behavior of the larvae: those populations that have evolve at high-population densities have higher feeding rates and are less likely to pupate on or near the food surface than populations maintained at low densities. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which populations evolve under density-dependent natural selection will provide a framework for understanding that nature of trade-offs in life history evolution.
Anthropogenically-Mediated Density Dependence in a Declining Farmland Bird
Dunn, Jenny C.; Hamer, Keith C.; Benton, Tim G.
2015-01-01
Land management intrinsically influences the distribution of animals and can consequently alter the potential for density-dependent processes to act within populations. For declining species, high densities of breeding territories are typically considered to represent productive populations. However, as density-dependent effects of food limitation or predator pressure may occur (especially when species are dependent upon separate nesting and foraging habitats), high territory density may limit per-capita productivity. Here, we use a declining but widespread European farmland bird, the yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella L., as a model system to test whether higher territory densities result in lower fledging success, parental provisioning rates or nestling growth rates compared to lower densities. Organic landscapes held higher territory densities, but nests on organic farms fledged fewer nestlings, translating to a 5 times higher rate of population shrinkage on organic farms compared to conventional. In addition, when parental provisioning behaviour was not restricted by predation risk (i.e., at times of low corvid activity), nestling provisioning rates were higher at lower territory densities, resulting in a much greater increase in nestling mass in low density areas, suggesting that food limitation occurred at high densities. These findings in turn suggest an ecological trap, whereby preferred nesting habitat does not provide sufficient food for rearing nestlings at high population density, creating a population sink. Habitat management for farmland birds should focus not simply on creating a high nesting density, but also on ensuring heterogeneous habitats to provide food resources in close proximity to nesting birds, even if this occurs through potentially restricting overall nest density but increasing population-level breeding success. PMID:26431173
Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent
Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Henningsen, John C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott
2013-01-01
Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (?2 m). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects.
Host-parasite population dynamics under combined frequency-and density-dependent transmission
Knell, Rob
Host-parasite population dynamics under combined frequency- and density-dependent transmission population density (`density- dependent transmission'), but various alternative transmission functions have contact one another is independent of population density, leading to `frequency-dependent' transmission
Density Dependence of Transport Coefficients from Holographic Hydrodynamics
Xian-Hui Ge; Yoshinori Matsuo; Fu-Wen Shu; Sang-Jin Sin; Takuya Tsukioka
2008-07-07
We study the transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon-Plasma in finite temperature and finite baryon density. We use AdS/QCD of charged AdS black hole background with bulk-filling branes identifying the U(1) charge as the baryon number. We calculate the diffusion constant, the shear viscosity and the thermal conductivity to plot their density and temperature dependences. Hydrodynamic relations between those are shown to hold exactly. The diffusion constant and the shear viscosity are decreasing as a function of density for fixed total energy. For fixed temperature, the fluid becomes less diffusible and more viscous for larger baryon density.
Density-dependent aposematism in the desert locust.
Sword, G A; Simpson, S J; El Hadi, O T; Wilps, H
2000-01-01
The ecological processes underlying locust swarm formation are poorly understood. Locust species exhibit phenotypic plasticity in numerous morphological, physiological and behavioural traits as their population density increases. These density-dependent changes are commonly assumed to be adaptations for migration under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Here we demonstrate that density-dependent nymphal colour change in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) results in warning coloration (aposematism) when the population density increases and locusts consume native, toxic host plants. Fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus dumerili (Lacertidae)) developed aversions to high-density-reared (gregarious-phase) locusts fed Hyoscyamus muticus (Solanaceae). Lizards associated both olfactory and visual cues with locust unpalatability, but only gregarious-phase coloration was an effective visual warning signal. The lizards did not associate low rearing density coloration (solitarious phase) with locust toxicity. Predator learning of density-dependent warning coloration results in a marked decrease in predation on locusts and may directly contribute to outbreaks of this notorious pest. PMID:10670954
A Wigner Monte Carlo approach to density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.
2014-08-01
In order to simulate quantum N-body systems, stationary and time-dependent density functional theories rely on the capacity of calculating the single-electron wave-functions of a system from which one obtains the total electron density (Kohn-Sham systems). In this paper, we introduce the use of the Wigner Monte Carlo method in ab-initio calculations. This approach allows time-dependent simulations of chemical systems in the presence of reflective and absorbing boundary conditions. It also enables an intuitive comprehension of chemical systems in terms of the Wigner formalism based on the concept of phase-space. Finally, being based on a Monte Carlo method, it scales very well on parallel machines paving the way towards the time-dependent simulation of very complex molecules. A validation is performed by studying the electron distribution of three different systems, a Lithium atom, a Boron atom and a hydrogenic molecule. For the sake of simplicity, we start from initial conditions not too far from equilibrium and show that the systems reach a stationary regime, as expected (despite no restriction is imposed in the choice of the initial conditions). We also show a good agreement with the standard density functional theory for the hydrogenic molecule. These results demonstrate that the combination of the Wigner Monte Carlo method and Kohn-Sham systems provides a reliable computational tool which could, eventually, be applied to more sophisticated problems.
Density dependence of nuclear neutrino-pair production
Horowitz, C.J. )
1992-11-02
Nuclear decay via neutrino-pair production is found to have a large density dependence because of intermediate electromagnetic couplings to electrons. These are calculated in a relativistic random phase approximation. The decay rate for vector (Fermi) transitions producing electron type neutrino pairs can be enhanced by 10{sup 5} or more at densities relevant for stellar collapse. Axial-vector (Gamow-Teller) transitions are not enhanced.
Parity dependence of level densities in sup 49 V
York, B.W.
1991-01-01
In this research, we have studied {sup 48}Ti(p, p{sub 1}) and {sup 48}(p, p{sub 1}{gamma}) in an effort to determine the dependence of level densities on parity in the compound nucleus {sup 49}V. This nuclide was chosen because of the high level density of the {sup 49}V system (leading to good statistical accuracy) and because the target is zero spin (making the assignment of J easier). 5 refs., 3 figs.
Canonical approach to finite density QCD with multiple precision computation
Ryutaro Fukuda; Atsushi Nakamura; Shotaro Oka
2015-05-03
We calculate the baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_B$) dependence of thermodynamic observables, i.e., pressure, baryon number density and susceptibility by lattice QCD using the canonical approach. We compare the results with those by the multi parameter reweighting (MPR) method; Both methods give very consistent values in the regions where errors of the MPR are under control. The canonical method gives reliable results over $\\mu_ B/T=3$,with $T$ being temperature. Multiple precision operations play an important roll in the evaluation of canonical partition functions.
Gogny force with a finite-range density dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chappert, F.; Pillet, N.; Girod, M.; Berger, J.-F.
2015-03-01
In the present work, we have investigated an extension of the effective nucleon-nucleon Gogny interaction in which the zero-range density-dependent term has been replaced with a finite-range term. The parameters have been adjusted on both nuclear-matter properties and a few observables of stable nuclei. The traditional and unified fitting procedure of the Gogny force used in Bruyères-le-Châtel ensures common basic properties between the extended analytical form of the Gogny interaction, called D 2 , and the original one. In particular, symmetric infinite nuclear-matter and neutron-matter properties as well as pairing correlations have been investigated. A few static properties obtained in finite nuclei using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach and the D 2 parametrization of the Gogny interaction are analyzed and compared to the results obtained with D 1 -type parametrizations and experiment when it is possible. The D 2 parametrization makes it possible to reproduce nuclear structure properties with improved accuracy.
Superlinear density dependence of singlet fission rate in tetracene films
Zhang, Bo; Wang, Rui; Tan, Zhanao; Liu, Yunlong; Guo, Wei; Zhai, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min
2014-01-01
We experimentally show that the rate of singlet fission in tetracene films has a superlinear dependence on the density of photo-excited singlet excitons with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The spectrotemporal features of singlet and triplet dynamics can be disentangled from experimental data with the algorithm of singular value decomposition. The correlation between their temporal dynamics indicates a nonlinear density dependence of fission rate, which leads to a conjecture of coherent singlet fission process arising from superradiant excitons in crystalline tetracene. This hypothesis might be able to resolve some long-standing controversies.
Fitness and density-dependent population growth in Drosophila melanogaster
Mueller, L.D.; Ayala, F.J.
1981-03-01
The density-dependent rates of population growth were determined for 26 populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained in the serial transfer system. Twenty-five populations were homozygous for an entire chromosome 2 sampled from nature; the other was a random heterozygous population. Rates of population growth around the carrying capacity cannot explain the large fitness depression of these lines. However, the homozygous lines show large differences in rates of population growth at low densities relative to the random heterozygous standard. The average relative fitness of the homozygous lines, as determined from the growth rates at the lowest density, is 0.51.
Ringelman, Kevin M; Eadie, John M; Ackerman, Joshua T
2012-07-01
When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for "dispersion-dependent" predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation. PMID:22179311
Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, KM; Eadie, J.M.
2012-01-01
When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.
Multivariate Density Estimation: An SVM Approach
Mukherjee, Sayan
1999-04-01
We formulate density estimation as an inverse operator problem. We then use convergence results of empirical distribution functions to true distribution functions to develop an algorithm for multivariate density estimation. ...
Evaporation Prescription for Time-Dependent Density Functional Calculations
Yoritaka Iwata; Sophia Heinz
2012-09-25
Collisions between $^{248}$Cm and $^{48}$Ca are systematically calculated by time-dependent density functional calculations with evaporation prescription. Depending on the incident energy and impact parameter, fusion, fusion-fission, and quasi-fission events are expected to appear. In this paper, the evaporation prescription is introduced, which is expected to be rather important to heavy-ion reactions producing superheavy nuclei, where the heavier total mass can be related to the higher total excitation energy.
Argasinski, K; Broom, M
2013-12-01
Modern developments in population dynamics emphasize the role of the turnover of individuals. In the new approaches stable population size is a dynamic equilibrium between different mortality and fecundity factors instead of an arbitrary fixed carrying capacity. The latest replicator dynamics models assume that regulation of the population size acts through feedback driven by density dependent juvenile mortality. Here, we consider a simplified model to extract the properties of this approach. We show that at the stable population size, the structure of the frequency dependent evolutionary game emerges. Turnover of individuals induces a lottery mechanism where for each nest site released by a dead adult individual a single newborn is drawn from the pool of newborn candidates. This frequency dependent selection leads towards the strategy maximizing the number of newborns per adult death. However, multiple strategies can maximize this value. Among them, the strategy with the greatest mortality (which implies the greatest instantaneous growth rate) is selected. This result is important for the discussion about universal fitness measures and which parameters are maximized by natural selection. This is related to the fitness measures R0 and r, because the number of newborns per single dead individual equals the lifetime production of newborn R0 in models without aging. We thus have a two-stage procedure, instead of a single fitness measure, which is a combination of R0 and r. According to the nest site lottery mechanism, at stable population size, selection favors strategies with the greatest r, i.e. those with the highest turnover, from those with the greatest R0. PMID:24071631
Rapidity dependence of particle densities in pp and AA collisions
Irais Bautista; Carlos Pajares; José Guilherme Milhano; Jorge Dias de Deus
2012-06-28
We use multiple scattering and energy conservation arguments to describe $dn/d\\eta_{NANA}$ as a function of $dn/d\\eta_{pp}$ in the framework of string percolation. We discuss the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$? and beam rapidity Y dependence of particle densities. We present our results for pp, Au- Au, and Pb-Pb collisions at RHIC and LHC.
SHORT COMMUNICATION High temperature intensifies negative density dependence
Blouin-Demers, Gabriel
is strong. The abundance of depletable resources is rarely the sole limiting factor for organisms (Birch factor for an organism and is in short supply, competition is strong and negative density dependence 1957; Hairston et al. 1960). Abiotic factors, such as moisture and temperature, can also be limiting
Rapidity dependence of particle densities in pp and AA collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bautista, Irais; Pajares, Carlos; Milhano, José Guilherme; Dias de Deus, Jorge
2012-09-01
We use multiple scattering and energy conservation arguments to describe dn/d?|NANA as a function of dn/d?|pp in the framework of string percolation. We discuss the pseudorapidity ? and beam rapidity Y dependence of particle densities. We present our results for pp, Au-Au, and Pb-Pb collisions at RHIC and LHC.
FITNESS AND DENSITY-DEPENDENT POPULATION GROWTH IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER
Mueller, Laurence D.
FITNESS AND DENSITY-DEPENDENT POPULATION GROWTH IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER LAURENCE D. MUELLER cannot explain the large fitness depression of these lines. However, the homozygous lines show large. The average relative fitness of the homozygous lines, as determined from the growth rates at the lowest
Linear-response thermal time-dependent density functional theory
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron
2015-01-01
The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation (XC) approximations.
Thermal conductivity of molten alkali halides: Temperature and density dependence.
Ohtori, Norikazu; Oono, Takuya; Takase, Keiichi
2009-01-28
The thermal conductivities of a series of molten alkali halides have been evaluated by using molecular dynamics simulation within the framework of Fumi-Tosi potential models. Although the calculated results showed 0%-50% larger values than experimental results depending on system, they are in agreement with each other in showing both negative temperature and ionic mass dependence. In order to clarify the cause of the negative temperature dependence in more detail, the thermal conductivity under constant temperature or constant density was evaluated for all alkali chlorides and all sodium halides. The calculations reveal that the thermal conductivity depends strongly on density but only weakly on temperature. While the integrated value of the autocorrelation function for energy current increases with temperature, this is canceled out by the reciprocal temperature factor in relation to the thermal conductivity. With increasing density the integrated value increases, and this dominates the behavior of the thermal conductivity. By repeating the calculations with different ionic masses, we have concluded that the thermal conductivity is a function of m(-1/2)(N/V)(2/3), where m is the geometric mean of ionic mass between anion and cation and N/V is the number density. PMID:19191396
Hard scale dependent gluon density, saturation, and forward-forward dijet production at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutak, Krzysztof
2015-02-01
We propose a method to introduce Sudakov effects to the unintegrated gluon density, promoting it to be hard scale dependent. The advantage of the approach is that it guarantees that the gluon density is positive definite and that the Sudakov effects cancel on the integrated level. As a case study, we apply the method to calculate angular correlations and the Rp A ratio for p +p vs p +Pb collision in the production of forward-forward dijets.
Model dependence of isospin sensitive observables at high densities
Wen-Mei Guo; Gao-Chan Yong; Yongjia Wang; Qingfeng Li; Hongfei Zhang; Wei Zuo
2013-07-30
Within two different frameworks of isospin-dependent transport model, i.e., Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (IBUU04) and Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport models, sensitive probes of nuclear symmetry energy are simulated and compared. It is shown that neutron to proton ratio of free nucleons, pi-/pi+ ratio as well as isospin-sensitive transverse and elliptic flows given by the two transport models with their "best settings", all have obvious differences. Discrepancy of numerical value of isospin-sensitive n/p ratio of free nucleon from the two models mainly originates from different symmetry potentials used and discrepancies of numerical value of charged pi-/pi+ ratio and isospin-sensitive flows mainly originate from different isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon cross sections. These demonstrations call for more detailed studies on the model inputs (i.e., the density- and momentum-dependent symmetry potential and the isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section in medium) of isospin-dependent transport model used. The studies of model dependence of isospin sensitive observables can help nuclear physicists to pin down the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy through comparison between experiments and theoretical simulations scientifically.
Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.
Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico
2015-09-01
Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data. PMID:26026294
Density-functional fidelity approach to quantum phase transitions
Shi-Jian Gu
2008-09-23
We propose a new approach to quantum phase transitions in terms of the density-functional fidelity, which measures the similarity between density distributions of two ground states in parameter space. The key feature of the approach, as we will show, is that the density-functional fidelity can be measured easily in experiments. Both the validity and versatility of the approach are checked by the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model and the one-dimensional Hubbard model.
Dislocation density dependent electroabsorption in epitaxial lateral overgrown InGaN/GaN
Demir, Hilmi Volkan
Dislocation density dependent electroabsorption in epitaxial lateral overgrown InGaN/GaN quantum@stanfordalumni.org Abstract: We study electroabsorption (EA) behavior of InGaN/GaN quantum structures grown using epitaxial, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum
Global stability in discrete population models with delayed-density dependence
Eduardo Liz; Victor Tkachenko; Sergei Trof?mchuk
2006-01-01
We address the global stability issue for some discrete population models with delayed-density dependence. Applying a new approach based on the concept of the generalized Yorke conditions, we establish several criteria for the convergence of all solutions to the unique positive steady state. Our results support the conjecture stated by Levin and May in 1976 affirming that the local asymptotic
Possible density dependent local variations in the IMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavila, Indulekha; George, Babitha
2015-08-01
Variations in the IMF have been reported within open clusters (signifying mass segregation), between globular clusters, within galaxies and between galaxies. Most stars are considered to form in a clustered mode. However, the surface density of YSO's shows a wide range and it is also considered that stars form in the clustered mode only at the peaks of the surface density. The bound cluster formation efficiency in galaxies is observed to be correlated with the Star Formation Rate density which itself is seen to be correlated with the gas surface density by the Kennicutt Schmidt law.Observationally, dense cores in molecular clouds - which go on to produce stars - have a mass spectrum that is broadly consistent with a Salpeter slope of -1.35 at the high mass end. In simulations of clouds with Gaussian fluctuations it is seen that the mass spectrum of peaks which collapse are approximately log-normal, peaking roughly at the average Jeans' mass in the cloud. We explore a possible way in which the IMF could depend on the local gas density. The extent of the variations that can be caused by such a dependence is explored. The IMFs of the sample clusters that are generated are compared with the IMFs of observed clusters and also against radial trends reported in galaxies.
Density dependence in larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Lord, C C
1998-09-01
Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is expanding its distribution in the United States and elsewhere, and a better understanding of its population regulation is needed. A field experiment under seminatural conditions determined that density had a negative effect and food level a positive effect on immature survival, duration of development, and female size at emergence. A summary index (r') indicated that population growth also depended on density and food availability. These data can be used to estimate the relationships needed in the development of mathematical models for Ae. albopictus. PMID:9775616
Effective defect density for MOS breakdown - Dependence on oxide thickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, S. P.; Maserjian, J.
1976-01-01
A new procedure for measuring effective defect density takes time-dependent primary dielectric breakdown in MOS devices into account. A time-varying breakdown probability is obtained by applying a constant field stress to a statistically sufficient number of MOS capacitors. Effective defects are assumed distributed randomly in two dimensions, hence indistinguishable. The effective defect density is found to vary with oxide thickness; tentative explanations are ventured to account for this (interfacial tensile stress, ion patching enhanced by local trapping, breakdown in the form of filamentary discharges with release of stored electrostatic energy).
A phenomenological density-scaling approach to lamellipodial actin dynamics†
Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Wilson, Kerry; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume
2014-01-01
The integration of protein function studied in vitro in a dynamic system like the cell lamellipodium remains a significant challenge. One reason is the apparent contradictory effect that perturbations of some proteins can have on the overall lamellipodium dynamics, depending on exact conditions. Theoretical modelling offers one approach for understanding the balance between the mechanisms that drive and regulate actin network growth and decay. Most models use a ‘bottom-up’ approach, involving explicitly assembling biochemical components to simulate observable behaviour. Their correctness therefore relies on both the accurate characterization of all the components and the completeness of the relevant processes involved. To avoid potential pitfalls due to this uncertainty, we used an alternative ‘top-down’ approach, in which measurable features of lamellipodium behaviour, here observed in two different cell types (HL60 and B16-F1), directly inform the development of a simple phenomenological model of lamellipodium dynamics. We show that the kinetics of F-actin association and dissociation scales with the local F-actin density, with no explicit location dependence. This justifies the use of a simplified kinetic model of lamellipodium dynamics that yields predictions testable by pharmacological or genetic intervention. A length-scale parameter (the lamellipodium width) emerges from this analysis as an experimentally accessible probe of network regulatory processes. PMID:25485077
Quantum kinetic energy densities: An operational approach
Muga, J.G.; Seidel, D.; Hegerfeldt, G.C. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, UPV-EHU, Apartado 644, Bilbao (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)
2005-04-15
We propose and investigate a procedure to measure, at least in principle, a positive quantum version of the local kinetic energy density. This procedure is based, under certain idealized limits, on the detection rate of photons emitted by moving atoms which are excited by a localized laser beam. The same type of experiment, but in different limits, can also provide other non-positive-definite versions of the kinetic energy density. A connection with quantum arrival time distributions is discussed.
Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations
Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, Harrie W.M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.
2013-01-01
1. A major challenge in the conservation of threatened and endangered species is to predict population decline and design appropriate recovery measures. However, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations are notoriously difficult to predict due to potentially nonlinear responses and interactions with natural ecological processes like density dependence. 2. Here, we incorporated both density dependence and anthropogenic stressors in a stage-based matrix population model and parameterized it for a density-dependent population of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus exposed to two anthropogenic toxicants [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)]. Log-logistic exposure–response relationships were used to translate toxicant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs to effects on fecundity. Density dependence was modelled as the probability of a nonbreeding bird acquiring a breeding territory as a function of the current number of breeders. 3. The equilibrium size of the population, as represented by the number of breeders, responded nonlinearly to increasing toxicant concentrations, showing a gradual decrease followed by a relatively steep decline. Initially, toxicant-induced reductions in population size were mitigated by an alleviation of the density limitation, that is, an increasing probability of territory acquisition. Once population density was no longer limiting, the toxicant impacts were no longer buffered by an increasing proportion of nonbreeders shifting to the breeding stage, resulting in a strong decrease in the equilibrium number of breeders. 4. Median critical exposure concentrations, that is, median toxicant concentrations in eggs corresponding with an equilibrium population size of zero, were 33 and 46 ?g g?1 fresh weight for DDE and PBDEs, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to toxicant impacts until a critical threshold is crossed. In our study population, toxicant-induced changes were observed in the equilibrium number of nonbreeding rather than breeding birds, suggesting that monitoring efforts including both life stages are needed to timely detect population declines. Further, by combining quantitative exposure–response relationships with a wildlife demographic model, we provided a method to quantify critical toxicant thresholds for wildlife population persistence.
Limit Theorems for Competitive Density Dependent Population Processes
Parsons, Todd L
2010-01-01
Near the beginning of the century, Wright and Fisher devised an elegant, mathematically tractable model of gene reproduction and replacement that laid the foundation for contemporary population genetics. The Wright-Fisher model and its extensions have given biologists powerful tools of statistical inference that enabled the quantification of genetic drift and selection. Given the utility of these tools, we often forget that their model - for mathematical, and not biological reasons - makes assumptions that are violated in most real-world populations. In this paper, I consider an alternative framework that merges P. A. P. Moran's continuous-time Markov chain model of allele frequency with the density dependent models of ecological competition proposed by Gause, Lotka and Volterra, that, unlike Moran's model allow for a stochastically varying -- but bounded -- population size. I require that allele numbers vary according to a density-dependent population process, for which the limiting law of large numbers is a...
Wilson mass dependence of the overlap topological charge density
Peter J. Moran; Derek B. Leinweber; Jianbo Zhang
2010-11-04
The dependence of the overlap Dirac operator on the Wilson-mass regulator parameter is studied through calculations of the overlap topological charge densities at a variety of Wilson-mass values. In this formulation, the Wilson-mass is used in the negative mass region and acts as a regulator governing the scale at which the Dirac operator is sensitive to topological aspects of the gauge field. We observe a clear dependence on the value of the Wilson-mass and demonstrate how these values can be calibrated against a finite number of stout-link smearing sweeps. The overlap topological charge density is also computed using a pre-smeared gauge field for the input kernel. We show how applying the overlap operator leads to further filtering of the gauge field. The results suggest that the freedom typically associated with smearing algorithms, through the variable number of sweeps, also exists in the overlap operator, through the variable Wilson-mass parameter.
Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2015-04-01
We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.
The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density
Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.
2003-11-01
The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.
Excitons in Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory.
Ullrich, Carsten A; Yang, Zeng-Hui
2016-01-01
This chapter gives an overview of the description of the optical and dielectric properties of bulk insulators and semiconductors in time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), with an emphasis on excitons. We review the linear-response formalism for periodic solids, discuss excitonic exchange-correlation kernels, calculate exciton binding energies for various materials, and compare the treatment of excitons with TDDFT and with the Bethe-Salpeter equation. PMID:25805143
Density Dependent Transport in Quantum Well Coupled Josephson Junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckhause, T. A.; Correa, J. S.; Gwinn, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Kroemer, H.
2000-03-01
Studies of Josephson Junctions (JJs) with InAs quantum wells as weak-links suggest that the critical current in semiconductor-based JJs depends sensitively on the density of carriers, N_s, in the semiconductor.(M. Thomas, et al.), PRB, 58, 11676 (1998). However, it has been difficult to study this effect because, at the large gate voltages necessary to modulate the high carrier densities, ? 10^13cm-2, in InAs wells, large leakage currents flow from the gate, through the AlSb barrier, to the InAs. Previous experimental work has focused on using small area split gates to form 0-D channels in InAs between superconducting Nb.(H. Takayanagi, et al.), PRL, 75, 3533 (1995). We describe attempts to modulate Ns in a 1-D InAs channel using a low-leakage gate. In ungated junctions, the 1-D InAs channel between supercondcuting Nb forms a weak-link with a large critical current, on the order of 30? A at 4.2K, depending on junction dimensions and Ns in the InAs. We describe fabrication of gated structures and present preliminary measurements of density-dependent transport in these 1-D InAs-based weak-links.
Density Versions of Plunnecke Inequality Epsilon-Delta Approach
Jin, Renling
Density Versions of PlÂ¨unnecke Inequality Â Epsilon-Delta Approach Renling Jin Abstract We discuss whether PlÂ¨unnecke's inequality for Shnirel'man density with respect to Shnirel'man basis can be generalized to other densities with respect to other con- cepts of basis. We show behavioral disparities
Does spacecraft potential depend on the ambient electron density?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, S. T.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cahoy, K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Shprits, Y.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Wong, F.
2014-12-01
In a Maxwellian space plasma model, the onset of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous altitudes is due to the ambient electron, ambient ions, and secondary electrons. By using current balance, one can show that the onset of spacecraft charging depends not on the ambient electron density but instead on the critical temperature of the ambient electrons. If the ambient plasma deviates significantly from equilibrium, a non-Maxwellian electron distribution results. For a kappa distribution, the onset of spacecraft charging remains independent of ambient electron density. However, for double Maxwellian distributions, the densities do have a role in the onset of spacecraft charging. For a dielectric spacecraft in sunlight, the trapping of photoelectrons on the sunlit side enhances the local electron density. Using the coordinated environmental satellite data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellites, we have obtained results that confirm that the observed spacecraft potential is independent of the ambient electron density during eclipse and that in sunlight charging the low-energy population around the sunlit side of the spacecraft is enhanced by photoelectrons trapped inside the potential barrier.
Does habitat quality affect density-dependent habitat selection by Tribolium castaneum?
Blouin-Demers, Gabriel
Does habitat quality affect density-dependent habitat selection by Tribolium II. ABSTRACT Density-dependent habitat selection inherently relies on the relationship between population density and fitness in different habitats. Habitats
Large area photonic crystal cavities: a local density approach.
Dobbelaar, M C F; Greveling, S; van Oosten, D
2015-03-23
Large area photonic crystal cavities are devices of interest for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and solid-state lighting. However, depending on their dimensions they pose a large computational challenge. Here, we use a local density approach to avoid direct simulation of the device. We capture the effect of both ideal and distorted photonic crystals in an effective mass and an effective potential. We use these to map the problem of calculating the electromagnetic field modes to solving a simple time-independent Schrödinger equation. We show that, in the case that the hole radius varies quadratically as a function of position, the eigenmodes of the photonic crystals can be described by the corresponding eigenmodes of the quantum harmonic oscillator with typical agreements well above 90%. PMID:25837088
Scattering states from time-dependent density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasserman, Adam
Linear response time-dependent density functional theory is used to study low-energy elastic electron scattering from targets that can bind an extra electron. Exact formulas to extract scattering amplitudes from the susceptibility are derived in one dimension. A single-pole approximation for scattering phase shifts in three dimensions is derived, and shown to be more accurate than static exchange for singlet electron-He+ scattering. A novel formula to obtain elastic scattering t-matrix elements is derived for systems with spherical symmetry. It is also shown that despite the incorrect asymptotic behavior of its potential, the time-dependent local density approximation can yield accurate optical spectra. The oscillator strengths of Rydberg excitations appear in the calculated spectrum as continuum contributions with excellent optical intensity. We explain why, illustrate this for the neon and helium atoms, and also discuss when such calculations of the optical response will be inaccurate. Finally, we show how the local density approximation yields accurate Rydberg excitation energies.
Exploration of a modified density dependence in the Skyrme functional
J. Erler; P. Klüpfel; P. -G. Reinhard
2010-09-03
A variant of the basic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) functional is considered dealing with a new form of density dependence. It employs only integer powers and thus will allow a more sound basis for projection schemes (particle number, angular momentum). We optimize the new functional with exactly the same adjustment strategy as used in an earlier study with a standard Skyrme functional. This allows direct comparisons of the performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. We discuss various observables: bulk properties of finite nuclei, nuclear matter, giant resonances, super-heavy elements, and energy systematics. The new functional performs at least as well as the standard one, but offers a wider range of applicability (e.g. for projection) and more flexibility in the regime of high densities.
Probing the density dependence of symmetry energy at subsaturation density with HICs
Zhang, Yingxun; Li, Zhuxia; Danielewicz, P; Lynch, W G; Lu, Xiaohua
2009-01-01
The reaction mechanism of the central collisions and peripheral collisions for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at $E/A=50MeV$ is investigated within the framework of the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that multifragmentation process is an important mechanism at this energy region, and the influence of the cluster emission on the double n/p ratios and the isospin transport ratio are important. Furthermore, three observables, double n/p ratios, isospin diffusion and the rapidity distribution of the ratio $R_{7}$ for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at E/A=50MeV are analyzed with the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that these three observables are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. By comparing the calculation results to the data, the consistent constraint on the density dependence of the symmetry energy from these three observables is obtained.
Leirs, H.; Stenseth, N.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Verhagen, R.; Verheyen, W.
1997-01-01
Ecology has long been troubled by the controversy over how populations are regulated. Some ecologists focus on the role of environmental effects, whereas others argue that density-dependent feedback mechanisms are central. The relative importance of both processes is still hotly debated, but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare. Keyfactor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide no information on actual demographic rates. Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models. Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate that they do not affect all demographic rates in the same way. We have incorporated the obtained estimates of demographic rates in a population dynamics model and show that the observed dynamics are affected by stabilizing nonlinear density-dependent components coupled with strong deterministic and stochastic seasonal components.
Limits for density dependent time inhomogeneous Markov processes.
Smith, Andrew G
2015-10-01
A new functional law of large numbers to approximate a time inhomogeneous Markov process that is only density dependent in the limit as an index parameter goes to infinity is developed. This extends previous results by other authors to a broader class of Markov processes while relaxing some of the conditions required for those results to hold. This result is applied to a stochastic metapopulation model that accounts for spatial structure as well as within patch dynamics with the novel addition of time dependent dynamics. The resulting nonautonomous differential equation is analysed to provide conditions for extinction and persistence for a number of examples. This condition shows that the migration of a species will positively impact the reproduction in less populated areas while negatively impacting densely populated areas. PMID:26260102
Time-dependent Electronic Populations in Fragment-based Time-dependent Density Functional Theory
Mosquera, Martín A
2015-01-01
Conceiving a molecule as composed of smaller molecular fragments, or subunits, is one of the pillars of the chemical and physical sciences, and leads to productive methods in quantum chemistry. Using a fragmentation scheme, efficient algorithms can be proposed to address problems in the description of chemical bond formation and breaking. We present a formally exact time-dependent density-functional theory for the electronic dynamics of molecular fragments with variable number of electrons. This new formalism is an extension of previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 111}, 023001 (2013)]. We also introduce a stable density-inversion method that is applicable to time-dependent and ground-state density-functional theory, and their extensions, including those discussed in this work.
The copula approach to characterizing dependence structure in neural populations.
Jenison, Rick L
2010-12-31
The question as to the role that correlated activity plays in the coding of information in the brain continues to be one of the most important in neuroscience. One approach to understanding this role is to formally model the ensemble responses as multivariate probability distributions. We have previously introduced alternatives to linear assumptions of multivariate Gaussian dependence for spike timing in neural ensembles using the probabilistic copula approach. In probability theory the copula "couples" marginal distributions to form flexible multivariate distribution functions for characterizing ensemble behavior. The parametric copula can be factored out of the joint probability density, and as such is independent and isolated from the marginal densities. This greatly simplifies the analysis, and allows a direct examination of the shape of the dependence independent of the marginals. The shape of the copula function goes beyond describing the dependence with a single summarizing statistic. In this review, we illustrate the construction of the copula, and how it contributes to the analysis of information conveyed by populations of neurons. PMID:21793349
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.
2015-02-01
We perform an ab initio all-electron study of the subcycle structure, dynamics, and spectra of high harmonic generation (HHG) processes of Ar atoms in the presence of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses and near-infrared (NIR) laser fields by means of the self-interaction-free time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The TDDFT equations are solved accurately and efficiently via the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral (TDGPS) method. We focus on the subcycle (with respect to NIR field) temporal behavior of the level shift of the excited energy levels and related dynamics of harmonic photon emission. We observe and identify the subcycle shifts in the harmonic emission spectrum as a function of the time delay between the XUV and NIR pulses. In the region where the two pulses overlap, the photon emission peaks have an oscillatory structure with a period of ˜1.3 fs, which is half of the NIR laser optical cycle. We present and analyze the harmonic emission spectra from 3 s n p0,3 p0n s ,3 p1n d1,3 p1n p1,3 p0n d0,3 p0n p0 , and 3 p0n s excited states and the 3 p04 p0- virtual state as functions of the time delay. In addition, we explore the subcycle a.c. Stark shift phenomenon in NIR fields and its influence on the harmonic emission process. Our analysis reveals several features of the subcycle HHG dynamics and spectra as well as a temporal energy level shift.
Hypernclear in the improved quark mass density- dependent model
Chen Wu; Yu-Gang Ma; Wei-Liang Qian; Ru-Keng Su
2012-06-30
The improved quark mass density- dependent model, which has been successfully used to describe the properties of both finite nuclei and bulk nuclear matter, is extended to include the strange quark. The parameters of the model are determined by the saturation properties of bulk matter. Then the given parameter set is employed to investigate both the properties of strange hadronic matter and those of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. Bulk strange hadronic matter consisting of nucleons, $\\Lambda$- hyperons and $\\Xi$- hyperons is studied under mean-field approximation. Among others, density dependence of the effective baryon mass, saturation properties and stability of the physical system are discussed. For single-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, single particle energies of $\\Lambda$ hyperon is evaluated. In particular, it is found that the present model produces a small spin-orbit interaction, which is in agreement with the experimental observations. The above results show that the present model can consistently describe the properties of strange hadronic matter, as well as those of single $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei within an uniform parameterization.
Altitude Dependence of Neutral Density Geomagnetic Storm Response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcos, F. A.; Lin, C.; Noah, M.; Burke, W. J.; Cable, S. B.; Wise, J. O.; Sutton, E. K.
2010-12-01
New formulations for satellite neutral density response to geomagnetic activity developed for the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 empirical model were based on data at GRACE altitudes and are applicable for large geomagnetic storms (ap>75). Storm response from the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 and NRLMSIS empirical models are tested at low satellite altitudes using a unique historic set of accelerometer neutral density data from satellites flown in 1982-1983 with perigee altitudes near 170 km. These data are particularly important for evaluating the capability of modern empirical and first principles models to predict satellite drag affecting reentry. The model validations are compared with those of selected CHAMP and GRACE data, 2002-2005, for similar conditions of geomagnetic activity, solar flux, local time and day of year to validate the altitude dependence of geomagnetic heating. Results are interpreted in the framework of General Circulation Models. To further understand thermospheric responses to solar wind energy deposition, we estimate the energy input required to produce these neutral density enhancements.
Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory.
Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele
2015-04-21
We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated. PMID:25903875
Intraspecific variation in the strength of density dependence in aphid populations
Underwood, Nora
Intraspecific variation in the strength of density dependence in aphid populations A N U R A G-plant species. 2. It is reported that as population growth rate increases, density dependence becomes more syriaca, density dependence, density manipulation experiment, logistic population growth, milkweed, plant
Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Theory With Density Dependent Meson Couplings in Axial Symmetry
Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Arteaga, D. Pena; Grasso, M.; Vretenar, D.
2009-08-26
Most nuclei on the nuclear chart are deformed, and the development of new RIB facilities allows the study of exotic nuclei near the drip lines where a successful theoretical description requires both realistic pairing and deformation approaches. Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model taking into account axial deformation and pairing correlations is introduced. Preliminary illustrative results with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings in axial symmetry will be discussed.
Time-dependent density-functional studies on strength functions in neutron-rich nuclei
Shuichiro Ebata; Tsunenori Inakura; Takashi Nakatsukasa
2013-02-08
The electric dipole (E1) strength functions have been systematically calculated based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), using the finite amplitude method and the real-time approach to the TDDFT with pairing correlations. The low-energy E1 strengths in neutron-rich isotopes show peculiar behaviors, such as sudden enhancement and reduction, as functions of the neutron numbers.They seem to be due to the interplay between the neutron shell effect and the deformation effect.
Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory
Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198, Japan and Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Departimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy) and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan) and RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan)
2012-11-12
Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.
The dependence of ZnO photoluminescence efficiency on excitation conditions and defect densities
Simmons, Jay G.; Liu, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Foreman, John V. [U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States)] [U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O., E-mail: everitt@phy.duke.edu [U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2013-11-11
The quantum efficiencies of both the band edge and deep-level defect emission from annealed ZnO powders were measured as a function of excitation fluence and wavelength from a tunable sub-picosecond source. A simple model of excitonic decay reproduces the observed excitation dependence of rate constants and associated trap densities for all radiative and nonradiative processes. The analysis explores how phosphor performance deteriorates as excitation fluence and energy increase, provides an all-optical approach for estimating the number density of defects responsible for deep-level emission, and yields new insights for designing efficient ZnO-based phosphors.
Gauge approach to superfluid density in underdoped cuprates
P. A. Marchetti; G. Bighin
2015-05-11
We prove that a gauge approach based on a composite structure of the hole in hole-doped cuprates is able to capture analytically many features of the experimental data on superfluid density in the moderate-underdoping to nearly-optimal doping region, including critical exponent, the Uemura relation and near universality of the normalized superfluid density.
Current density partitioning in time-dependent current density functional theory
Mosquera, Martín A. [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Wasserman, Adam, E-mail: awasser@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2014-05-14
We adapt time-dependent current density functional theory to allow for a fragment-based solution of the many-electron problem of molecules in the presence of time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Regarding a molecule as a set of non-interacting subsystems that individually evolve under the influence of an auxiliary external electromagnetic vector-scalar potential pair, the partition 4-potential, we show that there are one-to-one mappings between this auxiliary potential, a sharply-defined set of fragment current densities, and the total current density of the system. The partition electromagnetic (EM) 4-potential is expressed in terms of the real EM 4-potential of the system and a gluing EM 4-potential that accounts for exchange-correlation effects and mutual interaction forces between fragments that are required to yield the correct electron dynamics. We prove the zero-force theorem for the fragmented system, establish a variational formulation in terms of action functionals, and provide a simple illustration for a charged particle in a ring.
Herbert, John
2015-01-01
-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach Xing Zhang, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings imple- mented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof
Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.
1979-01-01
A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.
Ding, Feizhi; Van Kuiken, Benjamin E; Eichinger, Bruce E; Li, Xiaosong
2013-02-14
In this paper we present a time-domain time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach to calculate frequency-dependent polarizability and hyperpolarizabilities. In this approach, the electronic degrees of freedom are propagated within the density matrix based TDDFT framework using the efficient modified midpoint and unitary transformation algorithm. We use monochromatic waves as external perturbations and apply the finite field method to extract various orders of the time-dependent dipole moment. By fitting each order of time-dependent dipole to sinusoidal waves with harmonic frequencies, one can obtain the corresponding (hyper)polarizability tensors. This approach avoids explicit Fourier transform and therefore does not require long simulation time. The method is illustrated with application to the optically active organic molecule para-nitroaniline, of which the frequency-dependent polarizability ?(-?; ?), second-harmonic generation ?(-2?; ?, ?), optical rectification ?(0; -?, ?), third-harmonic generation ?(-3?; ?, ?, ?), and degenerate four-wave mixing ?(-?; ?, ?, -?) are calculated. PMID:23425458
Testing for predator dependence in predatorprey dynamics: a non-parametric approach
Jost, Christian
Testing for predator dependence in predatorprey dynamics: a non-parametric approach Christian Jost response is a key element in all predator^prey interactions. Although functional responses are traditionally modelled as being a function of prey density only, evidence is accumulating that predator density
Underwood, Nora
1 Density dependence in insect performance within individual plants: induced resistance, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL 32306-4295, USA. Net intraspecific density dependence experienced of this density dependence can influence the effects of plants on herbivore population dynamics. This study
Pernal, Katarzyna; Giesbertz, Klaas J H
2016-01-01
Recent advances in reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT) and linear response time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TD-RDMFT) are reviewed. In particular, we present various approaches to develop approximate density matrix functionals which have been employed in RDMFT. We discuss the properties and performance of most available density matrix functionals. Progress in the development of functionals has been paralleled by formulation of novel RDMFT-based methods for predicting properties of molecular systems and solids. We give an overview of these methods. The time-dependent extension, TD-RDMFT, is a relatively new theory still awaiting practical and generally useful functionals which would work within the adiabatic approximation. In this chapter we concentrate on the formulation of TD-RDMFT response equations and various adiabatic approximations. None of the adiabatic approximations is fully satisfactory, so we also discuss a phase-dependent extension to TD-RDMFT employing the concept of phase-including-natural-spinorbitals (PINOs). We focus on applications of the linear response formulations to two-electron systems, for which the (almost) exact functional is known. PMID:25971917
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manthe, Uwe
2015-06-01
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example.
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited.
Manthe, Uwe
2015-06-28
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example. PMID:26133412
Density-dependent synthetic magnetism for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greschner, Sebastian; Huerga, Daniel; Sun, Gaoyong; Poletti, Dario; Santos, Luis
2015-09-01
Raman-assisted hopping can allow for the creation of density-dependent synthetic magnetism for cold neutral gases in optical lattices. We show that the density-dependent fields lead to a nontrivial interplay between density modulations and chirality. This interplay results in a rich physics for atoms in two-leg ladders, characterized by a density-driven Meissner-superfluid to vortex-superfluid transition, and a nontrivial dependence of the density imbalance between the legs. Density-dependent fields also lead to intriguing physics in square lattices. In particular, it leads to a density-driven transition between a nonchiral and a chiral superfluid, both characterized by nontrivial charge density-wave amplitude. We finally show how the physics due to the density-dependent fields may be easily probed in experiments by monitoring the expansion of doublons and holes in a Mott insulator, which presents a remarkable dependence on quantum fluctuations.
The density dependence of fluid properties and non-Newtonian flows: The Weissenberg effect
Rainwater, J.C. [Thermophysics Division, Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)] [Thermophysics Division, Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Hanley, H.J.M.; Narayan, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); [Thermophysics Division, Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)
1995-11-01
Two approaches which describe the Weissenberg effect (height profile of a non-Newtonian fluid between rotating vertical concentric cylinders) are discussed. The first is based on an earlier calculation with rheological properties of a simple liquid obtained from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The calculation is redone here using new results on the density dependence of the normal pressure differences. The NEMD calculations are restricted to Couette flow, but describe specifically, in a consistent manner, the effects of finite compressibility. The pressure, viscosity, and normal pressure differences are all found from NEMD to be sensitive functions of density, which requires that the equations of motion be solved iteratively and self-consistently, and a sample calculation is presented for the soft sphere fluid. The second approach is that of Joseph and Fosdick. Their assumptions and techniques are examined and compared with the NEMD calcula- tions.
Unified approach for molecular dynamics and density-functional theory
R. Car; M. Parrinello
1985-01-01
We present a unified scheme that, by combining molecular dynamics and density-functional theory, profoundly extends the range of both concepts. Our approach extends molecular dynamics beyond the usual pair-potential approximation, thereby making possible the simulation of both covalently bonded and metallic systems. In addition it permits the application of density-functional theory to much larger systems than previously feasible. The new
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoa, Dao T.; Satchler, G. R.; von Oertzen, W.
1997-08-01
A generalized version of density dependence has been introduced into the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction that was based on the G-matrix elements of the Paris NN potential. The density dependent parameters have been chosen to reproduce the saturation binding energy and density of normal nuclear matter within a Hartree-Fock scheme, but with various values for the corresponding nuclear incompressibility K ranging from 176 to 270 MeV. We use these new density dependent interactions in the folding model to calculate the real parts of ?-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus optical potentials for those systems where strongly refractive scattering patterns have been observed. These provide some information on the potentials at short distances, where there is a strong overlap of the projectile and target density distributions, and hence where the density dependence of the interaction plays an important role. We try to infer, from careful optical model (OM) analyses, the sensitivity of the scattering data to different K values. Results obtained for elastic ? scattering on targets ranging from 12C to 208Pb allow us to determine unambiguously that the K value favored in this approach is within the range of 240 to 270 MeV. Similar OM analyses have also been done on measurements of the elastic scattering of 12C+12C, 16O+12C, and 16O+16O at incident energies up to 94 MeV/nucleon. These data were found to be much less sensitive over such a narrow range of K values. This lack of sensitivity is due mainly to the smaller maximum overlap density which occurs for these systems, compared to that which is formed in an ?-nucleus collision. This makes the effects of density dependence less substantial. Another reason is that a small difference between two folded heavy ion potentials can often be compensated for, in part, by a small overall renormalization of one of them. This renormalization is often allowed in optical model analyses, and interpreted, for example, as accounting for a contribution from a higher-order dynamic polarization potential. In an attempt to avoid this ambiguity, some OM analyses of the extensive and accurate data for 16O+16O scattering were done using the unrenormalized folded potentials, together with the explicit addition of a correction term, expressed in terms of cubic splines. This correction term can be interpreted as representing a contribution to the real potential from the dynamic polarization potential. The results of such a ``folding+spline'' analysis suggest a tendency to favor the same K value range that was found in the OM analyses of ?-nucleus scattering.
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.
Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E
2015-02-28
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations. PMID:25725723
Nature of curvature coupling of amphiphysin with membranes depends on its bound density
Sorre, Benoît; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Manzi, John; Goud, Bruno; Prost, Jacques; Bassereau, Patricia; Roux, Aurélien
2012-01-01
Cells are populated by a vast array of membrane-binding proteins that execute critical functions. Functions, like signaling and intracellular transport, require the abilities to bind to highly curved membranes and to trigger membrane deformation. Among these proteins is amphiphysin 1, implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It contains a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs membrane-binding domain with an N-terminal amphipathic helix that senses and generates membrane curvature. However, an understanding of the parameters distinguishing these two functions is missing. By pulling a highly curved nanotube of controlled radius from a giant vesicle in a solution containing amphiphysin, we observed that the action of the protein depends directly on its density on the membrane. At low densities of protein on the nearly flat vesicle, the distribution of proteins and the mechanical effects induced are described by a model based on spontaneous curvature induction. The tube radius and force are modified by protein binding but still depend on membrane tension. In the dilute limit, when practically no proteins were present on the vesicle, no mechanical effects were detected, but strong protein enrichment proportional to curvature was seen on the tube. At high densities, the radius is independent of tension and vesicle protein density, resulting from the formation of a scaffold around the tube. As a consequence, the scaling of the force with tension is modified. For the entire density range, protein was enriched on the tube as compared to the vesicle. Our approach shows that the strength of curvature sensing and mechanical effects on the tube depends on the protein density. PMID:22184226
Time-dependent density functional theory of extreme environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Magyar, Rudolph
2013-04-01
We describe the challenges involved when using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe warm dense matter (WDM) within a plane-wave, real-time formulation. WDM occurs under conditions of temperature and pressure (over 1000 K and 1 Mbar) where plasma physics meets condensed matter physics. TDDFT is especially important in this regime as it can describe ions and electrons strongly out of equilibrium. Several theoretical challenges must be overcome including assignment of initial state orbitals, choice of time-propogation scheme, treatment of PAW potentials, and inclusion of non-adiabatic effects in the potential energy surfaces. The results of these simulations are critical in several applications. For example, we will explain how the TDDFT calculation can resolve modeling inconsistencies in X-ray Thompson cross-sections, thereby improving an important temperature diagnostic in experiments. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Evolutionary Ecology, 1990, 4, 290-297 Density-dependent natural selection does not
Mueller, Laurence D.
Evolutionary Ecology, 1990, 4, 290-297 Density-dependent natural selection does not increase- dependent natural selection, or r- and K-selection, as it is often called (Boyce, 1984). Their discussion-dependent natural selection have identified density-dependent rates of population growth as the phenotype
Business Cycle Duration Dependence: A Parametric Approach
Daniel E Sichel
1991-01-01
This paper reexamines duration dependence in U.S. business cycles using parametric hazard models. Positive duration dependence would indicate that expansions or contractions are more likely to end as they become \\
Reassessing nuclear matter incompressibility and its density dependence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Agrawal, B. K.
2015-07-01
Experimental giant monopole resonance energies are now known to constrain nuclear incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter K and its density slope M at a particular value of subsaturation density, the crossing density ?c. Consistent with these constraints, we propose a reasonable way to construct a plausible equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a broad density region around the saturation density ?0. Help of two additional empirical inputs, the value of ?0 and that of the energy per nucleon e (?0) are needed. The value of K (?0) comes out to be 211.9 ±24.5 MeV.
Reassessing nuclear matter incompressibility and its density dependence
J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar; B. K. Agrawal
2015-06-22
Experimental giant monopole resonance energies are now known to constrain nuclear incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K$ and its density slope $M$ at a particular value of sub-saturation density, the crossing density $\\rho_c$. Consistent with these constraints, we propose a reasonable way to construct a plausible equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a broad density region around the saturation density $\\rho_0$. Help of two additional empirical inputs, the value of $\\rho_0$ and that of the energy per nucleon $e(\\rho_0)$ are needed. The value of $K(\\rho_0)$ comes out to be $211.9\\pm 24.5$ MeV.
Three- to two-dimensional crossover in time-dependent density-functional theory
Shahrzad Karimi; Carsten A. Ullrich
2014-10-24
Quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems, such as an electron gas confined in a quantum well, are important model systems for many-body theories. Earlier studies of the crossover from 3D to 2D in ground-state density-functional theory showed that local and semilocal exchange-correlation functionals which are based on the 3D electron gas are appropriate for wide quantum wells, but eventually break down as the 2D limit is approached. We now consider the dynamical case and study the performance of various linear-response exchange kernels in time-dependent density-functional theory. We compare approximate local, semilocal and orbital-dependent exchange kernels, and analyze their performance for inter- and intrasubband plasmons as the quantum wells approach the 2D limit. 3D (semi)local exchange functionals are found to fail for quantum well widths comparable to the 2D Wigner-Seitz radius, which implies in practice that 3D local exchange remains valid in the quasi-2D dynamical regime for typical quantum well parameters, except for very low densities.
A complex exponential Fourier transform approach to gradient density estimation
Rangarajan, Anand
A complex exponential Fourier transform approach to gradient density estimation Karthik S transformation of a uniformly distributed random variable) defined on a closed, bounded interval R transformation Y = S (X) where X is uniformly distributed] with the normalized power spectrum of exp (i
Influence of boundary condition types on unstable density-dependent flow.
Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T; Werner, Adrian D
2014-01-01
Boundary conditions are required to close the mathematical formulation of unstable density-dependent flow systems. Proper implementation of boundary conditions, for both flow and transport equations, in numerical simulation are critical. In this paper, numerical simulations using the FEFLOW model are employed to study the influence of the different boundary conditions for unstable density-dependent flow systems. A similar set up to the Elder problem is studied. It is well known that the numerical simulation results of the standard Elder problem are strongly dependent on spatial discretization. This work shows that for the cases where a solute mass flux boundary condition is employed instead of a specified concentration boundary condition at the solute source, the numerical simulation results do not vary between different convective solution modes (i.e., plume configurations) due to the spatial discretization. Also, the influence of various boundary condition types for nonsource boundaries was studied. It is shown that in addition to other factors such as spatial and temporal discretization, the forms of the solute transport equation such as divergent and convective forms as well as the type of boundary condition employed in the nonsource boundary conditions influence the convective solution mode in coarser meshes. On basis of the numerical experiments performed here, higher sensitivities regarding the numerical solution stability are observed for the Adams-Bashford/Backward Trapezoidal time integration approach in comparison to the Euler-Backward/Euler-Forward time marching approach. The results of this study emphasize the significant consequences of boundary condition choice in the numerical modeling of unstable density-dependent flow. PMID:23659688
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory for Trapped Strongly-Interacting Fermionic Atoms
Yeong E. Kim; Alexander L. Zubarev
2004-06-24
The dynamics of strongly interacting trapped dilute Fermi gases (dilute in the sense that the range of interatomic potential is small compared with inter-particle spacing) is investigated in a single-equation approach to the time-dependent density-functional theory. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data in the BCS-BEC crossover regime. It is also shown that the calculated corrections to the hydrodynamic approximation may be important even for systems with a rather large number of atoms.
Anderson, Kirk E; Wheeler, Diana E; Yang, Kimberly; Linksvayer, Timothy A
2011-04-01
In insect societies, worker vs. queen development (reproductive caste) is typically governed by environmental factors, but many Pogonomyrmex seed-harvester ants exhibit strict genetic caste determination, resulting in an obligate mutualism between two reproductively isolated lineages. Same-lineage matings produce fertile queens while alternate-lineage matings produce sterile workers. Because new virgin queens mate randomly with multiple males of each lineage type, and both worker and queen phenotypes are required for colony growth and future reproduction, fitness is influenced by the relative frequency of each lineage involved in the mutualistic breeding system. While models based solely on frequency-dependent selection predict the convergence of lineage frequencies towards equal (0.5/0.5), we surveyed the lineage ratios of 49 systems across the range of the mutualism and found that the global lineage frequency differed significantly from equal. Multiple regression analysis of our system survey data revealed that the density and relative frequency of one lineage decreases at lower elevations, while the frequency of the alternate lineage increases with total colony density. While the production of the first worker cohort is largely frequency dependent, relying on the random acquisition of worker-biased sperm stores, subsequent colony growth is independent of lineage frequency. We provide a simulation model showing that a net ecological advantage held by one lineage can lead to the maintenance of stable but asymmetric lineage frequencies. Collectively, these findings suggest that a combination of frequency-dependent and frequency-independent mechanisms can generate many different localized and independently evolving system equilibria. PMID:21366750
Time-dependent exchange-correlation current density functionals with memory
Baer, Roi
Time-dependent exchange-correlation current density functionals with memory Yair Kurzweil and Roi August 2004 Most present applications of time-dependent density functional theory use adiabatic functionals, i.e., the effective potential at time t is determined solely by the density at the same time
The effects of climate change on density-dependent population dynamics of aquatic invertebrates
Gotelli, Nicholas J.
1227 The effects of climate change on density-dependent population dynamics of aquatic with density depen- dence. We found that Culicidae population growth rate increased with decreasing water by changes in growth rate, and in Chironomidae by changes in the strength of density dependence
Density-dependent dispersal in the Glanville fritillary, Melitaea Karin Enfjall and Olof Leimar
Leimar, Olof
Density-dependent dispersal in the Glanville fritillary, Melitaea cinxia Karin Enfja¨ll and Olof Leimar Enfja¨ll, K. and Leimar, O. 2005. Density-dependent dispersal in the Glanville fritillary or willingness to leave a given patch. One such factor is conspecific density, which may affect the per capita
OIKOS 103: 559565, 2003 Density dependent population growth of the two-spotted spider
Agrawal, Anurag
OIKOS 103: 559565, 2003 Density dependent population growth of the two-spotted spider mite. and Agrawal, A. A. 2003. Density dependent population growth of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus's population dynamics we experimentally manipulated population densities on L. cardiaca and assessed per capita
Bollinger, Jonathan A; Jain, Avni; Truskett, Thomas M
2014-07-22
Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic method based on the Fokker-Planck equation are used to explore the consequences of inhomogeneous density profiles on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the hard-sphere fluid and supercooled liquid water. Effects of the inhomogeneity length scale are systematically considered via the imposition of sinusoidal density profiles of various wavelengths. For long-wavelength density profiles, bulk-like relationships between local structure, thermodynamics, and diffusivity are observed as expected. However, for both systems, a crossover in behavior occurs as a function of wavelength, with qualitatively different correlations between the local static and dynamic quantities emerging as density variations approach the scale of a particle diameter. Irrespective of the density variation wavelength, average diffusivities of hard-sphere fluids in the inhomogeneous and homogeneous directions are coupled and approximately correlate with the volume available for insertion of another particle. Unfortunately, a quantitatively reliable static predictor of position-dependent dynamics has yet to be identified for even the simplest of inhomogeneous fluids. PMID:24984592
Cell density-dependent reduction of dihydroceramide desaturase activity in neuroblastoma cells.
Spassieva, Stefka D; Rahmaniyan, Mehrdad; Bielawski, Jacek; Clarke, Christopher J; Kraveka, Jacqueline M; Obeid, Lina M
2012-05-01
We applied a metabolic approach to investigate the role of sphingolipids in cell density-induced growth arrest in neuroblastoma cells. Our data revealed that sphingolipid metabolism in neuroblastoma cells significantly differs depending on the cells' population context. At high cell density, cells exhibited G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and reduced ceramide, monohexosylceramide, and sphingomyelin, whereas dihydroceramide was significantly increased. In addition, our metabolic-labeling experiments showed that neuroblastoma cells at high cell density preferentially synthesized very long chain (VLC) sphingolipids and dramatically decreased synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Moreover, densely populated neuroblastoma cells showed increased message levels of both anabolic and catabolic enzymes of the sphingolipid pathway. Notably, our metabolic-labeling experiments indicated reduced dihydroceramide desaturase activity at confluence, which was confirmed by direct measurement of dihydroceramide desaturase activity in situ and in vitro. Importantly, we could reduce dihydroceramide desaturase activity in low-density cells by applying conditional media from high-density cells, as well as by adding reducing agents, such as DTT and L-cysteine to the media. In conclusion, our data suggest a role of the sphingolipid pathway, dihydroceramides desaturase in particular, in confluence-induced growth arrest in neuroblastoma cells. PMID:22377532
Phenomenological approach for describing environment dependent growths
Dibyendu Biswas; Swarup Poria
2014-12-22
Different classes of phenomenological universalities of environment dependent growths have been proposed. The logistic as well as environment dependent West-type allometry based biological growth can be explained in this proposed framework of phenomenological description. It is shown that logistic and environment dependent West-type growths are phenomenologically identical in nature. However there is a difference between them in terms of coefficients involved in the phenomenological descriptions. It is also established that environment independent and enviornment dependent biological growth processes lead to the same West-type biological growth equation. Involuted Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and economic system undergoing involution or regression, can be addressed in this proposed environment dependent description. In addition, some other phenomenological descriptions have been examined in this proposed framework and graphical representations of variation of different parameters involved in the description are executed.
Density dependent stopping power and muon sticking in muon catalyzed D-T fusion
Rafelski, H.E.; Mueller, B.
1988-12-27
The origin of the experimentally observed (1) density dependence of the muon alpha sticking fraction ..omega../sub s/ in muon catalyzed deuterium- tritium fusion is investigated. We show that the reactivation probability depends sensitively on the target stopping power at low ion velocities. The density dependence of the stopping power for a singly charged projectile in liquid heavy hydrogen is parametrized to simulate possible screening effects and a density dependent effective ionization potential. We find that, in principle, a description of the measured density dependence is possible, but the required parameters appear too large. Also, the discrepancy with observed (He..mu..) X-ray data widens.
Attarian Shandiz, M., E-mail: mohammad.attarianshandiz@mail.mcgill.ca; Gauvin, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada)
2014-10-28
The temperature and pressure dependency of the volume plasmon energy of solids was investigated by density functional theory calculations. The volume change of crystal is the major factor responsible for the variation of valence electron density and plasmon energy in the free electron model. Hence, to introduce the effect of temperature and pressure for the density functional theory calculations of plasmon energy, the temperature and pressure dependency of lattice parameter was used. Also, by combination of the free electron model and the equation of state based on the pseudo-spinodal approach, the temperature and pressure dependency of the plasmon energy was modeled. The suggested model is in good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations and available experimental data for elements with the free electron behavior.
Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel
2015-07-01
There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ? neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.
Chu, Shih-I; Zhou, Zhongyuan
2005-02-28
A spin-dependent density-functional approach for the calculation of highly and multiply excited state of atomic system is proposed based on the localized Hartree-Fock density-functional method and Slater’s diagonal sum rule. In this approach...
Crystallization induced by multiple seeds: dynamical density functional approach.
Neuhaus, T; Schmiedeberg, M; Löwen, H
2013-12-01
Using microscopic dynamical density functional theory, we calculate the dynamical formation of polycrystals by following the crystal growth around multiple crystalline seeds imposed to an undercooled fluid. Depending on the undercooling and the size ratio as well as the relative crystal orientation of two neighboring seeds, three possibilities of the final state emerge, namely no crystallization at all, formation of a monocrystal, or two crystallites separated by a curved grain boundary. Our results, which are obtained for two-dimensional hard disk systems using a fundamental-measure density functional, shed new light on the particle-resolved structure and growth of polycrystalline material in general. PMID:24483453
Angular momentum dependent orbital-free density functional theory: Formulation and implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Youqi; Libisch, Florian; Xia, Junchao; Carter, Emily A.
2014-04-01
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) directly solves for the ground-state electron density. It scales linearly with respect to system size, providing a promising tool for large-scale material simulations. Removal of the orbitals requires use of approximate noninteracting kinetic energy density functionals. If replacing ionic cores with pseudopotentials, removal of the orbitals also requires these pseudopotentials to be local. These are two severe challenges to the capabilities of conventional OFDFT. While main group elements are often well described within conventional OFDFT, transition metals remain intractable due to their localized d electrons. To advance the accuracy and general applicability of OFDFT, we have recently reported a general angular momentum dependent formulation as a next-generation OFDFT. In this formalism, we incorporate the angular momenta of electrons by devising a hybrid scheme based on a muffin tin geometry: inside spheres centered at the ionic cores, the electron density is expanded in a set of atom-centered basis functions combined with an onsite density matrix. The explicit treatment of the angular momenta of electrons provides an important basis for accurately describing the important ionic core region, which is not possible in conventional OFDFT. In addition to the conventional OFDFT total energy functional, we introduce a nonlocal energy term containing a set of angular momentum dependent energies to correct the errors due to the approximate kinetic energy density functional and local pseudopotentials. Our approach greatly increases the accuracy of OFDFT while largely preserving its numerical simplicity. Here, we provide details of the theoretical formulation and practical implementation, including the hybrid scheme, the derivation of the nonlocal energy term, the choice of basis functions, the direct minimization of the total energy, the procedure to determine the angular momentum dependent energies, the force formula with Pulay correction, and the solution to emerging numerical instability. To test the angular momentum dependent OFDFT formalism and its numerical implementations, we calculate a diverse set of properties of the transition metal Ti and compare with different levels of DFT approximation. The results suggest that angular momentum dependent OFDFT ultimately will extend the reliable reach of OFDFT to the rest of the periodic table.
Interactions between density-dependent processes, population dynamics and control of an invasive
Queensland, University of
REPORT Interactions between density-dependent processes, population dynamics and control to reduce equilibrium seed density and biomass. Keywords Equilibrium seed density, fecundity, population to a situation in which high population densities lead to reductions in growth, mortality or fecundity through
Density-dependent dispersal and population aggregation patterns Vicenc-Mendez a,n
Fedotov, Sergei
Density-dependent dispersal and population aggregation patterns Vicenc- Me´ndez a,n , Daniel Campos densities. The existence of a critical population density which separates attractive from repulsive (PDEs) to account both for (i) the evolution of the population density and (ii) the balance equation
Dochtermann, Ned A; Peacock, Mary M
2013-01-01
Population dynamics are typically affected by a combination of density-independent and density-dependent factors, the latter of which have been conceptually and theoretically linked with how variable population sizes are over time-which in turn has been tied to how prone populations are to extinction. To address evidence for the occurrence of density dependence and its relationship with population size variability (pv), we quantified each of these for 126 populations of 8 species of Salmoniformes. Using random-effects models, we partitioned variation in the strength of density dependence and the magnitude of pv between and within species and estimated the correlation of density dependence and population size variability at both the between- and within-species levels. We found that variation in the strength of density dependence was predominately within species (I(2) = 0.12 [corrected] variation in population size variability was distributed both between and within species (I(2) = 0.40). Contrary to theoretical and conceptual expectations, the strength of density dependence and the magnitude of population size variability were positively correlated at the between species level (r = 0.90), although this estimate had 95 % credibility intervals (Bayesian analogues to confidence intervals) that overlapped zero. The within-species correlation between density dependence and population size variability was not distinguishable from zero. Given that density dependence for Salmoniformes was highly variable within species, we next determined the joint effects of intrinsic (density-dependent) and extrinsic (density-independent) factors on the population dynamics of a threatened salmonid, the Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi). We found that density-dependent and -independent factors additively contributed to population dynamics. This finding suggests that the observed within-species variability in density dependence might be attributable to local differences in the strength of density-independent factors. PMID:22776906
A Comprehensive Approach to Tobacco Dependence Interventions.
Baldassarri, Stephen R; Toll, Benjamin A; Leone, Frank T
2015-01-01
Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death and illness in the United States. Smoking cessation is particularly relevant for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease because it is known from multiple studies that individuals who quit smoking experience an initial improvement in pulmonary function, a decreased rate of normal age-related decline in FEV1, a lower risk of hospital admission, and improved survival. Tobacco dependence must be recognized as a chronic disease, and comprehensive treatment for the tobacco-dependent patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease begins with a physician's inquiry into smoking and encouragement to quit, followed by an assessment of the level of dependence and the severity of withdrawal symptoms during previous quit attempts. Combination pharmacotherapy is recommended for the initial treatment of most smokers, especially those with moderate to high baseline levels of tobacco dependence. The patient's history, combined with his or her personal preference, can guide the clinician in initiating an appropriate treatment regimen. Given the chronic nature of tobacco dependence, clinicians must anticipate relapses and the need for recurrent, long-term follow-up. Comprehensive tobacco treatment consultation should be sought whenever possible for patients with high levels of tobacco dependence and multiple relapses or failed quit attempts. PMID:25982231
Cell density-dependent oligopeptide production in cyanobacterial strains.
Pereira, Daniel A; Giani, Alessandra
2014-04-01
Cyanobacteria can form blooms and in these situations they dominate the phytoplanktonic community, reaching extremely high densities. In the domain Bacteria, high population densities can stimulate a phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which may produce several modifications in the cell physiology. Very little is known about quorum sensing in Cyanobacteria. Because of their planktonic way of life, quorum sensing should be more evident during a bloom event. In this work, we tested whether cell density could shape the production of bioactive compounds produced by Cyanobacteria. The experiments consisted of two treatments, where cultures of Cyanobacteria were maintained at low and high cellular densities through a semi-continuous set-up. Analyses were performed by HPLC-PDA and MALDI-TOF MS. Seventeen peptides were detected and 14 identified, including microcystins, aeruginosins, cyanopeptolins and microviridins. The results showed that cellular density seems to have a significant effect on the peptides production. Most of the compounds had significantly higher cellular quotas in the higher-density treatment, although microviridins and an unknown peptide were produced only at low density. These results may hint at a possible role for quorum sensing in triggering the production of several cyanobacterial peptides. PMID:24410818
Dependence of Modulation Amplitude on Electron Density in Unidirectional Lateral Superlattices
Katsumoto, Shingo
Dependence of Modulation Amplitude on Electron Density in Unidirectional Lateral Superlattices 19, 2005; accepted March 23, 2005) The amplitude V0 of unidirectional periodic potential modulation, AlGaAs/GaAs single heterostructure, potential modulation, lateral superlattice, electron density
Density Dependent Functional Forms Drive Compensation in Populations Exposed to Stressors
The interaction between density dependence (DD) and environmental stressors can result in a compensatory or synergistic response in population growth, and population models that use density-independent demographic rates or generic DD functions may be introducing bias into managem...
Analysis of the Independent Particle Model approach to Nuclear Densities
F. B. Guimaraes
2012-08-31
We present an analysis of the use of the Darwin-Fowler approximation in connection with the statistical IPM, by comparing the results of our recent studies with the occupation number approach (OCN) and some traditional statistical independent particle model (IPM) approaches. The analysis of level density works based on the statistical IPM reveals that the use of the the Darwin-Fowler approximation, in some of them, is theoretically inconsistent and some of their results should rather be considered as theoretical coincidences with other consistent approaches, than proofs of their validity. We conclude that, in general, the use of the Darwin-Fowler approximation with the statistical IPM should be used criteriously or, if possible, avoided altogether and suggest that the combinatorial IPM approaches have important advantages over the other models and formalisms analyzed in this paper, especially regarding the consistency of the microscopic description of the nuclear structure and dynamics of non highly excited systems.
Density-dependent liquid nitromethane decomposition: molecular dynamics simulations based on ReaxFF.
Rom, Naomi; Zybin, Sergey V; van Duin, Adri C T; Goddard, William A; Zeiri, Yehuda; Katz, Gil; Kosloff, Ronnie
2011-09-15
The decomposition mechanism of hot liquid nitromethane at various compressions was studied using reactive force field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations. A competition between two different initial thermal decomposition schemes is observed, depending on compression. At low densities, unimolecular C-N bond cleavage is the dominant route, producing CH(3) and NO(2) fragments. As density and pressure rise approaching the Chapman-Jouget detonation conditions (?30% compression, >2500 K) the dominant mechanism switches to the formation of the CH(3)NO fragment via H-transfer and/or N-O bond rupture. The change in the decomposition mechanism of hot liquid NM leads to a different kinetic and energetic behavior, as well as products distribution. The calculated density dependence of the enthalpy change correlates with the change in initial decomposition reaction mechanism. It can be used as a convenient and useful global parameter for the detection of reaction dynamics. Atomic averaged local diffusion coefficients are shown to be sensitive to the reactions dynamics, and can be used to distinguish between time periods where chemical reactions occur and diffusion-dominated, nonreactive time periods. PMID:21812413
Invasion rate of deer ked depends on spatiotemporal variation in host density.
Meier, C M; Bonte, D; Kaitala, A; Ovaskainen, O
2014-06-01
Invasive parasites are of great global concern. Understanding the factors influencing the spread of invading pest species is a first step in developing effective countermeasures. Growing empirical evidence suggests that spread rates are essentially influenced by spatiotemporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions, yet approaches modelling spread rate have typically assumed static environmental conditions. We analysed invasion history of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) in Finland with a diffusion-reaction model, which assumed either the movement rate, the population growth rate, or both rates may depend on spatial and temporal distribution of moose (Alces alces), the main host of deer ked. We fitted the model to the data in a Bayesian framework, and used the Bayesian information criterion to show that accounting for the variation in local moose density improved the model's ability to describe the pattern of the invasion. The highest ranked model predicted higher movement rate and growth rate of deer ked with increasing moose density. Our results suggest that the historic increase in host density has facilitated the spread of the deer ked. Our approach illustrates how information about the ecology of an invasive species can be extracted from the spatial pattern of spread even with rather limited data. PMID:24521661
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrenko, Taras; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank
2011-02-01
In this paper, we present the implementation of efficient approximations to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for hybrid density functionals. For the calculation of the TDDFT/TDA excitation energies and analytical gradients, we combine the resolution of identity (RI-J) algorithm for the computation of the Coulomb terms and the recently introduced "chain of spheres exchange" (COSX) algorithm for the calculation of the exchange terms. It is shown that for extended basis sets, the RIJCOSX approximation leads to speedups of up to 2 orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods, as demonstrated for hydrocarbon chains. The accuracy of the adiabatic transition energies, excited state structures, and vibrational frequencies is assessed on a set of 27 excited states for 25 molecules with the configuration interaction singles and hybrid TDDFT/TDA methods using various basis sets. Compared to the canonical values, the typical error in transition energies is of the order of 0.01 eV. Similar to the ground-state results, excited state equilibrium geometries differ by less than 0.3 pm in the bond distances and 0.5° in the bond angles from the canonical values. The typical error in the calculated excited state normal coordinate displacements is of the order of 0.01, and relative error in the calculated excited state vibrational frequencies is less than 1%. The errors introduced by the RIJCOSX approximation are, thus, insignificant compared to the errors related to the approximate nature of the TDDFT methods and basis set truncation. For TDDFT/TDA energy and gradient calculations on Ag-TB2-helicate (156 atoms, 2732 basis functions), it is demonstrated that the COSX algorithm parallelizes almost perfectly (speedup ˜26-29 for 30 processors). The exchange-correlation terms also parallelize well (speedup ˜27-29 for 30 processors). The solution of the Z-vector equations shows a speedup of ˜24 on 30 processors. The parallelization efficiency for the Coulomb terms can be somewhat smaller (speedup ˜15-25 for 30 processors), but their contribution to the total calculation time is small. Thus, the parallel program completes a Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr energy and gradient calculation on the Ag-TB2-helicate in less than 4 h on 30 processors. We also present the necessary extension of the Lagrangian formalism, which enables the calculation of the TDDFT excited state properties in the frozen-core approximation. The algorithms described in this work are implemented into the ORCA electronic structure system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showalter, Rachel Hodges
The nuclear symmetry energy, which is important for asymmetric nuclear systems including rare isotopes and neutron stars, has been studied through both experimental and theoretical approaches, spanning a range of densities from below and above normal nuclear matter density. In the past decade, significant constraints on the density dependence have been obtained in the subsaturation density region, from Heavy Ion Collision (HIC) experiments as well as experiments probing nuclear structure. On the other hand, very little has been determined about the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities; experimentally, this density region is only accessible in HICs. It is therefore important to understand how to extract nuclear symmetry energy information from HIC at high energies where high density nuclear matter is created in a very brief instant. Symmetry energy constraints from HICs are determined by comparing experimental observables with those calculated using transport models. The goals of this dissertation are to identify the observables most sensitive to the symmetry energy strength, the effective mass splitting, and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, sigmaNN, at the region just above saturation density which can be created with heavy ion beams available at NSCL. With better constraints in place, the predictive power of transport models will improve. Recent constraints from HIC experiments have relied on symmetric systems, which are predicted to be sensitive to both the density- and the momentum-dependence of the symmetry potentials. In the study of the nuclear equation of state, asymmetric systems have proven to be more effective at low energy in exploring sensitivities to nucleon-nucleon collisions, which is an important input to any transport model. In this work, particles that were emitted from Ca+Sn systems, with a 48Ca beam impinging on 112Sn or 124Sn targets are measured. The experimental data were compared to predictions from the Improved Molecular Dynamics model with Skyrme interactions (ImQMD-Sky). Four Skyrme parameter sets were chosen that span current constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy and on the nucleon effective mass splitting, m*n?m* p, which results from the momentum dependent interaction potentials. ImQMD-Sky calculations were repeated using an alternate form for sigma NN.. The yields and ratios of both free and coalescence invariant experimental spectra, constructed as a function of the transverse momentum, were contrasted to those simulated by ImQMD-Sky. To select the overlap region between beam and target nuclei, a mid-rapidity cut was taken in the analysis. The parameter sets included in this analysis did not show a significant sensitivity to the symmetry energy strength, but do suggest that the neutron-to-proton ratio bears a large sensitivity both to the nucleon effective mass splitting and the sigmaNN forms used in the calculations. Comparison to the measured coalescence invariant spectra suggests a better agreement with calculations employing effective masses that are greater for neutrons than for protons and a set of isospin-dependent sigma NN. The results in this analysis for the asymmetric Ca+Sn reaction are compared with previous results for a symmetric Sn+Sn reaction at 120 AMeV, which shows an opposite conclusion for low energy particles.
A. Iakovlev; D. Bedrov; M. Müller
2015-03-14
Motivated by an experimental interest we investigate by the means of atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulation the ability of density-independent, empiric density-dependent, and recently proposed embedded-atom force fields for liquid mercury to predict the surface tension of the free surface of liquid mercury at the temperature of 293~K. The effect of the density dependence of the studied models on the liquid-vapor coexistence and surface tension is discussed in detail. In view of computational efficiency of the density-independent model we optimize its functional form to obtain higher surface tension values in order to improve agreement with experiment. The results are also corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations and semi-analytic estimations of the liquid-vapor coexistence density.
Dynamics of kaonic nuclei in an improved quark mass density-dependent model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, R. L.; Wu, C.; Qian, W.-L.; Ren, Z. Z.
2015-02-01
The improved quark mass density-dependent model, which is able to provide a good description for the properties of both finite nuclei and bulk nuclear matter, is employed to investigate the properties of several possible light kaonic nuclei. The current approach is based on an extended version of the relativistic mean-field theory, where the kaon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon interactions are treated on the same footing. In this work, the single K--nuclear states in the possible bubble nuclei are studied, with concentration on the experimentally accessible light nuclei. The K- binding energies, the decay widths, single-particle spectra, and nuclear and K- density distributions are evaluated. The calculations indicate that, when the K- meson is embedded in nuclei with speculated "bubble" structure, the depleted central nuclear density might be modified, and in certain cases, the bubble structure may even disappear. Furthermore, it is found that the properties of the kaonic nuclei are sensitive to the strength of the antikaon optical potential at saturation density.
An automated approach for estimation of breast density.
Heine, John J; Carston, Michael J; Scott, Christopher G; Brandt, Kathleen R; Wu, Fang-Fang; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Sellers, Thomas A; Vachon, Celine M
2008-11-01
Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer; however, no standard assessment method exists. An automated breast density method was modified and compared with a semi-automated, user-assisted thresholding method (Cumulus method) and the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System four-category tissue composition measure for their ability to predict future breast cancer risk. The three estimation methods were evaluated in a matched breast cancer case-control (n = 372 and n = 713, respectively) study at the Mayo Clinic using digitized film mammograms. Mammograms from the craniocaudal view of the noncancerous breast were acquired on average 7 years before diagnosis. Two controls with no previous history of breast cancer from the screening practice were matched to each case on age, number of previous screening mammograms, final screening exam date, menopausal status at this date, interval between earliest and latest available mammograms, and residence. Both Pearson linear correlation (R) and Spearman rank correlation (r) coefficients were used for comparing the three methods as appropriate. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the risk for breast cancer (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) associated with the quartiles of percent breast density (automated breast density method, Cumulus method) or Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was estimated and used to compare the discriminatory capabilities of each approach. The continuous measures (automated breast density method and Cumulus method) were highly correlated with each other (R = 0.70) but less with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (r = 0.49 for automated breast density method and r = 0.57 for Cumulus method). Risk estimates associated with the lowest to highest quartiles of automated breast density method were greater in magnitude [odds ratios: 1.0 (reference), 2.3, 3.0, 5.2; P trend < 0.001] than the corresponding quartiles for the Cumulus method [odds ratios: 1.0 (reference), 1.7, 2.1, and 3.8; P trend < 0.001] and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [odds ratios: 1.0 (reference), 1.6, 1.5, 2.6; P trend < 0.001] method. However, all methods similarly discriminated between case and control status; areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve were 0.64, 0.63, and 0.61 for automated breast density method, Cumulus method, and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, respectively. The automated breast density method is a viable option for quantitatively assessing breast density from digitized film mammograms. PMID:18990749
Dependence patterns across financial markets: a mixed copula approach
Ling Hu
2006-01-01
This paper studies the modelling and estimation of dependence across international financial markets, with a focus on the structure of dependence. A new approach is proposed based on a mixed copula model and the model is constructed so that it can capture various patterns of dependence structures. The marginal distribution of asset returns in each market is estimated non-parametrically and
Sensitivity to Serial Dependency of Input Processes: A Robust Approach
Lam, Henry
Sensitivity to Serial Dependency of Input Processes: A Robust Approach Henry Lam Boston University with respect to serial dependency in the input model, using a notion of "nonparametric derivatives". Unlike of interest. They can be used to conveniently assess the impact of input serial dependency, without the need
Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: A stratified approach.
Thompson, A; Owens, L; Pushpakom, S P; Faizal, M; Pirmohamed, M
2015-09-01
Alcohol dependence is a common disorder in many societies worldwide, and remains difficult to identify and treat. It is also a risk factor for many secondary non-communicable diseases. Pharmacotherapy is one available treatment option, but appears to be underutilised in practice. Major barriers to use of medications in this area include lack of clinical guidance and questionable efficacy. However, for each medication there appears to be a subpopulation that responds positively, and understanding the moderating factors to treatment efficacy is an important research goal. Thus, this review provides a narrative regarding potential stratification techniques in pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence, with a specific focus on typologies and pharmacogenetics. In addition, we discuss the basic background of stratified medicine and recent studies on genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence. A growing repository of data exists for both approved and non-approved pharmacotherapies, but failure to replicate findings, inadequate sample sizes, and insufficient funding has resulted in a translational gap. Implementing evidence-based stratified/personalised therapy and identifying new therapeutic agents may lead to improved clinical outcomes and reduced financial burden. Despite some promising findings to date, much work is still required. PMID:25985735
Mapping Density Response in Maize: A Direct Approach for Testing Genotype and Treatment Interactions
Gonzalo, Martin; Vyn, Tony J.; Holland, James B.; McIntyre, Lauren M.
2006-01-01
Maize yield improvement has been strongly linked to improvements in stress tolerance, particularly to increased interplant competition. As a result, modern hybrids are able to produce kernels at high plant population densities. Identification of the genetic factors responsible for density response in maize requires direct testing of interactions between genetic effects and density and evaluation of that response in multiple traits. In this article we take a broad view of the problem and use a general approach based upon mixed models to analyze data from eight segmental inbred lines in a B73 background and their crosses to the unrelated parent Mo17 (hybrids). We directly test for the interaction between treatment effects and genetic effects instead of the commonly used overlaying of results on a common map. Additionally, we demonstrate one way to handle heteroscedasticity of variances common in stress responses. We find that some SILs are consistently different from the recurrent parent regardless of the density, while others differ from the recurrent parent in one density level but not in the other. Thus, we find positive evidence for both main effects and interaction between genetic loci and density in cases where the approach of overlapping results fails to find significant results. Furthermore, our study clearly identifies segments that respond differently to density depending upon the inbreeding level (inbred/hybrid). PMID:16489238
A likelihood approach to estimating animal density from binary acoustic transects.
Horrocks, Julie; Hamilton, David C; Whitehead, Hal
2011-09-01
We propose an approximate maximum likelihood method for estimating animal density and abundance from binary passive acoustic transects, when both the probability of detection and the range of detection are unknown. The transect survey is purposely designed so that successive data points are dependent, and this dependence is exploited to simultaneously estimate density, range of detection, and probability of detection. The data are assumed to follow a homogeneous Poisson process in space, and a second-order Markov approximation to the likelihood is used. Simulations show that this method has small bias under the assumptions used to derive the likelihood, although it performs better when the probability of detection is close to 1. The effects of violations of these assumptions are also investigated, and the approach is found to be sensitive to spatial trends in density and clustering. The method is illustrated using real acoustic data from a survey of sperm and humpback whales. PMID:21039393
Selection on Gamete Recognition Proteins Depends on Sex, Density,
McQuade, D. Tyler
in the water column, measuring the fraction of eggs developing, and freezing the produced larvae for parentage natural conditions. An interaction between genotype frequency and spawning density determines how sperm these proteins influence reproductive success in nature (1). Measuring the success of different genotypes under
Molecular Excitation Energies from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
Gross, E.K.U.
of the excited-state potential energy surfaces of formaldehyde [38] has shown that TDDFT is also capable energies of N 2 and CO are reported, using either the local density approximation (LDA) for exchange;ective potential in the calculation of molecular excitation energies. As far as the determination
Density-Dependent Demographic Variation Determines Extinction Rate
of America Understanding population extinctions is a chief goal of ecological theory. While stochastic in available food was experimentally manipulated in 281 laboratory populations of Daphnia magna to test in variable environments if high-quality data are available for model selection and if density
Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD
Musch, B. U.
We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non?local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC?LHPC lattices. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haughn, C. R.; Schmieder, K. J.; Zide, J. M. O.; Barnett, A.; Ebert, C.; Opila, R.; Doty, M. F.
2013-05-01
Time-resolved photoluminescence is an established technique for characterizing carrier lifetimes in semiconductors, but the dependence of lifetime on excitation fluence has been only qualitatively investigated. We develop a quantitative approach for fitting fluence-dependent PL decay data to a Shockely-Read-Hall model of carrier recombination in order to extract the trap state density. We demonstrate this approach by investigating growth rate-dependent trap densities in gallium arsenide-indium gallium phosphide double heterostructures. The techniques developed here can be applied for rapid, non-destructive quantification of trap state densities in a variety of materials.
High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles
Halliday, William D; Thomas, Alison S; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel
2015-01-01
Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature in red flour beetles and tested the prediction that the strength of negative density dependence should decrease as temperature decreases. We measured the number of eggs laid, offspring development time, and the number of offspring that reached maturity at three temperatures and two food treatment combinations as we simultaneously manipulated adult population density. We demonstrated that low temperatures weaken negative density dependence in the number of eggs laid; this pattern was most evident when food was abundant. Density had no effect on development time, but low temperatures increased development time. The percent of eggs that emerged as adults decreased with both density and temperature and increased with food. Temperature, an abiotic driver, can thus modulate density-dependent processes in ectotherms. Therefore, models of population growth for ectotherms should incorporate the effects of temperature. PMID:25798223
Broadcasting but not receiving: density dependence considerations for SETI signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Reginald D.
2009-04-01
This paper develops a detailed quantitative model which uses the Drake equation and an assumption of an average maximum radio broadcasting distance by an communicative civilization. Using this basis, it estimates the minimum civilization density for contact between two civilizations to be probable in a given volume of space under certain conditions, the amount of time it would take for a first contact, and the question of whether reciprocal contact is possible.
2D collisionless magnetic reconnection: background density dependence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divin, Andrey; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; André, Mats; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Vaivads, Andris
Even the simplest 2D configuration susceptible to magnetic reconnection (namely, Harris current sheet), possesses a number of "free parameters" that determine the dynamics and energetics of the process. Among such parameters are T_i/T_e ratio, guide field value, current sheet thickness, etc. In this report we systematically study the effect of changing the background density (from n_b/n_0=0.5 to n_b/n_0=0.003), which covers the range of lobe density values observed in the Earth's magnetotail. We performed two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations using implicit parallel code iPIC3D with double-periodic configuration. Increase of the jet front magnetic field (B_z) with n_b decrease is in agreement with 2D simulations reported previously. The elevated B_z region (magnetic field component normal to the current sheet) is several times larger than the initial current layer thickness, whereas large normal electric field (E_x) area is focused between the front and current sheet edge. Normal electric field has a bipolar profile (in the X direction), intensity scales roughly as (n_b/n_0)(-1/2) with changing n_b. In the low density case intense waves are generated near magnetic reconnection separatrices, what can be explained either by the separatrix electron flow disruption or by electron holes propagation.
Density-Dependent Effects on Group Size Are Sex-Specific in a Gregarious Ungulate
Vander Wal, Eric; van Beest, Floris M.; Brook, Ryan K.
2013-01-01
Density dependence can have marked effects on social behaviors such as group size. We tested whether changes in population density of a large herbivore (elk, Cervus canadensis) affected sex-specific group size and whether the response was density- or frequency-dependent. We quantified the probability and strength of changes in group sizes and dispersion as population density changed for each sex. We used group size data from a population of elk in Manitoba, Canada, that was experimentally reduced from 1.20 to 0.67 elk/km2 between 2002 and 2009. Our results indicated that functional responses of group size to population density are sex-specific. Females showed a positive density-dependent response in group size at population densities ?0.70 elk/km2 and we found evidence for a minimum group size at population density ?0.70 elk/km2. Changes in male group size were also density-dependent; however, the strength of the relationship was lower than for females. Density dependence in male group size was predominantly a result of fusion of solitary males into larger groups, rather than fusion among existing groups. Our study revealed that density affects group size of a large herbivore differently between males and females, which has important implications for the benefits e.g., alleviating predation risk, and costs of social behaviors e.g., competition for resources and mates, and intra-specific pathogen transmission. PMID:23326502
Livdahl, Todd
Polymorphic Foraging Behavior Among Caenorhabditis elegans: Frequency- and Density-Dependent Selection1 John J. Dennehy2,3 and Todd P. Livdahl3 Abstract: Strains of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained from in populations. Key words: Caenorhabditis elegans, density-dependent selection, foraging behavior, frequency
Density Dependence in Time Series Observations of Natural Populations: Estimation and Testing
Steury, Todd D.
hypothesis is that the population is undergoing stochastic exponential growth. stochastic exponential declineDensity Dependence in Time Series Observations of Natural Populations: Estimation and Testing Brian statistical test for detecting density dependence in uni- variate time series observations of population
A density-dependent model describing age-structured population dynamics using hawkdove tactics
Bravo de la Parra, Rafael
A density-dependent model describing age-structured population dynamics using hawkdove tactics M) In this paper we deal with a nonlinear two-timescale discrete population model that couples age, and demography is described by means of a density-dependent Leslie matrix. Adults compete to access resources
Thermodynamics of system with density- and/or temperature-dependent mass particles
Shaoyu Yin; Ru-Keng Su
2007-04-27
The thermodynamics with medium effects expressed by the dispersion relation of the temperature and density dependent particle mass is studied. Many previous treatments have been reviewed. A new thermodynamical treatment based on the equilibrium state is suggested. Employing the quark mass density- and temperature-dependent model, the discrepancies between our treatment and others are addressed.
Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations
West, Stuart
Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations Sophie E. Darcha found that the benefit of QS was relatively greater at higher population densities of producing extracellular factors increasing with population density as their benefits are harnessed more
Density-Dependence in Single-Species Populations Author(s): M. P. Hassell
de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
Density-Dependence in Single-Species Populations Author(s): M. P. Hassell Reviewed work(s): Source and extend access to Journal of Animal Ecology. http://www.jstor.org #12;283 DENSITY-DEPENDENCEIN SINGLE:thatpopulationshavethepotentialtoincreaseexponentiallyandthatthereis density-dependentfeedbackthatprogressivelyreducestheactualrateofincrease.The mostfamiliarofthesemodelsis
Schistosomiasis models with density dependence and age of ...
2002-04-08
freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata serves as the main intermediate host. ... population sizes of both human and snail hosts are variable by allowing ... We shall also compare the prediction of the new models with that of a simpler ... Then the equations for the snail hosts with infection-age-dependent infectivity take the.
Density-dependent tree mortality in pinyon-juniper woodlands
David L. Greenwood; Peter J. Weisberg
2008-01-01
Pathogens and bark beetles are integral disturbance agents in many forest and woodland ecosystems. Over the past decade, pinyon Ips (Ips confusus) has interacted with regional drought to cause widespread mortality in singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis) woodlands of western North America. We used mixed-effects and logistic regression modeling approaches to explore biotic and abiotic influences
Generalized Floquet Theoretical Formulation of Time-Dependent Density
Chu, Shih-I
into an equivalent time-independent infinite-dimensional Floquet Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem. For the case dimensions. In this article, we consider an alternative approach based on the extension of the Z .time recent. w xThe extension of the steady-state DFT 2 7 to the w xtime domain 8 13 is by no means
A Reevaluation of Density-Dependent PopulationCycles in Open Systems.
Johnson
2000-01-01
Studies motivated by consideration of barnacle populations have led to the prediction of two different dynamic states for space-limited open populations subject to density-dependent mortality. Population densities may cycle or fluctuate stochastically around a mean value. Despite the potential generality of the associated theory, there are few examples of population cycling in open systems that have been shown to be driven by density-dependent effects. This may be because settlement and growth processes are generally too slow or too variable to generate consistent cycles. An alternative explanation is examined in this article using spatially explicit simulations. Even under conditions of consistent settlement and growth, the cycles predicted in at least one previous study are shown to represent a special case. Clear population cycles are only observed when the density-dependent disturbances are constrained to reoccur in exactly the same location. In the more general case, where density-dependent disturbances respond to local variations in population density, the cycling predicted from simple models is difficult to detect. Hence, a failure to detect cycling in population density does not refute a role for density dependence. Density-dependent disturbances can create a characteristic spatial structure consisting of a mosaic of cohorts. PMID:10657175
The importance of spatial models for estimating the strength of density dependence.
Thorson, James T; Skaug, Hans J; Kristensen, Kasper; Shelton, Andrew O; Ward, Eric J; Harms, John H; Benante, James A
2015-05-01
Identifying the existence and magnitude of density dependence is one of the oldest concerns in ecology. Ecologists have aimed to estimate density dependence in population and community data by fitting a simple autoregressive (Gompertz) model for density dependence to time series of abundance for an entire population. However, it is increasingly recognized that spatial heterogeneity in population densities has implications for population and community dynamics. We therefore adapt the Gompertz model to approximate, local densities over continuous space instead of population-wide abundance, and allow productivity to vary spatially using Gaussian random fields. We then show that the conventional (nonspatial) Gompertz model can result in biased estimates of density dependence (e.g., identifying oscillatory dynamics when not present) if densities vary spatially. By contrast, the spatial Gompertz model provides accurate and precise estimates of density dependence for a variety of simulation scenarios and data availabilities. These results are corroborated when comparing spatial and nonspatial models for data from 10 years and -100 sampling stations for three long-lived rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) off the California, USA coast. In this case, the nonspatial model estimates implausible oscillatory dynamics on an annual time scale, while the spatial model estimates strong autocorrelation and is supported by model selection tools. We conclude by discussing the importance of improved data archiving techniques, so that spatial models can be used to reexamine classic questions regarding the existence and magnitude of density. dependence in wild populations. PMID:26236835
Density-dependence of functional spiking networks in vitro
Ham, Michael I; Gintautuas, Vadas; Rodriguez, Marko A; Bettencourt, Luis M A; Bennett, Ryan; Santa Maria, Cara L
2008-01-01
During development, the mammalian brain differentiates into specialized regions with unique functional abilities. While many factors contribute to this functional specialization, we explore the effect neuronal density can have on neuronal interactions. Two types of networks, dense (50,000 neurons and glia support cells) and sparse (12,000 neurons and glia support cells), are studied. A competitive first response model is applied to construct activation graphs that represent pairwise neuronal interactions. By observing the evolution of these graphs during development in vitro we observe that dense networks form activation connections earlier than sparse networks, and that link-!llltropy analysis of the resulting dense activation graphs reveals that balanced directional connections dominate. Information theoretic measures reveal in addition that early functional information interactions (of order 3) are synergetic in both dense and sparse networks. However, during development in vitro, such interactions become redundant in dense, but not sparse networks. Large values of activation graph link-entropy correlate strongly with redundant ensembles observed in the dense networks. Results demonstrate differences between dense and sparse networks in terms of informational groups, pairwise relationships, and activation graphs. These differences suggest that variations in cell density may result in different functional specialization of nervous system tissue also in vivo.
Simulation of sprays using a Lagrangian filtered density function approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wanjiao; Garrick, Sean
2013-11-01
Sprays and atomization have wide applications in industry, including combustion/engines, pharmaceutics and agricultural spraying. Due to the complexity of the underlying processes, much of the underlying phenomena are not fully understood. Numerical simulation may provide ways to investigate atomization and spray dynamics. Large eddy simulation (LES) is a practical approach to flow simulation as it resolves only the large-scale structures while modeling the sub-grid scale (SGS) effects. We combine a filtered density function (FDF) based approach with a Lagrangian volume-of-fluid method to perform LES. This resulting methodology is advantageous in that it has no diffusive or dissipative numerical errors, and the highly non-linear surface tension force appears in closed form thus the modeling of the SGS surface tension is not needed when simulating turbulent, multiphase flows. We present the methodology and some results for the simulation of multiphase jets.
Effect of Density Dependent Viscosities on Multiphasic Incompressible Fluid Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bresch, Didier; Essoufi, El Hassan; Sy, Mamadou
2007-08-01
In this paper, we look at the influence of the choice of the Reynolds tensor on the derivation of some multiphasic incompressible fluid models, called Kazhikhov Smagulov type models. We show that a compatibility condition between the viscous tensor and the diffusive term allows us to obtain similar models without assuming a small diffusive term as it was done for instance by A. Kazhikhov and Sh. Smagulov. We begin with two examples: The first one concerning pollution and the last one concerning a model of combustion at low Mach number. We give the compatibility condition that provides a class of models of the Kazhikhov Smagulov type. We prove that these models are globally well posed without assumptions between the density and the diffusion terms.
Rapidity-dependent chemical potentials in a statistical approach
Wojciech Broniowski; Barlomiej Biedron
2007-09-02
We present a single-freeze-out model with thermal and geometric parameters dependent on the position within the fireball and use it to describe the rapidity and transverse-momentum spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and antiprotons measured at RHIC at 200 GeV} by BRAHMS. THERMINATOR is used to perform the necessary simulation, which includes all resonance decays. The result of the fit to the data is the expected growth of the baryon and strange chemical potentials with the spatial rapidity\\alpha_\\parallel. The value of the baryon chemical potential at \\alpha_\\parallel ~ 3 is about 200 MeV, i.e. lies in the range of the highest SPS energies. The chosen geometry of the fireball has a decreasing transverse size as the magnitude of \\alpha_\\parallel is increased, which also corresponds to decreasing transverse flow. The strange chemical potential obtained from the fit to the K+/K- ratio is such that the local strangeness density in the fireball is compatible with zero. The resulting rapidity spectra of net protons are described qualitatively within the statistical approach. As a result of our study, the knowledge of the ``topography'' of the fireball is acquired, allowing for other analyses and predictions.
Kinetic Density Functional Theory: A Microscopic Approach to Fluid Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umberto Marini Bettolo, Marconi; Simone, Melchionna
2014-10-01
In the present paper we give a brief summary of some recent theoretical advances in the treatment of inhomogeneous fluids and methods which have applications in the study of dynamical properties of liquids in situations of extreme confinement, such as nanopores, nanodevices, etc. The approach obtained by combining kinetic and density functional methods is microscopic, fully self-consistent and allows to determine both configurational and flow properties of dense fluids. The theory predicts the correct hydrodynamic behavior and provides a practical and numerical tool to determine how the transport properties are modified when the length scales of the confining channels are comparable with the size of the molecules. The applications range from the dynamics of simple fluids under confinement, to that of neutral binary mixtures and electrolytes where the theory in the limit of slow gradients reproduces the known phenomenological equations such as the Planck—Nernst—Poisson and the Smolochowski equations. The approach here illustrated allows for fast numerical solution of the evolution equations for the one-particle phase-space distributions by means of the weighted density lattice Boltzmann method and is particularly useful when one considers flows in complex geometries.
Physical Origin of Density Dependent Force of the Skyrme Type within the Quark Meson Coupling Model
P. A. M. Guichon; H. H. Matevosyan; N. Sandulescu; A. W. Thomas
2006-04-04
A density dependent, effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type is derived from the quark-meson coupling model -- a self-consistent, relativistic quark level description of nuclear matter. This new formulation requires no assumption that the mean scalar field is small and hence constitutes a significant advance over earlier work. The similarity of the effective interaction to the widely used SkM$^*$ force encourages us to apply it to a wide range of nuclear problems, beginning with the binding energies and charge distributions of doubly magic nuclei. Finding acceptable results in this conventional arena, we apply the same effective interaction, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, to the properties of nuclei far from stability. The resulting two neutron drip lines and shell quenching are quite satisfactory. Finally, we apply the relativistic formulation to the properties of dense nuclear matter in anticipation of future application to the properties of neutron stars.
Physical Origin of Density Dependent Force of the Skyrme Type within the Quark Meson Coupling Model
Pierre Guichon; Hrayr Matevosyan; N. Sandulescu; Anthony Thomas
2006-03-17
A density dependent, effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type is derived from the quark-meson coupling model--a self-consistent, relativistic quark level description of nuclear matter. This new formulation requires no assumption that the mean scalar field is small and hence constitutes a significant advance over earlier work. The similarity of the effective interaction to the widely used SkM* force encourages us to apply it to a wide range of nuclear problems, beginning with the binding energies and charge distributions of doubly magic nuclei. Finding impressive results in this conventional arena, we apply the same effective interaction, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, to the properties of nuclei far from stability. The resulting two neutron drip lines and shell quenching are quite satisfactory. Finally, we apply the relativistic formulation to the properties of dense nuclear matter in anticipation of future application to the properties of neutron stars.
Density dependent effective interactions and recollections of the Rutgers-Princeton years
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, T. T. S.
2015-02-01
The density-dependent effective interactions given by the new Brown-Rho (new- BR) scalings and chiral three-nucleon force V3N are compared with the empirical density- dependent force of the Skyrme interactions. The new-BR scaling is based on a Skyrmion- half-Skyrmion model where nuclear matter is treated as a Skyrmion matter for density smaller than a transition density n1/2 ? 0.32 fm?3 while a half-Skyrmion matter for density greater. In this model, the meson mass, nucleon mass and meson-nucleon coupling are all scaled with density, making the resulting two-nucleon interaction density dependent. By integrating out a participating nucleon over the Fermi sea, Holt, Kaiser and Weise have obtained an effective three-nucleon force bar V3N which is also a density-dependent two-nucleon interaction. The equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter given by the new-BR-scaled V2N, bar V3N, and (unscaled-V2N + a Skyrme-type density-dependent force) are all found to be closely similar to each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimoto, Yoshio
2015-09-01
We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well.
Nishimoto, Yoshio
2015-09-01
We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well. PMID:26342360
Electron density dependence of impedance probe plasma potential measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, D. N.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.
2015-08-01
In earlier works, we used spheres of various sizes as impedance probes in demonstrating a method of determining plasma potential, ?p, when the probe radius is much larger than the Debye length, ?D. The basis of the method in those works [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032108 (2006); ibid. 15, 123506 (2008); ibid. 17, 113503 (2010)] relies on applying a small amplitude signal of fixed frequency to a probe in a plasma and, through network analyzer-based measurements, determining the complex reflection coefficient, ?, for varying probe bias, Vb. The frequency range of the applied signal is restricted to avoid sheath resonant effects and ion contributions such that ?pi ? ? ? ?pe, where ?pi is the ion plasma frequency and ?pe is the electron plasma frequency. For a given frequency and applied bias, both Re(Zac) and Im(Zac) are available from ?. When Re(Zac) is plotted versus Vb, a minimum predicted by theory occurs at ?p [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 113503 (2010)]. In addition, Im(Zac) appears at, or very near, a maximum at ?p. As ne decreases and the sheath expands, the minimum becomes harder to discern. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that when using network analyzer-based measurements, ? itself and Im(Zac) and their derivatives are useful as accompanying indicators to Re(Zac) in these difficult cases. We note the difficulties encountered by the most commonly used plasma diagnostic, the Langmuir probe. Spherical probe data is mainly used in this work, although we present limited data for a cylinder and a disk. To demonstrate the effect of lowered density as a function of probe geometry, we compare the cylinder and disk using only the indicator Re(Zac).
A high-performance Fortran code to calculate spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.
2013-01-01
A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities. The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g- model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf. Program summaryProgram title: MM Catalogue identifier: AENM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 193181 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1298585 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, MPI. Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler and MPI. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our examples, up to 75Mb Classification: 17.15. External routines: MPICH2 (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpich2/) Nature of problem: Calculating of the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density. Solution method: The algorithm implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface and a master-slaves dynamical load-balancing approach. Restrictions: The program uses two-body interaction in a restricted single-level basis. For example, GXPF1A in the pf-valence space. Running time: Depends on the system size and the number of processors used (from 1 min to several hours).
Density functional theory approach for coarse-grained lipid bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Frischknecht, Amalie L.
2005-10-01
Lipid bilayers are important inhomogeneous fluid systems that mediate the environment of cells and the interaction of cells with their environment. A variety of approaches have been taken to model the lipid molecules in bilayers, from all atom molecular dynamics to rigid body liquid crystals. In this paper we discuss the application of a density functional theory approach that treats the lipid molecules at the coarse-grained level of a freely jointed chain. This approach allows for compressibility effects, and can therefore be used to study not only the long range structure in lipid bilayers, but also the nanoscale structure induced in the bilayer when the lipids crystallize or when an inclusion (e.g., an embedded protein) is present. This paper presents a detailed analysis of fluid bilayers and lamellae predicted by the theory. In particular we locate solutions with zero surface tension. We calculate the phase diagram for all possible phases with planar symmetry, including uniform macrophases. Surprisingly, we find a first-order phase transition from the lamellar phase to an isolated bilayer phase on lowering the temperature. This transition appears to be driven by solvent packing effects. A further lowering of the temperature leads to a set of highly ordered bilayers.
Seibold, G; Grilli, M; Lorenzana, J
2009-11-20
We investigate a model where superconducting electrons are coupled to a frequency dependent charge-density wave order parameter Delta_{r}(omega). Our approach can reconcile the simultaneous existence of low-energy Bogoljubov quasiparticles and high energy electronic order as observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments. The theory accounts for the contrast reversal in the STM spectra between positive and negative bias observed above the pairing gap. An intrinsic relation between scattering rate and inhomogeneities follows naturally. PMID:20366064
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Dixit, Gopal; Ivanov, Misha; Chakraborty, Himadri S.
2015-06-01
We determine and analyze the quantum phases and time delays in photoionization and photorecombination of valence 3 p and 3 s electrons of argon using the Kohn-Sham local-density-functional approach. The time-dependent local-density approximation is used to account for the electron correlation. Resulting attosecond Wigner-Smith time delays show very good agreement with the recent experiment on argon that measured the delay in 3 p photorecombination [S. B. Schoun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 153002 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.153002].
DNA-CNT Interaction - A Density Functional Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheicher, Ralph; Gowtham, S.; Ahuja, Rajeev; Pandey, Ravindra
2006-03-01
Standing at the intersection of the biological regime and the nanomaterials world, DNA-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT) possess features which can make them attractive for a range of applications, e.g., as highly specific nanosensors [1], or as a method to efficiently separate CNTs according to their structure [2]. It is therefore certainly worthwhile to obtain a detailed understanding of the binding between the bases in DNA and the surface of CNTs, preferably from first principles. To this end, we have studied the interaction between single-stranded DNA and single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) using density functional theory. More specifically, we were interested in assessing the differences in the interaction of the four different bases in DNA, and how important the underlying structure of the CNT is for the orientation of the bases relative to the tube axis. We will report our results on the binding energy, the charge density, and the respective distortion in the electronic structure of the constituents of this hybrid system, depending on the geometrical properties of the CNT and the relative positioning of the DNA. [1] C. Staii et al., Nano Letters 5, 1774-1778 (2005) [2] M. Zheng et al., Science 302, 1545-1548 (2003)
New Approaches To Nuclear Level Densities Through Particle Emission Measurements
Haight, R.C.; Rochman, D.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Devlin, M.
2003-08-26
With the intense spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), new approaches to nuclear level densities are being explored through neutron-induced reactions and measurements of the resultant particle emission. This continuous-in-energy neutron source has been used to study Ericson fluctuations, charged-particle emission cross sections and spectra, gamma-ray production and, recently, neutron emission. Examples of each will be discussed. The FIGARO array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors has been developed in the past year to allow measurement of neutron emission in a 'double time-of-flight' experiment. The incident neutron energy is determined by time-of-flight over a 21-meter flight path with gamma rays from the induced reaction. Neutron emission spectra from this reaction are then measured by time-of-flight over a flight path of typically 1 meter. Data on 28Si(n,n') are presented, and the relevance to determination of nuclear level densities is discussed.
Intraspecific density dependence and a guild of consumers coexisting on one resource.
McPeek, Mark A
2012-12-01
The importance of negative intraspecific density dependence to promoting species coexistence in a community is well accepted. However, such mechanisms are typically omitted from more explicit models of community dynamics. Here I analyze a variation of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model that includes negative intraspecific density dependence for consumers to explore its effect on the coexistence of multiple consumers feeding on a single resource. This analysis demonstrates that a guild of multiple consumers can easily coexist on a single resource if each limits its own abundance to some degree, and stronger intraspecific density dependence permits a wider variety of consumers to coexist. The mechanism permitting multiple consumers to coexist works in a fashion similar to apparent competition or to each consumer having its own specialized predator. These results argue for a more explicit emphasis on how negative intraspecific density dependence is generated and how these mechanisms combine with species interactions to shape overall community structure. PMID:23431602
Time-dependent density functional theory: Past, present, and future Kieron Burke
Burke, Kieron
. Gross Institut für Theoretische Physik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin, Germany function, particle statistics, and interaction, a given time-dependent density n rt can arise from at most
Temporal changes in the strength of density-dependent mortality and growth in intertidal barnacles.
Jenkins, Stuart R; Murua, Jefferson; Burrows, Michael T
2008-05-01
1. In demographically open marine systems, the extent to which density-dependent processes in the benthic adult phase are required for population persistence is unclear. At one extreme, represented by the recruitment limitation hypothesis, larval supply may be insufficient for the total population size to reach a carrying capacity and density-independent mortality predominates. At the opposite extreme, populations are saturated and density-dependent mortality is sufficiently strong to reshape patterns established at settlement. 2. We examined temporal variation in the way density-independent and density-dependent mortality interact in a typical sessile marine benthic invertebrate, the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.), over a 2-year period. 3. Recruitment was manipulated at two high recruitment sites in north Wales, UK to produce recruit densities covering the range naturally found in this species. Following manipulation, fixed quadrats were monitored using digital photography and temporal changes in mortality and growth rate were examined. 4. Over a 2-year period there was a clear, spatially consistent, over-compensatory relationship between the density of recruits and adult abundance indicating strong density-dependent mortality. The strength of density dependence intensified with increasing recruitment. 5. Density-dependent mortality did not operate consistently over the study period. It only operated in the early part of the benthic phase, but the pattern of adult abundance generated was maintained throughout the whole 2-year period. Thus, early life-history processes dictated adult population abundance and dynamics. 6. Examination of the natural recruitment regime in the area of study indicated that both positive and negative effects of recruitment will occur over scales varying from kilometres to metres. PMID:18284479
Food supply influences offspring provisioning but not density-dependent fecundity in a marine fish.
Samhouri, Jameal Farouq
2009-12-01
Replenishment of many marine populations occurs through the entry of juveniles to adult populations following a pelagic larval stage. Because mortality during the pelagic stage is thought to be high and density independent, larval abundance and traits of individual larvae should have strong effects on overall population dynamics in marine organisms. Surprisingly, few experiments have tested how localized interactions among breeding adults affect the quantity and phenotypic traits of larvae they produce. Here I experimentally test for the influence of food competition, mate limitation, and population density on somatic growth, fecundity, and offspring provisioning (larval length and energy reserves) in a planktivorous, territorial coral reef damselfish, Stegastes partitus. I manipulated food supply and adult S. partitus density on isolated patch reefs in the Bahamas and also made behavioral observations of S. partitus occurring on nearby natural reefs at a range of population densities. On the experimental reefs, females experienced density-dependent growth and fecundity; male reproductive success was density dependent, but male growth was not. Density-dependent growth and reproduction were not moderated by food supplementation, and density-dependent reproduction was not influenced by mate availability. On natural reefs, the frequency of aggressive interactions, particularly involving females, increased with population density, implicating aggression-related energetic costs as the source of both forms of density dependence in the experiments. Food supplementation increased female somatic growth and larval energy reserves, suggesting that females allocated surplus energy to future reproductive potential and enhanced offspring quality. Neither experimental treatment affected larval length. By altering patterns of reproduction, the interplay between spatial variation in food availability and population density may drive population dynamics in a broad range of benthic marine organisms. PMID:20120815
Sex-based differences in density-dependent sociality: an experiment with a gregarious ungulate.
Vander Wal, E; Yip, H; McLoughlin, P D
2012-01-01
For animals living in natural or semi-natural settings, empirical data on how sociality changes in response to increasing population density are few, especially with respect to true conspecific density and not group size. However, insight into this line of research may be far-reaching--from understanding density dependence in sexual selection to improving models of disease transmission. Using elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus) held in enclosures, we conducted sex-stratified experiments to test how the frequency of dyadic pairings (interaction rate) and their quality (duration) responded to manipulations in exposure to density. Using proximity-logging radio collars we recorded when and for how long individuals shared a space within 1.4 m of each other. As predicted, males increased their interaction rate as density increased. Female interaction rates, however, increased initially as density increased but soon declined to become indistinguishable from rates at low density. Females interacted for longer periods at medium densities, whereas male interaction length clearly decreased as density increased. We highlight a sexually dichotomous, density-dependent response in sociality that has yet to be reported. In addition to furthering our understanding of sociobiology (e.g., implications of time constraints presented by density on dyadic interactions), our results have implications for managing communicable disease in gregarious species of livestock and wildlife. PMID:22486100
Nuclear matter and neutron matter for improved quark mass density- dependent model with $?$ mesons
Chen Wu; Ru-Keng Su
2008-09-17
A new improved quark mass density-dependent model including u, d quarks, $\\sigma$ mesons, $\\omega$ mesons and $\\rho$ mesons is presented. Employing this model, the properties of nuclear matter, neutron matter and neutron star are studied. We find that it can describe above properties successfully. The results given by the new improved quark mass density- dependent model and by the quark meson coupling model are compared.
Influence of field dependent critical current density on flux profiles in high Tc superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takacs, S.
1990-01-01
The field distribution for superconducting cylinders and slabs with field dependent critical current densities in combined DC and AC magnetic fields and the corresponding magnetic fluxes are calculated. It is shown that all features of experimental magnetic-field profile measurements can be explained in the framework of field dependent critical current density. Even the quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical results using Kim's model is very good.
An Experimental Field Study of Delayed Density Dependence in Natural Populations of Aedes albopictus
Walsh, Rachael K.; Bradley, Caitlin; Apperson, Charles S.; Gould, Fred
2012-01-01
Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation. PMID:22563428
Walsh, Rachael K; Bradley, Caitlin; Apperson, Charles S; Gould, Fred
2012-01-01
Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation. PMID:22563428
A multi-species density-dependent matrix growth model for the dry woodlands of Uganda
Justine Namaalwa; Tron Eid; Prem Sankhayan
2005-01-01
A density-dependent matrix growth model was constructed for the dry woodlands of Uganda basing on material collected from 42 sample plots with 7904 trees. The model was based on functions for individual tree upgrowth and mortality, and area-based ingrowth, with explicatory variables representing tree size, stand density and stand structure. The trees were pooled into three species groups basing on
Dependence of the Sweep Rate of Whistler-mode Chorus Emissions on the Plasma Density
Santolik, Ondrej
]. Near the source region two different bands of chorus elements separated by a gap at half the electronDependence of the Sweep Rate of Whistler-mode Chorus Emissions on the Plasma Density E. Mac as a function of the cold plasma density in the equatorial plane and then we compare it with theoretical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Suwon
1996-02-01
The plasma impedance is obtained using analytic solutions for wave fields excited by Nagoya type III or Boswell type antennae. Considering the power balance, possible explanations are suggested for the density jumps and for the linear dependence of the plasma density on the magnetic field observed in many helicon plasma sources.
Density-dependent patterns of thiamine and pigment production in the diatom Nitzschia microcephala
Ernani Pinto; Lies Van Nieuwerburgh; Marcelo Paes de Barros; Marianne Pedersén; Pio Colepicolo; Pauli Snoeijs
2003-01-01
In the present study we investigate how intraspecific (density-dependent) competition for nutrients by the diatom Nitzschia microcephala affects the level of oxidative stress in the algal cells as well as their production of pigments and thiamine. N. microcephala was grown in three different densities until the stationary growth phase was reached. Throughout the experiment, growth rate was negatively related to
Horowitz Brown, S; Zarnowski, R; Sharpee, W C; Keller, N P
2008-09-01
Aspergillus flavus differentiates to produce asexual dispersing spores (conidia) or overwintering survival structures called sclerotia. Results described here show that these two processes are oppositely regulated by density-dependent mechanisms and that increasing the cell density (from 10(1) to 10(7) cells/plate) results in the lowest numbers of sclerotial and the highest numbers of conidial. Extract from spent medium of low-cell-density cultures induced a high-sclerotium-number phenotype, whereas high-cell-density extract increased conidiation. Density-dependent development is also modified by changes in lipid availability. Exogenous linoleic acid increased sclerotial production at intermediate cell densities (10(4) and 10(5) cells/plate), whereas oleic and linolenic acids inhibited sclerotium formation. Deletion of Aflox encoding a lipoxygenase (LOX) greatly diminished density-dependent development of both sclerotia and conidia, resulting in an overall increase in the number of sclerotia and a decrease in the number of conidia at high cell densities (>10(5) cells/plate). Aflox mutants showed decreased linoleic acid LOX activity. Taken together, these results suggest that there is a quorum-sensing mechanism in which a factor(s) produced in dense cultures, perhaps a LOX-derived metabolite, activates conidium formation, while a factor(s) produced in low-density cultures stimulates sclerotium formation. PMID:18658287
Impacts of poor food availability on positive density dependence in a highly colonial seabird.
Ashbrook, Kate; Wanless, Sarah; Harris, Mike P; Hamer, Keith C
2010-08-01
For species with positive density dependence, costs and benefits of increasing density may depend on environmental conditions, but this has seldom been tested. By examining a colonial seabird (common guillemot) over a period of unprecedented poor food availability, we test two contrasting hypotheses suggesting that birds breeding at high density have: (i) greater leeway to increase foraging effort owing to more effective defence of unattended chicks against predators; and (ii) less leeway, owing to more attacks on unattended chicks by neighbouring adults. Supporting hypothesis 1, birds at high density increased provisioning rates and hence survival of chicks by foraging simultaneously with their partners, whereas at low density, unattended chicks were liable to be killed by predatory gulls and, unexpectedly, razorbills. Simultaneously, supporting hypothesis 2, heightened aggression towards unattended chicks at high density frequently resulted in infanticide, undermining benefits from collective defence against predators. Consequently, over 25 years, the magnitude of positive density dependence was independent of mean breeding success. These data indicate previously unsuspected trade-offs between costs and benefits of increasing density under changing environments. Previous generalizations about the importance of high density for reproductive success have so far remained robust, but such trade-offs could have unpredictable consequences for future population dynamics. PMID:20335206
Density and temperature dependence of spectral moments in depolarized light scattering by rare gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladanyi, Branka M.; Barreau, Alain; Dumon, Bernard
We present an extensive study of the first three even moments M2n of depolarized light scattering (DLS) spectra of rare gases argon and xenon. Most of our results were obtained by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo computer simulation methods, which were used to calculate the moments for pairwise-additive intermolecular pair potential and interaction-induced polarizability models over a wide density range and at two temperatures, one above and one below the critical point. Simulation was used to determine the dependence of the moments on the pair polarizability anisotropy ?(r) by comparing the results for the first order dipole-induced dipole (DID) model with those obtained for a semiempirical model of ?(r), recently proposed by Meinander, Tabisz and Zoppi (MTZ), which includes electron overlap, dispersion and second order DID interaction contributions. Comparison with experiment indicates that the MTZ model for ?(r) is clearly superior. Moments of increasing order are found to be increasingly more sensitive to the functional form of ?(r), pointing to the importance of short range interactions for the spectral line shape. By contrast, the cancellation effects due to short range ordering at high densities become less pronounced as the order of the moment increases. In the case of argon, simulation results were obtained for Lennard-Jones and Aziz-Slaman pair potential models. Their comparison revealed a weak dependence of the moments on the details of the intermolecular potential. The Kirkwood superposition approximation approach to estimating the contributions of 3 and 4 molecule correlations to M0 and M2 was generalized to a non-DID model of ?(r). The limits of accuracy of this approximation and of the lattice-gas model estimates of multiparticle correlation contributions to M2n are critically examined.
Finite lifetime effects on the polarizability within time-dependent density-functional theory
Jensen, L.; Autschbach, J.; Schatz, G.C. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)
2005-06-08
We present an implementation for considering finite lifetime of the electronic excited states into linear-response theory within time-dependent density-functional theory. The lifetime of the excited states is introduced by a common phenomenological damping factor. The real and imaginary frequency-dependent polarizabilities can thus be calculated over a broad range of frequencies. This allows for the study of linear-response properties both in the resonance and nonresonance cases. The method is complementary to the standard approach of calculating the excitation energies from the poles of the polarizability. The real and imaginary polarizabilities can then be calculated in any specific energy range of interest, in contrast to the excitation energies which are usually solved only for the lowest electronic states. We have verified the method by investigating the photoabsorption properties of small alkali clusters. For these systems, we have calculated the real and imaginary polarizabilities in the energy range of 1-4 eV and compared these with excitation energy calculations. The results showed good agreement with both previous theoretical and experimental results.
Demographic variability and density-dependent dynamics of a free-ranging rhesus macaque population
Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G.; Kessler, Matthew J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Ruiz-Maldonado, Tagrid M.; González-Martínez, Janis; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Sabat, Alberto M.
2014-01-01
Density-dependence is hypothesized as the major mechanism of population regulation. However, the lack of long-term demographic data has hampered the use of density-dependent models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we make use of the long-term demographic data from Cayo Santiago’s rhesus macaques to parameterize and analyze both a density-independent and a density-dependent population matrix model, and compare their projections with the observed population changes. We also employ a retrospective analysis to determine how variance in vital rates, and covariance among them, contributed to the observed variation in long-term fitness across different levels of population density. The population exhibited negative density-dependence in fertility and the model incorporating this relationship accounted for 98% of the observed population dynamics. Variation in survival and fertility of sexually active individuals contributed the most to the variation in long-term fitness, while vital rates displaying high temporal variability exhibited lower sensitivities. Our findings are novel in describing density-dependent dynamics in a provisioned primate population, and in suggesting that selection is acting to lower the variance in the population growth rate by minimizing the variation in adult survival at high density. Because density-dependent mechanisms may become stronger in wild primate populations due to increasing habitat loss and food scarcity, our study demonstrates it is important to incorporate variation in population size, as well as demographic variability into population viability analyses for a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating the growth of primate populations. PMID:23847126
Role of prey and intraspecific density dependence on the population growth of an avian top predator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-de-Simon, Javier; Díaz-Ruiz, Francisco; Cirilli, Francesca; Tortosa, Francisco S.; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferreras, Pablo
2014-10-01
Exploring predator-prey systems in diverse ecosystems increases our knowledge about ecological processes. Predator population growth may be positive when conspecific density is low but predators also need areas with prey availability, associated with competition, which increases the risk of suffering losses but stabilises populations. We studied relationships between European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (prey) and adult eagle owls Bubo bubo (predators) in south-western Europe. We assessed models explaining the predator population growth and stability. We estimated the abundance of rabbits and adult eagle owls during three years in eight localities of central-southern Spain. We explored models including rabbit and adult eagle owl abundance, accounting for yearly variations and including the locality as a random variable. We found that population growth of adult eagle owls was positive in situations with low conspecific abundance and tended to be negative but approaching equilibrium in situations of higher conspecific abundance. Population growth was also positively related to previous summer rabbit density when taking into account eagle owl conspecific abundance, possibly indicating that rabbits may support recruitment. Furthermore, abundance stability of adult eagle owls was positively related to previous winter-spring rabbit density, which could suggest predator population stabilisation through quick territory occupation in high-quality areas. These results exemplify the trade-off between prey availability and abundance of adult predators related to population growth and abundance stability in the eagle owl-rabbit system in south-western Europe. Despite rabbits have greatly declined during the last decades and eagle owls locally specialise on them, eagle owls currently have a favourable conservation status. As eagle owls are the only nocturnal raptor with such dependence on rabbits, this could point out that predators may overcome prey decreases in areas with favourable climate and prey in the absence of superior competitors with similar foraging mode.
Spatial, temporal, and density-dependent components of habitat quality for a desert owl.
Flesch, Aaron D; Hutto, Richard L; van Leeuwen, Willem J D; Hartfield, Kyle; Jacobs, Sky
2015-01-01
Spatial variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may depend on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum) in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70) than weather (0.17) or conspecifics (0.13), evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was strong. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had strong multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways, integrated approaches that consider habitat resources, stochastic factors, and conspecifics are necessary to accurately assess habitat quality. PMID:25786257
Hofmann-Mees, D; Appel, H; Di Ventra, M; Kümmel, S
2013-11-21
We developed an approach for calculating excitation-energy transfer times in supermolecular arrangements based on stochastic time-dependent density functional theory (STDDFT). The combination of real-time propagation and the stochastic Schrödinger equation with a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian allows for simulating how an excitation spreads through an assembly of molecular systems. The influence that approximations, such as the dipole-dipole coupling approximation of Förster theory, have on energy-transfer times can be checked explicitly. As a first application of our approach we investigate a light-harvesting-inspired model ring system, calculating the time it takes for an excitation to travel from one side of the ring to the opposite side under ideal and perturbed conditions. Among other things we find that completely removing a molecule from the ring may inhibit energy transfer less than having an energetically detuned molecule in the ring. In addition, Förster's dipole coupling approximation may noticeably overestimate excitation-energy transfer efficiency. PMID:24147662
Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hadley, G.L.; Garrott, R.A.; Proffitt, K.M.
2009-01-01
Much of the existing literature that evaluates the roles of density-dependent and density-independent factors on population dynamics has been called into question in recent years because measurement errors were not properly dealt with in analyses. Using state-space models to account for measurement errors, we evaluated a set of competing models for a 22-year time series of mark-resight estimates of abundance for a breeding population of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) studied in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. We tested for evidence of direct density dependence in growth rates and evaluated whether equilibrium population size was related to seasonal sea-ice extent and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We found strong evidence of negative density dependence in annual growth rates for a population whose estimated size ranged from 438 to 623 females during the study. Based on Bayes factors, a density-dependence-only model was favored over models that also included en! vironmental covariates. According to the favored model, the population had a stationary distribution with a mean of 497 females (SD = 60.5), an expected growth rate of 1.10 (95% credible interval 1.08-1.15) when population size was 441 females, and a rate of 0.90 (95% credible interval 0.87-0.93) for a population of 553 females. A model including effects of SOI did receive some support and indicated a positive relationship between SOI and population size. However, effects of SOI were not large, and including the effect did not greatly reduce our estimate of process variation. We speculate that direct density dependence occurred because rates of adult survival, breeding, and temporary emigration were affected by limitations on per capita food resources and space for parturition and pup-rearing. To improve understanding of the relative roles of various demographic components and their associated vital rates to population growth rate, mark-recapture methods can be applied that incorporate both environmental covariates and the seal abundance estimates that were developed here. An improved understanding of why vital rates change with changing population abundance will only come as we develop a better understanding of the processes affecting marine food resources in the Southern Ocean.
Sexual segregation in North American elk: the role of density dependence
Stewart, Kelley M; Walsh, Danielle R; Kie, John G; Dick, Brian L; Bowyer, R Terry
2015-01-01
We investigated how density-dependent processes and subsequent variation in nutritional condition of individuals influenced both timing and duration of sexual segregation and selection of resources. During 1999–2001, we experimentally created two population densities of North American elk (Cervus elaphus), a high-density population at 20 elk/km2, and a low-density population at 4 elk/km2 to test hypotheses relative to timing and duration of sexual segregation and variation in selection of resources. We used multi-response permutation procedures to investigate patterns of sexual segregation, and resource selection functions to document differences in selection of resources by individuals in high- and low-density populations during sexual segregation and aggregation. The duration of sexual segregation was 2 months longer in the high-density population and likely was influenced by individuals in poorer nutritional condition, which corresponded with later conception and parturition, than at low density. Males and females in the high-density population overlapped in selection of resources to a greater extent than in the low-density population, probably resulting from density-dependent effects of increased intraspecific competition and lower availability of resources. PMID:25691992
Sexual segregation in North American elk: the role of density dependence.
Stewart, Kelley M; Walsh, Danielle R; Kie, John G; Dick, Brian L; Bowyer, R Terry
2015-02-01
We investigated how density-dependent processes and subsequent variation in nutritional condition of individuals influenced both timing and duration of sexual segregation and selection of resources. During 1999-2001, we experimentally created two population densities of North American elk (Cervus elaphus), a high-density population at 20 elk/km(2), and a low-density population at 4 elk/km(2) to test hypotheses relative to timing and duration of sexual segregation and variation in selection of resources. We used multi-response permutation procedures to investigate patterns of sexual segregation, and resource selection functions to document differences in selection of resources by individuals in high- and low-density populations during sexual segregation and aggregation. The duration of sexual segregation was 2 months longer in the high-density population and likely was influenced by individuals in poorer nutritional condition, which corresponded with later conception and parturition, than at low density. Males and females in the high-density population overlapped in selection of resources to a greater extent than in the low-density population, probably resulting from density-dependent effects of increased intraspecific competition and lower availability of resources. PMID:25691992
Brunton, Benjamin J; Booth, David J
2003-11-01
Density-dependent mortality may regulate many populations, but due to an offshore larval phase in benthic marine organisms, it is often difficult to quantify the effects of mortality of arriving individuals. We added approximately 600 recruit-sized individuals onto coral reef that parallels patterns in naturally settling fish. Strong, positive density-dependent mortality occurred 3 days, 1-2 weeks, and 4 months after release. Since our study species was patchily distributed, we estimated both mean group size and overall density in a transect. Mortality was more strongly related to mean group size than overall density in a transect, indicating that recruit patchiness was important. Cohesive groups may suffer higher mortality than those spread over larger areas, even if overall density of the latter is greater. Aggregative responses of predators may occur in response to larger groups, so may have contributed to positive density-dependent mortality. Increased conspicuousness to predators and congeneric aggression are additional factors that may vary positively with group size. Tagging of recruits showed migration within but not between transects, so persistence was tantamount to survival. Standard otolith back-calculation techniques employed to reconstruct original size of tagged recruits that persisted 4 months after additions indicated that mortality was also size-dependent. Size-dependent mortality was apparent at the site with the highest mortality but not at the site with the lowest mortality, resulting in different mean body sizes of recruits between sites. Size-dependent mortality may influence estimation of growth and lead to onset of size-based maturity in these fish. Strong, positive density-dependent mortality may regulate recruitment, and if coupled with size-dependent mortality, may increase maturity rate, adding to reproductive schedules of those that survive. PMID:13680350
Density-dependent habitat selection by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in tallgrass prairie
Jensen, W.E.; Cully, J.F., Jr.
2005-01-01
Local distributions of avian brood parasites among their host habitats may depend upon conspecific parasite density. We used isodar analysis to test for density-dependent habitat selection in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) among tallgrass prairie adjacent to wooded edges, and prairie interior habitat (>100 m from wooded edges) with and without experimental perches. Eight study sites containing these three habitat treatments were established along a geographical gradient in cowbird abundance within the Flint Hills region of Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. The focal host species of our study, the dickcissel (Spiza americana), is the most abundant and preferred cowbird host in the prairie of this region. Cowbird relative abundance and cowbird:host abundance ratios were used as estimates of female cowbird density, whereas cowbird egg density was measured as parasitism frequency (percent of dickcissel nests parasitized), and parasitism intensity (number of cowbird eggs per parasitized nest). Geographical variation in cowbird abundance was independent of host abundance. Within study sites, host abundance was highest in wooded edge plots, intermediate in the experimental perch plots, and lowest in prairie interior. Cowbirds exhibited a pattern of density-dependent selection of prairie edge versus experimental perch and interior habitats. On sites where measures of cowbird density were lowest, all cowbird density estimates (female cowbirds and their eggs) were highest near (???100 m) wooded edges, where host and perch availability are highest. However, as overall cowbird density increased geographically, these density estimates increased more rapidly in experimental perch plots and prairie interiors. Variation in cowbird abundance and cowbird:host ratios suggested density-dependent cowbird selection of experimental perch over prairie interior habitat, but parasitism levels on dickcissel nests were similar among these two habitats at all levels of local cowbird parasitism. The density-dependent pattern of cowbird distribution among prairie edge and interior suggested that density effects on perceived cowbird fitness are greatest at wooded edges. A positive relationship between daily nest mortality rates of parasitized nests during the nestling period with parasitism intensity levels per nest suggested a density-dependent effect on cowbird reproductive success. However, this relationship was similar among habitats, such that all habitats should have been perceived as being equally suitable to cowbirds at all densities. Other unmeasured effects on cowbird habitat suitability (e.g., reduced cowbird success in edge-dwelling host nests, cowbird despotism at edges) might have affected cowbird habitat selection. Managers attempting to minimize cowbird parasitism on sensitive cowbird hosts should consider that hosts in otherwise less-preferred cowbird habitats (e.g., habitat interiors) are at greater risk of being parasitized where cowbirds become particularly abundant. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.
Density-dependent habitat selection by brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater) in tallgrass prairie.
Jensen, William E; Cully, Jack F
2005-01-01
Local distributions of avian brood parasites among their host habitats may depend upon conspecific parasite density. We used isodar analysis to test for density-dependent habitat selection in brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater) among tallgrass prairie adjacent to wooded edges, and prairie interior habitat (>100 m from wooded edges) with and without experimental perches. Eight study sites containing these three habitat treatments were established along a geographical gradient in cowbird abundance within the Flint Hills region of Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. The focal host species of our study, the dickcissel ( Spiza americana), is the most abundant and preferred cowbird host in the prairie of this region. Cowbird relative abundance and cowbird:host abundance ratios were used as estimates of female cowbird density, whereas cowbird egg density was measured as parasitism frequency (percent of dickcissel nests parasitized), and parasitism intensity (number of cowbird eggs per parasitized nest). Geographical variation in cowbird abundance was independent of host abundance. Within study sites, host abundance was highest in wooded edge plots, intermediate in the experimental perch plots, and lowest in prairie interior. Cowbirds exhibited a pattern of density-dependent selection of prairie edge versus experimental perch and interior habitats. On sites where measures of cowbird density were lowest, all cowbird density estimates (female cowbirds and their eggs) were highest near (< or =100 m) wooded edges, where host and perch availability are highest. However, as overall cowbird density increased geographically, these density estimates increased more rapidly in experimental perch plots and prairie interiors. Variation in cowbird abundance and cowbird:host ratios suggested density-dependent cowbird selection of experimental perch over prairie interior habitat, but parasitism levels on dickcissel nests were similar among these two habitats at all levels of local cowbird parasitism. The density-dependent pattern of cowbird distribution among prairie edge and interior suggested that density effects on perceived cowbird fitness are greatest at wooded edges. A positive relationship between daily nest mortality rates of parasitized nests during the nestling period with parasitism intensity levels per nest suggested a density-dependent effect on cowbird reproductive success. However, this relationship was similar among habitats, such that all habitats should have been perceived as being equally suitable to cowbirds at all densities. Other unmeasured effects on cowbird habitat suitability (e.g., reduced cowbird success in edge-dwelling host nests, cowbird despotism at edges) might have affected cowbird habitat selection. Managers attempting to minimize cowbird parasitism on sensitive cowbird hosts should consider that hosts in otherwise less-preferred cowbird habitats (e.g., habitat interiors) are at greater risk of being parasitized where cowbirds become particularly abundant. PMID:15375686
A seasonal, density-dependent model for the management of an invasive weed.
Shyu, Esther; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M; Caswell, Hal
2013-12-01
The population effects of harvest depend on complex interactions between density dependence, seasonality, stage structure, and management timing. Here we present a periodic nonlinear matrix population model that incorporates seasonal density dependence with stage-selective and seasonally selective harvest. To this model, we apply newly developed perturbation analyses to determine how population densities respond to changes in harvest and demographic parameters. We use the model to examine the effects of popular control strategies and demographic perturbations on the invasive weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). We find that seasonality is a major factor in harvest outcomes, because population dynamics may depend significantly on both the season of management and the season of observation. Strategies that reduce densities in one season can drive increases in another, with strategies giving positive sensitivities of density in the target seasons leading to compensatory effects that invasive species managers should avoid. Conversely, demographic parameters to which density is very elastic (e.g., seeding survival, second-year rosette spring survival, and the flowering to fruiting adult transition for maximum summer densities) may indicate promising management targets. PMID:24555315
Heteroaromaticity approached by charge density investigations and electronic structure calculations.
Hey, Jakob; Leusser, Dirk; Kratzert, Daniel; Fliegl, Heike; Dieterich, Johannes M; Mata, Ricardo A; Stalke, Dietmar
2013-12-21
In this paper we present the results of a high-resolution single crystal X-ray diffraction experiment at 15 K on a benzothiazol-substituted phosphane and a subsequent charge density study based on multipole refinement and a topological analysis according to Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Although two valence shell charge concentrations (VSCCs) in the non-bonding region of each phosphorus and sulfur atom were found, the integration of both heteroatomic basins emphasizes charge depletion. Nevertheless they are attractive for C-H···P and C-H···S hydrogen bonding in the solid state. The nature of the P-C bonds and the question of aromaticity in the heterocycles were subject to our investigations. The ellipticities along the bonds were analysed to approach delocalization. The source function is employed to visualise atomic contributions to aromaticity. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to compute nuclear chemical shifts, induced ring currents and a variety of delocalization indices. All applied measures for delocalization point in the same direction: while heteroaromaticity is present in the benzothiazolyl substituents, the bridging P-C bonds are only involved marginally, almost preventing total conjugation of the phosphane. The charge density distributions around the phosphorus and the sulfur atoms have very similar features but turn out to be chemically very different from each other. Commonly used simplifying concepts have difficulties in providing a comprehensive view on the electronic situation in the molecule. Our results raise doubts on the validity of the common interpretation of VSCCs as one-to-one representations of Lewis lone pairs. PMID:24186152
Stage-dependent density effect in the cell cycle of budding yeast.
Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Yoshimura, Jin; Ushimaru, Takashi
2006-10-01
Yeasts in culture media grow exponentially in early period but eventually stop growing. The saturation of population growth is due to "density effect". The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is known to exhibit a stage-dependent cell division. Daughter cell, which gives no birth, has longer generation time than mother, because daughter needs maturity time. So far, investigations have been restricted in exponential or non-crowding state; very little is known for the stage dependence of density effect. Here we present a lattice gas model to explore the population dynamics of crowding period. We compare theoretical results with experimental data, and find a stage-dependent density effect. Although small daughter cells can develop to a critical size, the reproduction of large daughter cells suddenly stops when the total density exceeds some critical level. Our results imply the existence of an inhibitor that specifically halts the reproduction of matured daughter cell. PMID:16765991
Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn
2009-11-01
In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.
Propagation of initially excited states in time-dependent density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, Peter; Maitra, Neepa T.
2012-05-01
Many recent applications of time-dependent density functional theory begin in an initially excited state and propagate it using an adiabatic approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. This, however, inserts the excited-state density into a ground-state approximation. By studying a series of model calculations, we highlight the relevance of initial-state dependence of the exact functional when starting in an excited state, discuss different valid choices of the initial Kohn-Sham state, and explore the errors inherent in the adiabatic approximation that neglects this dependence.
Ecological drivers of guanaco recruitment: variable carrying capacity and density dependence.
Marino, Andrea; Pascual, Miguel; Baldi, Ricardo
2014-08-01
Ungulates living in predator-free reserves offer the opportunity to study the influence of food limitation on population dynamics without the potentially confounding effects of top-down regulation or livestock competition. We assessed the influence of relative forage availability and population density on guanaco recruitment in two predator-free reserves in eastern Patagonia, with contrasting scenarios of population density. We also explored the relative contribution of the observed recruitment to population growth using a deterministic linear model to test the assumption that the studied populations were closed units. The observed densities increased twice as fast as our theoretical populations, indicating that marked immigration has taken place during the recovery phase experienced by both populations, thus we rejected the closed-population assumption. Regarding the factors driving variation in recruitment, in the low- to medium-density setting, we found a positive linear relationship between recruitment and surrogates of annual primary production, whereas no density dependence was detected. In contrast, in the high-density scenario, both annual primary production and population density showed marked effects, indicating a positive relationship between recruitment and per capita food availability above a food-limitation threshold. Our results support the idea that environmental carrying capacity fluctuates in response to climatic variation, and that these fluctuations have relevant consequences for herbivore dynamics, such as amplifying density dependence in drier years. We conclude that including the coupling between environmental variability in resources and density dependence is crucial to model ungulate population dynamics; to overlook temporal changes in carrying capacity may even mask density dependence as well as other important processes. PMID:24899131
Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials
Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki
2013-12-10
Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.
A comprehensive approach for the assessment of in-situ pavement density using GPR technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas
2013-04-01
Proper construction of the asphalt pavement is a prerequisite to developing a long lasting roadway that does not require extensive future maintenance. This goal is achieved by verifying that design specifications are met through the use of quality assurance (QA) practices. The in-situ density is regarded as one of the most important controls used to ensure that a pavement being placed is of high quality because it is a good indicator of future performance. In-situ density is frequently assessed utilizing one or more of the following three methods: cores, nuclear density gauge measurements or non-nuclear density gauge measurements. Each of the above mentioned methods, however, have their distinct disadvantages. Cores, for example, are generally considered to be the most accurate means of measuring in-situ density, however, they are a time consuming and destructive test that introduces a defect into asphalt pavements. Because of the destructive nature associated with coring, contractors and agencies have alternatively used non-destructive nuclear and non-nuclear density gauges for quality control purposes. These instruments allow for a more rapid assessment of the in-situ density, allowing measurements to be taken even during the pavement's construction. The disadvantage of these gauges are that they provide density readings only at discrete locations of the asphalt pavement mat, while no consensus exists among pavement researchers on the proper correlation between the gauges and core density. In recent years, numerous alternative methods have been introduced for the assessment of in-situ density, both during asphalt pavement construction and afterwards. These methods include, amongst others, intelligent compaction, thermal imaging and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Among these methods, GPR has been defined as both a technically feasible and promising method for the nondestructive, rapid, and continuous evaluation of in-situ asphalt pavement density based on electromagnetic mixing (EM) theory, through the utilization of proper models. These models enable the prediction of asphalt mixture density dependent on its bulk dielectric constant as measured by the GPR, the dielectric properties of the asphalt mix materials, as well as other material information. The goal of the present study is to attempt to verify the prediction performance of various density models. To accomplish this goal GPR surveys were carried out in the field during asphalt pavement construction to evaluate the density results due to different compaction modes. The GPR data was analyzed to calculate the appropriate asphalt mix dielectric properties needed for the activation of the considered density prediction models. Predicted densities were compared with densities of the field cores extracted from the as-built asphalt pavement prior to trafficking. It was found that the predicted density values were significantly lower when compared to the ground truth data. A further investigation of the effect of temperature on GPR readings showed that GPR seems to overestimate the in-situ density. However, this approach could be used effectively to evaluate the performance of different compaction methods and set up the compaction pattern that is needed to achieve the desired asphalt pavement density.
Structural Implications of Reciprocal Exchange: A Power-Dependence Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonacich, Phillip; Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne
2009-01-01
This paper presents and tests a general model to predict emergent exchange patterns and power differences in reciprocal exchange networks when individual actors follow the norm of reciprocity. With an interesting qualification, the experimental results reported here support the power-dependence approach (Emerson 1972a, b): those who acquire the…
TimeDependent Variational Approach to BoseEinstein Condensation
TimeDependent Variational Approach to BoseEinstein Condensation Luca Salasnich Istituto Nazionaleinteracting BoseEinstein condensate (BEC) and its connection with the exact many body problem by deriving the GrossPitaevskii action of the condensate. The mechanics of the BEC in a harmonic potential is studied
Effects of spinor distortion and density-dependent form factors upon $^{16}O(\\vec{e},e'\\vec{p})$
James J. Kelly
1999-05-11
We propose an effective current operator for nucleon electromagnetic knockout that incorporates spinor distortion and density-dependent nucleon form factors using an effective momentum approximation. This method can be used in a coordinate-space approach with either relativistic or nonrelativistic optical potentials and overlap functions. We studied these effects for the $^{16}O(\\vec{e},e' \\vec{p})$ reaction at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2. Spinor distortion substantially enhances the left-right asymmetry while reducing the ratio between sideways and longitudinal recoil polarization for p-shell knockout by about 5% for modest missing momenta. We also find that the density dependence of nucleon form factors suggested by a quark-meson coupling model reduces the polarization ratio further. Much larger effects are obtained for the s-shell than for p-shell. However, both effects are subject to much larger Gordon ambiguities than comparable nonrelativistic calculations.
Momentum-Dependent Variational Approach to Correlated Electron System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patoary, M. A. R.; Kakehashi, Y.
2012-12-01
We present here the momentum dependent local-ansatz wavefunction approach (MLA) with the best choice of the self-consistent variational parameters to describe the ground-state properties of the correlated electron systems in solids. With use of the self-consistent variational scheme, we performed the numerical calculations for the half-filled band as well as non-half-filled band Hubbard model on the hypercubic lattice in infinite dimensions. The ground-state energy in the MLA is lower than those of the local-ansatz approach (LA) and the Gutzwiller approach (GA) in weak and intermediate Coulomb interaction regimes. The double occupation number is suppressed as compared with the LA. We observe the distinct momentum dependence of the momentum distribution functions which is qualitatively different from those of the LA and the GA.
Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a neotropical palm.
Jansen, Patrick A; Visser, Marco D; Joseph Wright, S; Rutten, Gemma; Muller-Landau, Helene C
2014-09-01
Negative density dependence (NDD) of recruitment is pervasive in tropical tree species. We tested the hypotheses that seed dispersal is NDD, due to intraspecific competition for dispersers, and that this contributes to NDD of recruitment. We compared dispersal in the palm Attalea butyracea across a wide range of population density on Barro Colorado Island in Panama and assessed its consequences for seed distributions. We found that frugivore visitation, seed removal and dispersal distance all declined with population density of A. butyracea, demonstrating NDD of seed dispersal due to competition for dispersers. Furthermore, as population density increased, the distances of seeds from the nearest adult decreased, conspecific seed crowding increased and seedling recruitment success decreased, all patterns expected under poorer dispersal. Unexpectedly, however, our analyses showed that NDD of dispersal did not contribute substantially to these changes in the quality of the seed distribution; patterns with population density were dominated by effects due solely to increasing adult and seed density. PMID:25039608
Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim
2014-11-01
Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high removal rates maintain wolves at lower densities, limited inter-pack interactions may prevent density-dependent survival, consistent with our findings in the interior of the park. PMID:24749694
Isospin-invariant Skyrme energy-density-functional approach with axial symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikh, J. A.; Hinohara, N.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nakatsukasa, T.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sato, K.
2014-05-01
Background: Density functional theory (DFT) is the microscopic tool of choice to describe properties of nuclei over the entire nuclear landscape, with a focus on medium-mass and heavy complex systems. Modern energy density functionals (EDFs) often offer a level of accuracy typical of phenomenological approaches based on parameters locally fitted to the data. It is clear, however, that in order to achieve high quality of predictions to guide spectroscopic studies, current functionals must be improved, especially in the isospin channel. In this respect, experimental studies of short-lived nuclei far from stability offer a unique test of isospin aspects of the many-body theory. Purpose: We develop the isospin-invariant Skyrme-EDF method by considering local densities in all possible isospin channels and proton-neutron (p-n) mixing terms as mandated by the isospin symmetry. The EDF employed has the most general form that depends quadratically on the isoscalar and isovector densities. We test and benchmark the resulting p-n EDF approach, and study the general properties of the new scheme by means of the cranking in the isospin space. Methods: We extend the existing axial DFT solver hfbtho to the case of isospin-invariant EDF approach with all possible p-n mixing terms. Explicit expressions have been derived for all the densities and potentials that appear in the isospin representation. In practical tests, we consider the Skyrme EDF SkM* and, as a first application, concentrate on Hartree-Fock aspects of the problem, i.e., pairing has been disregarded. Results: Calculations have been performed for the (A =78,T?11), (A =40,T?8), and (A =48,T?4) isobaric analog chains. Isospin structure of self-consistent p-n mixed solutions has been investigated with and without the Coulomb interaction, which is the sole source of isospin symmetry breaking in our approach. The extended axial hfbtho solver has been benchmarked against the symmetry-unrestricted hfodd code for deformed and spherical states. Conclusions: We developed and tested a general isospin-invariant Skyrme-EDF framework. The new approach permits spin-isospin densities that may give rise to hitherto unexplored modes in the excitation spectrum. The new formalism has been tested in the Hartree-Fock limit. A systematic comparison between hfodd and hfbtho results show a maximum deviation of about 10 keV on the total binding energy for deformed nuclei when the Coulomb term is included. Without this term, the results of both solvers agree down to a ˜10 eV level.
Adaptive nest clustering and density-dependent nest survival in dabbling ducks
Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, John M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.
2014-01-01
Density-dependent population regulation is observed in many taxa, and understanding the mechanisms that generate density dependence is especially important for the conservation of heavily-managed species. In one such system, North American waterfowl, density dependence is often observed at continental scales, and nest predation has long been implicated as a key factor driving this pattern. However, despite extensive research on this topic, it remains unclear if and how nest density influences predation rates. Part of this confusion may have arisen because previous studies have studied density-dependent predation at relatively large spatial and temporal scales. Because the spatial distribution of nests changes throughout the season, which potentially influences predator behavior, nest survival may vary through time at relatively small spatial scales. As such, density-dependent nest predation might be more detectable at a spatially- and temporally-refined scale and this may provide new insights into nest site selection and predator foraging behavior. Here, we used three years of data on nest survival of two species of waterfowl, mallards and gadwall, to more fully explore the relationship between local nest clustering and nest survival. Throughout the season, we found that the distribution of nests was consistently clustered at small spatial scales (˜50–400 m), especially for mallard nests, and that this pattern was robust to yearly variation in nest density and the intensity of predation. We demonstrated further that local nest clustering had positive fitness consequences – nests with closer nearest neighbors were more likely to be successful, a result that is counter to the general assumption that nest predation rates increase with nest density.
Density-dependent habitat selection and partitioning between two sympatric ungulates.
van Beest, Floris M; McLoughlin, Philip D; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K
2014-08-01
Theory on density-dependent habitat selection predicts that as population density of a species increases, use of higher quality (primary) habitat by individuals declines while use of lower quality (secondary) habitat rises. Habitat partitioning is often considered the primary mechanism for coexistence between similar species, but how this process evolves with changes in population density remains to be empirically tested for free-ranging ungulates. We used resource-selection functions to quantify density effects on landscape-scale habitat selection of two sympatric species of ungulates [moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis)] in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada (2000-2011). The density of elk was actively reduced from 1.2 to 0.4 elk km(-2) through increased hunting effort during the period of study, while moose density decreased without additional human influence from 1.6-0.7 moose km(-2). Patterns of habitat selection during winter by both species changed in accordance to expectations from density-dependent habitat-selection theory. At low intraspecific density, moose and elk did not partition habitat, as both species selected strongly for mixed forest (primary habitat providing both food and cover), but did so in different areas segregated across an elevational gradient. As intraspecific density increased, selection for primary habitat by both species decreased, while selection for secondary, lower quality habitat such as agricultural fields (for elk) and built-up areas (for moose) increased. We show that habitat-selection strategies during winter for moose and elk, and subsequent effects on habitat partitioning, depend heavily on the position in state space (density) of both species. PMID:24913777
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdinc, Ozgur; Willett, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov
2006-05-01
The probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, an automatically track-managed multi-target tracker, is attracting increasing but cautious attention. Its derivation is elegant and mathematical, and thus of course many engineers fear it; perhaps that is currently limiting the number of researchers working on the subject. In this paper, we explore a physical-space approach - a bin model - which leads us to arrive the same filter equations as the PHD. Unlike the original derivation of the PHD filter, the concepts used are the familiar ones of conditional probability. The original PHD suffers from a "target-death" problem in which even a single missed detection can lead to the apparent disappearance of a target. To obviate this, PHD originator Mahler has recently developed a new "cardinalized" version of PHD (CPHD). We are able to extend our physical-space derivation to the CPHD case as well. We stress that the original derivations are mathematically correct, and need no embellishment from us; our contribution here is to offer an alternative derivation, one that we find appealing.
Investigations of turbulent scalar fields using probability density function approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gao, Feng
1991-01-01
Scalar fields undergoing random advection have attracted much attention from researchers in both the theoretical and practical sectors. Research interest spans from the study of the small scale structures of turbulent scalar fields to the modeling and simulations of turbulent reacting flows. The probability density function (PDF) method is an effective tool in the study of turbulent scalar fields, especially for those which involve chemical reactions. It has been argued that a one-point, joint PDF approach is the one to choose from among many simulation and closure methods for turbulent combustion and chemically reacting flows based on its practical feasibility in the foreseeable future for multiple reactants. Instead of the multi-point PDF, the joint PDF of a scalar and its gradient which represents the roles of both scalar and scalar diffusion is introduced. A proper closure model for the molecular diffusion term in the PDF equation is investigated. Another direction in this research is to study the mapping closure method that has been recently proposed to deal with the PDF's in turbulent fields. This method seems to have captured the physics correctly when applied to diffusion problems. However, if the turbulent stretching is included, the amplitude mapping has to be supplemented by either adjusting the parameters representing turbulent stretching at each time step or by introducing the coordinate mapping. This technique is still under development and seems to be quite promising. The final objective of this project is to understand some fundamental properties of the turbulent scalar fields and to develop practical numerical schemes that are capable of handling turbulent reacting flows.
Exposing extinction risk analysis to pathogens: Is disease just another form of density dependence?
Gerber, L.R.; McCallum, H.; Lafferty, K.D.; Sabo, J.L.; Dobson, A.
2005-01-01
In the United States and several other countries, the development of population viability analyses (PVA) is a legal requirement of any species survival plan developed for threatened and endangered species. Despite the importance of pathogens in natural populations, little attention has been given to host-pathogen dynamics in PVA. To study the effect of infectious pathogens on extinction risk estimates generated from PVA, we review and synthesize the relevance of host-pathogen dynamics in analyses of extinction risk. We then develop a stochastic, density-dependent host-parasite model to investigate the effects of disease on the persistence of endangered populations. We show that this model converges on a Ricker model of density dependence under a suite of limiting assumptions, including a high probability that epidemics will arrive and occur. Using this modeling framework, we then quantify: (1) dynamic differences between time series generated by disease and Ricker processes with the same parameters; (2) observed probabilities of quasi-extinction for populations exposed to disease or self-limitation; and (3) bias in probabilities of quasi-extinction estimated by density-independent PVAs when populations experience either form of density dependence. Our results suggest two generalities about the relationships among disease, PVA, and the management of endangered species. First, disease more strongly increases variability in host abundance and, thus, the probability of quasi-extinction, than does self-limitation. This result stems from the fact that the effects and the probability of occurrence of disease are both density dependent. Second, estimates of quasi-extinction are more often overly optimistic for populations experiencing disease than for those subject to self-limitation. Thus, although the results of density-independent PVAs may be relatively robust to some particular assumptions about density dependence, they are less robust when endangered populations are known to be susceptible to disease. If potential management actions involve manipulating pathogens, then it may be useful to model disease explicitly. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.
Density-Matrix Approach for the Electroluminescence of Molecules in a Scanning Tunneling Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Guangjun; Liu, Ji-Cai; Luo, Yi
2011-04-01
The electroluminescence (EL) of molecules confined inside a nanocavity in the scanning tunneling microscope possesses many intriguing but unexplained features. We present here a general theoretical approach based on the density-matrix formalism to describe the EL from molecules near a metal surface induced by both electron tunneling and localized surface plasmon excitations simultaneously. It reveals the underlying physical mechanism for the external bias dependent EL. The important role played by the localized surface plasmon on the EL is highlighted. Calculations for porphyrin derivatives have reproduced corresponding experimental spectra and nicely explained the observed unusual large variation of emission spectral profiles. This general theoretical approach can find many applications in the design of molecular electronic and photonic devices.
Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory in the linear response formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuehlsdorff, T. J.; Hine, N. D. M.; Spencer, J. S.; Harrison, N. M.; Riley, D. J.; Haynes, P. D.
2013-08-01
We present an implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the linear response formalism enabling the calculation of low energy optical absorption spectra for large molecules and nanostructures. The method avoids any explicit reference to canonical representations of either occupied or virtual Kohn-Sham states and thus achieves linear-scaling computational effort with system size. In contrast to conventional localised orbital formulations, where a single set of localised functions is used to span the occupied and unoccupied state manifold, we make use of two sets of in situ optimised localised orbitals, one for the occupied and one for the unoccupied space. This double representation approach avoids known problems of spanning the space of unoccupied Kohn-Sham states with a minimal set of localised orbitals optimised for the occupied space, while the in situ optimisation procedure allows for efficient calculations with a minimal number of functions. The method is applied to a number of medium sized organic molecules and a good agreement with traditional TDDFT methods is observed. Furthermore, linear scaling of computational cost with system size is demonstrated on (10,0) carbon nanotubes of different lengths.
Estimates of Leaf Vein Density Are Scale Dependent1[C][W][OPEN
Price, Charles A.; Munro, Peter R.T.; Weitz, Joshua S.
2014-01-01
Leaf vein density (LVD) has garnered considerable attention of late, with numerous studies linking it to the physiology, ecology, and evolution of land plants. Despite this increased attention, little consideration has been given to the effects of measurement methods on estimation of LVD. Here, we focus on the relationship between measurement methods and estimates of LVD. We examine the dependence of LVD on magnification, field of view (FOV), and image resolution. We first show that estimates of LVD increase with increasing image magnification and resolution. We then demonstrate that estimates of LVD are higher with higher variance at small FOV, approaching asymptotic values as the FOV increases. We demonstrate that these effects arise due to three primary factors: (1) the tradeoff between FOV and magnification; (2) geometric effects of lattices at small scales; and; (3) the hierarchical nature of leaf vein networks. Our results help to explain differences in previously published studies and highlight the importance of using consistent magnification and scale, when possible, when comparing LVD and other quantitative measures of venation structure across leaves. PMID:24259686
Density-dependent speciation alters the structure and dynamics of neutral communities.
Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Pacala, Stephen W; Fang, Jingyun
2015-05-01
The neutral theory of biodiversity (NTB) provides an individual-based modeling framework to study eco-evolutionary dynamics. Previous NTB models usually assumed the same per capita rate of speciation across lineages. However, population dynamics may induce macroevolutionary feedbacks that can result in variable per capita speciation rates across lineages. In this paper, with analytical and simulation approaches, we explore how different scenarios of density-dependent speciation may impact the diversity and phylogenetic patterns of neutral communities, and compare the results to predictions of the original NTB model with an invariant speciation rate. Our results show that positive per capita speciation rate-abundance relationships could result in higher species richness and evenness, enhanced stability (evidenced by higher post-disturbance recovery rates and lower temporal variability in species diversity), and higher imbalance in phylogenetic trees. The opposite patterns are predicted when per capita speciation rates decrease with abundance. Particularly, strong negative speciation rate-abundance relationships can generate a positive correlation between phylogenetic age and abundance, which has been observed in Panamanian tree species. Our findings demonstrate the importance of eco-evolutionary feedbacks for understanding long-term diversity and phylogenetic patterns in ecological communities. PMID:25701450
Explaining the dark energy, baryon and dark matter coincidence via domain-dependent random densities
McDonald, John
2013-05-01
The dark energy, dark matter and baryon densities in the Universe are observed to be similar, with a factor of no more than 20 between the largest and smallest densities. We show that this coincidence can be understood via superhorizon domains of randomly varying densities when the baryon density at initial collapse of galaxy-forming perturbations is determined by anthropic selection. The baryon and dark matter densities are assumed to be dependent on random variables ?{sub d} and ?{sub b} according to ?{sub dm}??{sub d}{sup ?} and ?{sub b}??{sub b}{sup ?}, while the effectively constant dark energy density is dependent upon a random variable ?{sub Q} according to ?{sub Q}??{sub Q}{sup n}. The ratio of the baryon density to the dark energy density at initial collapse, r{sub Q}, and the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, r, are then determined purely statistically, with no dependence on the anthropically-preferred baryon density. We compute the probability distribution for r{sub Q} and r and show that the observed values of r{sub Q} and r can be naturally understood within this framework. In particular, for the case ? = 2, ? = 1 and n = 4, which can be physically realized via a combination of axion dark matter, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and frozen quintessence with a ?{sub Q}{sup 4} potential, the range of r{sub Q} and r which corresponds to the observed Universe is a quite natural, with a probability which is broadly similar to other ranges of r{sub Q} and r.
Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou
2015-04-01
Density-dependent gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been used to prolong the gastric retention time of drugs since the 1960s. The design of density-dependent gastroretentive dosage forms, however, usually focuses on specific parameters rather than combines with the fluid dynamics of dosage form in the gastric emptying. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a 2-D model of multiple-phase flows for the simulation of gastric emptying and gastroretentive microparticles motion, and the influence of microparticle density, microparticle viscosity, and gastric juice viscosity on the gastric retention were studied. The recirculating flows, formed in the gastric emptying, could mix the conventional-density microparticles and transport them to the pylorus. However, the low-density microparticles remained floating on the surface of gastric juice, while the high-density microparticles could sink and deposit in the bottom of the stomach. The remaining integral area of microparticles was higher than 90% after 18.33min of simulation when the density of microparticles was lower than 550kg/m(3) or higher than 2500kg/m(3), which was higher compared to conventional-density microparticles (67.05%). These results are in good agreement with experimental data previously reported. In addition, the viscosity of microparticle and gastric juice also influenced the remaining integral area of gastroretentive microparticles. This study shows that the multiple-phase computational fluid dynamics models could provide detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles in gastric emptying, which offers a powerful tool to further understand the mechanism of gastric retention for gastroretentive dosage forms and study the influence of different parameters on their ability for gastric retention. PMID:25640913
A New Approach of Designing Superalloys for Low Density
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.
2010-01-01
New low-density single-crystal (LDS) alloy, have bee. developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust-to-weight ratio over current production superalloys. An innovative alloying strategy was wed to achieve alloy density reductions, high-temperature creep resistance, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The alloy design relies on molybdenum as a potent. lower-density solid-solution strengthener in the nickel-based superalloy. Low alloy density was also achieved with modest rhenium levels tmd the absence of tungsten. Microstructural, physical mechanical, and environmental testing demonstrated the feasibility of this new LDS superalloy design.
Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Colchero, Fernando
2014-01-01
Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting that it might have reached its carrying capacity. We used a Bayesian state-space framework and model selection to determine the effect of density and environmental variables on guanaco population dynamics. Our results show that the population is under density dependent regulation and that it is currently fluctuating around an average carrying capacity of 45,000 guanacos. We also found a significant positive effect of previous winter temperature while sheep density has a strong negative effect on the guanaco population growth. We conclude that there are significant density dependent processes and that climate as well as competition with domestic species have important effects determining the population size of guanacos, with important implications for management and conservation. PMID:25514510
Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Colchero, Fernando
2014-01-01
Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting that it might have reached its carrying capacity. We used a Bayesian state-space framework and model selection to determine the effect of density and environmental variables on guanaco population dynamics. Our results show that the population is under density dependent regulation and that it is currently fluctuating around an average carrying capacity of 45,000 guanacos. We also found a significant positive effect of previous winter temperature while sheep density has a strong negative effect on the guanaco population growth. We conclude that there are significant density dependent processes and that climate as well as competition with domestic species have important effects determining the population size of guanacos, with important implications for management and conservation. PMID:25514510
Vanishing Viscosity Limit for Isentropic Navier-Stokes Equations with Density-dependent Viscosity
Huang, Feimin; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Yong; Zhai, Xiaoyun
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the vanishing viscosity limit of one-dimensional isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity, to the isentropic compressible Euler equations. Based on several new uniform estimates to the viscous systems, in addition to the framework recently established by G. Chen and M. Perepelitsa, we justify that the finite energy solution of the isentropic compressible Euler equations for a large class of initial data can be obtained as the inviscid limit of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations even when the viscosity depends on the density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, A.-B.; Weisz, G.; Sher, A.
1972-01-01
A model calculation of the temperature dependence of the electronic density of states and the electrical conductivity of disordered binary alloys, based on the coherent-potential approximation is made by introducing thermal disorder in the single-band model (Velicky and others). Thermal disorder is found to broaden and smear the static-alloy density of states. The electrical resistivity in weak-scattering alloys always increases with temperature. However, in the strong-scattering case, the temperature coefficient of resistivity can be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the location of the Fermi energy.-
M. Zalewski; P. Olbratowski; W. Satula
2009-12-11
Calculations for infinite nuclear matter with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions suggest that the isoscalar effective mass (IEM) of a nucleon at the saturation density equals $m^*/m\\sim 0.8\\pm 0.1$, at variance with empirical data on the nuclear level density in finite nuclei which are consistent with $m^*/m\\approx 1$. This contradicting results might be reconciled by enriching the radial dependence of IEM. In this work four new terms are introduced into the Skyrme-force inspired local energy-density functional: $\\tau(\
Gluon density and $F_{2}$ functions from BK equation with impact parameter dependence
Sergey Bondarenko
2008-02-19
In this note we fix the preliminary results obtained in the study of gluon density function of the paper \\cite{bom3}. The LO BK equation for unintegrated gluon density with impact parameter dependence is considered in order to fix the parameters of the proposed model. In particular the form of initial condition for the equations of proton-proton scattering from \\cite{bom3} is determined, which is similar to the form of fenomenological GBW ansatz. The gluon density function and $F_{2}$ function are also calculated and compared with the results for the gluon density and $F_{2}$ functions from the GRV parameterization for different values of $Q^2$. It is shown, that the results for $F_2$ structure function of the considered model are in the good accordance with the results obtained from the GRV parameterization of parton densities.
Estimating density dependence in time-series of age-structured populations.
Lande, R; Engen, S; Saether, B-E
2002-01-01
For a life history with age at maturity alpha, and stochasticity and density dependence in adult recruitment and mortality, we derive a linearized autoregressive equation with time-lags of from 1 to alpha years. Contrary to current interpretations, the coefficients for different time-lags in the autoregressive dynamics do not simply measure delayed density dependence, but also depend on life-history parameters. We define a new measure of total density dependence in a life history, D, as the negative elasticity of population growth rate per generation with respect to change in population size, D = - partial differential lnlambda(T)/partial differential lnN, where lambda is the asymptotic multiplicative growth rate per year, T is the generation time and N is adult population size. We show that D can be estimated from the sum of the autoregression coefficients. We estimated D in populations of six avian species for which life-history data and unusually long time-series of complete population censuses were available. Estimates of D were in the order of 1 or higher, indicating strong, statistically significant density dependence in four of the six species. PMID:12396510
A time-dependent approach to electron-atom scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buffington, Gavin Douglas
1997-08-01
This time-dependent approach utilizes a fully correlated two electron wave function developed by Bottcher, Schultz and Madison. A finite element spline basis is employed with the principle of collocation in order to express the wave function and Hamiltonian numerically. An initial state, composed of a wavepacket for the projectile and an isolated atomic wave function, is evolved in time according to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. Probabilities for excitation and ionization are computed as a function of time by taking projections onto states and pseudostates of the target atom. The wavepacket approach obviates the need for consideration of three- body boundary conditions and the asymptotic form of the wave function. Cross sections for electron impact excitation and ionization are obtained and compared with results from other theoretical methods.
Predicting Fish Densities in Lotic Systems: a Simple Modeling Approach
Fish density models are essential tools for fish ecologists and fisheries managers. However, applying these models can be difficult because of high levels of model complexity and the large number of parameters that must be estimated. We designed a simple fish density model and te...
Time-dependent HF approach to SHE dynamics
A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker
2014-12-04
We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method to study various aspects of the reactions utilized in searches for superheavy elements. These include capture cross-sections, quasifission, prediction of $P_{\\mathrm{CN}}$, and other interesting dynamical quantities. We show that the microscopic TDHF approach provides an important tool to shed some light on the nuclear dynamics leading to the formation of superheavy elements.
Laury Arthaud; Selim Ben Rokia-Mille; Hussein Raad; Aviv Dombrovsky; Nicolas Prevost; Maria Capovilla; Alain Robichon
2011-01-01
Behaviors in insects are partly highly efficient Bayesian processes that fulfill exploratory tasks ending with the colonization of new ecological niches. The foraging (for) gene in Drosophila encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). It has been extensively described as a frequency-dependent gene and its transcripts are differentially expressed between individuals, reflecting the population density context. Some for transcripts, when expressed
Shuichiro Ebata
2012-11-29
We carried out a simulation of heavy ion collision using a time-dependent density functional theory. We call it the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) which can describe nuclear dynamics in three-dimensional coordinate space, treating nuclear pairing correlation. We simulate 20O+20O collision using the Cb-TDHFB with a contact-type pairing functional, and show the behavior of gap energy which is decreasing and vibrating while colliding.
Density-dependent natal dispersal patterns in a leopard population recovering from over-harvest.
Fattebert, Julien; Balme, Guy; Dickerson, Tristan; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke
2015-01-01
Natal dispersal enables population connectivity, gene flow and metapopulation dynamics. In polygynous mammals, dispersal is typically male-biased. Classically, the 'mate competition', 'resource competition' and 'resident fitness' hypotheses predict density-dependent dispersal patterns, while the 'inbreeding avoidance' hypothesis posits density-independent dispersal. In a leopard (Panthera pardus) population recovering from over-harvest, we investigated the effect of sex, population density and prey biomass, on age of natal dispersal, distance dispersed, probability of emigration and dispersal success. Over an 11-year period, we tracked 35 subadult leopards using VHF and GPS telemetry. Subadult leopards initiated dispersal at 13.6 ± 0.4 months. Age at commencement of dispersal was positively density-dependent. Although males (11.0 ± 2.5 km) generally dispersed further than females (2.7 ± 0.4 km), some males exhibited opportunistic philopatry when the population was below capacity. All 13 females were philopatric, while 12 of 22 males emigrated. Male dispersal distance and emigration probability followed a quadratic relationship with population density, whereas female dispersal distance was inversely density-dependent. Eight of 12 known-fate females and 5 of 12 known-fate male leopards were successful in settling. Dispersal success did not vary with population density, prey biomass, and for males, neither between dispersal strategies (philopatry vs. emigration). Females formed matrilineal kin clusters, supporting the resident fitness hypothesis. Conversely, mate competition appeared the main driver for male leopard dispersal. We demonstrate that dispersal patterns changed over time, i.e. as the leopard population density increased. We conclude that conservation interventions that facilitated local demographic recovery in the study area also restored dispersal patterns disrupted by unsustainable harvesting, and that this indirectly improved connectivity among leopard populations over a larger landscape. PMID:25875293
Density-Dependent Natal Dispersal Patterns in a Leopard Population Recovering from Over-Harvest
Fattebert, Julien; Balme, Guy; Dickerson, Tristan; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke
2015-01-01
Natal dispersal enables population connectivity, gene flow and metapopulation dynamics. In polygynous mammals, dispersal is typically male-biased. Classically, the ‘mate competition’, ‘resource competition’ and ‘resident fitness’ hypotheses predict density-dependent dispersal patterns, while the ‘inbreeding avoidance’ hypothesis posits density-independent dispersal. In a leopard (Panthera pardus) population recovering from over-harvest, we investigated the effect of sex, population density and prey biomass, on age of natal dispersal, distance dispersed, probability of emigration and dispersal success. Over an 11-year period, we tracked 35 subadult leopards using VHF and GPS telemetry. Subadult leopards initiated dispersal at 13.6 ± 0.4 months. Age at commencement of dispersal was positively density-dependent. Although males (11.0 ± 2.5 km) generally dispersed further than females (2.7 ± 0.4 km), some males exhibited opportunistic philopatry when the population was below capacity. All 13 females were philopatric, while 12 of 22 males emigrated. Male dispersal distance and emigration probability followed a quadratic relationship with population density, whereas female dispersal distance was inversely density-dependent. Eight of 12 known-fate females and 5 of 12 known-fate male leopards were successful in settling. Dispersal success did not vary with population density, prey biomass, and for males, neither between dispersal strategies (philopatry vs. emigration). Females formed matrilineal kin clusters, supporting the resident fitness hypothesis. Conversely, mate competition appeared the main driver for male leopard dispersal. We demonstrate that dispersal patterns changed over time, i.e. as the leopard population density increased. We conclude that conservation interventions that facilitated local demographic recovery in the study area also restored dispersal patterns disrupted by unsustainable harvesting, and that this indirectly improved connectivity among leopard populations over a larger landscape. PMID:25875293
Luong, Lien T; Vigliotti, Beth A; Hudson, Peter J
2011-04-01
The vast majority of parasites exhibit an aggregated frequency distribution within their host population, such that most hosts have few or no parasites while only a minority of hosts are heavily infected. One exception to this rule is the trophically transmitted parasite Pterygodermatites peromysci of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), which is randomly distributed within its host population. Here, we ask: what are the factors generating the random distribution of parasites in this system when the majority of macroparasites exhibit non-random patterns? We hypothesise that tight density-dependent processes constrain parasite establishment and survival, preventing the build-up of parasites within individual hosts, and preclude aggregation within the host population. We first conducted primary infections in a laboratory experiment using white-footed mice to test for density-dependent parasite establishment and survival of adult worms. Secondary or challenge infection experiments were then conducted to investigate underlying mechanisms, including intra-specific competition and host-mediated restrictions (i.e. acquired immunity). The results of our experimental infections show a dose-dependent constraint on within-host-parasite establishment, such that the proportion of mice infected rose initially with exposure, and then dropped off at the highest dose. Additional evidence of density-dependent competition comes from the decrease in worm length with increasing levels of exposure. In the challenge infection experiment, previous exposure to parasites resulted in a lower prevalence and intensity of infection compared with primary infection of naïve mice; the magnitude of this effect was also density-dependent. Host immune response (IgG levels) increased with the level of exposure, but decreased with the number of worms established. Our results suggest that strong intra-specific competition and acquired host immunity operate in a density-dependent manner to constrain parasite establishment, driving down aggregation and ultimately accounting for the observed random distribution of parasites. PMID:21215747
Sampling-Based Approaches to Calculating Marginal Densities
Alan E. Gelfand; Adrian F. M. Smith
1990-01-01
Stochastic substitution, the Gibbs sampler, and the sampling-importance-resampling algorithm can be viewed as three alternative sampling- (or Monte Carlo-) based approaches to the calculation of numerical estimates of marginal probability distributions. The three approaches will be reviewed, compared, and contrasted in relation to various joint probability structures frequently encountered in applications. In particular, the relevance of the approaches to calculating
Schrader, Matthew; Jarrett, Benjamin J M; Kilner, Rebecca M
2015-04-01
Studies of siblings have focused mainly on their competitive interactions and to a lesser extent on their cooperation. However, competition and cooperation are at opposite ends on a continuum of possible interactions and the nature of these interactions may be flexible with ecological factors tipping the balance toward competition in some environments and cooperation in others. Here we show that the presence of parental care and the density of larvae on the breeding carcass change the outcome of sibling interactions in burying beetle broods. With full parental care there was a strong negative relationship between larval density and larval mass, consistent with sibling competition for resources. In the absence of care, initial increases in larval density had beneficial effects on larval mass but further increases in larval density reduced larval mass. This likely reflects a density-dependent shift between cooperation and competition. In a second experiment, we manipulated larval density and removed parental care. We found that the ability of larvae to penetrate the breeding carcass increased with larval density and that feeding within the carcass resulted in heavier larvae than feeding outside the carcass. However, larval density did not influence carcass decay. PMID:25648525
Equation of state of dense matter from a density dependent relativistic mean field model
Shen, G.; Horowitz, C. J. [Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics, Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Teige, S. [University Information Technology Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)
2010-07-15
We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of dense matter using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model with a density dependent coupling that is a slightly modified form of the original NL3 interaction. For nonuniform nuclear matter we approximate the unit lattice as a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell, wherein the meson mean fields and nucleon Dirac wave functions are solved fully self-consistently. We also calculate uniform nuclear matter for a wide range of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions, and match them to nonuniform matter as the density decreases. The calculations took over 6000 CPU days in Indiana University's supercomputer clusters. We tabulate the resulting EOS at over 107,000 grid points in the proton fraction range Y{sub P}=0 to 0.56. For the temperature range T=0.16 to 15.8 MeV, we cover the density range n{sub B}=10{sup -4} to 1.6 fm{sup -3}; and for the higher temperature range T=15.8 to 80 MeV, we cover the larger density range n{sub B}=10{sup -8} to 1.6 fm{sup -3}. In the future we plan to study low density, low temperature (T<15.8 MeV), nuclear matter using a Virial expansion, and we will match the low-density and high-density results to generate a complete EOS table for use in astrophysical simulations of supernova and neutron star mergers.
Schrader, Matthew; Jarrett, Benjamin J. M.; Kilner, Rebecca M.
2015-01-01
Studies of siblings have focused mainly on their competitive interactions and to a lesser extent on their cooperation. However, competition and cooperation are at opposite ends on a continuum of possible interactions and the nature of these interactions may be flexible with ecological factors tipping the balance toward competition in some environments and cooperation in others. Here we show that the presence of parental care and the density of larvae on the breeding carcass change the outcome of sibling interactions in burying beetle broods. With full parental care there was a strong negative relationship between larval density and larval mass, consistent with sibling competition for resources. In the absence of care, initial increases in larval density had beneficial effects on larval mass but further increases in larval density reduced larval mass. This likely reflects a density-dependent shift between cooperation and competition. In a second experiment, we manipulated larval density and removed parental care. We found that the ability of larvae to penetrate the breeding carcass increased with larval density and that feeding within the carcass resulted in heavier larvae than feeding outside the carcass. However, larval density did not influence carcass decay. PMID:25648525
Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Ke; Söderquist, Mårten; Englund, Göran
2014-02-01
In this paper we elucidate how small-scale movements, such as those associated with searching for food and avoiding predators, affect the stability of predator-prey dynamics. We investigate an individual-based Lotka-Volterra model with density-dependent movement, in which the predator and prey populations live in a very large number of coupled patches. The rates at which individuals leave patches depend on the local densities of heterospecifics, giving rise to one reaction norm for each of the two species. Movement rates are assumed to be much faster than demographics rates. A spatial structure of predators and prey emerges which affects the global population dynamics. We derive a criterion which reveals how demographic stability depends on the relationships between the per capita covariance and densities of predators and prey. Specifically, we establish that a positive relationship with prey density and a negative relationship with predator density tend to be stabilizing. On a more mechanistic level we show how these relationships are linked to the movement reaction norms of predators and prey. Numerical results show that these findings hold both for local and global movements, i.e., both when migration is biased towards neighbouring patches and when all patches are reached with equal probability. PMID:24060621
of metabolic rates John P. DeLong*, Torrance C. Hanley and David A. Vasseur Department of Ecology predictors of metabolic rates, there is consider- able unexplained variation in metabolic rates both within to changes in the rate of food intake with population density, as metabolism depends on the throughput
DENSITY-DEPENDENT RESPONSES OF GRAY-TAILED VOLES TO MOWING
Voles (Microtus spp.) commonly inhabit forage crops and may cause excessive damage to these crops. owever, cover removal by mowing or haying may cause vole populations to decline. o determine if gray-tailed voles responded to mowing of alfalfa in a density-dependent manner, the a...
A revised electronic Hessian for approximate time-dependent density functional theory
Tom Ziegler; Michael Seth; Mykhaylo Krykunov; Jochen Autschbach
2008-01-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the generalized gradient level of approximation (GGA) has shown systematic errors in the calculated excitation energies. This is especially the case for energies representing electron transitions between two separated regions of space or between orbitals of different spatial extents. It will be shown that these limitations can be attributed to the electronic ground state
Boca-dependent maturation of b-propeller/EGF modules in low-density lipoprotein receptor
Springer, Timothy A.
Boca-dependent maturation of b-propeller/EGF modules in low-density lipoprotein receptor proteins ortholog, Mesoderm development, in the mouse. All LDLRs have at least one six-bladed b-propeller domain is specifically required for the maturation of these b-propeller/EGF modules through the secretory pathway
Cannibalism and density-dependent mortality in the wolf spider Pardosa milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae)
Walker, Sean E.
Cannibalism and density-dependent mortality in the wolf spider Pardosa milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae) Christopher M. Buddle, Sean E. Walker, and Ann L. Rypstra Abstract: Cannibalism is an important regulating that cannibalism with wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) in the genera Schizocosa and Pardosa is common and can act
Dislocation density-dependent quality factors in InGaN quantum dot containing microdisks
Russell, Kasey
Dislocation density-dependent quality factors in InGaN quantum dot containing microdisks H. A. R Microdisks incorporating InGaN quantum dots were fabricated using SiO2 microspheres as a hard mask in conjunction with a photoelectrochemical etch step from a structure containing a sacrificial InGaN/InGaN
Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei
Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M. [Departament d'Estructura i Conastituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano , Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skodowskiej ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)
2012-10-20
The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.
Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing
Becker, Andreas
such as remote sensing of pollutants 17 and lightning control 812 . The propagation of a short in- tense laserPlasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing'Optique, Photonique et Laser and Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d'Optique, Université Laval, Québec
DENSITY-DEPENDENT FLOW IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL VARIABLY-SATURATED MEDIA
A one-dimensional finite element is developed to simulate density-dependent flow of saltwater in variably saturated media. The flow and solute equations were solved in a coupled mode (iterative), in a partially coupled mode (non-iterative), and in a completely decoupled mode. P...
Temperature and carrier density dependence of mobility in a heavily doped quantum well
del Alamo, Jesús A.
Temperature and carrier density dependence of mobility in a heavily doped quantum well Mark H of mobility in heavily doped quantum wells. We have measured electron mobility as a function of carrier concentration and temperature in an InO.rsGaus&s quantum well with a doping of N,=6X101' cm-`. Mobility is found
Bowen, W. Don
Behavioral signature of intraspecific competition and density dependence in colony-breeding marine In populations of colony-breeding marine animals, foraging around colonies can lead to intraspecific competition behavioral data are available, it may be possible to infer the mechanism of intraspecific competition
Host immune responses are necessary for density dependence in nematode infections
Paterson, Steve
283 Host immune responses are necessary for density dependence in nematode infections S. PATERSON (Received 23 November 2001; revised 23 January and 15 April 2002; accepted 18 April 2002) SUMMARY Nematode a host. These effects act to regulate and stabilize the size of nematode populations. Understanding how
Barbour, Andrew
Emergent multicellular life cycles in filamentous bacteria due to density dependent population exponential growth, there will be a pre- dominance of multicellular filaments, while at carrying capacity in generation time can alter length distributions. The theory predicts12 that given the same population growth
Demonstrating the Temperature Dependence of Density via Construction of a Galilean Thermometer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Priest, Marie A.; Padgett, Lea W.; Padgett, Clifford W.
2011-01-01
A method for the construction of a Galilean thermometer out of common chemistry glassware is described. Students in a first-semester physical chemistry (thermodynamics) class can construct the Galilean thermometer as an investigation of the thermal expansivity of liquids and the temperature dependence of density. This is an excellent first…
Bernatchez, Louis
Negative density-dependent dispersal in the American black bear (Ursus americanus) revealed'´Etudes Nordiques, Universit´e Laval, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada Keywords Black bear, dispersal, inbreeding on sex-specific dispersal behavior in the American black bear, Ursus americanus. We tested whether
Blouin-Demers, Gabriel
Red flour beetles balance thermoregulation and food acquisition via density-dependent habitat; revised 12 July 2014; accepted 22 July 2014 doi:10.1111/jzo.12168 Abstract Theories of habitat selection assume that habitat selection patterns are based on the fitness consequences of selecting a particular
A Geometric Approach to Dislocation Densities in Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakke, Knut; Moraes, Fernando
2015-10-01
Dislocation densities threading semiconductor crystals are a problem for device developers. Among the issues presented by the defect density is the appearance of the so called shallow levels. In this work we introduce a geometric model to explain the origin of the observed shallow levels. We show that a uniform distribution of screw dislocations acts as an effective uniform magnetic field which yields electronic bound states even in the presence of a repulsive Coulomb-like potential. This introduces energy levels within the band gap, increasing the carrier concentration in the region threaded by the dislocation density and adding additional recombination paths other than the near band-edge recombination. Our results suggest that one might use a magnetic field to destroy the dislocation density bound states and therefore minimize its effects on the charge carriers.
Bordbar, G H; Taghizade, M
2015-01-01
In this work, we have done a completely microscopic calculation using a many-body variational method based on the cluster expansion of energy to compute the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. In our calculations, we have employed the $AV_{18}$ nuclear potential. We have also investigated the temperature and density dependence of asymmetry energy. Our results show that the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter depends on both density and temperature. We have also studied the effects of different terms in the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. These investigations indicate that at different densities and temperatures, the contribution of parabolic term is very substantial with respect to the other terms. Therefore, we can conclude that the parabolic approximation is a relatively good estimation, and our calculated binding energy of asymmetric nuclear matter is in a relatively good agreement with that of semi-empirical mass formula. However, for the accurate calculations, it is better to consider the effects of o...
Cosmological density perturbations with a scale-dependent Newton's constant G
Hamber, Herbert W.; Toriumi, Reiko [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States)
2010-08-15
We explore possible cosmological consequences of a running Newton's constant G({open_square}), as suggested by the nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point scenario in the quantum field-theoretic treatment of Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant term. In particular, we focus here on what possible effects the scale-dependent coupling might have on large scale cosmological density perturbations. Starting from a set of manifestly covariant effective field equations derived earlier, we systematically develop the linear theory of density perturbations for a nonrelativistic, pressureless fluid. The result is a modified equation for the matter density contrast, which can be solved and thus provides an estimate for the growth index parameter {gamma} in the presence of a running G. We complete our analysis by comparing the fully relativistic treatment with the corresponding results for the nonrelativistic (Newtonian) case, the latter also with a weakly scale-dependent G.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Miss Witcher
2011-10-06
What is Density? Density is the amount of "stuff" in a given "space". In science terms that means the amount of "mass" per unit "volume". Using units that means the amount of "grams" per "centimeters cubed". Check out the following links and learn about density through song! Density Beatles Style Density Chipmunk Style Density Rap Enjoy! ...
UC/MALDI-MS analysis of HDL; evidence for density-dependent post-translational modifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Jeffery D.; Henriquez, Ronald R.; Tichy, Shane E.; Russell, David H.; McNeal, Catherine J.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.
2007-12-01
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the nature of the post-translational modifications of the major apolipoproteins of HDL is different for density-distinct subclasses. These subclasses were separated by ultracentrifugation using a novel density-forming solute to yield a high-resolution separation. The serum of two subjects, a control with a normolipidemic profile and a subject with diagnosed cardiovascular disease, was studied. Aliquots of three HDL subclasses were analyzed by MALDI and considerable differences were seen when comparing density-distinct subclasses and also when comparing the two subjects. A detailed analysis of the post-translational modification pattern of apoA-1 shows evidence of considerable protease activity, particularly in the more dense fractions. We conclude that part of the heterogeneity of the population of HDL particles is due to density-dependent protease activity.
Latitudinal Density Dependence of Magnetic Field Lines Inferred from Polar Plasma Wave Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, J.; Denton, R. E.; Hudson, M. K.; Miftakhova, E. G.; Menietti, J. D.; Gallagher, D. L.
2000-01-01
Using observations of the electron density, n(sub e), based on measurement of the upper hybrid resonance frequency by the Polar spacecraft Plasma Wave Instrument, we have examined the radial density dependence along field lines in the outer plasmasphere and the near plasmatrough. Sampled L values range from 2.5 to 6.6. Our technique depends on the fact that Polar crosses particular L values at two different points with different radial distance R. In our plasmaspheric data set (n(sub e) > 100/cm3), we find that on average n(sub e) is flat along field lines from the equator up to the latitudes sampled by Polar (R approximately equal to or > 2.0). In the plasmatrough data set (n(sub e) < 100/cm-3), there is on average a mild radial dependence n(sub e) varies as R(exp -1.7).
New approaches to measuring biochar density and Catherine E. Brewer a,b,
Gonnermann, Helge
New approaches to measuring biochar density and porosity Catherine E. Brewer a,b, *, Victoria J Accepted 26 March 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Biochar Skeletal density Envelope density Pore volume of biochar will impact its mobility in the environ- ment, its interaction with the soil hydrologic cycle
A population density approach that facilitates largescale modeling of neural networks: extension to
Nykamp, Duane Q.
A population density approach that facilitates largescale modeling of neural networks: extension neurons. For each population, we calculate the evolution of a probability density function (PDF) which explored a computationally e#cient population density method. This method was introduced as a tool
A population density approach that facilitates large-scale modeling of neural networks: extension to
Nykamp, Duane Q.
A population density approach that facilitates large-scale modeling of neural networks: extension neurons. For each population, we calculate the evolution of a probability density function (PDF) which explored a computationally efficient population density method. This method was introduced as a tool
LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame
Raman, Venkat
LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Chunping; Sugino, Osamu; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki
2006-09-01
We present an improved ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) approach to electronic excitations. A conventional TDDFT scheme within the local-density approximation (LDA) inaccurately predicts Rydberg and charge-transfer excitation energies, mainly because the electron-hole (e-h) interaction is inappropriately described in these excitations, as can be found by analyzing the linear response formula [M. Petersilka, U. J. Gossmann, and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1212 (1996)]. When the formula is averaged over the electron occupation, the inappropriate e-h interaction within LDA is corrected to become explicitly similar to that of the exact exchange system. As anticipated from the similarity, our proposed scheme of modified linear response greatly improves the prediction of the problematic excitations, which are exemplified for typical molecules.
Density-dependent patterns of thiamine and pigment production in the diatom Nitzschia microcephala.
Pinto, Ernani; Van Nieuwerburgh, Lies; Paes de Barros, Marcelo; Pedersén, Marianne; Colepicolo, Pio; Snoeijs, Pauli
2003-05-01
In the present study we investigate how intraspecific (density-dependent) competition for nutrients by the diatom Nitzschia microcephala affects the level of oxidative stress in the algal cells as well as their production of pigments and thiamine. N. microcephala was grown in three different densities until the stationary growth phase was reached. Throughout the experiment, growth rate was negatively related to cell density. Superoxide dismutase activity, protein thiol, and diatoxanthin concentrations indicated increasing oxidative stress with increasing cell density, which was most probably caused by nutrient depletion of the medium. Pigment contents per cell (except for diatoxanthin) decreased with increasing cell density. N. microcephala was able to synthesize thiamine and its thiamine content per cell increased in concert with cell density. In comparison, the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae was unable to synthesize thiamine. These results suggest that cells of N. microcephala subjected to higher competition and lower growth rates have a lower carotenoid content and a higher thiamine content. If such responses would occur in nature as well, eutrophication (higher cell densities) may alter the quality of microalgae as food items for higher trophic levels not only by species shifts in the phytoplankton, but also by changes in the cellular nutritional value within species. PMID:12711136
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faghei, Kazem
2014-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to explore the influences of cooling timescale on fragmentation of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks. We assume the cooling timescale, expressed in terms of the dynamical timescale ? tcool, has a power-law dependence on temperature and density, ? tcool ? ?-aT-b, where a and b are constants. We use this cooling timescale in a simple prescription for the cooling rate, du/dt = -u/tcool, where u is the internal energy. We perform our simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. The simulations demonstrate that the disk is very sensitive to the cooling timescale, which depends on density and temperature. Under such a cooling timescale, the disk becomes gravitationally unstable and clumps form in the disk. This property even occurs for cooling timescales which are much longer than the critical cooling timescale, ? tcool ? 7. We show that by adding the dependence of a cooling timescale on temperature and density, the number of clumps increases and the clumps can also form at smaller radii. The simulations imply that the sensitivity of a cooling timescale to density is more than to temperature, because even for a small dependence of the cooling timescale on density, clumps can still form in the disk. However, when the cooling timescale has a large dependence on temperature, clumps form in the disk. We also consider the effects of artificial viscosity parameters on fragmentation conditions. This consideration is performed in two cases, where ? tcool is a constant and ? tcool is a function of density and temperature. The simulations consider both cases, and results show the artificial viscosity parameters have rather similar effects. For example, using too small of values for linear and quadratic terms in artificial viscosity can suppress the gravitational instability and consequently the efficiency of the clump formation process decreases. This property is consistent with recent simulations of self-gravitating disks. We perform simulations with and without the Balsara form of artificial viscosity. We find that in the cooling and self-gravitating disks without the Balsara switch, the clumps can form more easily than those with the Balsara switch. Moreover, in both cases where the Balsara switch is present or absent, the simulations show that the cooling timescale strongly depends on density and temperature.
An information theory approach to the density of the earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graber, M. A.
1977-01-01
Information theory can develop a technique which takes experimentally determined numbers and produces a uniquely specified best density model satisfying those numbers. A model was generated using five numerical parameters: the mass of the earth, its moment of inertia, three zero-node torsional normal modes (L = 2, 8, 26). In order to determine the stability of the solution, six additional densities were generated, in each of which the period of one of the three normal modes was increased or decreased by one standard deviation. The superposition of the seven models is shown. It indicates that current knowledge of the torsional modes is sufficient to specify the density in the upper mantle but that the lower mantle and core will require smaller standard deviations before they can be accurately specified.
Meta-GGA-based adiabatic time-dependent density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Vladimir; Vignale, Giovanni
2012-02-01
The local-density approximation (LDA) to the ground-state density functional theory (DFT) is well known to allow for a generalization to the time-dependent case [1]. The assumption of the adiabaticity of the process greatly simplifies the theory. The further extension of the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is trivial. Here we address lifting the adiabatic TDDFT to the third rung of the ``Jacobs ladder'' [2] : We work out the kinetic energy density dependent (meta-GGA) TDDFT formalism. The new theory possesses remarkable properties not present in LDA and GGA: (i) It is non-local with respect to the particle density; (ii) In the case of bulk semiconductors, it supports the 1/q^2 singularity of the exchange-correlation kernel, where q is the wave-vector, the latter being important to reproduce the excitonic effect. We also present illustrative calculations of the optical absorption in semiconductors [3]. [4pt] [1] A. Zangwill and P. Soven, Phys. Rev. A, 21, 1561 (1980).[0pt] [2] J. Tao, J. P. Perdew, V. N. Staroverov, and G. E. Scuseria, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146401 (2003).[0pt] [3] V. U. Nazarov and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 216402(2011).
A new weight-dependent direct statistical approach model
Burn, K.W. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Energy Dept.
1997-02-01
A weight-dependent capability is inserted into the direct statistical approach (DSA) to optimize splitting and Russian roulette (RR) parameters in Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. In the new model, splitting or RR is carried out on a progenitor arriving at a surface in such a way that the weight of the progeny is fixed (for the particular surface). Thus, the model is named the DSA weight line model. In the presence of weight-dependent games, all components of the second moment, and the time, are not separable. In the absence of weight-dependent games, the component of the second moment describing the weight-dependent splitting or RR is still not separable. Two approximations are examined to render this component separable under these circumstances. One of these approximations, named the noninteger approximation, looks promising. The new DSA model with the noninteger approximation is tested on four sample problems. Comparisons with the previous weight-independent DSA model and with the MCNP (version 4a) weight window generator are made.
Jackson, A. P.; Calder, A. C.; Townsley, D. M.; Chamulak, D. A.; Brown, E. F.; Timmes, F. X.
2010-09-01
We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} for a 1 Z {circle_dot} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.
Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.
2010-09-01
We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {sub sun} for a 1 Z{sub sun} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M{sub sun} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chia-Jen; Lee, Hsin-Chang; Yeh, Lee-Chih; Liu, Kai-Chung; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chuo, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Lin, Burn J.
2004-08-01
The specification of mask global CD uniformity (GCDU) is ever tightening. There is no exception at the 65-nm node. Some of the key contributors affecting GCD non-uniformity is pattern-density effects such as fogging effect from the e-beam writer and macro loading effect from the etcher. In addition, the contributions from position-dependent effects are significant, and these contributions included resist developing, baking, as well as aberrations of the wafer-imaging lens. It is challenging to quantify these effects and even more so to correct them to improve the GCDU. Correction of the fogging and etch loading effects had been reported by various authors. In addition to correction for these effects, we are reporting the position-dependent effects in this paper. Currently, the fogging effect induces 5 nm of CD error and an additional 5~15 nm of CD errors is induced by the etch-loading effect within a 60-mm radius area. We improved the GCDU by pattern-dependent corrections. Using position-dependent dose correction in mask writing, we managed to effectively compensate for intra-field non-uniformity on wafer, which is induced by lens aberrations and illumination non-uniformity.
The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...
Alternative approaches to the calculation of nutrient density
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Over thirty years ago researchers developed a variety of different methods for rating or measuring the nutritional quality of foods. Nutrient density as the initial concept emerged was most commonly defined as the ratio of the amount of nutrients in a food to the energy provided. The nutrient dens...
Time-dependent approaches for the calculation of intersystem crossing rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etinski, Mihajlo; Tatchen, Jörg; Marian, Christel M.
2011-04-01
We present three formulas for calculating intersystem crossing rates in the Condon approximation to the golden rule by means of a time-dependent approach: an expression using the full time correlation function which is exact for harmonic oscillators, a second-order cumulant expansion, and a short-time approximation of this expression. While the exact expression and the cumulant expansion require numerical integration of the time correlation function, the integration of the short-time expansion can be performed analytically. To ensure convergence in the presence of large oscillations of the correlation function, we use a Gaussian damping function. The strengths and weaknesses of these approaches as well as the dependence of the results on the choice of the technical parameters of the time integration are assessed on four test examples, i.e., the nonradiative S1 leadsto T1 transitions in thymine, phenalenone, flavone, and porphyrin. The obtained rate constants are compared with previous results of a time-independent approach. Very good agreement between the literature values and the integrals over the full time correlation functions are observed. Furthermore, the comparison suggests that the cumulant expansion approximates the exact expression very well while allowing the interval of the time integration to be significantly shorter. In cases with sufficiently high vibrational density of states also the short-time approximation yields rates in good agreement with the results of the exact formula. A great advantage of the time-dependent approach over the time-independent approach is its excellent computational efficiency making it the method of choice in cases of large energy gaps, large numbers of normal modes, and high densities of final vibrational states.
Yeung Ling Hei; Yuen Manwai
2010-05-05
We study some particular solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations with density-dependent viscosity and with pressure, in radial symmetry. With extension of the previous known blowup solutions for the Euler-Poisson equations / pressureless Navier-Stokes-Poisson with density-dependent viscosity, we constructed the corresponding analytical blowup solutions for the Navier-Stokes-Poisson Equations with density-dependent viscosity and with pressure.
Berngardt, O I
2007-01-01
In the paper the step-by-step principles for making local model of electron density are described. They are based on modulation principle - electron density dependence on time is a product of a number of temporal variations caused by solar radiation, magnetic activity, Earth orientation and unknown additional periodical processes (not a sum, as they suppose sometimes when making such models). A multiranges modulation principle is also suggested, that allows automatically extend the set of parameters by using new ones, obtained by filtration (or averaging) of basic set of parameters over the time. In the paper we describe two approaches to the model creation - descriptional and predictional ones. To test the approach three different models were created for daily electron density logarithm using the described principles. We have used the data of Irkutsk digisonde over the period 2003-2007 years for testing. It becomes clear that a non-optimal choice of the number of model parameters could increase prediction er...
The density of states approach for the simulation of finite density quantum field theories
K. Langfeld; B. Lucini; A. Rago; R. Pellegrini; L. Bongiovanni
2015-03-02
Finite density quantum field theories have evaded first principle Monte-Carlo simulations due to the notorious sign-problem. The partition function of such theories appears as the Fourier transform of the generalised density-of-states, which is the probability distribution of the imaginary part of the action. With the advent of Wang-Landau type simulation techniques and recent advances, the density-of-states can be calculated over many hundreds of orders of magnitude. Current research addresses the question whether the achieved precision is high enough to reliably extract the finite density partition function, which is exponentially suppressed with the volume. In my talk, I review the state-of-play for the high precision calculations of the density-of-states as well as the recent progress for obtaining reliable results from highly oscillating integrals. I will review recent progress for the $Z_3$ quantum field theory for which results can be obtained from the simulation of the dual theory, which appears to free of a sign problem.
Pawe? Buczek; Arthur Ernst; Leonid M. Sandratskii
2011-11-13
We study the Landau damping of ferromagnetic magnons in Fe, Co, and Ni as the dimensionality of the system is reduced from three to two. We resort to the \\textit{ab initio} linear response time dependent density functional theory in the adiabatic local spin density approximation. The numerical scheme is based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. The key points of the theoretical approach and the implementation are discussed. We investigate the transition metals in three different forms: bulk phases, free-standing thin films and thin films supported on a nonmagnetic substrate. We demonstrate that the dimensionality trends in Fe and Ni are opposite: in Fe the transition from bulk bcc crystal to Fe/Cu(100) film reduces the damping whereas in Ni/Cu(100) film the attenuation increases compared to bulk fcc Ni. In Co, the strength of the damping depends relatively weakly on the sample dimensionality. We explain the difference in the trends on the basis of the underlying electronic structure. The influence of the substrate on the spin-wave damping is analyzed by employing Landau maps representing wave-vector resolved spectral density of the Stoner excitations.
Density dependence of quark masses and stability of color-flavor locked phases
Zhang Xiaobing; Li Xueqian
2005-09-01
Considering the density dependence of quark masses, we investigate the color-flavor-locked matter and its stability relative to (unpaired) strange quark matter. We find that, when the current mass of strange quark m{sub s} is small, the strange quark matter remains stable for moderate baryon densities. When m{sub s} is large, the gapless phase of the color-flavor-locked matter is found to be difficult to be stable. A schematic phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter is presented, in which the color-flavor-locked phase region is suppressed in comparison with the previous results.
Scaling out the density dependence of the $?$ relaxation in glassforming polymers
C. Alba-Simionesco; A. Cailliaux; A. Alegria; G. Tarjus
2004-04-02
We show that the density and temperature dependences of the $\\alpha$-relaxation time of several glassforming polymers can be described through a single scaling variable $X=e(\\rho)/T$, where $e(\\rho)$ is well fitted by a power law $\\rho^x$, $x$ being a species-specific parameter. This implies that ``fragility'' is an intrinsic, density-independent property of a glassformer characterizing its super-Arrhenius slowing down of relaxations, and it leads us to propose a modification of the celebrated Angell plot.
Density-dependent prophylaxis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, S. C.
2012-06-01
The density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis predicts that individuals at high density will invest more resources into immune defence than individuals at lower densities as a counter-measure to density-dependent pathogen transmission rates. Evidence has been found for this hypothesis in insects, but not in a non-arthropod taxon. To investigate this hypothesis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, density treatments were set up over 21 days, and pathogen infection was simulated with bacterial injection. Five immune responses: amoebocyte count, amoebocyte viability, lysosomal membrane integrity, respiratory burst and peroxidase activity were all upregulated at high density. These results demonstrate that immune investment shows phenotypic plasticity with adult population density in agreement with the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis. Here I show that the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis is neither dependent on larval density nor restricted to insects, and hence may potentially have important consequences on disease dynamics in any species with widely fluctuating population densities. This is the first demonstration of the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis outside arthropods.
Curchod, Basile F E; Penfold, Thomas J; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano
2013-01-01
The implementation of local control theory using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is discussed. The method is applied to study the photoexcitation of lithium fluoride, for which we demonstrate that this approach can efficiently generate a pulse, on-the-fly, able to control the population transfer between two selected electronic states. Analysis of the computed control pulse yields insights into the photophysics of the process identifying the relevant frequencies associated to the curvature of the initial and final state potential energy curves and their energy differences. The limitations inherent to the use of the trajectory surface hopping approach are also discussed. PMID:23967692
Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within Density Functional Approaches
Delgado, Alain; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea
2015-01-01
The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the Van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the Octopus code and present results for the electrostatic contribution to the solvation free energies and solvatochrom...
Breed, Greg A; Don Bowen, W; Leonard, Marty L
2013-01-01
In populations of colony-breeding marine animals, foraging around colonies can lead to intraspecific competition. This competition affects individual foraging behavior and can cause density-dependent population growth. Where behavioral data are available, it may be possible to infer the mechanism of intraspecific competition. If these mechanics are understood, they can be used to predict the population-level functional response resulting from the competition. Using satellite relocation and dive data, we studied the use of space and foraging behavior of juvenile and adult gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) from a large (over 200,000) and growing population breeding at Sable Island, Nova Scotia (44.0 oN 60.0 oW). These data were first analyzed using a behaviorally switching state-space model to infer foraging areas followed by randomization analysis of foraging region overlap of competing age classes. Patterns of habitat use and behavioral time budgets indicate that young-of-year juveniles (YOY) were likely displaced from foraging areas near (<10 km) the breeding colony by adult females. This displacement was most pronounced in the summer. Additionally, our data suggest that YOY are less capable divers than adults and this limits the habitat available to them. However, other segregating mechanisms cannot be ruled out, and we discuss several alternate hypotheses. Mark–resight data indicate juveniles born between 1998 and 2002 have much reduced survivorship compared with cohorts born in the late 1980s, while adult survivorship has remained steady. Combined with behavioral observations, our data suggest YOY are losing an intraspecific competition between adults and juveniles, resulting in the currently observed decelerating logistic population growth. Competition theory predicts that intraspecific competition resulting in a clear losing competitor should cause compensatory population regulation. This functional response produces a smooth logistic growth curve as carrying capacity is approached, and is consistent with census data collected from this population over the past 50 years. The competitive mechanism causing compensatory regulation likely stems from the capital-breeding life-history strategy employed by gray seals. This strategy decouples reproductive success from resources available around breeding colonies and prevents females from competing with each other while young are dependent. PMID:24198943
Breed, Greg A; Don Bowen, W; Leonard, Marty L
2013-10-01
In populations of colony-breeding marine animals, foraging around colonies can lead to intraspecific competition. This competition affects individual foraging behavior and can cause density-dependent population growth. Where behavioral data are available, it may be possible to infer the mechanism of intraspecific competition. If these mechanics are understood, they can be used to predict the population-level functional response resulting from the competition. Using satellite relocation and dive data, we studied the use of space and foraging behavior of juvenile and adult gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) from a large (over 200,000) and growing population breeding at Sable Island, Nova Scotia (44.0 (o)N 60.0 (o)W). These data were first analyzed using a behaviorally switching state-space model to infer foraging areas followed by randomization analysis of foraging region overlap of competing age classes. Patterns of habitat use and behavioral time budgets indicate that young-of-year juveniles (YOY) were likely displaced from foraging areas near (<10 km) the breeding colony by adult females. This displacement was most pronounced in the summer. Additionally, our data suggest that YOY are less capable divers than adults and this limits the habitat available to them. However, other segregating mechanisms cannot be ruled out, and we discuss several alternate hypotheses. Mark-resight data indicate juveniles born between 1998 and 2002 have much reduced survivorship compared with cohorts born in the late 1980s, while adult survivorship has remained steady. Combined with behavioral observations, our data suggest YOY are losing an intraspecific competition between adults and juveniles, resulting in the currently observed decelerating logistic population growth. Competition theory predicts that intraspecific competition resulting in a clear losing competitor should cause compensatory population regulation. This functional response produces a smooth logistic growth curve as carrying capacity is approached, and is consistent with census data collected from this population over the past 50 years. The competitive mechanism causing compensatory regulation likely stems from the capital-breeding life-history strategy employed by gray seals. This strategy decouples reproductive success from resources available around breeding colonies and prevents females from competing with each other while young are dependent. PMID:24198943
Quantum-dot density dependence of power conversion efficiency of intermediate-band solar cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamoto, Katsuyoshi; Kondo, Yasunori; Uchida, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Koichi
2012-12-01
For intermediate-band solar cells containing GaAs/InAs quantum dots (QDs), the QD density dependence of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was theoretically calculated for various sun concentrations under AM1.5 conditions based on detailed balance principles. A QD density of over 5 × 1013 cm-2 was required to achieve a PCE of more than 50% under 10 000 suns. However, under the photo-filled state and 1 sun, the PCE decreased over a wide total QD density range from about 3 × 1010 to 1 × 1013 cm-2. This reduction was attributed to the negative net carrier generation rate through the intermediate band, which was due to insufficient two-step optical absorption. The short-circuit current density increased as the QD density increased up to about 1 × 1011 cm-2 and it then saturated. In contrast, the open-circuit voltage decreased with increasing QD density. This reduction in the open-circuit voltage was suppressed at high sun concentrations.
Probability density function approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.
1994-01-01
The objective of the present work is to extend the probability density function (PDF) tubulence model to compressible reacting flows. The proability density function of the species mass fractions and enthalpy are obtained by solving a PDF evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The PDF solution procedure is coupled with a compression finite-volume flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled PDF equation for compressible flows, capable of treating flows with shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed. Two super sonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed PDF model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over solutions without PDF are observed.
Momentum-dependent local ansatz approach to correlated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal; Patoary, M. Atiqur R.
2014-03-01
Variational approach has been a simple and useful tool to describe the ground state of correlated electrons in solids, and many methods as well as wavefunctions for electron correlations have been proposed. Although the numerical methods such as the variational Monte-Carlo can quantitatively describe the correlations in the low dimensional system, the description of the real 3D system based on the wavefunction method has not yet been established well. We present here the momentum-dependent local ansatz approach (MLA) to the correlated electron system. The wavefunction consists of the two-particle excitation operators with momentum-dependent variational parameters, which are projected onto local orbitals, and a hybrid wavefunction which interpolates between the Hartree-Fock and the Hubbard alloy-analogy wavefunctions. On the basis of the numerical calculations in infinite dimensions, we demonstrate that the analytic MLA improves the Gutzwiller method in both the weak and strong interaction regimes, and that the MLA is applicable to the realistic systems with use of the 1st-principles LDA+U Hamiltonian.
The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities.
Nicklas, Theresa A; Drewnowski, Adam; O'Neil, Carol E
2014-12-01
The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and peas (legumes), and nuts and seeds that are prepared without added solid fats, added sugars, and sodium' as nutrient dense. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans further states that nutrient-dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few (kilo)calories or kilojoules. Finally, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been 'diluted' by the addition of energy from added solid fats, added sugars or by the solid fats naturally present in the food. However, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and other scientists have failed to clearly define 'nutrient density' or to provide criteria or indices that specify cut-offs for foods that are nutrient dense. Today, 'nutrient density' is a ubiquitous term used in the scientific literature, policy documents, marketing strategies and consumer messaging. However, the term remains ambiguous without a definitive or universal definition. Classifying or ranking foods according to their nutritional content is known as nutrient profiling. The goal of the present commentary is to address the research gaps that still exist before there can be a consensus on how best to define nutrient density, highlight the situation in the USA and relate this to wider, international efforts in nutrient profiling. PMID:25166614
Plot the Dot: A Graphical Approach to Density
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Don Rathjen
2009-01-01
In this activity, learners work in groups to determine the mass and volume of four samples: glass marbles, steel washers or nuts, pieces of pine wood, and pieces of PVC pipe. Learners then plot the data points on a large class graph of mass vs. volume to discover that data points for a particular material form a straight line, the slope of which gives the density of the material.
Electron density building block approach for metal organic frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chimpri, Abita S.; Macchi, Piero
2013-04-01
A general introduction to the state of the art in modeling metal organic materials using transferable atomic multipoles is provided. The method is based on the building block partitioning of the electron density, which is illustrated with some examples of potential applications and with detailed discussions of the advantages and pitfalls. The interactions taking place between building blocks are summarized and are used to discuss the properties that can be calculated.
Unified approach to nuclear densities from exotic atoms
E. Friedman
2009-01-28
Parameters of nuclear density distributions are derived from least-squares fits to strong interaction observables in exotic atoms. Global analyses of antiprotonic and pionic atoms show reasonably good agreement between the two types of probes regarding the average behaviour of root-mean-square radii of the neutron distributions. Apparent conflict regarding the shape of the neutron distribution is attributed to different radial sensitivities of these two probes.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mr. Hansen
2010-10-26
What is density? Density is a relationship between mass (usually in grams or kilograms) and volume (usually in L, mL or cm 3 ). Below are several sights to help you further understand the concept of density. Click the following link to review the concept of density. Be sure to read each slide and watch each video: Chemistry Review: Density Watch the following video: Pop density video The following is a fun interactive sight you can use to review density. Your job is #1, to play and #2 to calculate the density of the ...
Dependence of the LR-115 radon detector calibration factor on track density.
De Cicco, F; Pugliese, M; Roca, V; Sabbarese, C
2013-08-01
The reliability and accuracy of the methodology based on using LR-115 track detectors for radon measurements have been studied by determining the dependence of their calibration factors on radon exposure at levels reaching 13 MBq m(-3) h. This factor results not constant and demonstrated a decreasing exponential trend vs. exposure that has been explained in terms of the saturation effect and verified using a numerical simulation. This dependence does not affect the parameter that normalizes track density vs. film thickness. This parameter results constant and equal to - 0.30±0.02 cm(-2)/µm in the 300-8000 kBq h m(-3) exposure range. PMID:23694685
Time-dependent Density Functional Results for the Dynamic Hyperpolarizability of C{sub 60}
van Gisbergen, S.; Snijders, J.; Baerends, E. [Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081HV, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)] [Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081HV, Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
1997-04-01
The experimental, as well as theoretical, values for the frequency-dependent hyperpolarizability of C{sub 60} differ by orders of magnitude. We present the first density functional calculation of a molecular frequency-dependent hyperpolarizability. Our implementation is very economical, enabling the treatment of molecules of this size, in a potentially much more accurate way than can be obtained with alternative methods. Our results strongly support the recent results by Geng and Wright, who report much lower experimental values than previous authors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Optical response of C60 fullerene from a time dependent Thomas Fermi approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palade, D. I.; Baran, V.
2015-09-01
We study the collective electron dynamics in C60 clusters within the time dependent Thomas Fermi method in the frame of jellium model. The results regarding the optical spectrum are in good agreement with the experimental data, our simulations being able to reproduce both resonances from 20 {eV} and 40 {eV}. We compare also, the results with those from other theoretical approaches and investigate the implications of quantum effects including exchange-correlation corrections, or gradient corrections from a Weizsacker term. The nature of the second resonance is studied using transition densities.
Optical response of C60 fullerene from a Time Dependent Thomas Fermi approach
Palade, D I
2014-01-01
We study the collective electron dynamics in C60 clusters within the Time Dependent Thomas Fermi method in the frame of jellium model. The results regarding the optical spectrum are in good agreement with the experimental data, our simulations being able to reproduce both resonances from 20eV and 40eV . We compare also, the results with those from other theoretical approaches and investigate the implications of quantum effects including exchange-correlation corrections, or gradient corrections from a Weizsacker term. The nature of the second resonance is studied using transition densities and phase analysis and interpreted as being a collective surface plasmon
Angular momentum dependence of the nuclear level density in the A ?170 -200 region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohil, M.; Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Srivastava, V.; Meena, J. K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Bhattacharya, S.
2015-01-01
Neutron evaporation spectra along with ? multiplicity has been measured from 201Tl*,185Re*, and 169Tm* compound nuclei at the excitation energies of ˜27 and 37 MeV. Statistical model analysis of the experimental data has been carried out to extract the value of the inverse level density parameter k at different angular-momentum (J ) regions corresponding to different ? multiplicities. It is observed that, for the present systems the value of k remains almost constant for different J . The present results for the angular-momentum dependence of the nuclear level density (NLD) parameter a ˜(=A /k ) , for nuclei with A ˜180 are quite different from those obtained in earlier measurements in the case of light- and medium-mass systems. The present study provides useful information to understand the angular-momentum dependence of the NLD at different nuclear mass regions.
Subspace formulation of time-dependent density functional theory for large-scale calculations.
Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2015-08-14
A subspace formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is proposed for large-scale calculations based on density functional perturbation theory. The formulation is implemented in conjunction with projector augmented-wave method and plane-wave basis set. A key bottleneck of conventional TDDFT method is circumvented by projecting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equations from a full Hilbert space to a substantially reduced sub-Hilbert space. As a result, both excitation energies and ionic forces can be calculated accurately within the reduced subspace. The method is validated for several model systems and exhibits the similar accuracy as the conventional TDDFT method but at a computational cost of the ground state calculation. The Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics can be successfully performed for excited states in C60 and T12 molecules, opening doors for many applications involving excited state dynamics. PMID:26277130
Subspace formulation of time-dependent density functional theory for large-scale calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang
2015-08-01
A subspace formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is proposed for large-scale calculations based on density functional perturbation theory. The formulation is implemented in conjunction with projector augmented-wave method and plane-wave basis set. A key bottleneck of conventional TDDFT method is circumvented by projecting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham eigenvalue equations from a full Hilbert space to a substantially reduced sub-Hilbert space. As a result, both excitation energies and ionic forces can be calculated accurately within the reduced subspace. The method is validated for several model systems and exhibits the similar accuracy as the conventional TDDFT method but at a computational cost of the ground state calculation. The Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics can be successfully performed for excited states in C60 and T12 molecules, opening doors for many applications involving excited state dynamics.
Postcatastrophe population dynamics and density dependence of an endemic island duck
Seavy, N.E.; Reynolds, M.H.; Link, W.A.; Hatfield, J.S.
2009-01-01
Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) are restricted to approximately 9 km2 in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. To evaluate the importance of density dependence for Laysan ducks, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to estimate the parameters of a Gompertz model and the magnitude of process variation and observation error based on the fluctuations in Laysan duck abundance on Laysan Island from 1994 to 2007. This model described a stationary distribution for the population at carrying capacity that fluctuates around a long-term mean of 456 ducks and is between 316 to 636 ducks 95% of the time. This range of expected variability can be used to identify changes in population size that warn of catastrophic events. Density-dependent population dynamics may explain the recovery of Laysan duck from catastrophic declines and allow managers to identify population monitoring thresholds.
Minter, Ewan J A; Watts, Phillip C; Lowe, Chris D; Brockhurst, Michael A
2015-06-01
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity. PMID:26063750
Minter, Ewan J. A.; Watts, Phillip C.; Lowe, Chris D.; Brockhurst, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity. PMID:26063750
PTPN14 is required for the density-dependent control of YAP1
Wang, Wenqi; Huang, Jun; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Jingsong; Li, Xu; Feng, Lin; Park, Jae-Il; Chen, Junjie
2012-01-01
Through an shRNA-mediated loss-of-function screen, we identified PTPN14 as a potential tumor suppressor. PTPN14 interacts with yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a member of the hippo signaling pathway. We showed that PTPN14 promotes the nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of YAP1 during contact inhibition and thus inhibits YAP1 transactivation activity. Interestingly, PTPN14 protein stability was positively controlled by cell density. We identified the CRL2LRR1 (cullin2 RING ubiquitin ligase complex/leucine-rich repeat protein 1) complex as the E3 ligase that targets PTPN14 for degradation at low cell density. Collectively, these data suggest that PTPN14 acts to suppress cell proliferation by promoting cell density-dependent cytoplasmic translocation of YAP1. PMID:22948661
Temperature and concentration dependences of density and refraction of aqueous duloxetine solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deosarkar, S. D.; Deoraye, S. M.; Kalyankar, T. M.
2014-07-01
Present paper reports the measured densities (?) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous solutions of Duloxetine drug in wide range of molal concentrations ( m = 0.0101-0.1031 mol kg-1) and at different temperatures (297.15, 302.15, and 307.15 K). Apparent molar volumes (?v) of drug were calculated from density data and fitted to Masson's relation and partial molar volumes (?{v/0}) were evaluated at different temperatures. Concentration dependence of refractive index ( n D = Kc + n {D/0}) at experimental temperature has been studied. Density and refractive index data has been used for the calculation of specific refractions ( R D). Experimental (? and n D) and calculated (?v, ?{v/0}, and R D) properties have been interpreted in terms of concentration and temperature effects on structural fittings and drug-water interactions.
New relativistic mean-field interaction with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings
Lalazissis, G.A.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2005-02-01
We adjust a new improved relativistic mean-field effective interaction with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings. The effective interaction DD-ME2 is tested in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov and quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations of nuclear ground states and properties of excited states, in calculation of masses, and it is applied to the analysis of very recent data on superheavy nuclei.
Vanishing Viscosity Limit for Isentropic Navier-Stokes Equations with Density-dependent Viscosity
Feimin Huang; Ronghua Pan; Tianyi Wang; Yong Wang; Xiaoyun Zhai
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the vanishing viscosity limit of one-dimensional isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity, to the isentropic compressible Euler equations. Based on several new uniform estimates to the viscous systems, in addition to the framework recently established by G. Chen and M. Perepelitsa, we justify that the finite energy solution of the isentropic compressible Euler equations
Effective density dependent pairing forces in the T=1 and T=0 channels
E. Garrido; P. Sarriguren; E. Moya de Guerra; P. Schuck
1999-09-13
Effective density dependent pairing forces of zero range are adjusted on gap values in T=0,1 channels calculated with the Paris force in symmetric nuclear matter. General discussions on the pairing force are presented. In conjunction with the effective k-mass the nuclear pairing force seems to need very little renormalization in the T=1 channel. The situation in the T=0 channel is also discussed.
Pharmacological approaches to methamphetamine dependence: a focused review
Karila, Laurent; Weinstein, Aviv; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Batki, Steven L
2010-01-01
Methamphetamine dependence is a serious worldwide public health problem with major medical, psychiatric, socioeconomic and legal consequences. Various neuronal mechanisms implicated in methamphetamine dependence have suggested several pharmacological approaches. A literature search from a range of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the NIDA research monograph index and the reference list of clinicaltrials.gov) was conducted for the period from January 1985 to October 2009. There were no restrictions on the identification or inclusion of studies in terms of publication status, language and design type. A variety of medications have failed to show efficacy in clinical trials, including a dopamine partial agonist (aripiprazole), GABAergic agents (gabapentin) and serotonergic agents (SSRI, ondansetron, mirtazapine). Three double-blind placebo-controlled trials using modafinil, bupropion and naltrexone have shown positive results in reducing amphetamine or methamphetamine use. Two studies employing agonist replacement medications, one with d-amphetamine and the other with methylphenidate, have also shown promise. Despite the lack of success in most studies to date, increasing efforts are being made to develop medications for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence and several promising agents are targets of further research. PMID:20565449
An irradiation density dependent energy relaxation in plant photosystem II antenna assembly.
Tian, Wenming; Chen, Jun; Deng, Liezheng; Yao, Mingdong; Yang, Heping; Zheng, Yang; Cui, Rongrong; Sha, Guohe
2015-02-01
Plant photosystem II (PSII) is a multicomponent pigment-protein complex that harvests sunlight via pigments photoexcitation, and converts light energy into chemical energy. Against high light induced photodamage, excess light absorption of antenna pigments triggers the operation of photoprotection mechanism in plant PSII. Non-photochemical energy relaxation as a major photoprotection way is essentially correlated to the excess light absorption. Here we investigate the energy relaxation of plant PSII complexes with varying incident light density, by performing steady-state and transient chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of the grana membranes (called as BBY), functional moiety PSII reaction center and isolated light-harvesting complex LHCII under excess light irradiation. Based on the chlorophyll fluorescence decays of these samples, it is found that an irradiation density dependent energy relaxation occurs in the LHCII assemblies, especially in the antenna assembly of PSII supercomplexes in grana membrane, when irradiation increases to somewhat higher density levels. Correspondingly, the average chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime of the highly isolated BBY fragments gradually decreases from ~1680 to ~1360 ps with increasing the irradiation density from 6.1×10(9) to 5.5×10(10) photon cm(-2) pulse(-1). Analysis of the relation of fluorescence decay change to the aggregation extent of LHCIIs suggests that a dense arrangement of trimeric LHCIIs is likely the structural base for the occurrence of this irradiation density dependent energy relaxation. Once altering the irradiation density, this energy relaxation is quickly reversible, implying that it may play an important role in photoprotection of plant PSII. PMID:25482259
Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Martin, Tara G.; Norris, D. Ryan
2012-01-01
A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614
Flockhart, D T Tyler; Martin, Tara G; Norris, D Ryan
2012-01-01
A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614
A new time dependent density functional algorithm for large systems and plasmons in metal clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baseggio, Oscar; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Stener, Mauro
2015-07-01
A new algorithm to solve the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) equations in the space of the density fitting auxiliary basis set has been developed and implemented. The method extracts the spectrum from the imaginary part of the polarizability at any given photon energy, avoiding the bottleneck of Davidson diagonalization. The original idea which made the present scheme very efficient consists in the simplification of the double sum over occupied-virtual pairs in the definition of the dielectric susceptibility, allowing an easy calculation of such matrix as a linear combination of constant matrices with photon energy dependent coefficients. The method has been applied to very different systems in nature and size (from H2 to [Au147]-). In all cases, the maximum deviations found for the excitation energies with respect to the Amsterdam density functional code are below 0.2 eV. The new algorithm has the merit not only to calculate the spectrum at whichever photon energy but also to allow a deep analysis of the results, in terms of transition contribution maps, Jacob plasmon scaling factor, and induced density analysis, which have been all implemented.
A new time dependent density functional algorithm for large systems and plasmons in metal clusters.
Baseggio, Oscar; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Stener, Mauro
2015-07-14
A new algorithm to solve the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) equations in the space of the density fitting auxiliary basis set has been developed and implemented. The method extracts the spectrum from the imaginary part of the polarizability at any given photon energy, avoiding the bottleneck of Davidson diagonalization. The original idea which made the present scheme very efficient consists in the simplification of the double sum over occupied-virtual pairs in the definition of the dielectric susceptibility, allowing an easy calculation of such matrix as a linear combination of constant matrices with photon energy dependent coefficients. The method has been applied to very different systems in nature and size (from H2 to [Au147](-)). In all cases, the maximum deviations found for the excitation energies with respect to the Amsterdam density functional code are below 0.2 eV. The new algorithm has the merit not only to calculate the spectrum at whichever photon energy but also to allow a deep analysis of the results, in terms of transition contribution maps, Jacob plasmon scaling factor, and induced density analysis, which have been all implemented. PMID:26178089
Ignition of the beam-plasma-discharge and its dependence on electron density. Memorandum report
Walker, D.N.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Lin, C.S.
1981-07-23
A cold electron beam, propagating through a weakly ionized plasma will, under proper conditions, produce a modified beam-plasma state known as the Beam-Plasma-Discharge (BDP). As the subject of a continuing series of experiments in a large facility chamber it was previously determined that the BPD had an abrupt ignition threshold as the beam current I sub B was increased at fixed beam energy. While a specific empirical relationship was established among the controlling parameters of beam current, energy and length as well as ambient pressure and magnetic field, a dependence of the BPD on plasma density of the from, omega sub p approximates omega sub c, was suggested. We have since conducted a survey of various beam-plasma conditions covering beam currents from 8 to 85 ma, beam energies from 0.8 to 2.0 keV and magnetic fields at 0.9 and 1.5 gauss. This survey includes full determinations of radial profiles of electron density for each of the selected conditions extending from a low-density pre-BDP state to a strong BPD condition. At BPD threshold N sub e max was determined and omega sub p calculated as the density dependent threshold condition for BPD. The experimental results are shown to compare favorably with a developing theoretical model that considers BPD to be triggered by electron plasma wave excitation of a beam-plasma instability.
Time dependent density functional study of the photoionization dynamics of SF6.
Stener, M; Toffoli, D; Fronzoni, G; Decleva, P
2006-03-21
The B-spline linear combination of atomic orbitals method has been employed to study the valence and core photoionization dynamics of SF6. The cross section and asymmetry parameter profiles calculated at the time dependent density functional theory level have been found to be in fairly nice agreement with the experimental data, with the quality of the exchange-correlation statistical average of orbital potential results superior to the Van Leeuwen-Baerends 94 (LB94) ones [Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994)]. The role of response effects has been identified by a comparison of the time dependent density functional theory results with the Kohn-Sham ones interchannel coupling effects and autoionization resonances play an important role at low kinetic energies. Prominent shape resonances features have been analyzed in terms of "dipole prepared" continuum orbitals and interpreted as due to a large angular momentum centrifugal barrier as well as anisotropic (nonspherical) molecular effective potential. Finally, the method has been proven numerically stable, robust, and efficient, thanks to a noniterative implementation of the time dependent density functional theory equations and suitability of the multicentric B-spline basis set to describe continuum states from outer valence to deep core states. PMID:16555887
The ecological–evolutionary interplay: density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory songbird
Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; Shriver, W Greg; Marra, Peter P
2012-01-01
Little is understood about how environmental heterogeneity influences the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. Within human-dominated systems, habitat modification creates environmental heterogeneity that could influence the adaptive value of individual phenotypes. Here, we used the gray catbird to examine if the ecological conditions experienced in the suburban matrix (SM) and embedded suburban parks (SP) influence reproductive strategies and the strength of sexual selection. Our results show that these habitats varied in a key ecological factor, breeding density. Moreover, this ecological factor was closely tied to reproductive strategies such that local breeding density predicted the probability that a nest would contain extra-pair offspring. Partitioning reproductive variance showed that while within-pair success was more important in both habitats, extra-pair success increased the opportunity for sexual selection by 39% at higher breeding densities. Body size was a strong predictor of relative reproductive success and was under directional selection in both habitats. Importantly, our results show that the strength of sexual selection did not differ among habitats at the landscape scale but rather that fine-scale variation in an ecological factor, breeding density, influenced sexual selection on male phenotypes. Here, we document density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory bird and hypothesize that coarse-scale environmental heterogeneity, in this case generated by anthropogenic habitat modification, changed the fine-scale ecological conditions that drove the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. PMID:22837842
Equation of State of Dense Matter from a density dependent relativistic mean field model
Shen, G; Teige, S
2010-01-01
We calculate the equation of state (EoS) of dense matter, using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model with a density dependent coupling that is a slightly modified form of the original NL3 interaction. For nonuniform nuclear matter we approximate the unit lattice as a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell, wherein the meson mean fields and nucleon Dirac wave functions are solved fully self-consistently. We also calculate uniform nuclear matter for a wide range of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions, and match them to non-uniform matter as the density decreases. The calculations took over 6,000 CPU days in Indiana University's supercomputer clusters. We tabulate the resulting EoS at over 107,000 grid points in the proton fraction range $Y_P$ = 0 to 0.56. For the temperature range $T$ = 0.16 to 15.8 MeV we cover the density range $n_B$ = 10$^{-4}$ to 1.6 fm$^{-3}$; and for the higher temperature range $T$ = 15.8 to 80 MeV we cover the larger density range $n_B$ = 10$^{-8}$ to 1.6 fm$^{-3}$. In the future we pla...
Ignitor and the High Density Approach for Fusion*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombarda, F.; Coppi, B.
2010-11-01
The high plasma density regimes discovered by high magnetic field toroidal experiments have both outstanding confinement characteristics and degree of purity, and are at the basis of the Ignitor design. The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment is, in fact, that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition, where the thermonuclear instability can set in with all its associated non linear effects. ``Extended limiter'' and double X-point configurations have been analyzed and relevant transport simulations show that similar burning plasma conditions can be attained with both, by Ohmic heating only or with modest amounts of ICRH auxiliary heating. The driving factor for the machine design (R01.32 m, a xb0.47x0.83 m^2, BT<=13 T, Ip<=11 MA) is the poloidal field pressure that can contain, under macroscopically stable conditions, the peak plasma pressures corresponding to ignition. Objectives other than ignition can be envisioned for the relatively near term, for example that of high flux neutron sources for material testing involving compact, high density fusion machines. This has been one of the incentives that have led the Ignitor Project to adopt magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting cables in the machine design, a first in fusion research. Accordingly, the largest coils (about 5 m diameter) of the machine will be made entirely of MgB2 cables. *Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.
A new approach to mass spectrometer measurements of thermospheric density
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melfi, L. T., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Brown, C. A., Jr.
1974-01-01
The gas sampling problem in satellite and high velocity probes was investigated by applying the theory of a drifting Maxwellian gas. A lens system using a free stream ion source was developed and experimentally evaluated over the pressure range of 0.00001 to 0.01 N/m sq (approx. 10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0001 torr). The source has high beam transparency, which minimizes gas-surface collisions within, or near, the ionization volume. It is shown that for high ion energy (60 eV), the extracted ion beam has an on-axis energy spread of less than 4 eV, and that 90 percent of the ions are within 2.5 deg of the beam axis. It is concluded that the molecular beam mass spectrometer concept, developed for gas density measurements in the upper atmosphere, substantially reduces gas-surface scattering and gas-surface reactions in the sample, and preserves the integrity of the gas sample during the analysis process. Studies show that both the Scout and Delta launch vehicles have adequate volume, control, velocity, and data acquisition capability necessary to obtain thermospheric number density in real time.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-07-12
This page introduces students to the concept of density by presenting its definition, formula, and two blocks representing materials of different densities. Students are given the mass and volume of each block and asked to calculate the density. Their answers are then compared against a table of densities of common objects (air, wood, gold, etc.) and students must determine, using the density of the blocks, which substance makes up each block.
Gotham, Steven; Song, Hojun
2013-11-01
Locusts are well known for exhibiting an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity known as locust phase polyphenism. At low density, locust nymphs are cryptically colored and shy, but at high density they transform into conspicuously colored and gregarious individuals. Most of what we know about locust phase polyphenism come from the study of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), which is a devastating pest species affecting many countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The desert locust belongs to the grasshopper genus Schistocerca Stål, which includes mostly non-swarming, sedentary species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the desert locust is the earliest branching lineage within Schistocerca, which raises a possibility that the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity may be a plesiomorphic trait for the whole genus. In order to test this idea, we have quantified the effect of rearing density in terms of the resulting behavior, color, and morphology in two non-swarming Schistocerca species native to Florida. When reared in both isolated and crowded conditions, the two non-swarming species, Schistocerca americana (Drury) and Schistocerca serialis cubense (Saussure) clearly exhibited plastic reaction norms in all traits measured, which were reminiscent of the desert locust. Specifically, we found that both species were more active and more attracted to each other when reared in a crowded condition than in isolation. They were mainly bright green in color when isolated, but developed strong black patterns and conspicuous background colors when crowded. We found a strong effect of rearing density in terms of size. There were also more mechanoreceptor hairs on the outer face of the hind femora in the crowded nymphs in both species. Although both species responded similarly, there were some clear species-specific differences in terms of color and behavior. Furthermore, we compare and contrast our findings with those on the desert locust and other relevant studies. We attribute the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the non-swarming Schistocerca species to phylogenetic conservatism, but there may be a possible role of local adaptation in further shaping the ultimate expressions of plasticity. PMID:24035748
Shenk, T.M.; White, G.C.; Burnham, K.P.
1998-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests) or lack power (Bulmer's R* test), little justification exists for use of such tests to support or refute the hypothesis of density dependence.
Arthaud, Laury; Rokia-Mille, Selim Ben; Raad, Hussein; Dombrovsky, Aviv; Prevost, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Behaviors in insects are partly highly efficient Bayesian processes that fulfill exploratory tasks ending with the colonization of new ecological niches. The foraging (for) gene in Drosophila encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). It has been extensively described as a frequency-dependent gene and its transcripts are differentially expressed between individuals, reflecting the population density context. Some for transcripts, when expressed in a population at high density for many generations, concomitantly trigger strong dispersive behavior associated with foraging activity. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) analysis has highlighted a dormant role of for in energetic metabolism in a food deprivation context. In our current report, we show that alleles of for encoding different cGMP-dependent kinase isoforms influence the oxidation of aldehyde groups of aromatic molecules emitted by plants via Aldh-III and a phosphorylatable adaptor. The enhanced efficiency of oxidation of aldehyde odorants into carboxyl groups by the action of for lessens their action and toxicity, which should facilitate exploration and guidance in a complex odor environment. Our present data provide evidence that optimal foraging performance requires the fast metabolism of volatile compounds emitted by plants to avoid neurosensory saturation and that the frequency-dependent genes that trigger dispersion influence these processes. PMID:21625551
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yongjia; Guo, Chenchen; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongfei; Leifels, Y.; Trautmann, W.
2014-04-01
Within the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, the transverse-velocity dependence of the elliptic flow of free nucleons from Au197+Au197 collisions at the incident energy 400 MeV/nucleon is studied within different windows of the normalized c.m. rapidity y0. It is found that the elliptic flow difference v2n-v2p and ratio v2n/v2p of neutrons versus protons are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy, especially the ratio v2n/v2p at small transverse velocity in the intermediate rapidity intervals 0.4<|y0|<0.6. By comparing either transverse-momentum-dependent or integrated FOPI/LAND elliptic flow data of nucleons and hydrogen isotopes with calculations using various Skyrme interactions, all exhibiting similar values of isoscalar incompressibility but very different density dependences of the symmetry energy, a moderately soft to linear symmetry energy is extracted, in good agreement with previous UrQMD or Tübingen QMD model calculations but contrast with results obtained with ?-/?+ yield ratios in the literature.
Density-matrix approach for an interacting polariton system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savenko, I. G.; Magnusson, E. B.; Shelykh, I. A.
2011-04-01
Using the Lindblad approach we develop a general formalism for theoretical description of a spatially inhomogeneous bosonic system with dissipation provided by the interaction of bosons with a phonon bath. We apply our results to model the dynamics of an interacting one-dimensional polariton system in real space and time, analyzing in detail the role of polariton-polariton and polariton-phonon interactions.
Gotie, Robert Francis
1972-01-01
NESTING SUCCESS OF THE GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (CASSIDIX MEXICANUS PROSOPIDICOLA) IN RELATION TO CERTAIN DENSITY DEPENDENT AND DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS A Thesis by ROBERT FRANCIS GOTIE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... AND DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS A Thesis by ROBERT FRANCIS GOTIE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1972 ABSTRACT Nesting Success of the Great-tailed Grackle (Cassidix...
Mukamel, Shaul
response and spontaneous fluctuations of many-electron systems. The pth-order density response functions.1103/PhysRevA.71.024503 PACS number s : 31.15.Ew, 71.15.Mb, 05.40. a, 31.10. z Time-dependent density
Hanley, Kathryn A.
Density-Dependent Competitive Suppression of Sylvatic Dengue Virus by Endemic Dengue Virus University, Las Cruces, New Mexico Abstract Mosquito-borne dengue viruses are maintained in two discrete Dengue virus; Competition; Density-dependent; Superinfection; Sylvatic; Aedes Introduction THE FOUR
Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys
Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel
2015-01-01
Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large geographic extents. PMID:26042998
Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.
Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel
2015-01-01
Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large geographic extents. PMID:26042998
Dependability and Safety Issues for Aerospace Software: A Systematic Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vozella, A.; D'Anna, G.; Gigante, G.; Pascarella, D.; Travascio, L.
2008-08-01
This paper presents some considerations derived applying software verification and validation techniques to support on board software life cycle in a space project with the purpose of increasing dependability and safety levels. The described experience concerns the effort in deriving a proper scheme to improve these properties for the on board software and its implication on the whole system. We have applied the body of knowledge to improve the reliability of the software throughout the life cycle organizing a fuller framework where Integrated Independent Software Verification and Validation (IISVV) has been replaced by the Integrated Independent Software Reliability Engineering (IISRE). The proposed framework is a first step towards a unified applicable methodology to ensure a reliable, maintainable and safe software for critical systems. We have merged disciplines linked to RAMS activities, approaches recognized by Software Reliability Engineering (SRE) and Verification and Validation (V&V) activities pointed out by ECSS and IEEE standards.
Survival kinetics of starving bacteria is biphasic and density-dependent.
Phaiboun, Andy; Zhang, Yiming; Park, Boryung; Kim, Minsu
2015-04-01
In the lifecycle of microorganisms, prolonged starvation is prevalent and sustaining life during starvation periods is a vital task. In the literature, it is commonly assumed that survival kinetics of starving microbes follows exponential decay. This assumption, however, has not been rigorously tested. Currently, it is not clear under what circumstances this assumption is true. Also, it is not known when such survival kinetics deviates from exponential decay and if it deviates, what underlying mechanisms for the deviation are. Here, to address these issues, we quantitatively characterized dynamics of survival and death of starving E. coli cells. The results show that the assumption--starving cells die exponentially--is true only at high cell density. At low density, starving cells persevere for extended periods of time, before dying rapidly exponentially. Detailed analyses show intriguing quantitative characteristics of the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics, including that the period of the perseverance is inversely proportional to cell density. These characteristics further lead us to identification of key underlying processes relevant for the perseverance of starving cells. Then, using mathematical modeling, we show how these processes contribute to the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics observed. Importantly, our model reveals a thrifty strategy employed by bacteria, by which upon sensing impending depletion of a substrate, the limiting substrate is conserved and utilized later during starvation to delay cell death. These findings advance quantitative understanding of survival of microbes in oligotrophic environments and facilitate quantitative analysis and prediction of microbial dynamics in nature. Furthermore, they prompt revision of previous models used to analyze and predict population dynamics of microbes. PMID:25838110
Sex modulates approach systems and impulsivity in substance dependence
Perry, Robert I.; Krmpotich, Theodore; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody
2013-01-01
Background Personality traits such as pathological engagement in approach behaviors, high levels of impulsivity and heightened negative affect are consistently observed in substance dependent individuals (SDI). The clinical course of addiction has been shown to differ between sexes. For example, women increase their rates of consumption of some drugs of abuse more quickly than men. Despite the potential influence of personality and sex on features of addiction, few studies have investigated the interaction of these factors in substance dependence. Methods Fifty-one SDI (26 male, 25 female) and 66 controls (41 male, 25 female) completed the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X). Data were analyzed with 2×2 ANCOVAs testing for main effects of group, sex and group by sex interactions, adjusting for education level. Results Significant group by sex interactions were observed for BAS scores [F(1,116)=7.03, p<.01] and Barratt Motor Impulsiveness [F(1,116)=6.11, p<.02] with female SDI showing the highest approach tendencies and impulsivity followed by male SDI, male controls, and finally female controls. SDI scored higher on negative affect [F(1,116)=25.23, p<.001] than controls. Behavioral Inhibition System scores were higher in women than men [F(1,116)=14.03, p< .001]. Conclusion Higher BAS and motor impulsivity in SDI women relative to SDI men and control women suggest that personality traits that have been previously associated with drug use may be modulated by sex. These factors may contribute to differences in the disease course observed in male compared to female drug users. PMID:23725607
Density functional approach for the magnetism of ?-TeVO[subscript 4
Radtke, G.
Density functional calculations have been carried out to investigate the microscopic origin of the magnetic properties of ?-TeVO[subscript 4]. Two different approaches, based either on a perturbative treatment of the ...
Momentum-dependent local ansatz approach to correlated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal; Rowlands, Derwyn; Patoary, M. Atiqur R.
2014-07-01
The wavefunction method provides us with a useful tool to describe electron correlations in solids at the ground state. In this paper we review the recent development of the momentum-dependent local ansatz (MLA) wavefunction. It is constructed by taking into account two-particle excited states projected onto the local orbitals, and the momentum-dependent amplitudes of these states are chosen as variational parameters. The MLA describes accurately correlated electron states from the weak to the intermediate Coulomb interaction regime in infinite dimensions, and works well even in the strongly correlated region by introducing a new starting wavefunction called the hybrid (HB) wavefunction. The MLA-HB is therefore shown to overcome the limitation of the original local ansatz (LA) wavefunction as well as the Gutzwiller wavefunction. In particular, the calculated quasiparticle weight versus Coulomb interaction curve is shown to be close to that obtained by the numerical renormalization group approach. It is also shown that the MLA is applicable to the first-principles Hamiltonian.
Dependence calibration in conditional copulas: a nonparametric approach.
Acar, Elif F; Craiu, Radu V; Yao, Fang
2011-06-01
The study of dependence between random variables is a mainstay in statistics. In many cases, the strength of dependence between two or more random variables varies according to the values of a measured covariate. We propose inference for this type of variation using a conditional copula model where the copula function belongs to a parametric copula family and the copula parameter varies with the covariate. In order to estimate the functional relationship between the copula parameter and the covariate, we propose a nonparametric approach based on local likelihood. Of importance is also the choice of the copula family that best represents a given set of data. The proposed framework naturally leads to a novel copula selection method based on cross-validated prediction errors. We derive the asymptotic bias and variance of the resulting local polynomial estimator, and outline how to construct pointwise confidence intervals. The finite-sample performance of our method is investigated using simulation studies and is illustrated using a subset of the Matched Multiple Birth data. PMID:20731648
A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling
Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.
1986-01-01
In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks.
Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence
Paille, François; Martini, Hervé
2014-01-01
Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient’s and the doctor’s perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient’s active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751
Dependency of the Cusp Density Anomaly on the Variability of Forcing Inside and Outside the Cusp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.
2014-12-01
The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs largely determine the neutral density structure in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown a region of strong enhanced density attributed to the combination of cusp particle and Joule heating. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, observed a relative depletion in density in the cusp. While particle precipitation in the cusp is comparatively well constrained, the characteristics of the steady and fluctuating components of the electric field in the cusp are poorly constrained. Also, the significance of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in particular at lower altitudes has not been addressed as it relates to the cusp density anomaly. We address the response of the cusp region to a range electrodynamical forcing with our high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model. We take advantage of our model's high resolution and focus on a more typical cusp width of 2 degrees in latitude. Earlier simulations have also shown a significant contribution from soft particle precipitation. We simulate the atmospheric response to a range of realizable magnitudes of the fluctuating and steady components of the electric field to examine the dependence of the magnitude of the cusp density anomaly on a large range of observed characteristics of the electrodynamical forcing and examine, in particular, the importance of particle heating relative to Joule heating. In addition we investigate the role of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in determining the lower altitude cusp density and wind structure. We compare the model results to CHAMP and Streak observations and assess the distinctive features of the observations in terms of the various dependencies involved. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular risk factors.
Pérez-Castrillón, José-Luis; De Luis, Daniel; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Asensio, Teresa; del Amo, Rosana; Izaola, O
2004-01-01
People with Type 2 diabetes have bone mass alterations and may have a higher risk of hip fractures. Moreover, they have increased cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this paper is to investigate the association among non-insulin-dependent diabetes, bone mineral density (BMD), and cardiovascular risk factors. Ninety-two patients (36 males and 56 females) were studied and cardiovascular risk factors were measured: total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose, HbA1c, and microalbuminuria. The densitometric studies were carried out in the calcaneal region using a DEXA densitometer. The diabetic women had a higher BMD than the control group (0.502 +/- 0.127 vs. 0.408 +/- 0.102, P = .027). The women showed a positive relationship between BMD and triglycerides (r =. 478, P = .0001) and a negative relationship with HDL-C (r = -.322, P = .016). The men had a BMD similar to that of the control group, and there was no relationship with the cardiovascular risk factors. When a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of osteoporosis as a dependent variable and each lipid level, age, sex, and BMI as independent variables, only age and BMI were found to be associated with the presence of osteopososis. The diabetic women had a higher BMD than the controls, and there was no relationship between osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetics. PMID:15531180
The effect of density-dependent treatment and behavior change on the dynamics of HIV transmission.
Hsieh, Y H; Sheu, S P
2001-07-01
In this work, we propose a model for heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS in a population of varying size with an intervention program in which treatment and/or behavior change of the infecteds occur as an increasing function of the density of the infected class in the population. This assumption has socio-economic implications which is important for public health considerations since density-dependent treatment/behavior change may be more cost-saving than a program where treatment/behavior change occurs linearly with respect to the number of infecteds. We will make use of the conservation law of total sexual contacts which enables us to reduce the two-sex model to a simpler one-sex formulation. Analytical results will be given. Unlike a similar model with linear treatment/behavior change in Hsieh (1996) where conditions were obtained for the eradication of disease, we will show that density-dependent treatment/behavior change cannot eradicate the disease if the disease is able to persist without any treatment/behavior change. This work demonstrates the need to further understand how treatment/behavior change occurs in a society with varying population. PMID:12120868
Lateral density variations in elastic Earth models from an extended minimum energy approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanchez, B. V.
1980-01-01
Kaula's minimum energy approach was extended to include the nonhydrostatic gravitational potential energy and the density perturbation field was obtained to degree and order eight. The depth profiles for the density perturbation show a stratification with density excesses and deficiencies alternating with depth. The addition of the gravitational potential energy in the minimization process does not change significantly the conclusions based on results for the minimum shear strain energy case, concerning the inability of the mantle to withstand the lateral loading elastically.
Stocking density affects the growth performance of broilers in a sex-dependent fashion.
Zuowei, S; Yan, L; Yuan, L; Jiao, H; Song, Z; Guo, Y; Lin, H
2011-07-01
The effects of stocking density, sex, and dietary ME concentration on live performance, footpad burns, and leg weakness of broilers were investigated. A total of 876 male and 1,020 female 1-d-old chicks were placed in 24 pens to simulate final stocking density treatments of 26 kg (LSD; 10 males or 12 females/m(2)) and 42 kg (HSD; 16 males or 18 females/m(2)) of BW/m(2) floor space. Two series of experimental diets with a 150 kcal/kg difference in ME concentration (2,800, 2,900, and 3,000 or 2,950, 3,050, and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg) were compared in a 3-phase feeding program. The HSD treatment significantly decreased BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The HSD chickens consumed less feed by 35 d of age; thereafter, the reverse was true. Male chickens had significantly higher feed intake (FI), BW gain, and FCR compared with females. A significant interaction was found of stocking density and age for FI, BW gain, and FCR. Compared with LSD treatment, HSD broilers had a higher FI and a lower FCR from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density, sex, and age had a significant interaction for BW gain and FCR. Female broilers had worse BW gain and FCR when stocked at high density from 36 to 42 d of age. Stocking density had no significant influence on breast, thigh, or abdominal fat yield. Female broilers had significantly higher breast yield and abdominal fat. Male broilers and HSD treatment had high footpad burn and gait scores. A low ME diet increased footpad burn score but had no effect on gait score. The result indicated that stocking density had a more severe effect on the growth of male broilers before 35 d of age. Female broilers need more space than males at similar BW per square meter near marketing age. The incidence and severity of leg weakness are associated with sex, diet, and stocking density. This result suggests that the deteriorated effect of high stocking density is sex and age dependent. PMID:21673155
Pagán, Israel; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; García-Arenal, Fernando
2009-07-01
Population density and costs of parasite infection may condition the capacity of organisms to grow, survive and reproduce, i.e. their competitive ability. In host-parasite systems there are different competitive interactions: among uninfected hosts, among infected hosts, and between uninfected and infected hosts. Consequently, parasite infection results in a direct cost, due to parasitism itself, and in an indirect cost, due to modification of the competitive ability of the infected host. Theory predicts that host fitness reduction will be higher under the combined effects of costs of parasitism and competition than under each factor separately. However, experimental support for this prediction is scarce, and derives mostly from animal-parasite systems. We have analysed the interaction between parasite infection and plant density using the plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and the generalist virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Plants of three wild genotypes grown at different densities were infected by CMV at various prevalences, and the effects of infection on plant growth and reproduction were quantified. Results demonstrate that the combined effects of host density and parasite infection may result either in a reduction or in an increase of the competitive ability of the host. The two genotypes investing a higher proportion of resources to reproduction showed tolerance to the direct cost of infection, while the genotype investing a higher proportion of resources to growth showed tolerance to the indirect cost of infection. Our findings show that the outcome of the interaction between host density and parasitism depends on the host genotype, which determines the plasticity of life-history traits and consequently, the host capacity to develop different tolerance mechanisms to the direct or indirect costs of parasitism. These results indicate the high relevance of host density and parasitism in determining the competitive ability of a plant, and stress the need to simultaneously consider both factors to understand the selective pressures that drive host-parasite co-evolution. PMID:19649316
Hone, Jim; Sibly, Richard M
2002-01-01
Identifying the determinants of population growth rate is a central topic in population ecology. Three approaches (demographic, mechanistic and density-dependent) used historically to describe the determinants of population growth rate are here compared and combined for an avian predator, the barn owl (Tyto alba). The owl population remained approximately stable (r approximately 0) throughout the period from 1979 to 1991. There was no evidence of density dependence as assessed by goodness of fit to logistic population growth. The finite (lambda) and instantaneous (r) population growth rates were significantly positively related to food (field vole) availability. The demographic rates, annual adult mortality, juvenile mortality and annual fecundity were reported to be correlated with vole abundance. The best fit (R(2) = 0.82) numerical response of the owl population described a positive effect of food (field voles) and a negative additive effect of owl abundance on r. The numerical response of the barn owl population to food availability was estimated from both census and demographic data, with very similar results. Our analysis shows how the demographic and mechanistic determinants of population growth rate are linked; food availability determines demographic rates, and demographic rates determine population growth rate. The effects of food availability on population growth rate are modified by predator abundance. PMID:12396509
Buczek, Pawe?; Sandratskii, Leonid M
2011-01-01
We study the Landau damping of ferromagnetic magnons in Fe, Co, and Ni as the dimensionality of the system is reduced from three to two. We resort to the \\textit{ab initio} linear response time dependent density functional theory in the adiabatic local spin density approximation. The numerical scheme is based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. The key points of the theoretical approach and the implementation are discussed. We investigate the transition metals in three different forms: bulk phases, free-standing thin films and thin films supported on a nonmagnetic substrate. We demonstrate that the dimensionality trends in Fe and Ni are opposite: in Fe the transition from bulk bcc crystal to Fe/Cu(100) film reduces the damping whereas in Ni/Cu(100) film the attenuation increases compared to bulk fcc Ni. In Co, the strength of the damping depends relatively weakly on the sample dimensionality. We explain the difference in the trends on the basis of the underlying electronic structure. The in...
Ignitor and the High Density Approach to Fusion Reactors*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bombarda, F.; Coppi, B.
2008-11-01
The optimal path to ignition that can be followed by experiments based on existing technologies and knowledge of plasma physics relies on the high plasma density regimes that are at the basis of the Ignitor design (R01.32 m, axb0.47x0.83 m^2, BT13 T, Ip11 MA). Their value has been rediscovered recently following experiments by the helical LHD facility that have systematically produced plasmas with n0<=10^21 m^- 3. Consequently, conceptual power producing reactors that would operate with plasma parameters close to those of Ignitor when reaching ignition have been envisioned. The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment is, in fact, that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition, where the thermonuclear instability can set in with all its associated non linear effects. ``Extended limiter'' and double X-point configurations have been analyzed and relevant transport simulations show that similar burning plasma conditions can be attained with both. The machine core design has been essentially completed, but the recent development of a new intermediate temperature superconducting material (MgB2) has led to its adoption for the largest poloidal field coils, producing a vertical field component of 4 T. The properties of this material make it possible to envision its future use for coils producing higher magnetic fields and open new options in the design of novel experimental devices. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.
A Recovery-Oriented Approach to Dependable Services: Repairing Past Errors with System-Wide Undo
California at Berkeley, University of
A Recovery-Oriented Approach to Dependable Services: Repairing Past Errors with System-Wide Undo Recovery-Oriented Approach to Dependable Services: Repairing Past Errors with System-wide Undo by Aaron #12;A Recovery-Oriented Approach to Dependable Services: Repairing Past Errors with System-wide Undo
Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.
Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J
2015-02-01
It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge. PMID:26308805
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puhakka, P. H.; Ylärinne, J. H.; Lammi, M. J.; Saarakkala, S.; Tiitu, V.; Kröger, H.; Virén, T.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Töyräs, J.
2014-11-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied for high resolution imaging of articular cartilage. However, the contribution of individual structural elements of cartilage on OCT signal has not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesize that both collagen and chondrocytes, essential structural components of cartilage, act as important light scatterers and that variation in their concentrations can be detected by OCT through changes in backscattering and attenuation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we established a controlled model system using agarose scaffolds embedded with variable collagen concentrations and chondrocyte densities. Using OCT, we measured the backscattering coefficient (µb) and total attenuation coefficient (µt) in these scaffolds. Along our hypothesis, light backscattering and attenuation in agarose were dependent on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density. Significant correlations were found between µt and chondrocyte density (? = 0.853, p < 0.001) and between µt and collagen concentration (? = 0.694, p < 0.001). µb correlated significantly with chondrocyte density (? = 0.504, p < 0.001) but not with collagen concentration (? = 0.103, p = 0.422) of the scaffold. Thus, quantitation of light backscattering and, especially, attenuation could be valuable when evaluating the integrity of soft tissues, such as articular cartilage with OCT.
Jackson, Aaron P; Townsley, Dean M; Chamulak, David A; Brown, Edward F; Timmes, F X
2010-01-01
We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of Ni-56 in thermonuclear supernova explosions (type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear supernovae with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of Ni-56 masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic "simmered" white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of Ni-56 and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range 1-3x10^7 g/cc. We find a quadratic dependence ...
Dynamical and Sequential Decay Effects on Isoscaling and Density Dependence of the Symmetry Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, W. D.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Fang, D. Q.; Guo, W.; Ma, C. W.; Liu, G. H.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Y.; Wang, H. W.; Wang, K.; Yan, T. Z.
Isoscaling properties of the primary and final products are studied via isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model and the followed sequential decay model GEMINI, respectively. Both primary and final products isoscaling parameter ? keeps no significant change for light fragments, but increases with the mass for intermediate and heavy products. The dynamical effect on isoscaling is reflected on the ? decreasing a little with the evolution time of the system, and opposite trend for the heavy products. The secondary decay effect on isoscaling is reflected on the increasing of the ? value for the final products which experienced secondary decay process. Furthermore the density dependence of the symmetry energy has also been explored for the primary and secondary products, the symmetry energy coefficient can be expressed by the form of Csym(?) ~ C0(?/?0)?, C0 and ? extracted from the primary products are consistent with the input parameters, but C0 and ? extracted from the final products deviate the input values. In the paper we also suggest that it might be more reasonable to describe the density dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient by the Csym(?/?0) ? C1(?/?0)?soft + C2(?/?0)?stiff with ?soft ? 1, ?stiff ? 1 and C1, C2 constant parameters.
Density dependence of the momentum distributions in liquid para-hydrogen
Dawidowski, J.; Bermejo, F. J.; Ristig, M. L.; Cabrillo, C.; Bennington, S. M.
2006-04-01
Momentum distributions of liquid para-hydrogen were determined by means of inelastic neutron scattering under applied pressures ranging from 1 to 80 bars, at T=16.5 K. The data processing procedure involves the parametrization of the dynamic structure factor and yields a set of momentum distributions as functions of the density. The results depict significant pressure dependences for all single-particle quantities such as the momentum distributions and average kinetic energies as well as for the final-state effects. The obtained results enable us to quantify the departure of the momentum distributions from classical Maxwell-Gauss shape. Such observations are then rationalized with the help of calculations that were carried out in terms of the correlated density matrix formalism.
Density-dependent recruitment of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan
Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.
1992-01-01
Density-dependent recruitment of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan during and after recovery of the population in about 1977-1983 was best reflected in the fit of the Beverton-Holt recruitment function to age -1 and -2 recruits and estimated eggs of parents surveyed with trawls. A lower growth rate and lower lipid content of bloaters at higher population densities and no evidence of cannibalism supported the conclusion that recruitment is resource limited when alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance is low. Predation on larvae by alewives was indicated in earlier studies as the probable cause of depressed recruitment of bloaters before their recovery, which coincided with declining alewife abundance. This negative interaction masked any bloater stock-recruitment relation in the earlier period.
Density-dependent cooperation as a mechanism for persistence and coexistence.
Lampert, Adam; Tlusty, Tsvi
2011-10-01
To overcome stress, such as resource limitation, an organism often needs to successfully mediate competition with other members of its own species. This may favor the evolution of defective traits that are harmful to the species population as a whole, and that may lead to its dilution or even to its extinction (the tragedy of the commons). Here, we show that this phenomenon can be circumvented by cooperation plasticity, in which an individual decides, based on environmental conditions, whether to cooperate or to defect. Specifically, we analyze the evolution of density-dependent cooperation. In our model, the population is spatially subdivided, periodically remixed, and comprises several species. We find that evolution pushes individuals to be more cooperative when their own species is at lower densities, and we show that not only could this cooperation prevent the tragedy of the commons, but it could also facilitate coexistence between many species that compete for the same resource. PMID:21967418
Dependence of the cosmic microwave background lensing power spectrum on the matter density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; White, M.
2014-12-01
The anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide our best laboratory for testing models of the formation and evolution of large-scale structure. The rich features in the CMB anisotropy spectrum, in combination with highly precise observations and theoretical predictions, also allow us to simultaneously constrain a number of cosmological parameters. As observations have progressed, measurements at smaller angular scales have provided increasing leverage. These smaller angular scales provide sensitive measures of the matter density through the effect of gravitational lensing. In this work, we provide an analytic explanation of the manner in which the lensing of CMB anisotropies depends on the matter density, finding that the dominant effect comes from the shape of the matter power spectrum set by the decay of small-scale potentials between horizon crossing and matter-radiation equality.
Energy and centrality dependences of charged multiplicity density in relativistic nuclear collisions
Ben-Hao Sa; A. Bonasera; An Tai; Dai-Mei Zhou
2001-08-01
Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, the energy and centrality dependences of charged particle pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework of this model, both the relativistic $p+\\bar p$ experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX $Au+Au$ data at $\\sqrt s_{nn}$=130 GeV could be reproduced fairly well without retuning the model parameters. The predictions for full RHIC energy $Au+Au$ collisions and for $Pb+Pb$ collisions at the ALICE energy were given. Participant nucleon distributions were calculated based on different methods. It was found that the number of participant nucleons, $$, is not a well defined variable both experimentally and theoretically. Therefore, it is inappropriate to use charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair as a function of $$ for distinguishing various theoretical models.
Liquids that form due to dynamics of the molecules that depend on the local density
Richard P. Sear
2015-03-26
RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we consider what sort of simple rules for the dynamics of model mRNA molecules lead to liquid/liquid phase separation. We find that dynamics that slow as the local density of molecules increases, drive the formation of liquids. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics that depend on the local density of monomers of that block. We find that this block condenses and separates from the monomers of the other block. This is a simple model of the out-of-equilibrium domain formation found in the chromatin in the nucleus of cells.
Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio
2013-11-01
Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm-3 density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source-target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate.
Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters
Gerber, L.R.; Buenau, K.E.; VanBlaricom, G.
2004-01-01
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris (L.)) were hunted to extinction off the coast of Washington State early in the 20th century. A new population was established by translocations from Alaska in 1969 and 1970. The population, currently numbering at least 550 animals, A major threat to the population is the ongoing risk of majour oil spills in sea otter habitat. We apply population models to census and demographic data in order to evaluate the status of the population. We fit several density dependent models to test for density dependence and determine plausible values for the carrying capacity (K) by comparing model goodness of fit to an exponential model. Model fits were compared using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). A significant negative relationship was found between the population growth rate and population size (r2=0.27, F=5.57, df=16, p<0.05), suggesting density dependence in Washington state sea otters. Information criterion statistics suggest that the model is the most parsimonious, followed closely by the logistic Beverton-Holt model. Values of K ranged from 612 to 759 with best-fit parameter estimates for the Beverton-Holt model including 0.26 for r and 612 for K. The latest (2001) population index count (555) puts the population at 87-92% of the estimated carrying capacity, above the suggested range for optimum sustainable population (OSP). Elasticity analysis was conducted to examine the effects of proportional changes in vital rates on the population growth rate (??). The elasticity values indicate the population is most sensitive to changes in survival rates (particularly adult survival).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Autschbach, Jochen; Nitsch-Velasquez, Lucia; Rudolph, Mark
Methodology to calculate electronic chiroptical properties from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is outlined. Applications of TDDFT to computations of electronic circular dichroism, optical rotation, and optical rotatory dispersion are reviewed. Emphasis is put on publications from 2005 to 2010, but much of the older literature is also cited and discussed. The determination of the absolute configuration of chiral molecules by combined measurements and computations is an important application of TDDFT chiroptical methods and discussed in some detail. Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra are obtained from normal-mode derivatives of the optical rotation tensor and other linear response tensors. A few selected (ROA) benchmarks are reviewed.
Barabash, O.M.; Santella, M.; Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Tischler, J.
2011-12-14
The indentation-induced elastic-plastic zone in an IN 740 Ni-based superalloy was studied by three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray microdiffraction and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Large lattice reorientations and the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations are observed in the area with a radius of {approx}75 {mu}m. A residual compression zone is found close to the indent edge. An elastic-plastic transition is observed at {approx}20 {mu}m from the indent edge. Depth dependent dislocation densities are determined at different distances from the indent edge.
Non-monotonic density dependence of the diffusion of DNA fragments in low-salt suspensions
M. G. McPhie; G. Naegele
2008-11-26
The high linear charge density of 20-base-pair oligomers of DNA is shown to lead to a striking non-monotonic dependence of the long-time self-diffusion on the concentration of the DNA in low-salt conditions. This generic non-monotonic behavior results from both the strong coupling between the electrostatic and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions, and from the renormalization of these electrostatic interactions at large separations, and specifically from the dominance of the far-field hydrodynamic interactions caused by the strong repulsion between the DNA fragments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammonds, Mark; Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter
2015-08-01
Since the confirmation of fullerenes in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, renewed interest has been taking into the formation and destruction processes which fullerenes may undergo, and their relation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other interstellar molecular species. This study presents Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) studies on PAHs containing five membered rings, which may be considered to be molecular fragments of fullerenes. Calculated spectra are presented and discussed in terms of the potential for identifying active fullerene chemistry in circumstellar and/or interstellar environments.
Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides
Sacchetti, A.; /Zurich, ETH; Arcangeletti, E.; Perucchi, A.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; /Rome U.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH
2009-12-14
We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe{sub 3}, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe{sub 3}.
Dixon, David A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Matsuzawa, Nobuyuki N.(SONY) [SONY; Ishitani, Ahihiko (Atsugi Research Center) [Atsugi Research Center; Uda, Tsuyoshi (Joint Research Center for ATom Technology) [Joint Research Center for ATom Technology
2001-05-30
Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of the photoabsorption of molecules in the vacuum region have been performed in order to aid in the design of transparent materials for use as photoresists for F2 lithography (157 nm). The method including an empirical equation for correcting the calculated transition energy is described. We have used the TD-DFT approach to predict the photoabsorption of substituted benzenes, and cycloalkane including norbornane. The calculations show that norbornane is the best cycloalkane on which to start substitution studies. We report results on the mono-, di-, and tera-fluorinated derivatives. The results show that tetrafluoro-norbornanes have the lowest absorption in the 157 nm range for the molecules that we studied.
Lorenzen, Kai; Enberg, Katja
2002-01-01
It is generally assumed that fish populations are regulated primarily in the juvenile (pre-recruit) phase of the life cycle, although density dependence in growth and reproductive parameters within the recruited phase has been widely reported. Here we present evidence to suggest that density-dependent growth in the recruited phase is a key process in the regulation of many fish populations. We analyse 16 fish populations with long-term records of size-at-age and biomass data, and detect significant density-dependent growth in nine. Among-population comparisons show a close, inverse relationship between the estimated decline in asymptotic length per unit biomass density, and the long-term average biomass density of populations. A simple population model demonstrates that regulation by density-dependent growth alone is sufficient to generate the observed relationship. Density-dependent growth should be accounted for in fisheries' assessments, and the empirical relationship established here can provide indicative estimates of the density-dependent growth parameter where population-specific data are lacking. PMID:11788036
Density determination of nano-layers depending to the thickness by non-destructive method
Gacem, A. [Département des Sciences Fondamentales, Faculté des Sciences et Sciences de l'Ingénieur, Université 20 Aout.1955, Skikda, BP 26, DZ-21000 Algérie and Laboratoire des Semi-Conducteurs, Département de Physique (Algeria); Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z. [Laboratoire des Semi-Conducteurs, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Badji-Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba, DZ-23000 (Algeria)
2013-12-16
Non-destructive tests used to characterize and observe the state of the solids near the surface or at depth, without damaging them or damaging them. Density is frequently used to follow the variations of the physical structure of the samples, as well as in the calculation of quantity of material required to fill a given volume, and it is also used to determine the homogeneity of a sample. However, the measurement of the acoustic properties (density, elastic constants,…) of a thin film whose thickness is smaller than several atomic layers is not easy to perform. For that reason, we expose in this work the effects of the thicknesses of thin films on the evolution of the density, where several samples are analyzed. The samples selected structures are thin films deposited on substrates, these coatings have thicknesses varying from a few atomic layers to ten or so micrometers and can change the properties of the substrate on which they are deposited. To do so, we considered a great number of layers (Cr, Al, SiO{sub 2}, ZnO, Cu, AlN, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC) deposited on different substrates (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu and Quartz). It is first shown that the density exhibits a dispersive behaviour. Such a behaviour is characterized by an initial increase (or decrease) followed by a saturated region. Further investigations of these dependences led to the determination of a semi-empirical universal relations, ?=f(h/?{sub T}), for all the investigated layer/substrate combination. Such expression could be of great importance in the density prediction of even layers thicknesses.
Devi, Sharmila; Williams, Daryl R
2014-10-01
Knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of freeze dried biopharmaceutical products is essential for designing of products with physical robustness that will not to crack, crumble or collapse during processing or transportation. The compressive mechanical deformation behaviour for freeze-dried sucrose cakes has been experimentally studied from a relative density (?f/?s) of 0.01-0.30 using a novel in-vial indentation test. Cakes exhibited more open like structures at lower densities and more closed structures at higher densities with some faces being present at all densities, as confirmed by SEM. The reduced elastic modulus Ef/Es=0.0044(?f/?s)(1) for all cake densities, indicating that face stretching was the dominant deformation mode assuming Gibson and Ashby's closed cell model. This linear scaling for the reduced elastic modulus is in line with various theoretical treatments based on tetrakaidecahedral cells and other experimental studies. Consistently, the wall thickness to cell diameter ratio scaled ?f/?s with a power constant of 1.05. The maximum crushing stress was given by ?max=3800(?f/?s)(1.48) which agrees with a strut bending failure stress, assuming Gibson and Ashby's open cell model. Overall, the freeze dried cakes behaved as neither classic closed cell nor open cell materials, with their compressive elastic moduli reflecting a closed cell elastic response whilst their failure stresses reflecting an open cell failure mode. It was concluded that the mechanical response of freeze dried cellular materials depends upon their complex cellular structures and morphologies, and they cannot be rationalised using simple limiting case models of open or closed cell solids. PMID:25019365
Dependence of critical current density on crystalline direction in thin YBCO films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paturi, P.; Peurla, M.; Raittila, J.; Andersen, N. H.
2005-12-01
The dependence of critical current density ( Jc) on the angle between the current direction and the (1 0 0) direction in the ab-plane of thin YBCO films deposited on (0 0 1)-SrTiO 3 from nanocrystalline and microcrystalline targets is studied using magneto-optical microscopy. In the films made from the nanocrystalline target it is found that Jc does not depend on the angle whereas Jc decreases with increasing angle in the films made from the microcrystalline target. The films were characterized by detailed X-ray diffraction measurements. The findings are explained in terms of a network of planar defects indicating that in addition to linear defects also the twin boundaries are very important flux pinning sites.
Hazlerigg, Charles R. E.; Lorenzen, Kai; Thorbek, Pernille; Wheeler, James R.; Tyler, Charles R.
2012-01-01
Population regulation is fundamental to the long-term persistence of populations and their responses to harvesting, habitat modification, and exposure to toxic chemicals. In fish and other organisms with complex life histories, regulation may involve density dependence in different life-stages and vital rates. We studied density dependence in body growth and mortality through the life-cycle of laboratory populations of zebrafish Danio rerio. When feed input was held constant at population-level (leading to resource limitation), body growth was strongly density-dependent in the late juvenile and adult phases of the life-cycle. Density dependence in mortality was strong during the early juvenile phase but declined thereafter and virtually ceased prior to maturation. Provision of feed in proportion to individual requirements (easing resource limitation) removed density dependence in growth and substantially reduced density dependence in mortality, thus indicating that ‘bottom-up’ effects act on growth as well as mortality, but most strongly on growth. Both growth and mortality played an important role in population regulation, with density-dependent growth having the greater impact on population biomass while mortality had the greatest impact on numbers. We demonstrate a clear ontogenic pattern of change in density-dependent processes within populations of a very small (maximum length 5 mm) fish, maintained in constant homogeneous laboratory conditions. The patterns are consistent with those distilled from studies on wild fish populations, indicating the presence of broad ontogenic patterns in density-dependent processes that are invariant to maximum body size and hold in homogeneous laboratory, as well as complex natural environments. PMID:22655056
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Day, Martha Marie
This web page introduces the concepts of density and buoyancy. The discovery in ancient Greece by Archimedes is described. The densities of various materials are given and temperature effects introduced. Links are provided to news and other resources related to mass density. This is part of the Vision Learning collection of short online modules covering topics in a broad range of science and math topics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D.; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2014-06-01
We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ˜35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.
Time-Dependent Approach to Electron--Atom Scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krilov, Goran
1997-04-01
The B-spline method [1] was used to represent the Hamiltonian describing the interaction of a projectile and a target on a discrete lattice. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation was then solved by explicit integration using different time propagation schemes, such as Taylor expansion and the ``leap-frog'' method [2]. In order to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the different approaches, the method was tested for several one-dimensional model problems, such as scattering of a Gaussian wavepacket from various arrangements of steps and barriers. The program is currently being applied to the two-dimensional Temkin-Poet model of electron scattering from atomic hydrogen [3]. The most recent results for excitation and ionization cross sections will be presented at the conference and compared with other theoretical work. 1. A.S. Umar, J. Wu, M.R. Strayer and C. Bottcher, J. Comp. Phys. 93, 1. 426 (1991) 2. W.H. Press, S.A. Teucholsky, V.T. Vetterling, and B.P. Flannery, 2. Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, New York 1992) 3. A. Temkin, Phys. Rev. A 126, 130 (1962)
Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Kim, Juhan E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr E-mail: kjhan@kias.re.kr
2014-12-01
We propose a method based on the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test to measure the expansion history of the universe. It uses the isotropy of the galaxy density gradient field to constrain cosmological parameters. If the density parameter ? {sub m} or the dark energy equation of state w are incorrectly chosen, the gradient field appears to be anisotropic with the degree of anisotropy varying with redshift. We use this effect to constrain the cosmological parameters governing the expansion history of the universe. Although redshift-space distortions (RSD) induced by galaxy peculiar velocities also produce anisotropies in the gradient field, these effects are close to uniform in magnitude over a large range of redshift. This makes the redshift variation of the gradient field anisotropy relatively insensitive to the RSD. By testing the method on mock surveys drawn from the Horizon Run 3 cosmological N-body simulations, we demonstrate that the cosmological parameters can be estimated without bias. Our method is complementary to the baryon acoustic oscillation or topology methods as it depends on D{sub AH} , the product of the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter.
Thermodynamics predicts density-dependent energy use in organisms and ecological communities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yen, Jian D. L.; Paganin, David M.; Thomson, James R.; Mac Nally, Ralph
2015-04-01
Linking our knowledge of organisms to our knowledge of ecological communities and ecosystems is a key challenge for ecology. Individual size distributions (ISDs) link the size of individual organisms to the structure of ecological communities, so that studying ISDs might provide insight into how organism functioning affects ecosystems. Similarly shaped ISDs among ecosystems, coupled with allometric links between organism size and resource use, suggest the possibility of emergent resource-use patterns in ecological communities. We drew on thermodynamics to develop a maximization principle that predicted both organism and community energy use. These predictions highlighted the importance of density-dependent metabolic rates and were able to explain nonlinear relationships between community energy use and community biomass. We analyzed data on fish community energy use and biomass and found evidence of nonlinear scaling, which was predicted by the thermodynamic principle developed here and is not explained by other theories of ISDs. Detailed measurements of organism energy use will clarify the role of density dependence in driving metabolic rates and will further test our derived thermodynamic principle. Importantly, our study highlights the potential for fundamental links between ecology and thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics predicts density-dependent energy use in organisms and ecological communities.
Yen, Jian D L; Paganin, David M; Thomson, James R; Mac Nally, Ralph
2015-04-01
Linking our knowledge of organisms to our knowledge of ecological communities and ecosystems is a key challenge for ecology. Individual size distributions (ISDs) link the size of individual organisms to the structure of ecological communities, so that studying ISDs might provide insight into how organism functioning affects ecosystems. Similarly shaped ISDs among ecosystems, coupled with allometric links between organism size and resource use, suggest the possibility of emergent resource-use patterns in ecological communities. We drew on thermodynamics to develop a maximization principle that predicted both organism and community energy use. These predictions highlighted the importance of density-dependent metabolic rates and were able to explain nonlinear relationships between community energy use and community biomass. We analyzed data on fish community energy use and biomass and found evidence of nonlinear scaling, which was predicted by the thermodynamic principle developed here and is not explained by other theories of ISDs. Detailed measurements of organism energy use will clarify the role of density dependence in driving metabolic rates and will further test our derived thermodynamic principle. Importantly, our study highlights the potential for fundamental links between ecology and thermodynamics. PMID:25974528
Time-dependent density functional theory for ion diffusion in electrochemical systems.
Jiang, Jian; Cao, Dapeng; Jiang, De-en; Wu, Jianzhong
2014-07-16
We introduce a generic form of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe ion diffusion in electrochemical systems to account for steric effects and electrostatic correlations neglected in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. An efficient numerical algorithm is proposed to analyze the charging kinetics of electric double layers in model electrochemical systems that consist of spherical ions in a dielectric continuum confined between two planar electrodes. By comparing the theoretical predictions from TDDFT and conventional electrokinetic methods for constant-voltage charging of the model electrochemical cells, we demonstrate that thermodynamic non-ideality plays a pivotal role in electrodiffusion even at relatively low electrolyte concentrations, and this effect cannot be captured by the lattice-gas model for the excluded volume effects. In particular, TDDFT predicts 'wave-like' variation of the ionic density profiles that has not been identified in previous investigations. At conditions where there are no significant correlations between electric double layers from opposite electrodes, the charging kinetics follows an exponential behavior with a linear dependence of the relaxation time on the cell thickness in excellent agreement with the equivalent circuit model. However, the conventional electrokinetic model breaks down when the electrodes are at small separation, in particular for systems with low ionic strength or high charging voltage. We also find that ionic screening retards the charging kinetics at low salt concentrations, but has the opposite effect at large salt concentrations. PMID:24920008
Time-dependent density functional theory for ion diffusion in electrochemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jian; Cao, Dapeng; Jiang, De-en; Wu, Jianzhong
2014-07-01
We introduce a generic form of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe ion diffusion in electrochemical systems to account for steric effects and electrostatic correlations neglected in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. An efficient numerical algorithm is proposed to analyze the charging kinetics of electric double layers in model electrochemical systems that consist of spherical ions in a dielectric continuum confined between two planar electrodes. By comparing the theoretical predictions from TDDFT and conventional electrokinetic methods for constant-voltage charging of the model electrochemical cells, we demonstrate that thermodynamic non-ideality plays a pivotal role in electrodiffusion even at relatively low electrolyte concentrations, and this effect cannot be captured by the lattice-gas model for the excluded volume effects. In particular, TDDFT predicts ‘wave-like’ variation of the ionic density profiles that has not been identified in previous investigations. At conditions where there are no significant correlations between electric double layers from opposite electrodes, the charging kinetics follows an exponential behavior with a linear dependence of the relaxation time on the cell thickness in excellent agreement with the equivalent circuit model. However, the conventional electrokinetic model breaks down when the electrodes are at small separation, in particular for systems with low ionic strength or high charging voltage. We also find that ionic screening retards the charging kinetics at low salt concentrations, but has the opposite effect at large salt concentrations.
Xiao-Dong Li; Changbom Park; Jaime E. Forero-Romero; Juhan Kim
2014-12-11
We propose a method based on the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test to measure the expansion history of the Universe. It uses the isotropy of the galaxy density gradient field to constrain cosmological parameters. If the density parameter $\\Omega_m$ or the dark energy equation of state $w$ are incorrectly chosen, the gradient field appears to be anisotropic with the degree of anisotropy varying with redshift. We use this effect to constrain the cosmological parameters governing the expansion history of the Universe. Although redshift-space distortions (RSD) induced by galaxy peculiar velocities also produce anisotropies in the gradient field, these effects are close to uniform in magnitude over a large range of redshift. This makes the redshift variation of the gradient field anisotropy relatively insensitive to the RSD. By testing the method on mock surveys drawn from the Horizon Run 3 cosmological N-body simulations, we demonstrate that the cosmological parameters can be estimated without bias. Our method is complementary to the baryon acoustic oscillation or topology methods as it depends on $D_AH$, the product of the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter.
Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Henriksen, Lisa; Delucchi, Kevin
2014-01-01
Objectives. We examined the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and associations with smoking behavior and mental health in a diverse sample of 1061 smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) residing in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Methods. Participants’ addresses were geocoded and linked with retailer licensing data to determine the distance between participants’ residence and the nearest retailer (proximity) and the number of retailers within 500-meter and 1-kilometer service areas (density). Results. More than half of the sample lived within 250 meters of a tobacco retailer. A median of 3 retailers were within 500 meters of participants’ residences, and a median of 12 were within 1 kilometer. Among smokers with SMI, tobacco retailer densities were 2-fold greater than for the general population and were associated with poorer mental health, greater nicotine dependence, and lower self-efficacy for quitting. Conclusions. Our findings provide further evidence of the tobacco retail environment as a potential vector contributing to tobacco-related disparities among individuals with SMI and suggest that this group may benefit from progressive environmental protections that restrict tobacco retail licenses and reduce aggressive point-of-sale marketing. PMID:24922145
Fruit removal rate depends on neighborhood fruit density, frugivore abundance, and spatial context.
Smith, Adam D; McWilliams, Scott R
2014-03-01
Fleshy-fruited plants depend fundamentally on interactions with frugivores for effective seed dispersal. Recent models of frugivory within spatially explicit networks make two general predictions regarding these interactions: rate of fruit removal increases (i.e., is facilitated) as densities of conspecific neighborhood fruits increase, and fruit removal rate varies positively with frugivore abundance. We conducted a field experiment that constitutes the first empirical and simultaneous test of these two primary predictions. We manipulated neighborhood abundances of arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum and Viburnum dentatum) fruits in southern New England's maritime shrub community and monitored removal rates by autumn-migrating birds. Focal arrowwood plants in neighborhoods with high conspecific fruit density sustained moderately decreased fruit removal rates (i.e., competition) relative to those in low-density neighborhoods, a result that agrees with most field research to date but contrasts with theoretical expectation. We suggest the spatial contexts that favor competition (i.e., high-abundance neighborhoods and highly aggregated landscapes) are considerably more common than the relatively uniform, low-aggregation fruiting landscapes that promote facilitation. Patterns of arrowwood removal by avian frugivores generally varied positively with, and apparently in response to, seasonal changes in migratory frugivore abundance. However, we suggest that dense stands of arrowwood concentrated frugivore activity at the neighborhood scale, thus counteracting geographic patterns of frugivore abundance. Our results underscore the importance of considering spatial context (e.g., fruit distribution and aggregation, frugivory hubs) in plant-avian frugivore interactions. PMID:24305861
Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey.
Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D
2011-04-19
Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such "masquerade" have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators' motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey. PMID:21464318
A Density Dependence for Protostellar Luminosity in Class I Sources: Collaborative Accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hurst, Rachel; Koenig, Xavier
2014-02-01
Class I protostars in three high-mass star-forming regions are found to have correlations among the local projected density of other Class I protostars, the summed flux from these other protostars, and the protostellar luminosity in the WISE 22 ?m band. Brighter Class I sources form in higher-density and higher-flux regions, while low luminosity sources form anywhere. These correlations depend slightly on the number of neighbors considered (from 2 to 20) and could include a size-of-sample effect from the initial mass function (i.e., larger numbers include rarer and more massive stars). Luminosities seem to vary by neighborhood with nearby protostars having values proportional to each other and higher density regions having higher values. If Class I luminosity is partially related to the accretion rate, then this luminosity correlation is consistent with the competitive accretion model, although it is more collaborative than competitive. The correlation is also consistent with primordial mass segregation and could explain why the stellar initial mass function resembles the dense core mass function even when cores form multiple stars.
Hippo signaling regulates Microprocessor and links cell density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer
Mori, Masaki; Triboulet, Robinson; Mohseni, Morvarid; Schlegelmilch, Karin; Shrestha, Kriti; Camargo, Fernando D.; Gregory, Richard I.
2014-01-01
SUMMARY Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding post-transcriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer. PMID:24581491
Density dependence of mean kinetic energy in liquid and solid hydrogen at 19.3 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zoppi, M.; Colognesi, D.; Celli, M.
2001-09-01
We have measured, using the TOSCA spectrometer at ISIS, the inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectrum of liquid and solid para-hydrogen along the T = 19.3 K isotherm. From the high-energy region of the spectrum, where the Impulse Approximation for the Centre of Mass motion applies, we have been able to extract the mean translational kinetic energy, which, as expected, turns out rather different from the classical value and density dependent. We find that the density behaviours in the liquid and the solid phase are slightly different. This confirms a similar feature already observed in liquid and solid helium at T = 6.1 K [M. Celli, M. Zoppi, J. Mayers, Phys. Rev. B 58, 242 (1998)]. The spectra from the solid phase have been also analysed in the low-energy region and allowed us to derive the Debye-Waller factor of solid para-hydrogen as a function of density. The comparison with the available experimental data in the literature is rather good and confirms the excellent performances of TOSCA in the spectroscopic analysis of the condensed phases of para-hydrogen.
A High-Performance Fortran Code to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities
R. Sen'kov; M. Horoi; V. G. Zelevinsky
2012-06-20
A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities.The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g9/2 - model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g9/2-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g9/2, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf.
A DENSITY DEPENDENCE FOR PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY IN CLASS I SOURCES: COLLABORATIVE ACCRETION
Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Hurst, Rachel [Scarsdale High School, 1057 White Plains Rd, Scarsdale, NY 10583 (United States); Koenig, Xavier, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
2014-02-10
Class I protostars in three high-mass star-forming regions are found to have correlations among the local projected density of other Class I protostars, the summed flux from these other protostars, and the protostellar luminosity in the WISE 22 ?m band. Brighter Class I sources form in higher-density and higher-flux regions, while low luminosity sources form anywhere. These correlations depend slightly on the number of neighbors considered (from 2 to 20) and could include a size-of-sample effect from the initial mass function (i.e., larger numbers include rarer and more massive stars). Luminosities seem to vary by neighborhood with nearby protostars having values proportional to each other and higher density regions having higher values. If Class I luminosity is partially related to the accretion rate, then this luminosity correlation is consistent with the competitive accretion model, although it is more collaborative than competitive. The correlation is also consistent with primordial mass segregation and could explain why the stellar initial mass function resembles the dense core mass function even when cores form multiple stars.
Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy
Jianmin Dong; Wei Zuo; Jianzhong Gu
2015-04-09
Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$. Finally, with a `tomoscan' method, we find that one just needs to measure the nucleon densities in $^{208}$Pb starting from $R_{m} = 7.61\\pm0.04$ fm to obtain the $\\Delta R_{np}$ in hadron scattering experiments, regardless of its interior profile that is hampered by the strong absorption.
Habershon, Scott [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Scientific Computing, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2013-09-14
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.
Warming and nitrogen affect size structuring and density dependence in a host-parasitoid food web.
de Sassi, Claudio; Staniczenko, Phillip P A; Tylianakis, Jason M
2012-11-01
Body size is a major factor constraining the trophic structure and functioning of ecological communities. Food webs are known to respond to changes in basal resource abundance, and climate change can initiate compounding bottom-up effects on food-web structure through altered resource availability and quality. However, the effects of climate and co-occurring global changes, such as nitrogen deposition, on the density and size relationships between resources and consumers are unknown, particularly in host-parasitoid food webs, where size structuring is less apparent. We use a Bayesian modelling approach to explore the role of consumer and resource density and body size on host-parasitoid food webs assembled from a field experiment with factorial warming and nitrogen treatments. We show that the treatments increased resource (host) availability and quality (size), leading to measureable changes in parasitoid feeding behaviour. Parasitoids interacted less evenly within their host range and increasingly focused on abundant and high-quality (i.e. larger) hosts. In summary, we present evidence that climate-mediated bottom-up effects can significantly alter food-web structure through both density- and trait-mediated effects. PMID:23007092
Herbivore-Specific, Density-Dependent Induction of Plant Volatiles: Honest or “Cry Wolf” Signals?
Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Kugimiya, Soichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; van Wijk, Michiel; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Takabayashi, Junji
2010-01-01
Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori) also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae) larvae and attract more (naive) parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata) when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori) release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis) of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale) respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala) is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata) as a “cry wolf” signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike. PMID:20808961
Shape evolution and collective dynamics of quasifission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.
2015-08-01
Background: At energies near the Coulomb barrier, capture reactions in heavy-ion collisions result either in fusion or in quasifission. The former produces a compound nucleus in statistical equilibrium, while the second leads to a reseparation of the fragments after partial mass equilibration without formation of a compound nucleus. Extracting the compound nucleus formation probability is crucial to predict superheavy-element formation cross sections. It requires a good knowledge of the fragment angular distribution which itself depends on quantities such as moments of inertia and excitation energies which have so far been somewhat arbitrary for the quasifission contribution. Purpose: Our main goal is to utilize the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach to extract ingredients of the formula used in the analysis of experimental angular distributions. These include the moment-of-inertia and temperature. Methods: We investigate the evolution of the nuclear density in TDHF calculations leading to quasifission. We study the dependence of the relevant quantities on various initial conditions of the reaction process. Results: The evolution of the moment of inertia is clearly nontrivial and depends strongly on the characteristics of the collision. The temperature rises quickly when the kinetic energy is transformed into internal excitation. Then, it rises slowly during mass transfer. Conclusions: Fully microscopic theories are useful to predict the complex evolution of quantities required in macroscopic models of quasifission.
Dependency of irradiation damage density on tritium migration behaviors in Li2TiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Makoto; Toda, Kensuke; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji
2014-04-01
Tritium migration behaviors in Li2TiO3 with the increase of irradiation damage density were investigated by means of electron spin resonance and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The irradiation damages of F+-centers and O--centers were formed by neutron irradiation, and their damage densities were increased with increasing neutron fluence. Tritium release temperature was clearly shifted toward higher temperature side with increasing neutron fluence, i.e. increasing damage density. The rate determining process for tritium release was also clearly changed depending on the damage density. Tritium release was mainly controlled by tritium diffusion process in crystalline grain of Li2TiO3 at lower neutron fluence. The apparent tritium diffusivity was reduced as the damage density in Li2TiO3 increased due to the introduction of tritium trapping/detrapping sites for diffusing tritium. Then, tritium trapping/detrapping processes began to control the overall tritium release with further damage introductions as the amount of tritium trapping sites increased enough to trap most of tritium in Li2TiO3. The effects of water vapor in purge gas on tritium release behaviors were also investigated. It was considered that hydrogen isotopes in purge gas would be dissociated and adsorbed on the surface of Li2TiO3. Then, hydrogen isotopes diffused inward Li2TiO3 would occupy the tritium trapping sites before diffusing tritium reaches to these sites, promoting apparent tritium diffusion consequently. Kinetics analysis of tritium release for highly damaged Li2TiO3 showed that the rate determining process of tritium release was the detrapping process of tritium formed as hydroxyl groups. The rate of tritium detrapping as hydroxyl groups was determined by the kinetic analysis, and was comparable to tritium release kinetics for Li2O, LiOH and Li4TiO4. The dangling oxygen atoms (O--centers) formed by neutron irradiation would contribute strongly on the formation of hydroxyl groups. The efficiency of tritium trapping/detrapping by the dangling oxygen atoms was clearly increased with increasing damage density due to the stabilization of damages by neighboring irradiation damages and/or the lithium burn-up which produces lithium vacancy acting as a pass way of tritium to the dangling oxygen atoms.
Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M; Morrison, Scott A; Ghalambor, Cameron K
2014-01-01
Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number from its effects on reproductive failure, while also evaluating how biotic and abiotic factors jointly shape demography. We examined the effects of population density and precipitation on fecundity, nest survival, and adult survival in an insular population of orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) that breeds at high densities and exhibits a suite of traits suggesting strong intraspecific competition. Breeding density had a negative influence on fecundity, but it acted by increasing the probability of reproductive failure through nest predation, rather than through competition, which was predicted to reduce the number of offspring produced by successful individuals. Our results demonstrate that density-dependent nest predation can underlie the relationship between population density and fecundity even in a high-density, insular population where intraspecific competition should be strong. PMID:25077023
Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M; Morrison, Scott A; Ghalambor, Cameron K
2014-07-01
Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number from its effects on reproductive failure, while also evaluating how biotic and abiotic factors jointly shape demography. We examined the effects of population density and precipitation on fecundity, nest survival, and adult survival in an insular population of orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) that breeds at high densities and exhibits a suite of traits suggesting strong intraspecific competition. Breeding density had a negative influence on fecundity, but it acted by increasing the probability of reproductive failure through nest predation, rather than through competition, which was predicted to reduce the number of offspring produced by successful individuals. Our results demonstrate that density-dependent nest predation can underlie the relationship between population density and fecundity even in a high-density, insular population where intraspecific competition should be strong. PMID:25077023
Position and Current Dependence of Charge-Density-Wave Polarization Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladino, L.; Brill, J. W.
2008-03-01
We have studied the frequency and position dependence of charge-density-wave (CDW) polarization by simulating the response to square-waves of variable amplitude and frequency using parameters appropriate for niobium triselenide at T = 90 K, in its upper CDW state. For these simulations, we have numerically solved the phase-slip augmented diffusion model introduced by Adelman et al (Phys. Rev. B 53, 1833 (1996)) for time domain studies. At each position in the sample, the frequency dependence was fit to a modified harmonic oscillator expression and the position and current dependence of the fitting parameters determined. In particular, both the delay time (1/resonant frequency) and relaxation time decrease with increasing current (and phase-slip rate) and increase with distance from the contact, with the delay time vanishing adjacent to the contact, as experimentally observed with electro-optic measurements in blue bronze. No decay of the polarization at long times is observed however, in contrast to electro-optic results.
Toward a model-independent constraint of the high-density dependence of the symmetry energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cozma, M. D.; Leifels, Y.; Trautmann, W.; Li, Q.; Russotto, P.
2013-10-01
Neutron-proton elliptic flow difference and ratio have been shown to be promising observables in the attempt to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy above the saturation point from heavy-ion collision data. Their dependence on model parameters such as microscopic nucleon-nucleon cross sections, compressibility of nuclear matter, optical potential, and symmetry energy parametrization is thoroughly studied. By using a parametrization of the symmetry energy derived from the momentum-dependent Gogny force in conjunction with the Tübingen quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model and comparing the results with the experimental FOPI-LAND data for 197Au +197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon, a moderately stiff (Lsym=122±57 MeV and Ksym=229±363 MeV) symmetry energy is extracted, a result that agrees with that of a similar study that employed the UrQMD transport model and a power-law parametrization of the symmetry energy. This contrasts with diverging results extracted from the FOPI ?-/?+ ratio available in the literature.
Inflammation Triggers Emergency Granulopoiesis through a Density-Dependent Feedback Mechanism
Cain, Derek W.; Snowden, Pilar B.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Kelsoe, Garnett
2011-01-01
Normally, neutrophil pools are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms that require the transcription factor C/EBP?. Inflammation, however, induces neutrophilia through a distinct pathway of “emergency” granulopoiesis that is dependent on C/EBP?. Here, we show in mice that alum triggers emergency granulopoiesis through the IL-1RI-dependent induction of G-CSF. G-CSF/G-CSF-R neutralization impairs proliferative responses of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) to alum, but also abrogates the acute mobilization of BM neutrophils, raising the possibility that HSPC responses to inflammation are an indirect result of the exhaustion of BM neutrophil stores. The induction of neutropenia, via depletion with Gr-1 mAb or myeloid-specific ablation of Mcl-1, elicits G-CSF via an IL-1RI-independent pathway, stimulating granulopoietic responses indistinguishable from those induced by adjuvant. Notably, C/EBP?, thought to be necessary for enhanced generative capacity of BM, is dispensable for increased proliferation of HSPC to alum or neutropenia, but plays a role in terminal neutrophil differentiation during granulopoietic recovery. We conclude that alum elicits a transient increase in G-CSF production via IL-1RI for the mobilization of BM neutrophils, but density-dependent feedback sustains G-CSF for accelerated granulopoiesis. PMID:21655273
This paper is published as part of a PCCP Themed Issue on: Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory
Burke, Kieron
. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b822941d An ab initio and TD-DFT study of solvent effect of the photoactive yellow protein: a time-dependent density functional theory/molecular mechanics study Eneritz
Thomas, Len
Supplementary material: ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70 Evidence for density-dependent changes, including plankton covariate selection There were 889 measurements of m4. Month 10 (October) had only 3
The assessment of toxic exposure on wildlife populations involves the integration of organism level effects measured in toxicity tests (e.g., chronic life cycle) and population models. These modeling exercises typically ignore density dependence, primarily because information on ...
Simon, B C; Cunningham, L D; Cohen, R A
1990-01-01
The direct vasoactive effects of native and oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins as well as their effects on endothelium-dependent relaxations to 5-hydroxytryptamine were studied in isolated rings of pig right coronary artery. Slowly developing contractions were caused by native low density lipoproteins (100 micrograms protein/ml). The contractions were more pronounced in the absence than in the presence of the trace metal chelator, EDTA, and coincided with the formation of lipid peroxides during the response. The lipophilic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene, prevented the oxidation of, and contraction to, native low density lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins oxidized by exposure to copper contracted coronary arteries more rapidly with a threshold of only 1 micrograms protein/ml, but with a similar maximal contraction at 100 micrograms protein/ml. Superoxide dismutase inhibited the contraction to native low density lipoproteins, but not to oxidized low density lipoproteins. Catalase blocked contractions to both native and oxidized low density lipoproteins. Contractions to oxidized low density lipoproteins were unaffected by indomethacin, but were abolished by removal of the endothelium or by inhibitors of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Oxidized low density lipoproteins but not native low density lipoproteins inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxations to 5-hydroxytryptamine. Thus, oxidized low density lipoproteins caused endothelium-dependent coronary artery contractions which are mediated by a hydroperoxide. Contractions to native low density lipoproteins are due to their oxidation in the organ chamber by the superoxide anion radical. Oxidized, but not native, low density lipoproteins impair normal endothelial cell vasodilator function in vitro. Oxidized low density lipoproteins, important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, may directly contribute to the increased risk of vasospasm seen in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:2365828
Impact of density-dependent migration flows on epidemic outbreaks in heterogeneous metapopulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripoll, J.; Avinyó, A.; Pellicer, M.; Saldaña, J.
2015-08-01
We investigate the role of migration patterns on the spread of epidemics in complex networks. We enhance the SIS-diffusion model on metapopulations to a nonlinear diffusion. Specifically, individuals move randomly over the network but at a rate depending on the population of the departure patch. In the absence of epidemics, the migration-driven equilibrium is described by quantifying the total number of individuals living in heavily or lightly populated areas. Our analytical approach reveals that strengthening the migration from populous areas contains the infection at the early stage of the epidemic. Moreover, depending on the exponent of the nonlinear diffusion rate, epidemic outbreaks do not always occur in the most populated areas as one might expect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassar, Mohamed K.; Ginn, Timothy R.
2014-08-01
We investigate the effect of computational error on the inversion of a density-dependent flow and transport model, using SEAWAT and UCODE-2005 in an inverse identification of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity using head and concentration data from a 2-D laboratory experiment. We investigated inversions using three different solution schemes including variation of number of particles and time step length, in terms of the three aspects: the shape and smoothness of the objective function surface, the consequent impacts to the optimization, and the resulting Pareto analyses. This study demonstrates that the inversion is very sensitive to the choice of the forward model solution scheme. In particular, standard finite difference methods provide the smoothest objective function surface; however, this is obtained at the cost of numerical artifacts that can lead to erroneous warping of the objective function surface. Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes limit these impacts at the cost of more computation time, while the hybrid method of characteristics (HMOC) approach with increased particle numbers and/or reduced time step gives both smoothed and accurate objective function surface. Use of the most accurate methods (TVD and HMOC) did lead to successful inversion of the two parameters; however, with distinct results for Pareto analyses. These results illuminate the sensitivity of the inversion to a number of aspects of the forward solution of the density-driven flow problem and reveal that parameter values may result that are erroneous but that counteract numerical errors in the solution.
Density-dependent life-history compensation of an iteroparous salmonid.
Johnston, Fiona D; Post, John R
2009-03-01
Over the course of a decade, the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) population in Lower Kananaskis Lake, Alberta, Canada, recovered from a heavily overexploited state, experiencing a 28-fold increase in adult abundance after the implementation of zero-harvest regulations. This system provided a unique opportunity to monitor the changes in life-history characteristics in a natural population throughout the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which life-history traits were able to compensate for harvest-induced changes and the implications of this for management. Density-dependent changes in growth, survival, and reproductive life-history characteristics were observed. As density increased, maturation was delayed, and the frequency of skipped reproductive events, primarily by individuals of poor condition, increased. However, size at maturation and the proportion of fish skipping reproduction differed between the sexes, suggesting that life-history trade-offs differ between the sexes. The rapid response of these life-history traits to changes in density suggests that these changes were primarily due to phenotypic plasticity, although the importance of natural and artificial selection should not be discounted. The magnitude of the variation in the traits represents the degree to which the population was able to compensate for overharvest, although the overexploited state of the population at the beginning of the study demonstrates it was not able to fully compensate for this mortality. However, no evidence of depensatory processes was found. This, in combination with the plasticity of the life-history traits, has important implications for the resilience of the population to overharvest. Furthermore, density-dependent growth may have the unintended result of making size-based regulations less conservative at low levels of population abundance, as younger fish, perhaps even immature fish, become vulnerable to harvest. Finally, the variation in life-history traits in relation to evolutionary change is discussed. Results from this study demonstrate the importance of considering not only survival, but also changes in life-history characteristics for management and conservation. PMID:19323202
The dependence of the IMF on the density- temperature relation of pre-stellar gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitsionas, S.; Whitworth, A. P.; Klessen, R. S.; Jappsen, A.-K.
It has been recently shown by several authors that fragmentation of pre-stellar gas (i.e. at densities from 10^4 to 10^10 particles cm^-3 and temperatures of order 10-30K) depends on the gas thermodynamics much more than it was anticipated in earlier studies, in which only an isothermal behaviour has been assumed for the gas. We shall review the results of a number of numerical hydrodynamic simulations (e.g. Li et al. 2003, Jappsen et al. 2005, Bonnell et al. 2006) in which departure from isothermality has been attempted by employing a polytropic equation of state (eos) with exponent different from unity. In particular, in these studies it has been shown that the dominant fragmentation scale of pre-stellar gas, and hence the peak of the initial mass function (IMF), depends on a polytropic exponent that changes value at a critical density. Furthermore, this critical density depends on the gas metallicity and fundamental constants rather than on initial conditions, thus allowing for the first time to infer theoretically the notion of a universal IMF (at least for its low-mass end). We shall subsequently present two test cases in which such an equation of state has been used in the context of smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) numerical simulations. In the first case star formation is triggered by means of low-mass clump collisions. These calculations have shown that clump collisions can be a relatively efficient mechanism for the formation of solar mass protostars and their lower mass companions (efficiency greater or of order 20%; Kitsionas & Whitworth 2006). In the second case, the use of a polytropic eos with an exponent varying according to the metallicity of starburst regions (Spaans & Silk 2000, 2005) is shown to be sufficient to obtain a top heavy IMF similar to that observed e.g. in the Galactic centre (Klessen, Spaans & Jappsen 2006). These are preliminary results in the direction of revisiting earlier calculations that were resolving the opacity limit for fragmentation (e.g. Bate et al. 2002ab, 2003), this time also taking into account the thermal properties of the gas. The next step would be to include self-consistent radiation transport in the calculations, the first attempts for which are already in the making.
Gross, E.K.U.
in the device region that will be propagated in time with proper transparent boundary-condition at the device-dependent transport phenomena within open- boundary time-dependent density functional theory. Within this approach all-Sham orbitals under the influence of the external bias. This central idea is combined with an open-boundary
Associating domain-dependent knowledge and Monte Carlo approaches within a go program
Bouzy, Bruno
Associating domain-dependent knowledge and Monte Carlo approaches within a go program Bruno Bouzy of two computer go approaches, a domain-dependent knowledge approach and Monte Carlo. First by Indigo at the 8th computer olympiad as well. 1 Introduction Over the past years, we have improved our go
Bravo de la Parra, Rafael
Effects of density dependent sex allocation on the dynamics of a simultaneous hermaphroditic Available online 22 December 2009 Keywords: Sex-allocation model Sex-structured population dynamics Density model describing the dynamics of a population where sex allocation remains flexible throughout adult
Chu, Shih-I
Recent development of self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory for nonperturbative treatment of atomic and molecular multiphoton processes in intense laser fields Shih-I Chua In this paper, we present a short account of some recent developments of self-interaction-free density
that infrared imaging of the charge density profile in organic field-effect transistors FETs can probe transportConcentration-dependent mobility in organic field-effect transistors probed by infrared spectromicroscopy of the charge density profile A. D. Meyertholen,a Z. Q. Li, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler
Assessment of the ?SCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes
Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.
2010-01-01
This paper assesses the accuracy of the ?SCF method for computing low-lying HOMO?LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ?SCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ?SCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ?SCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tassel, Paul R.; Talbot, Julian; Tarjus, Gilles; Viot, Pascal
1996-01-01
The kinetics of the irreversible adsorption of particles that undergo a surface induced conformational change may be modeled as a random sequential adsorption of spreading disks. We analyze this process by expanding the governing kinetic equations in a power series of the particle density. In the limit where particles spread instantaneously upon adsorption, the coefficients in the density expansion depend only upon the particle spreading magnitude ?. In the general case of a finite spreading rate, a renormalization is performed to improve the efficiency of the expansion and the coefficients become functions of ? and a new variable ?=?Ks, where ? is the density and Ks is the relative rate of particle spreading. While they are most accurate at low to moderate densities, these expressions may be linked to the known asymptotic kinetics via interpolation formulas to give an approximate solution over the entire density regime, in good agreement with simulation and experiment.
Time-dependent density functional studies of nuclear quantum dynamics in large amplitudes
Wen, Kai; Fang, Ni; Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2015-01-01
The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) provides a unified description of the structure and reaction. The linear approximation leads to the random-phase approximation (RPA) which is capable of describing a variety of collective motion in a harmonic regime. Beyond the linear regime, we present applications of the TDDFT to nuclear fusion and fission reaction. In particular, the extraction of the internuclear potential and the inertial mass parameter is performed using two different methods. A fusion hindrance mechanism for heavy systems is investigated from the microscopic point of view. The canonical collective variables are determined by the adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate method. Preliminary results of the spontaneous fission path, the potential, and the collective mass parameter are shown for 8Be --> alpha+alpha.
Optimized Effective Potential for Quantum Electrodynamical Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.
Pellegrini, Camilla; Flick, Johannes; Tokatly, Ilya V; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel
2015-08-28
We propose an orbital exchange-correlation functional for applying time-dependent density functional theory to many-electron systems coupled to cavity photons. The time nonlocal equation for the electron-photon optimized effective potential (OEP) is derived. In the static limit our OEP energy functional reduces to the Lamb shift of the ground state energy. We test the new approximation in the Rabi model. It is shown that the OEP (i) reproduces quantitatively the exact ground-state energy from the weak to the deep strong coupling regime and (ii) accurately captures the dynamics entering the ultrastrong coupling regime. The present formalism opens the path to a first-principles description of correlated electron-photon systems, bridging the gap between electronic structure methods and quantum optics for real material applications. PMID:26371646
Pattern Formation in Populations with Density-Dependent Movement and Two Interaction Scales
Martínez-García, Ricardo; Murgui, Clara; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal
2015-01-01
We study the spatial patterns formed by a system of interacting particles where the mobility of any individual is determined by the population crowding at two different spatial scales. In this way we model the behavior of some biological organisms (like mussels) that tend to cluster at short ranges as a defensive strategy, and strongly disperse if there is a high population pressure at large ranges for optimizing foraging. We perform stochastic simulations of a particle-level model of the system, and derive and analyze a continuous density description (a nonlinear diffusion equation). In both cases we show that this interplay of scale-dependent-behaviors gives rise to a rich formation of spatial patterns ranging from labyrinths to periodic cluster arrangements. In most cases these clusters have the very peculiar appearance of ring-like structures, i.e., organisms arranging in the perimeter of the clusters, which we discuss in detail. PMID:26147351
Density dependence of the pairing interaction and pairing correlation in unstable nuclei
Changizi, S A
2015-01-01
This work aims at a global assessment of the effect of the density dependence of the zero-range pairing interaction. Systematic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the volume, surface and mixed pairing forces are carried out to study the pairing gaps in even-even nuclei over the whole nuclear chart. Calculations are also done in coordinate representation for unstable semi-magic even-even nuclei. The calculated pairing gaps are compared with empirical values from four different odd-even staggering formulae. Calculations with the three pairing interactions are comparable for most nuclei close to $\\beta$-stability line. However, the surface interaction calculations predict neutron pairing gaps in neutron-rich nuclei that are significantly stronger than those given by the mixed and volume pairing. On the other hand, calculations with volume and mixed pairing forces show noticeable reduction of neutron pairing gaps in nuclei far from the stability.
Density dependence of the pairing interaction and pairing correlation in unstable nuclei
S. A. Changizi; Chong Qi
2015-08-08
This work aims at a global assessment of the effect of the density dependence of the zero-range pairing interaction. Systematic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the volume, surface and mixed pairing forces are carried out to study the pairing gaps in even-even nuclei over the whole nuclear chart. Calculations are also done in coordinate representation for unstable semi-magic even-even nuclei. The calculated pairing gaps are compared with empirical values from four different odd-even staggering formulae. Calculations with the three pairing interactions are comparable for most nuclei close to $\\beta$-stability line. However, the surface interaction calculations predict neutron pairing gaps in neutron-rich nuclei that are significantly stronger than those given by the mixed and volume pairing. On the other hand, calculations with volume and mixed pairing forces show noticeable reduction of neutron pairing gaps in nuclei far from the stability.
Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from measurements of neutron radii in nuclei
Viñas, X.; Centelles, M. [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Roca-Maza, X. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Warda, M. [Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Marii Curie–Sk?odowskiej ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)
2014-07-23
We study the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, characterized by its slope parameter L, by means of the information provided by the neutron radius and the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. These quantities are extracted from the analysis of data obtained in antiprotonic atoms, from the parity-violating asymmetry at low-momentum transfer in polarized electron scattering in {sup 208}Pb, and from the electric dipole polarizability obtained via polarized proton inelastic scattering at forward angles in {sup 208}Pb. All these experiments provide different constraints on the slope L of the symmetry energy but the corresponding values have a considerable overlap in a range around 50 MeV ? L ? 70 MeV, in a reasonable agreement with other estimates that use different observables and methods to extract L.
Pattern Formation in Populations with Density-Dependent Movement and Two Interaction Scales
Martínez-García, Ricardo; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal
2015-01-01
We study the spatial patterns formed by a system of interacting particles where the mobility of any individual is determined by the population crowding at two different spatial scales. In this way we model the behavior of some biological organisms (like mussels) that tend to cluster at short ranges as a defensive strategy, and strongly disperse if there is a high population pressure at large ranges for optimizing foraging. We perform stochastic simulations of a particle-level model of the system, and derive and analyze a continuous density description (a nonlinear diffusion equation). In both cases we show that this interplay of scale-dependent-behaviors gives rise to a rich formation of spatial patterns ranging from labyrinths to periodic cluster arrangements. In most cases these clusters have the very peculiar appearance of ring-like structures, i.e., organisms arranging in the perimeter of the clusters, that we discuss in detail.
Isospin effects and the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy
Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Steiner, A. W.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.
2009-10-15
The density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is inspected using the statistical multifragmentation model with Skyrme effective interactions. The model consistently considers the expansion of the fragments' volumes at finite temperature at the freeze-out stage. By selecting parametrizations of the Skyrme force that lead to very different equations of state for the symmetry energy, we investigate the sensitivity of the isoscaling parameter and the isotopic distributions to differences in the symmetry energy. Our results suggest that, in spite of being sensitive to the thermal dilation of the fragments' volumes, it is difficult to distinguish among the Skyrme forces from the isoscaling analysis. On the other hand, the isotopic distribution of the emitted fragments turns out to be very sensitive to the force employed in the calculation.
Time-dependent density functional studies of nuclear quantum dynamics in large amplitudes
Kai Wen; Kouhei Washiyama; Ni Fang; Takashi Nakatsukasa
2015-10-13
The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) provides a unified description of the structure and reaction. The linear approximation leads to the random-phase approximation (RPA) which is capable of describing a variety of collective motion in a harmonic regime. Beyond the linear regime, we present applications of the TDDFT to nuclear fusion and fission reaction. In particular, the extraction of the internuclear potential and the inertial mass parameter is performed using two different methods. A fusion hindrance mechanism for heavy systems is investigated from the microscopic point of view. The canonical collective variables are determined by the adiabatic self-consistent collective coordinate method. Preliminary results of the spontaneous fission path, the potential, and the collective mass parameter are shown for 8Be --> alpha+alpha.
Experimental investigation on the temperature dependence of the nuclear level density parameter
Balaram Dey; Deepak Pandit; Srijit Bhattacharya; K. Banerjee; N. Quang Hung; N. Dinh Dang; Debasish Mondal; S. Mukhopadhyay; Surajit Pal; A. De; S. R. Banerjee
2015-01-07
The effect of temperature (T) and angular momentum (J) on the inverse level density parameter (k) has been studied by populating the compound nucleus $^{97}$Tc in the reaction $^{4}$He + $^{93}$Nb at four incident beam energies of 28, 35, 42 and 50 MeV. For all the four energies, the value of k decreases with increasing J. The T dependence of k has been compared for two angular momentum windows with different theoretical predictions as well as with FTBCS1 calculation which takes into account the quasiparticle-number fluctuations in the pairing field. Interestingly, the experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations at higher J but deviate from all the calculations at lower J.
Optimized Effective Potential for Quantum Electrodynamical Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellegrini, Camilla; Flick, Johannes; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel
2015-08-01
We propose an orbital exchange-correlation functional for applying time-dependent density functional theory to many-electron systems coupled to cavity photons. The time nonlocal equation for the electron-photon optimized effective potential (OEP) is derived. In the static limit our OEP energy functional reduces to the Lamb shift of the ground state energy. We test the new approximation in the Rabi model. It is shown that the OEP (i) reproduces quantitatively the exact ground-state energy from the weak to the deep strong coupling regime and (ii) accurately captures the dynamics entering the ultrastrong coupling regime. The present formalism opens the path to a first-principles description of correlated electron-photon systems, bridging the gap between electronic structure methods and quantum optics for real material applications.
Systematic calculation of {alpha} decay within a generalized density-dependent cluster model
Ni Dongdong; Ren Zhongzhou
2010-02-15
We perform an extensive investigation on {alpha} decays in both even-A and odd-A nuclei within the new version of the generalized density-dependent cluster model. The microscopic deformed potential is numerically constructed in the double-folding model by the multipole expansion method. The coupled-channel effect resulting from nuclear deformation is included by using the coupled-channel Schroedinger equation with outgoing wave boundary conditions. The fine structure observed in {alpha} decay is well described by taking into account the angular momentum of the emitted {alpha} particle and the Boltzmann distribution of excitation spectrum in daughter nuclei. A good agreement between experiment and theory is achieved, and the results of our calculations are discussed in detail, together with the sensitivity of the calculated half-lives and branching ratios to some physical quantities used in the calculations.
Ou, Qi; Alguire, Ethan C; Subotnik, Joseph E
2015-06-18
In this paper, we present a formalism for derivative couplings between time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) excited states within the randomphase approximation (RPA) using analytic gradient theory. Our formalism is based on a pseudo-wavefunction approach in a companion paper (DOI 10.1021/jp505767b), and can be checked against finite-difference overlaps. Our approach recovers the correct properties of derivative couplings around a conical intersection (CI), which is a crucial prerequisite for any derivative coupling expression. As an example, we study the test case of protonated formaldimine (CH2NH2(+)). PMID:25090155
A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards.
Karlis, A K; Diakonos, F K; Constantoudis, V
2012-06-01
The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration. PMID:22757579
Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Wang, Lei; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang
2014-11-01
MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation in radiation therapy for certain tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT. A treatment planning process with MRI as the sole imaging modality will eliminate systematic CT/MRI co-registration errors, reduce cost and radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information necessary for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup. The purpose of this work is to develop a unifying method to derive electron density from standard T1-weighted MRI. We propose to combine both intensity and geometry information into a unifying probabilistic Bayesian framework for electron density mapping. For each voxel, we compute two conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of electron density given its: (1) T1-weighted MRI intensity, and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of the atlas and test patient. The two conditional PDFs containing intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior PDF, whose mean value corresponds to the optimal electron density value under the mean-square error criterion. We evaluated the algorithm's accuracy of electron density mapping and its ability to detect bone in the head for eight patients, using an additional patient as the atlas or template. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as receiver operating characteristics for bone detection (HU > 200) were calculated. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 126, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p = 2? × ?10(-4)), 283 for the intensity approach (p = 2? × ?10(-6)) and 282 without density correction (p = 5? × ?10(-6)). For 90% sensitivity in bone detection, the proposed method achieved a specificity of 86%, compared with 80, 11 and 10% using deformable registration, intensity and without density correction, respectively. Notably, the Bayesian approach was more robust against anatomical differences between patients, with a specificity of 62% in the worst case (patient), compared to 30% specificity in registration-based approach. In conclusion, the proposed unifying Bayesian method provides accurate electron density estimation and bone detection from MRI of the head with highly heterogeneous anatomy. PMID:25321341
Exploring Non-Equilibrium Dynamics in Time Dependent Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Kai
Time-dependent density functional theory(TDDFT) is a method of choice for calculations of excitation spectra and response properties in materials science and quantum chemistry. The many-body problem is mapped into a set of one-body Schrodinger equations, called the Kohn-Sham(KS) equations. In principle, the one-body potential can be chosen such that the density of the interacting system is exactly reproduced by the KS system. However, one component of the one-body potential has to be approximated and is typically "diabatic". Though in linear response regime adiabatic approximations give quite good spectra, it is important to explore their performances in non-equilibrium dynamics. In this thesis, I will present the results of the explorations on non-equilibrium dynamics in TDDFT. For the first study, a decomposition of exact exchange-correlation potential into kinetic and interaction components is derived. We compare the components with that of "adiabatic" counterparts in non-perturbative dynamics and find that the interaction component is less poorly approximated adiabatically than the kinetic component. A salient feature is that step structures generically appear, of relevance in the second study. We prove that the step structures only appear in the non-linear response regime. We find an exact condition which is typically violated by the approximations in use today. Spuriously time-dependent spectra in TDDFT can be explained and we find that the more the condition is violated the worse the dynamics is. In last, we envision that orbital functionals are able to incorporate the memory effects and compensate the deficiencies of the "adiabatic" approximations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hui; Yao, Yao; An, Zhong; Wu, Chang-Qin
2008-07-01
The motion of polarons, which serve as charge carriers in conjugated polymers, is of fundamental importance for understanding transport properties of organic optoelectronic devices. We investigate the dynamics of a charged polaron in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions under the influence of an external electric field, which is modeled by the one-dimensional tight-binding Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model supplemented with a Hubbard on-site repulsion term. For this many-body dynamical evolution problem, we develop an adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group ( t -DMRG) method in combination with a Newtonian equation of motion for atomic displacements. Our results show that the velocity of the polaron is suppressed by the on-site Coulomb interaction U . The polaron moves with a supersonic velocity, about four times the sound velocity at the small U limit, and approaches the sound velocity at the large U limit. Furthermore, the dependence of the polaron velocity and the polaron effective mass on the lattice structures are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Alberto; Rubio, Angel; Gross, Eberhard K. U.
2015-08-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) provides a flexible framework for the development of coherent light sources in the extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regimes. However it suffers from low conversion efficiencies as the control of the HHG spectral and temporal characteristics requires manipulating electron trajectories on attosecond time scale. The phase matching mechanism has been employed to selectively enhance specific quantum paths leading to HHG. A few important fundamental questions remain open, among those how much of the enhancement can be achieved by the single-emitter and what is the role of correlations (or the electronic structure) in the selectivity and control of HHG generation. Here we address those questions by examining computationally the possibility of optimizing the HHG spectrum of isolated hydrogen and helium atoms by shaping the slowly varying envelope of a 800 nm, 200-cycles long laser pulse. The spectra are computed with a fully quantum mechanical description, by explicitly computing the time-dependent dipole moment of the systems using a time-dependent density-functional approach (or the single-electron Schrödinger equation for the case of H), on top of a one-dimensional model. The sought optimization corresponds to the selective enhancement of single harmonics, which we find to be significant. This selectivity is entirely due to the single atom response, and not to any propagation or phase-matching effect. Moreover, we see that the electronic correlation plays a role in the determining the degree of optimization that can be obtained.
Direct microscopic calculation of nuclear level densities in the shell model Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhassid, Y.; Bonett-Matiz, M.; Liu, S.; Nakada, H.
2015-08-01
Nuclear level densities are required for estimating statistical nuclear reaction rates. The shell model Monte Carlo method is a powerful approach for microscopic calculation of state densities in very large model spaces. However, these state densities include the spin degeneracy of each energy level, whereas experiments often measure level densities, in which each level is counted only once. To enable the direct comparison of theory with experiments, we introduce a method to calculate directly the level density in the shell model Monte Carlo approach. The method employs a projection on the minimal absolute value of the magnetic quantum number. We apply the method to nuclei in the iron region and to the strongly deformed rare-earth nucleus 162Dy . We find very good agreement with experimental data obtained by various methods, including level counting at low energies, charged particle spectra and Oslo method data at intermediate energies, neutron and proton resonance data, and Ericson's fluctuation analysis at higher excitation energies. We also extract a thermal moment of inertia from the ratio between the state density and the level density, and observe that in even-even nuclei it exhibits a signature of a phase transition to a superconducting phase below a certain excitation energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aban, C. J. G.; Bacolod, R. O.; Confesor, M. N. P.
2015-06-01
A The White Noise Path Integral Approach is used in evaluating the B-cell density or the number of B-cell per unit volume for a basic type of immune system response based on the modeling done by Perelson and Wiegel. From the scaling principles of Perelson [1], the B- cell density is obtained where antigens and antibodies mutates and activation function f(|S-SA|) is defined describing the interaction between a specific antigen and a B-cell. If the activation function f(|S-SA|) is held constant, the major form of the B-cell density evaluated using white noise analysis is similar to the form of the B-cell density obtained by Perelson and Wiegel using a differential approach.A piecewise linear functionis also used to describe the activation f(|S-SA|). If f(|S-SA|) is zero, the density decreases exponentially. If f(|S-SA|) = S-SA-SB, the B- cell density increases exponentially until it reaches a certain maximum value. For f(|S-SA|) = 2SA-SB-S, the behavior of B-cell density is oscillating and remains to be in small values.
Density Dependence of the Exchange Energy in the Bcc Phase of Solid HELIUM-3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olejniczak, Zbigniew
A high-precision Pulse Fourier-Transform Nuclear -Magnetic-Resonance technique was used to measure the magnetic susceptibility of solid helium-3 in the bcc phase. Several molar volume samples ranging from 19.80 ml/mole to 24.40 ml/mole were studied. The helium-4 impurity level was 27 ppm. The measurements were done between 12 mK and 520 mK in a static magnetic field of 17.1 mT. The density dependence of the Curie-Weiss constant could be described by a power law, with a magnetic Gruneisen constant equal to 12.8 (+OR-) 0.3. The Curie-Weiss constant at a molar volume of 24.2 ml/mole was equal to -1.75 mK, which was nearly a factor of two smaller than previous values. This work resolves a long-standing thermodynamic inconsistency between high-magnetic-field pressure measurements and susceptibility measurements. Additional experiments using an independent thermometer provided an upper limit for a possible systematic error in the data to within (+OR-)0.1 mK. More than a tenfold improvement in the precision of the magnetic susceptibility measurements was achieved. When analysed in terms of a two-parameter model of the exchange interaction, the results imposed more stringent experimental constraints on possible values of exchange integrals at a density near melting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Chunping; Sugino, Osamu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki
2014-02-01
The Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA), widely used in physics to decouple excitations and de-excitations, is well known to be good for the calculation of excitation energies but not for oscillator strengths. In particular, the sum rule is violated in the latter case. The same concern arises within the TDA in the calculation of nonadiabatic couplings (NACs) by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), due to the similarities in the TDDFT formulations of NACs and oscillator strengths [C. Hu, H. Hirai, and O. Sugino, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064103 (2007)]. In this study, we present a systematic evaluation of the performance of TDDFT/TDA for the calculation of NACs. In the cases we considered, including a variety of systems possessing Jahn-Teller and Renner-Teller intersections, as well as an example with accidental conical intersections, it is found that the TDDFT/TDA performs better than the full TDDFT, contrary to the conjecture that the TDA might cause the NAC results to deteriorate and violate the sum rule. The surprisingly good performance of the TDA for NACs is probably because the TDA can partially compensate for the local-density-approximation error and give better excitation energies in the vicinity of intersections of potential energy surfaces. Our study also shows that it is important to use the TDA based on the rigorous full-TDDFT formulation of NACs, instead of using it based on an alternative approximate formulation.
Spatial patterns reveal negative density dependence and habitat associations in tropical trees.
Bagchi, Robert; Henrys, Peter A; Brown, Patrick E; Burslem, David F R P; Diggle, Peter J; Gunatilleke, C V Savitri; Gunatilleke, I A U Nimal; Kassim, Abdul Rahman; Law, Richard; Noor, Supardi; Valencia, Renato L
2011-09-01
Understanding how plant species coexist in tropical rainforests is one of the biggest challenges in community ecology. One prominent hypothesis suggests that rare species are at an advantage because trees have lower survival in areas of high conspecific density due to increased attack by natural enemies, a process known as negative density dependence (NDD). A consensus is emerging that NDD is important for plant-species coexistence in tropical forests. Most evidence comes from short-term studies, but testing the prediction that NDD decreases the spatial aggregation of tree populations provides a long-term perspective. While spatial distributions have provided only weak evidence for NDD so far, the opposing effects of environmental heterogeneity might have confounded previous analyses. Here we use a novel statistical technique to control for environmental heterogeneity while testing whether spatial aggregation decreases with tree size in four tropical forests. We provide evidence for NDD in 22% of the 139 tree species analyzed and show that environmental heterogeneity can obscure the spatial signal of NDD. Environmental heterogeneity contributed to aggregation in 84% of species. We conclude that both biotic interactions and environmental heterogeneity play crucial roles in shaping tree dynamics in tropical forests. PMID:21939068
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. A.
1990-01-01
The Helios, IMP 8, ISEE 3, ad Voyager 2 spacecraft are used to examine the solar cycle and heliocentric distance dependence of the correlation between density n and magnetic field magnitude B in the solar wind. Previous work had suggested that this correlation becomes progressively more negative with heliocentric distance out to 9.5 AU. Here it is shown that this evolution is not a solar cycle effect, and that the correlations become even more strongly negative at heliocentric distance larger than 9.5 AU. There is considerable variability in the distributions of the correlations at a given heliocentric distance, but this is not simply related to the solar cycle. Examination of the evolution of correlations between density and speed suggest that most of the structures responsible for evolution in the anticorrelation between n and B are not slow-mode waves, but rather pressure balance structures. The latter consist of both coherent structures such as tangential discontinuities and the more generally pervasive 'pseudosound' which may include the coherent structures as a subset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Ulrich
2001-05-01
Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.
Lopata, Kenneth A.; Govind, Niranjan
2011-05-10
The response of matter to external fields forms the basis for a vast wealth of fundamental physical processes ranging from light harvesting to nanoscale electron transport. Accurately modeling ultrafast electron dynamics in excited systems thus o_ers unparalleled insight, but requires an inherently non-linear time-resolved approach. To this end, an e_cient and massively parallel real-time real-space time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) implementation in NWChem is presented. The implementation is first validated against linearresponse TDDFT and experimental results for a series of molecules subjected to small electric field perturbations. Second, non-linear excitation of green fluorescent protein is studied, which shows a blue-shift in the spectrum with increasing perturbation, as well as a saturation in absorption. Next, the charge dynamics of optically excited zinc porphyrin is presented in real-time and real-space, with relevance to charge injection in photovoltaic devices. Finally, intermolecular excitation in an adenine-thymine base pair is studied using the BNL range separated functional [Baer, R.; Neuhauser, D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 043002], demonstrating the utility of a real-time approach in capturing charge transfer processes.
Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd
2014-01-01
Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2) and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for thermal refugia in larger main stems. It also is likely that source-sink dynamics and dispersal from small headwater habitats may partially influence brook trout population dynamics in the main stem. PMID:24618602
Huntsman, Brock M.; Petty, J. Todd
2014-01-01
Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3–60 km2 and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335–0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for thermal refugia in larger main stems. It also is likely that source-sink dynamics and dispersal from small headwater habitats may partially influence brook trout population dynamics in the main stem. PMID:24618602
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ipek, Ismail
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of variations in text density levels and the cognitive style of field dependence on learning from a CBI tutorial, based on the dependent measures of achievement, reading comprehension, and reading rate, and of lesson completion time. Eighty college undergraduate students were randomly…
Lin, Xi
,7 and molecular812 scales, issues such as dynamical electron cor- relation and large electron-phonon coupling by computing how an electron propagates through a molecular junction in real time, based on the time- dependentTime-dependent density functional theory with ultrasoft pseudopotentials: Real-time electron
Shuji Ogata; Elefterios Lidorikis; Fuyuki Shimojo; Aiichiro Nakano; Priya Vashishta; Rajiv K. Kalia
2001-01-01
A hybrid simulation approach is developed to study chemical reactions coupled with long-range mechanical phenomena in materials. The finite-element method for continuum mechanics is coupled with the molecular dynamics method for an atomic system that embeds a cluster of atoms described quantum-mechanically with the electronic density-functional method based on real-space multigrids. The hybrid simulation approach is implemented on parallel computers