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Sample records for density dependent approach

  1. Time-dependent treatment of scattering - Integral equation approaches using the time-dependent amplitude density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David K.; Sharafeddin, Omar; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent form of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is used as the basis of several new wave packet propagation schemes. These can be formulated in terms of either the time-dependent wave function or a time-dependent amplitude density. The latter is nonzero only in the region of configuratiaon space for which the potential is nonzero, thereby in principle obviating the necessity of large grids or the use of complex absorbing potentials when resonances cause long collision times (leading, consequently, to long propagation times). Transition amplitudes are obtained in terms of Fourier transforms of the amplitude density from the time to the energy domain. The approach is illustrated by an application to a standard potential scattering model problem where, as in previous studies, the action of the kinetic energy operator is evaluated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques.

  2. All-electron time-dependent density functional theory with finite elements: time-propagation approach.

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Havu, Ville; Puska, Martti

    2011-10-21

    We present an all-electron method for time-dependent density functional theory which employs hierarchical nonuniform finite-element bases and the time-propagation approach. The method is capable of treating linear and nonlinear response of valence and core electrons to an external field. We also introduce (i) a preconditioner for the propagation equation, (ii) a stable way to implement absorbing boundary conditions, and (iii) a new kind of absorbing boundary condition inspired by perfectly matched layers. PMID:22029294

  3. A new temperature- and humidity-dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, I.; Hoose, C.; Möhler, O.; Connolly, P.; Leisner, T.

    2015-04-01

    Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol surface area concentration. Additionally, a contact angle parameterization according to classical nucleation theory was fitted to the experimental data in order to relate the ice nucleation efficiencies to contact angle distributions. From this study it can be concluded that the INAS density formulation is a very useful tool to describe the temperature- and humidity-dependent ice nucleation efficiency of ATD particles. Deposition nucleation on ATD particles can be described by a temperature- and relative-humidity-dependent INAS density function ns(T, Sice) with ns(xtherm) = 1.88 ×105 · exp(0.2659 · xtherm) [m-2] , (1) where the temperature- and saturation-dependent function xtherm is defined as xtherm = -(T-273.2)+(Sice-1) ×100, (2) with the saturation ratio with respect to ice Sice >1 and within a temperature range between 226 and 250 K. For lower temperatures, xtherm deviates from a linear behavior with temperature and relative humidity over ice. Also, two different approaches for describing the time dependence of deposition nucleation initiated by ATD particles are proposed. Box model estimates suggest that the time-dependent contribution is only relevant for small cooling rates and low number fractions of ice-active particles.

  4. Size dependence of yield strength simulated by a dislocation-density function dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. S. S.; Leung, H. S.; Cheng, B.; Ngan, A. H. W.

    2015-04-01

    The size dependence of the strength of nano- and micron-sized crystals is studied using a new simulation approach in which the dynamics of the density functions of dislocations are modeled. Since any quantity of dislocations can be represented by a density, this approach can handle large systems containing large quantities of dislocations, which may handicap discrete dislocation dynamics schemes due to the excessive computation time involved. For this reason, pillar sizes spanning a large range, from the sub-micron to micron regimes, can be simulated. The simulation results reveal the power-law relationship between strength and specimen size up to a certain size, beyond which the strength varies much more slowly with size. For specimens smaller than ∼4000b, their strength is found to be controlled by the dislocation depletion condition, in which the total dislocation density remains almost constant throughout the loading process. In specimens larger than ∼4000b, the initial dislocation distribution is of critical importance since the presence of dislocation entanglements is found to obstruct deformation in the neighboring regions within a distance of ∼2000b. This length scale suggests that the effects of dense dislocation clusters are greater in intermediate-sized specimens (e.g. 4000b and 8000b) than in larger specimens (e.g. 16 000b), according to the weakest-link concept.

  5. Intermolecular forces and nonbonded interactions: Superoperator nonlinear time-dependent density-functional-theory response approach

    SciTech Connect

    Harbola, Upendra; Mukamel, Shaul

    2004-11-01

    Electrostatic and dispersive interactions of polarizable molecules are expressed in terms of generalized (nonretarded) charge-density response functions of the isolated molecules, which in turn are expanded using the collective electronic oscillator (CEO) eigenmodes of linearized time-dependent density-functional theory. Closed expressions for the intermolecular energy are derived to sixth order in charge fluctuation amplitudes.

  6. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  7. Sampling variability and estimates of density dependence: a composite-likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Lele, Subhash R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that sampling variability, if not properly taken into account, affects various ecologically important analyses. Statistical inference for stochastic population dynamics models is difficult when, in addition to the process error, there is also sampling error. The standard maximum-likelihood approach suffers from large computational burden. In this paper, I discuss an application of the composite-likelihood method for estimation of the parameters of the Gompertz model in the presence of sampling variability. The main advantage of the method of composite likelihood is that it reduces the computational burden substantially with little loss of statistical efficiency. Missing observations are a common problem with many ecological time series. The method of composite likelihood can accommodate missing observations in a straightforward fashion. Environmental conditions also affect the parameters of stochastic population dynamics models. This method is shown to handle such nonstationary population dynamics processes as well. Many ecological time series are short, and statistical inferences based on such short time series tend to be less precise. However, spatial replications of short time series provide an opportunity to increase the effective sample size. Application of likelihood-based methods for spatial time-series data for population dynamics models is computationally prohibitive. The method of composite likelihood is shown to have significantly less computational burden, making it possible to analyze large spatial time-series data. After discussing the methodology in general terms, I illustrate its use by analyzing a time series of counts of American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) from the Breeding Bird Survey data, San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) population abundance data, and spatial time series of Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) redds count data. PMID:16634310

  8. Analytic derivative couplings in time-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.

    2015-02-14

    We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism.

  9. Dielectrics in a time-dependent electric field: A real-time approach based on density-polarization functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüning, M.; Sangalli, D.; Attaccalite, C.

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of a (time-dependent) macroscopic electric field the electron dynamics of dielectrics cannot be described by the time-dependent density only. We present a real-time formalism that has the density and the macroscopic polarization P as key quantities. We show that a simple local function of P already captures long-range correlation in linear and nonlinear optical response functions. Specifically, after detailing the numerical implementation, we examine the optical absorption, the second- and third-harmonic generation of bulk Si, GaAs, AlAs, and CdTe, at different levels of approximation. We highlight links with ultranonlocal exchange-correlation functional approximations proposed within a linear response time-dependent density functional theory framework.

  10. Analytical approach for the excited-state Hessian in time-dependent density functional theory: Formalism, implementation, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Liang, WanZhen

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the formalism, implementation, and performance of the analytical approach for the excited-state Hessian in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) that extends our previous work [J. Liu and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 014113 (2011)] on the analytical Hessian in TDDFT within Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to full TDDFT. In contrast to TDA-TDDFT, an appreciable advantage of full TDDFT is that it maintains the oscillator strength sum rule, and therefore yields more precise results for the oscillator strength and other related physical quantities. For the excited-state harmonic vibrational frequency calculation, however, full TDDFT does not seem to be advantageous since the numerical tests demonstrate that the accuracy of TDDFT with and without TDA are comparable to each other. As a common practice, the computed harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled by a suitable scale factor to yield good agreement with the experimental fundamental frequencies. Here we apply both the optimized ground-state and excited-state scale factors to scale the calculated excited-state harmonic frequencies and find that the scaling decreases the root-mean-square errors. The optimized scale factors derived from the excited-state calculations are slightly smaller than those from the ground-state calculations.

  11. Kohn–Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron–photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn–Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron–photon Kohn–Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light–matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  12. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    PubMed

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  13. Tight-binding approximations to time-dependent density functional theory - A fast approach for the calculation of electronically excited states.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Robert; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-05-14

    We propose a new method of calculating electronically excited states that combines a density functional theory based ground state calculation with a linear response treatment that employs approximations used in the time-dependent density functional based tight binding (TD-DFTB) approach. The new method termed time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT+TB does not rely on the DFTB parametrization and is therefore applicable to systems involving all combinations of elements. We show that the new method yields UV/Vis absorption spectra that are in excellent agreement with computationally much more expensive TD-DFT calculations. Errors in vertical excitation energies are reduced by a factor of two compared to TD-DFTB. PMID:27179467

  14. Tight-binding approximations to time-dependent density functional theory — A fast approach for the calculation of electronically excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüger, Robert; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new method of calculating electronically excited states that combines a density functional theory based ground state calculation with a linear response treatment that employs approximations used in the time-dependent density functional based tight binding (TD-DFTB) approach. The new method termed time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT+TB does not rely on the DFTB parametrization and is therefore applicable to systems involving all combinations of elements. We show that the new method yields UV/Vis absorption spectra that are in excellent agreement with computationally much more expensive TD-DFT calculations. Errors in vertical excitation energies are reduced by a factor of two compared to TD-DFTB.

  15. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  16. On the relation between time-dependent and variational density functional theory approaches for the determination of excitation energies and transition moments.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Tom; Seth, Michael; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen; Wang, Fan

    2009-04-21

    It is shown that it is possible to derive the basic eigenvalue equation of adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TD-DFT/TD) from a variational principle. The variational principle is applied to the regular Kohn-Sham formulation of DFT energy expression for a single Slater determinant and leads to the same energy spectrum as TD-DFT/TD. It is further shown that this variational approach affords the same electric and magnetic transition moments as TD-DFT/TD. The variational scheme can also be applied without the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Practical implementations of TD-DFT are limited to second order response theory which introduces errors in transition energies for charge transfer and Rydberg excitations. It is indicated that higher order terms can be incorporated into the variational approach. It is also discussed how the current variational method is related to traditional DFT schemes based on variational principles such as DeltaSCF-DFT, and how they can be combined. PMID:19388731

  17. Pseudospectral time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Chaehyuk; Malick, David K.; Braden, Dale A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2008-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is implemented within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) using a pseudospectral approach to evaluate two-electron repulsion integrals. The pseudospectral approximation uses a split representation with both spectral basis functions and a physical space grid to achieve a reduction in the scaling behavior of electronic structure methods. We demonstrate here that exceptionally sparse grids may be used in the excitation energy calculation, following earlier work employing the pseudospectral approximation for determining correlation energies in wavefunction-based methods with similar conclusions. The pseudospectral TDA-TDDFT method is shown to be up to ten times faster than a conventional algorithm for hybrid functionals without sacrificing chemical accuracy.

  18. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  19. Local density dependent potential for compressible mesoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    This work proposes a coarse grained description of molecular systems based on mesoparticles representing several molecules, where interactions between mesoparticles are modelled by an interparticle potential of molecular type. Since strong non-equilibrium situations over a wide range of pressure and density are targeted, the internal compressibility of the mesoparticles has to be considered. This is done by introducing a dependence of the potential on the local environment of the mesoparticles. To define local densities, we resort to a three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation instead of standard local, spherical averages. As an example, a local density dependent potential is fitted to reproduce the Hugoniot curve of a model of nitromethane over a large range of pressures and densities.

  20. Density dependence: an ecological Tower of Babel.

    PubMed

    Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Delean, Steven; Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2012-11-01

    The concept of density dependence represents the effect of changing population size on demographic rates and captures the demographic role of social and trophic mechanisms (e.g. competition, cooperation, parasitism or predation). Ecologists have coined more than 60 terms to denote different statistical and semantic properties of this concept, resulting in a formidable lexicon of synonymies and polysemies. We have examined the vocabulary of density dependence used in the modern ecological literature from the foundational lexicon developed by Smith, Allee, Haldane, Neave and Varley. A few simple rules suffice to abate terminological inconsistency and to enhance the biological meaning of this important concept. Correct citation of original references by ecologists and research journals could ameliorate terminological standards in our discipline and avoid linguistic confusion of mathematically and theoretically complex patterns. PMID:22648068

  1. The computational foundations of time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, James

    2014-03-01

    The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. Since a quantum computer can efficiently produce such time-dependent densities, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds. Further, we find that systems do not immediately become non-representable but rather become ill-representable as one approaches this boundary. A representability parameter is defined in our work which quantifies the distance to the boundary of representability and the computational difficulty of finding the Kohn-Sham system.

  2. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  3. An approach to fast fits of the unintegrated gluon density

    SciTech Connect

    Knutsson, Albert; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Kutak, Krzyzstof; Jung, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    An approach to fast fits of the unintegrated gluon density has been developed and used to determine the unintegrated gluon density by fits to deep inelastic scatting di-jet data from HERA. The fitting method is based on the determination of the parameter dependence by help of interpolating between grid points in the parameter-observable space before the actual fit is performed.

  4. Selective fishing induces density-dependent growth.

    PubMed

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, views on fisheries management have oscillated between alarm and trust in management progress. The predominant policy for remedying the world fishing crisis aims at maximum sustainable yield (MSY) by adjusting gear selectivity and fishing effort. Here we report a case study on how striving for higher yields from the Eastern Baltic cod stock by increasing selectivity has become exceedingly detrimental for its productivity. Although there is a successive increase in numbers of undersized fish, growth potential is severely reduced, and fishing mortality in fishable size has increased. Once density-dependent growth is introduced, the process is self-enforcing as long as the recruitment remains stable. Our findings suggest that policies focusing on maximum yield while targeting greater sizes are risky and should instead prioritize catch rates over yield. Disregarding the underlying population structure may jeopardize stock productivity, with dire consequences for the fishing industry and ecosystem structure and function. PMID:24920387

  5. Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  6. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  7. Surface tension of liquid mercury: a comparison of density-dependent and density-independent force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, Anton; Bedrov, Dmitry; Müller, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by growing interest in interfacial properties of liquid mercury we investigate by atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulation the ability of density-independent, empiric density-dependent, and recently proposed embedded-atom force fields to predict the surface tension and coexistence density of liquid mercury at room temperature, 293 K. The effect of the density dependence of the studied models on the liquid-vapor coexistence and surface tension is discussed in detail and our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations and semi-analytic liquid-state theory. The latter approach is particularly useful to identify and rationalize artifacts that arise from an ad-hoc generalization of density-independent potentials by introducing density-dependent coefficients. In view of computational efficiency and thermodynamic robustness of density-independent model we optimize its functional form to obtain higher surface tension values in order to improve agreement with experiment.

  8. Statistical approach to nuclear level density

    SciTech Connect

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2014-10-15

    We discuss the level density in a finite many-body system with strong interaction between the constituents. Our primary object of applications is the atomic nucleus but the same techniques can be applied to other mesoscopic systems. We calculate and compare nuclear level densities for given quantum numbers obtained by different methods, such as nuclear shell model (the most successful microscopic approach), our main instrument - moments method (statistical approach), and Fermi-gas model; the calculation with the moments method can use any shell-model Hamiltonian excluding the spurious states of the center-of-mass motion. Our goal is to investigate statistical properties of nuclear level density, define its phenomenological parameters, and offer an affordable and reliable way of calculation.

  9. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  10. THE DEPENDENCE OF STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY ON GAS SURFACE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Andreas; Hartmann, Lee E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu

    2013-08-10

    Studies by Lada et al. and Heiderman et al. have suggested that star formation mostly occurs above a threshold in gas surface density {Sigma} of {Sigma}{sub c} {approx} 120 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} (A{sub K} {approx} 0.8). Heiderman et al. infer a threshold by combining low-mass star-forming regions, which show a steep increase in the star formation rate per unit area {Sigma}{sub SFR} with increasing {Sigma}, and massive cores forming luminous stars which show a linear relation. We argue that these observations do not require a particular density threshold. The steep dependence of {Sigma}{sub SFR}, approaching unity at protostellar core densities, is a natural result of the increasing importance of self-gravity at high densities along with the corresponding decrease in evolutionary timescales. The linear behavior of {Sigma}{sub SFR} versus {Sigma} in massive cores is consistent with probing dense gas in gravitational collapse, forming stars at a characteristic free-fall timescale given by the use of a particular molecular tracer. The low-mass and high-mass regions show different correlations between gas surface density and the area A spanned at that density, with A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -3} for low-mass regions and A {approx} {Sigma}{sup -1} for the massive cores; this difference, along with the use of differing techniques to measure gas surface density and star formation, suggests that connecting the low-mass regions with massive cores is problematic. We show that the approximately linear relationship between dense gas mass and stellar mass used by Lada et al. similarly does not demand a particular threshold for star formation and requires continuing formation of dense gas. Our results are consistent with molecular clouds forming by galactic hydrodynamic flows with subsequent gravitational collapse.

  11. Dependence of quartz wettability on fluid density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Zarzor; Roshan, Hamid; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Wettability is one of the most important parameters in multiphase flow through porous rocks. However, experimental measurements or theoretical predictions are difficult and open to large uncertainty. In this work we demonstrate that gas densities (which are much simpler to determine than wettability and typically well known) correlate remarkably well with wettability. This insight can significantly improve wettability predictions, thus derisking subsurface operations (e.g., CO2 geostorage or hydrocarbon recovery), and significantly enhance fundamental understanding of natural geological processes.

  12. Density dependence of signal detection in radiographs.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A E; Humphrey, K

    1981-01-01

    We report results of the variation of signal detectability with radiographic film density for Lanex screens and four different x-ray films. We found that maximum signal detectability occurs near (but not precisely at) the maximum slope of the characteristic curve. We interpret our results using a model that includes film gamma quantum noise, film granularity, and an intrinsic observer contrast threshold. PMID:7290017

  13. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  14. Derivation of the RPA (Random Phase Approximation) Equation of ATDDFT (Adiabatic Time Dependent Density Functional Ground State Response Theory) from an Excited State Variational Approach Based on the Ground State Functional.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Tom; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The random phase approximation (RPA) equation of adiabatic time dependent density functional ground state response theory (ATDDFT) has been used extensively in studies of excited states. It extracts information about excited states from frequency dependent ground state response properties and avoids, thus, in an elegant way, direct Kohn-Sham calculations on excited states in accordance with the status of DFT as a ground state theory. Thus, excitation energies can be found as resonance poles of frequency dependent ground state polarizability from the eigenvalues of the RPA equation. ATDDFT is approximate in that it makes use of a frequency independent energy kernel derived from the ground state functional. It is shown in this study that one can derive the RPA equation of ATDDFT from a purely variational approach in which stationary states above the ground state are located using our constricted variational DFT (CV-DFT) method and the ground state functional. Thus, locating stationary states above the ground state due to one-electron excitations with a ground state functional is completely equivalent to solving the RPA equation of TDDFT employing the same functional. The present study is an extension of a previous work in which we demonstrated the equivalence between ATDDFT and CV-DFT within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. PMID:26588541

  15. Density-Dependent Growth in Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans)

    PubMed Central

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604

  16. Density-dependent growth in invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans).

    PubMed

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2013-01-01

    Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604

  17. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy: A microscopic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Vidana, Isaac; Providencia, Constanca; Polls, Artur; Rios, Arnau

    2009-10-15

    We perform a systematic analysis of the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy within the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach using the realistic Argonne V18 nucleon-nucleon potential plus a phenomenological three-body force of Urbana type. Our results are compared thoroughly with those arising from several Skyrme and relativistic effective models. The values of the parameters characterizing the BHF equation of state of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter fall within the trends predicted by those models and are compatible with recent constraints coming from heavy ion collisions, giant monopole resonances, or isobaric analog states. In particular we find a value of the slope parameter L=66.5 MeV, compatible with recent experimental constraints from isospin diffusion, L=88{+-}25 MeV. The correlation between the neutron skin thickness of neutron-rich isotopes and the slope L and curvature K{sub sym} parameters of the symmetry energy is studied. Our BHF results are in very good agreement with the correlations already predicted by other authors using nonrelativistic and relativistic effective models. The correlations of these two parameters and the neutron skin thickness with the transition density from nonuniform to {beta}-stable matter in neutron stars are also analyzed. Our results confirm that there is an inverse correlation between the neutron skin thickness and the transition density.

  18. Prevalence and strength of density-dependent tree recruitment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Woodall, Christopher W; Monteiro, Joao V D; Clark, James S

    2015-09-01

    Density dependence could maintain diversity in forests, but studies continue to disagree on its role. Part of the disagreement results from the fact that different studies have evaluated different responses (survival, recruitment, or growth) of different stages (seeds, seedlings, or adults) to different inputs (density of seedlings, density or distance to adults). Most studies are conducted on a single site and thus are difficult to generalize. Using USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis data, we analyzed over a million seedling-to-sapling recruitment observations of 50 species from the eastern United States, controlling for the effects of climate. We focused on the per-seedling recruitment rate, because it is most likely to promote diversity and to be identified in observational or experimental data. To understand the prevalence of density dependence, we quantified the number of species with significant positive or negative effects. To understand the strength of density dependence, we determined the magnitude of effects among con- and heterospecifics, and how it changes with overall species abundance. We found that density dependence is pervasive among the 50 species, as the majority of them have significant effects and mostly negative. Density-dependence effects are stronger from conspecific than heterospecfic adult neighbors, consistent with the predictions of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Contrary to recent reports, density-dependence effects are more negative for common than rare species, suggesting disproportionately stronger population regulation in common species. We conclude that density dependence is pervasive, and it is strongest from conspecific neighbors of common species. Our analysis provides direct evidence that density dependence reaulates opulation dynamics of tree species in eastern U.S. forests. PMID:26594690

  19. Density-dependent acoustic properties of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Geoffrey W; Thompson, Darla G; Deluca, Racci; Hartline, Ernest L; Hagelberg, Stephanie I

    2009-07-31

    We have measured the longitudinal and shear acoustic velocities of PBX 9502 as a function of density for die-pressed samples over the range 1.795 g/cc to 1.888 g/cc. The density dependence of the velocities is linear. Thermal cycling of PBX 9502 is known to induce irreversible volume growth. We have measured this volume growth dependence on density for a subset of the pressed parts and find that the most growth occurs for the samples with lowest initial density. The acoustic velocity changes due to the volume growth are significant and reflect damage in the samples.

  20. Density-potential mapping in time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Maitra, N. T.; Todorov, T. N.; Woodward, C.; Burke, K.

    2010-04-15

    The key questions of uniqueness and existence in time-dependent density-functional theory are usually formulated only for potentials and densities that are analytic in time. Simple examples, standard in quantum mechanics, lead, however, to nonanalyticities. We reformulate these questions in terms of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a potential that depends nonlocally on the wave function.

  1. Dynamical instabilities in density-dependent hadronic relativistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. M.; Brito, L.; Providencia, C.

    2008-04-15

    Unstable modes in asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) at subsaturation densities are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field density-dependent hadron models. The size of the instabilities that drive the system are calculated and a comparison with results obtained within the nonlinear Walecka model is presented. The distillation and antidistillation effects are discussed.

  2. Regulation of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics in Field Systems: Quantifying Direct and Delayed Density Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rachael K.; Aguilar, Cristobal L.; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti have been engineered to help control transmission of dengue virus. Although resources have been invested in developing the strains, we lack data on the ecology of mosquitoes that could impact the success of this approach. Although studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted using Ae. aegypti larvae, none of these studies examine mixed age cohorts at densities that occur in the field, with natural nutrient levels. Experiments were conducted in Mexico to determine the impact of direct and delayed density dependence on Ae. aegypti populations. Natural water, food, and larval densities were used to estimate the impacts of density dependence on larval survival, development, and adult body size. Direct and delayed density-dependent factors had a significant impact on larval survival, larval development, and adult body size. These results indicate that control methods attempting to reduce mosquito populations may be counteracted by density-dependent population regulation. PMID:23669230

  3. Evolution of behavior by density-dependent natural selection

    SciTech Connect

    Pingzhong Guo; Mueller, L.D.; Ayala, F.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Theories of density-dependent natural selection predict that evolution should favor those genotypes with the highest per capita rates of population growth under the current density conditions. These theories are silent about the mechanisms that may give rise to these increases in density-dependent growth rates. The authors have observed the evolution of six populations of Drosophila melanogaster recently placed in crowded environments after nearly 200 generations at low-population density in the laboratory. After 25 generations in these crowded cultures all six populations showed the predicted increase in population growth rates at high-population density with the concomitant decrease in their growth rates at low densities. These changes in rates of population growth are accompanied by changes in the feeding and pupation behavior of the larvae: those populations that have evolve at high-population densities have higher feeding rates and are less likely to pupate on or near the food surface than populations maintained at low densities. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which populations evolve under density-dependent natural selection will provide a framework for understanding that nature of trade-offs in life history evolution.

  4. Anthropogenically-Mediated Density Dependence in a Declining Farmland Bird.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jenny C; Hamer, Keith C; Benton, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    Land management intrinsically influences the distribution of animals and can consequently alter the potential for density-dependent processes to act within populations. For declining species, high densities of breeding territories are typically considered to represent productive populations. However, as density-dependent effects of food limitation or predator pressure may occur (especially when species are dependent upon separate nesting and foraging habitats), high territory density may limit per-capita productivity. Here, we use a declining but widespread European farmland bird, the yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella L., as a model system to test whether higher territory densities result in lower fledging success, parental provisioning rates or nestling growth rates compared to lower densities. Organic landscapes held higher territory densities, but nests on organic farms fledged fewer nestlings, translating to a 5 times higher rate of population shrinkage on organic farms compared to conventional. In addition, when parental provisioning behaviour was not restricted by predation risk (i.e., at times of low corvid activity), nestling provisioning rates were higher at lower territory densities, resulting in a much greater increase in nestling mass in low density areas, suggesting that food limitation occurred at high densities. These findings in turn suggest an ecological trap, whereby preferred nesting habitat does not provide sufficient food for rearing nestlings at high population density, creating a population sink. Habitat management for farmland birds should focus not simply on creating a high nesting density, but also on ensuring heterogeneous habitats to provide food resources in close proximity to nesting birds, even if this occurs through potentially restricting overall nest density but increasing population-level breeding success. PMID:26431173

  5. Anthropogenically-Mediated Density Dependence in a Declining Farmland Bird

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Jenny C.; Hamer, Keith C.; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Land management intrinsically influences the distribution of animals and can consequently alter the potential for density-dependent processes to act within populations. For declining species, high densities of breeding territories are typically considered to represent productive populations. However, as density-dependent effects of food limitation or predator pressure may occur (especially when species are dependent upon separate nesting and foraging habitats), high territory density may limit per-capita productivity. Here, we use a declining but widespread European farmland bird, the yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella L., as a model system to test whether higher territory densities result in lower fledging success, parental provisioning rates or nestling growth rates compared to lower densities. Organic landscapes held higher territory densities, but nests on organic farms fledged fewer nestlings, translating to a 5 times higher rate of population shrinkage on organic farms compared to conventional. In addition, when parental provisioning behaviour was not restricted by predation risk (i.e., at times of low corvid activity), nestling provisioning rates were higher at lower territory densities, resulting in a much greater increase in nestling mass in low density areas, suggesting that food limitation occurred at high densities. These findings in turn suggest an ecological trap, whereby preferred nesting habitat does not provide sufficient food for rearing nestlings at high population density, creating a population sink. Habitat management for farmland birds should focus not simply on creating a high nesting density, but also on ensuring heterogeneous habitats to provide food resources in close proximity to nesting birds, even if this occurs through potentially restricting overall nest density but increasing population-level breeding success. PMID:26431173

  6. Spatial variation and density-dependent dispersal in competitive coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that dispersal from localities favourable to a species' growth and reproduction (sources) can prevent competitive exclusion in unfavourable localities (sinks). What is perhaps less well known is that too much emigration can undermine the viability of sources and cause regional competitive exclusion. Here, I investigate two biological mechanisms that reduce the cost of dispersal to source communities. The first involves increasing the spatial variation in the strength of competition such that sources can withstand high rates of emigration; the second involves reducing emigration from sources via density-dependent dispersal. I compare how different forms of spatial variation and modes of dispersal influence source viability, and hence source-sink coexistence, under dominance and pre-emptive competition. A key finding is that, while spatial variation substantially reduces dispersal costs under both types of competition, density-dependent dispersal does so only under dominance competition. For instance, when spatial variation in the strength of competition is high, coexistence is possible (regardless of the type of competition) even when sources experience high emigration rates; when spatial variation is low, coexistence is restricted even under low emigration rates. Under dominance competition, density-dependent dispersal has a strong effect on coexistence. For instance, when the emigration rate increases with density at an accelerating rate (Type III density-dependent dispersal), coexistence is possible even when spatial variation is quite low; when the emigration rate increases with density at a decelerating rate (Type II density-dependent dispersal), coexistence is restricted even when spatial variation is quite high. Under pre-emptive competition, density-dependent dispersal has only a marginal effect on coexistence. Thus, the diversity-reducing effects of high dispersal rates persist under pre-emptive competition even when dispersal is density

  7. An Infrastructureless Approach to Estimate Vehicular Density in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sanguesa, Julio A.; Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T.; Manzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    In Vehicular Networks, communication success usually depends on the density of vehicles, since a higher density allows having shorter and more reliable wireless links. Thus, knowing the density of vehicles in a vehicular communications environment is important, as better opportunities for wireless communication can show up. However, vehicle density is highly variable in time and space. This paper deals with the importance of predicting the density of vehicles in vehicular environments to take decisions for enhancing the dissemination of warning messages between vehicles. We propose a novel mechanism to estimate the vehicular density in urban environments. Our mechanism uses as input parameters the number of beacons received per vehicle, and the topological characteristics of the environment where the vehicles are located. Simulation results indicate that, unlike previous proposals solely based on the number of beacons received, our approach is able to accurately estimate the vehicular density, and therefore it could support more efficient dissemination protocols for vehicular environments, as well as improve previously proposed schemes. PMID:23435054

  8. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Henningsen, John C.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (∼2 m). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects.

  9. Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependent.

    PubMed

    Cross, P C; Creech, T G; Ebinger, M R; Manlove, K; Irvine, K; Henningsen, J; Rogerson, J; Scurlock, B M; Creel, S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying drivers of contact rates among individuals is critical to understanding disease dynamics and implementing targeted control measures. We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a contact as an approach within one body length (-2 min). Using hierarchical models that account for correlations within individuals, pairs, and groups, we found that pairwise contact rates within a group declined by a factor of three as group sizes increased 33-fold. Per capita contact rates, however, increased with group size according to a power function, such that female elk contact rates fell in between the predictions of density- or frequency-dependent disease models. We found similar patterns for the duration of contacts. Our results suggest that larger elk groups are likely to play a disproportionate role in the disease dynamics of directly transmitted infections in elk. Supplemental feeding of elk had a limited impact on pairwise interaction rates and durations, but per capita rates were more than two times higher on feeding grounds. Our statistical approach decomposes the variation in contact rate into individual, dyadic, and environmental effects, and provides insight into factors that may be targeted by disease control programs. In particular, female elk contact patterns were driven more by environmental factors such as group size than by either individual or dyad effects. PMID:24279278

  10. Dependence of polar hole density on magnetic and solar conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Electron densities from the Langmuir probes on the Atmospheric Explorer C and Dynamics Explorer 2 are used for analyzing the behavior of the high-altitude night-side F region polar hole as a function of solar and magnetic activity and of universal time (UT). The polar region of invariant latitude from 70 deg to 80 deg and MLT from 22 to 03 hours is examined. The strongest dependencies are observed in F10.7 and UT; a strong hemispherical difference due to the offset of the magnetic poles from the earth's rotation axis is observed in the UT dependence of the ionization hole. A seasonal variation in the dependence of ion density on solar flux is indicated, and an overall asymmetry in the density level between hemispheres is revealed, with the winter-hole density about a factor of 10 greater in the north than in the south.

  11. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch,Philipp Hagler,John Negele,Andreas Schafer

    2011-10-01

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link. Results obtained with a simplified operator geometry show visible dipole deformations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities.

  12. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, B. U.; Haegler, Ph.; Negele, J. W.; Schaefer, A.

    2011-10-24

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link. Results obtained with a simplified operator geometry show visible dipole deformations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities.

  13. Transverse momentum dependent quark densities from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch,Philipp Hagler,John Negele,Andreas Schafer

    2011-02-01

    We study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) with non-local operators in lattice QCD, using MILC/LHPC lattices. Results obtained with a simpli?ed operator geometry show visible dipole de- formations of spin-dependent quark momentum densities. We discuss the basic concepts of the method, including renormalization of the gauge link, and an ex- tension to a more elaborate operator geometry that would allow us to analyze process-dependent TMDs such as the Sivers-function.

  14. Density-dependent aposematism in the desert locust.

    PubMed

    Sword, G A; Simpson, S J; El Hadi, O T; Wilps, H

    2000-01-01

    The ecological processes underlying locust swarm formation are poorly understood. Locust species exhibit phenotypic plasticity in numerous morphological, physiological and behavioural traits as their population density increases. These density-dependent changes are commonly assumed to be adaptations for migration under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Here we demonstrate that density-dependent nymphal colour change in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) results in warning coloration (aposematism) when the population density increases and locusts consume native, toxic host plants. Fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus dumerili (Lacertidae)) developed aversions to high-density-reared (gregarious-phase) locusts fed Hyoscyamus muticus (Solanaceae). Lizards associated both olfactory and visual cues with locust unpalatability, but only gregarious-phase coloration was an effective visual warning signal. The lizards did not associate low rearing density coloration (solitarious phase) with locust toxicity. Predator learning of density-dependent warning coloration results in a marked decrease in predation on locusts and may directly contribute to outbreaks of this notorious pest. PMID:10670954

  15. Time-dependent density fluctuations in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, Conor J.; English, Niall J.

    2016-04-01

    Temporal system-mass-density fluctuation analysis was performed on liquid-water molecular-dynamics simulations at ambient pressure and 200 and 300 K, in three increasingly-large systems. A prominent mode in system-density fluctuations was observed at molecular-librational frequencies of ∼600-800 cm-1 (with pronounced temperature dependence). This mode displayed marked system-size dependence, disappearing for larger systems. Persistent system-density fluctuations were clearly evident at 10-11 cm-1 for all systems and temperatures, with lower-amplitude 'overtones' evident only in larger systems. It is conjectured that this reflects ∼3 ps timescales observed in earlier studies for dissipation of local-density fluctuations in liquid water in this 200-300 K temperature range.

  16. Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, J. D.; Yung, M.-H.; Tempel, D. G.; Boixo, S.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn-Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn-Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn-Sham potential with controllable error bounds.

  17. Nonlinear Density Dependence of Singlet Fission Rate in Tetracene Films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Chunfeng; Wang, Rui; Tan, Zhanao; Liu, Yunlong; Guo, Wei; Zhai, Xiaoling; Cao, Yi; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2014-10-16

    Singlet fission holds the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion by creating two triplet excitons from one photoexcited singlet exciton in organic semiconductors. It is generally assumed that the singlet-fission rate is linearly dependent on the exciton density. Here we experimentally show that the rate of singlet fission has a nonlinear dependence on the density of photoexcited singlet excitons in tetracene films with small crystalline grains. We disentangle the spectrotemporal features of singlet and triplet dynamics from ultrafast spectroscopic data with the algorithm of singular value decomposition. The correlation between their temporal dynamics indicates a superlinear dependence of fission rate on the density of singlet excitons, which may arise from excitonic interactions. PMID:26278594

  18. Parity dependence of level densities in sup 49 V

    SciTech Connect

    York, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this research, we have studied {sup 48}Ti(p, p{sub 1}) and {sup 48}(p, p{sub 1}{gamma}) in an effort to determine the dependence of level densities on parity in the compound nucleus {sup 49}V. This nuclide was chosen because of the high level density of the {sup 49}V system (leading to good statistical accuracy) and because the target is zero spin (making the assignment of J easier). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  20. Fitness and density-dependent population growth in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.D.; Ayala, F.J.

    1981-03-01

    The density-dependent rates of population growth were determined for 26 populations of Drosophila melanogaster maintained in the serial transfer system. Twenty-five populations were homozygous for an entire chromosome 2 sampled from nature; the other was a random heterozygous population. Rates of population growth around the carrying capacity cannot explain the large fitness depression of these lines. However, the homozygous lines show large differences in rates of population growth at low densities relative to the random heterozygous standard. The average relative fitness of the homozygous lines, as determined from the growth rates at the lowest density, is 0.51.

  1. Towards simple orbital-dependent density functionals for molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Richter, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is one of the leading first-principles electronic-structure theories. However, molecular dissociation remains a challenge, because it requires a well-balanced description of the drastically different electronic structure at different bond lengths. One typical and well-documented case is the dissociation of both H2+ and H2, for which all popular DFT functionals fail. We start from the Bethe-Goldstone equation to propose a simple orbital-dependent correlation functional which generalizes the linear adiabatic connection approach. The resulting scheme is based on second-order perturbation theory (PT2), but includes the self-consistent coupling of electron-hole pairs, which ensures the correct H2 dissociation limit and gives a finite correlation energy for systems with a (near)-degenerate energy gap. This coupling PT2-like (CPT2) approximation delivers a significant improvement over all existing functionals for both H2 and H2+ dissociation. We will demonstrate the reason for this improvement analytically for H2 in a minimal basis.

  2. Simple preconditioning for time-dependent density functional perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, Lauri; Marques, Miguel A L

    2011-07-01

    By far, the most common use of time-dependent density functional theory is in the linear-reponse regime, where it provides information about electronic excitations. Ideally, the linear-response equations should be solved by a method that avoids the use of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham states--such as the Sternheimer method--as this reduces the complexity and increases the precision of the calculation. However, the Sternheimer equation becomes ill-conditioned near and indefinite above the first resonant frequency, seriously hindering the use of efficient iterative solution methods. To overcome this serious limitation, and to improve the general convergence properties of the iterative techniques, we propose a simple preconditioning strategy. In our method, the Sternheimer equation is solved directly as a linear equation using an iterative Krylov subspace method, i.e., no self-consistent cycle is required. Furthermore, the preconditioner uses the information of just a few unoccupied states and requires simple and minimal modifications to existing implementations. In this way, convergence can be reached faster and in a considerably wider frequency range than the traditional approach. PMID:21744884

  3. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark-release-recapture methods for 7 years. Dispersal parameters, derived using the virtual migration model, were assessed against butterfly densities, which fluctuated strongly over the study period. Emigration was positively correlated with density, and this effect was particularly strong at densities above carrying capacity, when emigration increased up to threefold in females and twofold in males compared with the normal levels. In turn, density had little impact on other dispersal parameters analysed. Our findings provide good evidence for positive density-dependence of emigration in butterflies. Emigrating at high densities is particularly beneficial for females, because it gives them a chance to lay part of their egg-load in less crowded patches, where offspring survival is higher due to lower intraspecific competition. Even though the rise in emigration becomes considerable at densities exceeding carrying capacity, i.e. relatively infrequently, it still has serious implications for many ecological phenomena, such as species range expansions, gene flow, and metapopulation persistence. Consequently, instead of treating emigration as a fixed trait, it is worth allowing for its density-dependence in applications such as population viability analyses, genetic models or metapopulation models. PMID:21625981

  4. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion.

    PubMed

    Ringelman, Kevin M; Eadie, John M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2012-07-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for "dispersion-dependent" predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation. PMID:22179311

  5. A Wigner Monte Carlo approach to density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.

    2014-08-01

    In order to simulate quantum N-body systems, stationary and time-dependent density functional theories rely on the capacity of calculating the single-electron wave-functions of a system from which one obtains the total electron density (Kohn-Sham systems). In this paper, we introduce the use of the Wigner Monte Carlo method in ab-initio calculations. This approach allows time-dependent simulations of chemical systems in the presence of reflective and absorbing boundary conditions. It also enables an intuitive comprehension of chemical systems in terms of the Wigner formalism based on the concept of phase-space. Finally, being based on a Monte Carlo method, it scales very well on parallel machines paving the way towards the time-dependent simulation of very complex molecules. A validation is performed by studying the electron distribution of three different systems, a Lithium atom, a Boron atom and a hydrogenic molecule. For the sake of simplicity, we start from initial conditions not too far from equilibrium and show that the systems reach a stationary regime, as expected (despite no restriction is imposed in the choice of the initial conditions). We also show a good agreement with the standard density functional theory for the hydrogenic molecule. These results demonstrate that the combination of the Wigner Monte Carlo method and Kohn-Sham systems provides a reliable computational tool which could, eventually, be applied to more sophisticated problems.

  6. Density-dependent nest predation in waterfowl: the relative importance of nest density versus nest dispersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, KM; Eadie, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.

  7. The northern Yellowstone elk: density dependence and climatic conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taper, Mark L.; Gogan, Peter J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed a time series of estimates of elk (Cervus elaphus) numbers on the northern Yellowstone winter range from 1964 to 1979 and 1986 to 1995 using a variety of discrete time stochastic population dynamic models. These models included adjustments for density, an increase in the area of winter range used by elk, lagged effects of the weather covariates of spring precipitation, snow depth and winter temperature, and the impacts of the 1988 drought and fires. An information-criteria-based model-selection process strongly supported evidence of density dependence. The best model, a Ricker model, distinguished between the 2 time periods. The bulk of the difference between the 2 periods is attributed to an increase in the amount of winter range used by elk. Inclusion of the covariates spring precipitation and spring precipitation squared greatly improved the model fit. We detected a short-lived increase in elk population growth rate following the 1988 drought and fires. Fertility and survivorship of adults appeared to have different density-dependent forms that together result in a biphasic relationships between population growth rate and density. This study confirms the presence of density-dependent regulation in the norther Yellowstone elk herd, and enhances our understanding of population dynamics of these ungulates.

  8. Kinetic energy density dependent approximations to the exchange energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1999-07-01

    Two nonempirical kinetic energy density dependent approximations are introduced. First, the local τ approximation (LTA) is proposed in which the exchange energy Ex depends only on a kinetic energy density τ. This LTA scheme appears to be complementary to the local spin density (LSD) approximation in the sense that its exchange contribution to the atomization energy ΔEx=Exatoms-Exmolecule is fairly accurate for systems where LSD fails. On the other hand, in cases where LSD works well LTA results for ΔEx are worse. Secondly, the τPBE approximation to Ex is developed which combines some of the advantages of LTA and of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange functional. Like the PBE exchange functional, τPBE is free of empirical parameters. Furthermore, it yields improved atomization energies compared to the PBE approximation.

  9. External orthogonality in subsystem time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Chulhai, Dhabih V; Jensen, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Subsystem density functional theory (subsystem DFT) is a DFT partitioning method that is exact in principle, but depends on approximations to the kinetic energy density functional (KEDF). One may avoid the use of approximate KEDFs by ensuring that the inter-subsystem molecular orbitals are orthogonal, termed external orthogonality (EO). We present a method that extends a subsystem DFT method, that includes EO, into the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) regime. This method therefore removes the need for approximations to the kinetic energy potential and kernel, and we show that it can accurately reproduce the supermolecular TDDFT results for weakly and strongly coupled subsystems, and for systems with strongly overlapping densities (where KEDF approximations traditionally fail). PMID:26932176

  10. Density dependence of feeding success in haematophagous ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, B R; Hovhanyan, A; Khokhlova, I S; Degen, A A

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effect of density on feeding success of 2 fleas, Xenopsylla conformis and Xenopsylla ramesis, when exploiting rodents Meriones crassus and Gerbillus dasyurus. We tested 2 alternative hypotheses: (i) that intraspecific interference competition occurs and, thus, feeding success of a flea decreases with an increase in density and (ii) that facilitation via suppression of a host defence system occurs and thus, feeding success of a flea increases with an increase in density. The mean size of a bloodmeal and the proportion of highly engorged individuals in X. conformis feeding on both hosts were affected by density. When on G. dasyurus, both the size of a bloodmeal and the proportion of highly engorged individuals were lower at low (5-15 fleas per host) than at high (25-50 fleas per host) densities. The opposite was true when this flea fed on M. crassus. The mean bloodmeal size and proportions of highly engorged X. ramesis parasitizing either host were not affected by flea density. This study showed that the density dependence of feeding success of a flea (a) varied both between fleas and within-fleas between hosts and (b) indicated either intraspecific competition or facilitation via the host in a particular flea-host association. PMID:17445332

  11. The nest site lottery: how selectively neutral density dependent growth suppression induces frequency dependent selection.

    PubMed

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-12-01

    Modern developments in population dynamics emphasize the role of the turnover of individuals. In the new approaches stable population size is a dynamic equilibrium between different mortality and fecundity factors instead of an arbitrary fixed carrying capacity. The latest replicator dynamics models assume that regulation of the population size acts through feedback driven by density dependent juvenile mortality. Here, we consider a simplified model to extract the properties of this approach. We show that at the stable population size, the structure of the frequency dependent evolutionary game emerges. Turnover of individuals induces a lottery mechanism where for each nest site released by a dead adult individual a single newborn is drawn from the pool of newborn candidates. This frequency dependent selection leads towards the strategy maximizing the number of newborns per adult death. However, multiple strategies can maximize this value. Among them, the strategy with the greatest mortality (which implies the greatest instantaneous growth rate) is selected. This result is important for the discussion about universal fitness measures and which parameters are maximized by natural selection. This is related to the fitness measures R0 and r, because the number of newborns per single dead individual equals the lifetime production of newborn R0 in models without aging. We thus have a two-stage procedure, instead of a single fitness measure, which is a combination of R0 and r. According to the nest site lottery mechanism, at stable population size, selection favors strategies with the greatest r, i.e. those with the highest turnover, from those with the greatest R0. PMID:24071631

  12. Observation of number-density-dependent growth of plasmonic nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takashi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chatterjee, Souvik; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction dynamics of laser pulses and nanoparticles are of great interest in recent years. In many cases, laser-nanoparticle interactions result in the formation of plasmonic nanobubbles, and the dynamics of nanoparticles and nanobubbles are inseparable. So far, very little attention has been paid to the number density. Here we report the first observation of number-density-dependent growth of plasmonic nanobubbles. Our results show that the nanobubbles growth depends (does not depend) on the number density at high (low) laser fluence, although the inter-particle distance in the solution is as long as 14–30 μm. This cannot be explained by the existing physical picture, and we propose a new model which takes into account the pressure waves arising from nanoparticles. The numerical results based on this model agree well with the experimental results. Our findings imply that the number density can be a new doorknob to control laser-nanobubble as well as laser-nanoparticle interactions. PMID:27354184

  13. Observation of number-density-dependent growth of plasmonic nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takashi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chatterjee, Souvik; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction dynamics of laser pulses and nanoparticles are of great interest in recent years. In many cases, laser-nanoparticle interactions result in the formation of plasmonic nanobubbles, and the dynamics of nanoparticles and nanobubbles are inseparable. So far, very little attention has been paid to the number density. Here we report the first observation of number-density-dependent growth of plasmonic nanobubbles. Our results show that the nanobubbles growth depends (does not depend) on the number density at high (low) laser fluence, although the inter-particle distance in the solution is as long as 14-30 μm. This cannot be explained by the existing physical picture, and we propose a new model which takes into account the pressure waves arising from nanoparticles. The numerical results based on this model agree well with the experimental results. Our findings imply that the number density can be a new doorknob to control laser-nanobubble as well as laser-nanoparticle interactions. PMID:27354184

  14. Quantum kinetic energy densities: An operational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Muga, J.G.; Seidel, D.; Hegerfeldt, G.C.

    2005-04-15

    We propose and investigate a procedure to measure, at least in principle, a positive quantum version of the local kinetic energy density. This procedure is based, under certain idealized limits, on the detection rate of photons emitted by moving atoms which are excited by a localized laser beam. The same type of experiment, but in different limits, can also provide other non-positive-definite versions of the kinetic energy density. A connection with quantum arrival time distributions is discussed.

  15. The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-11-01

    The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.

  16. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.

  17. Advances in time-dependent current-density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Arjan

    In this work we solve the problem of the gauge dependence of molecular magnetic properties (magnetizabilities, circular dichroism) using time-dependent current-density functional theory [1]. We also present a new functional that accurately describes the optical absorption spectra of insulators, semiconductors and metals [2] N. Raimbault, P.L. de Boeij, P. Romaniello, and J.A. Berger Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 066404 (2015) J.A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 137402 (2015) This study has been partially supported through the Grant NEXT No. ANR-10-LABX-0037 in the framework of the Programme des Investissements d'Avenir.

  18. Autoionization in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, V.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the exact exchange-correlation potential of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for the correlated process of autoionization. The potential develops barriers which regulate the autoionization rate. TDDFT employing known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture any autoionization dynamics. Approximate exchange-correlation potentials capturing such dynamics would necessarily require memory effects and are unlikely to be developed, as will be illustrated.

  19. Evolutionary consequences of nonselective harvesting in density-dependent populations.

    PubMed

    Engen, Steinar; Lande, Russell; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    There is now considerable empirical evidence that evolutionary changes in many phenotypic characters, such as body mass, age at maturation, and timing of breeding, often occur in populations subject to intense harvesting over longer periods. Here, we analyze the evolutionary component of the selection due to nonselective harvesting, which will operate even under selective harvesting and may generate a large evolutionary response. If phenotype affects susceptibility to density dependence-for example, through resource limitation-then nonselective harvesting can induce evolutionary change through its effect on population density. We provide a model for evolution of a quantitative character in such a fluctuating density-dependent population, using the diffusion approximation to describe jointly the temporal changes in mean phenotype and log population size. We show how nonselective harvesting in particular generates r-selection governed by genetic variation in the strength of density regulation and the magnitude of population fluctuations. We show that r-selection caused by nonselective harvesting is proportional to the mean fraction of the population harvested. We then compare the short-term as well as the long-term evolutionary impact of nonselective harvesting for different harvesting strategies by using the mean harvest fraction for different strategies. This comparison is performed for three different harvesting strategies: constant, proportional, and threshold harvesting. The more ecologically sustainable strategies also produce smaller evolutionary changes. PMID:25438172

  20. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  1. Numerical density-to-potential inversions in time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Daniel S; Wasserman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    We treat the density-to-potential inverse problem of time-dependent density functional theory as an optimization problem with a partial differential equation constraint. The unknown potential is recovered from a target density by applying a multilevel optimization method controlled by error estimates. We employ a classical optimization routine using gradients efficiently computed by the discrete adjoint method. The inverted potential has both a real and imaginary part to reduce reflections at the boundaries and other numerical artifacts. We demonstrate this method on model one-dimensional systems. The method can be straightforwardly extended to a variety of numerical solvers of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations and to systems in higher dimensions. PMID:26984427

  2. A phenomenological density-scaling approach to lamellipodial actin dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Wilson, Kerry; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The integration of protein function studied in vitro in a dynamic system like the cell lamellipodium remains a significant challenge. One reason is the apparent contradictory effect that perturbations of some proteins can have on the overall lamellipodium dynamics, depending on exact conditions. Theoretical modelling offers one approach for understanding the balance between the mechanisms that drive and regulate actin network growth and decay. Most models use a ‘bottom-up’ approach, involving explicitly assembling biochemical components to simulate observable behaviour. Their correctness therefore relies on both the accurate characterization of all the components and the completeness of the relevant processes involved. To avoid potential pitfalls due to this uncertainty, we used an alternative ‘top-down’ approach, in which measurable features of lamellipodium behaviour, here observed in two different cell types (HL60 and B16-F1), directly inform the development of a simple phenomenological model of lamellipodium dynamics. We show that the kinetics of F-actin association and dissociation scales with the local F-actin density, with no explicit location dependence. This justifies the use of a simplified kinetic model of lamellipodium dynamics that yields predictions testable by pharmacological or genetic intervention. A length-scale parameter (the lamellipodium width) emerges from this analysis as an experimentally accessible probe of network regulatory processes. PMID:25485077

  3. Quantum Drude friction for time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Lopata, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    way to very simple finite grid description of scattering and multistage conductance using time-dependent density functional theory away from the linear regime, just as absorbing potentials and self-energies are useful for noninteracting systems and leads.

  4. Role of salt sources in density-dependent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Carrera, Jesús; Medina, AgustíN.

    2009-05-01

    Flow equation expresses mass conservation for a fluid phase. In density-dependent problems, fluid consists of at least two components, termed salt and water here. Salt sources are usually properly accounted for when salt is dissolved in water (i.e., as a solute) but are neglected otherwise. An analysis of the effect of neglecting pure salt sources on flow regime and concentration distribution is performed. Two test cases are used to illustrate the issue. The first one is the saltwater bucket problem, which consists of adding salt to an otherwise isolated domain. The second one is the Elder problem. Discrepancies in concentrations are moderate for reasonably small salt mass fractions. However, currently available codes yield head drops in response to the addition of salt because fluid mass is kept constant while its density increases. Such results contradict basic physical principles and lead to an inversion in the flow direction.

  5. Exploration of a modified density dependence in the Skyrme functional

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Kluepfel, P.

    2010-10-15

    A variant of the basic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock functional is considered dealing with a new form of density dependence. It employs only integer powers and thus will allow a more sound basis for projection schemes (particle number, angular momentum). We optimize the new functional with exactly the same adjustment strategy as used in an earlier study with a standard Skyrme functional. This allows direct comparisons of the performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. We discuss various observables: bulk properties of finite nuclei, nuclear matter, giant resonances, superheavy elements, and energy systematics. The new functional performs at least as well as the standard one, but offers a wider range of applicability (e.g., for projection) and more flexibility in the regime of high densities.

  6. Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-06-01

    In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.

  7. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-21

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated. PMID:25903875

  8. Time-Dependent Electronic Populations in Fragment-Based Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Martín A; Wasserman, Adam

    2015-08-11

    Conceiving a molecule as being composed of smaller molecular fragments, or subunits, is one of the pillars of the chemical and physical sciences and leads to productive methods in quantum chemistry. Using a fragmentation scheme, efficient algorithms can be proposed to address problems in the description of chemical bond formation and breaking. We present a formally exact time-dependent density functional theory for the electronic dynamics of molecular fragments with a variable number of electrons. This new formalism is an extension of previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 023001 (2013)]. We also introduce a stable density-inversion method that is applicable to time-dependent and ground-state density functional theories and their extensions, including those discussed in this work. PMID:26574438

  9. Current density partitioning in time-dependent current density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Wasserman, Adam; Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

    2014-05-14

    We adapt time-dependent current density functional theory to allow for a fragment-based solution of the many-electron problem of molecules in the presence of time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Regarding a molecule as a set of non-interacting subsystems that individually evolve under the influence of an auxiliary external electromagnetic vector-scalar potential pair, the partition 4-potential, we show that there are one-to-one mappings between this auxiliary potential, a sharply-defined set of fragment current densities, and the total current density of the system. The partition electromagnetic (EM) 4-potential is expressed in terms of the real EM 4-potential of the system and a gluing EM 4-potential that accounts for exchange-correlation effects and mutual interaction forces between fragments that are required to yield the correct electron dynamics. We prove the zero-force theorem for the fragmented system, establish a variational formulation in terms of action functionals, and provide a simple illustration for a charged particle in a ring.

  10. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals. PMID:27608987

  11. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leirs, H.; Stenseth, N.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Verhagen, R.; Verheyen, W.

    1997-01-01

    Ecology has long been troubled by the controversy over how populations are regulated. Some ecologists focus on the role of environmental effects, whereas others argue that density-dependent feedback mechanisms are central. The relative importance of both processes is still hotly debated, but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare. Keyfactor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide no information on actual demographic rates. Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models. Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate that they do not affect all demographic rates in the same way. We have incorporated the obtained estimates of demographic rates in a population dynamics model and show that the observed dynamics are affected by stabilizing nonlinear density-dependent components coupled with strong deterministic and stochastic seasonal components.

  12. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  13. Time-dependent local density measurements in unsteady flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.; Monson, D. J.; Exberger, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique for measuring the relative time-dependent density fluctuations in unsteady or turbulent flows is demonstrated. Using a 1.5-W continuous-wave Kr(+) laser, measurements have been obtained in 0.1-mm-diameter by 1-mm-long sampling volumes in a Mach 3 flow of N2 seeded with biacetyl vapor. A signal amplitude resolution of 2% was achieved for a detection frequency bandwidth of 10 kHz. The measurement uncertainty was found to be dominated by noise behaving as photon statistical noise. The practical limits of signal-to-noise ratios have been characterized for a wide range of detection frequency bandwidths that encompasses those of interest in supersonic turbulence measurements.

  14. Density Dependence Triggers Runaway Selection of Reduced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Robert M; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the presence of exogenous mortality risks, future reproduction by an individual is worth less than present reproduction to its fitness. Senescent aging thus results inevitably from transferring net fertility into younger ages. Some long-lived organisms appear to defy theory, however, presenting negligible senescence (e.g., hydra) and extended lifespans (e.g., Bristlecone Pine). Here, we investigate the possibility that the onset of vitality loss can be delayed indefinitely, even accepting the abundant evidence that reproduction is intrinsically costly to survival. For an environment with constant hazard, we establish that natural selection itself contributes to increasing density-dependent recruitment losses. We then develop a generalized model of accelerating vitality loss for analyzing fitness optima as a tradeoff between compression and spread in the age profile of net fertility. Across a realistic spectrum of senescent age profiles, density regulation of recruitment can trigger runaway selection for ever-reducing senescence. This novel prediction applies without requirement for special life-history characteristics such as indeterminate somatic growth or increasing fecundity with age. The evolution of nonsenescence from senescence is robust to the presence of exogenous adult mortality, which tends instead to increase the age-independent component of vitality loss. We simulate examples of runaway selection leading to negligible senescence and even intrinsic immortality. PMID:18166075

  15. Incorporating density dependence into the directed-dispersal hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Orr; Nathan, Ran

    2010-05-01

    The directed-dispersal (DrD) hypothesis, one of the main explanations for the adaptive value of seed dispersal, asserts that enhanced (nonrandom) arrival to favorable establishment sites is advantageous for plant fitness. However, as anticipated by the ideal free distribution theory, enhanced seed deposition may impair site suitability by increasing density-dependent mortality, thus negating the advantage postulated by the DrD hypothesis. Although the role of density effects is thoroughly discussed in the seed-dispersal literature, this DrD paradox remains largely overlooked. The paradox, however, may be particularly pronounced in animal-mediated dispersal systems, in which DrD is relatively common, because animals tend to generate local seed aggregations due to their nonrandom movements. To investigate possible solutions to the DrD paradox, we first introduce a simple analytical model that calculates the optimal DrD level at which seed arrival to favorable establishment sites yields maximal fitness gain in comparison to a null model of random arrival. This model predicts intermediate optimal DrD levels that correspond to various attributes of the plants, the dispersers, and the habitat. We then use a simulation model to explore the temporal dynamics of the invasion process of the DrD strategy in a randomly dispersed population, and the resistance of a DrD population against invasion of other dispersal strategies. This model demonstrates that some properties of the invasion process (e.g., mutant persistence ratio in the population and generations until initial establishment) are facilitated by high DrD levels, and not by intermediate levels as expected from the analytical model. These results highlight the need to revise the DrD hypothesis to include the countering effects of density-dependent mortality inherently imposed by enhanced arrival of seeds to specific sites. We illustrate how the revised hypothesis can elucidate previous results from empirical studies

  16. A new approach for estimating the density of liquids.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, T; Fuchizaki, K; Ohara, K

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel approach with which to estimate the density of liquids. The approach is based on the assumption that the systems would be structurally similar when viewed at around the length scale (inverse wavenumber) of the first peak of the structure factor, unless their thermodynamic states differ significantly. The assumption was implemented via a similarity transformation to the radial distribution function to extract the density from the structure factor of a reference state with a known density. The method was first tested using two model liquids, and could predict the densities within an error of several percent unless the state in question differed significantly from the reference state. The method was then applied to related real liquids, and satisfactory results were obtained for predicted densities. The possibility of applying the method to amorphous materials is discussed. PMID:27494268

  17. The dependence of ZnO photoluminescence efficiency on excitation conditions and defect densities

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Jay G.; Liu, Jie; Foreman, John V.; Everitt, Henry O.

    2013-11-11

    The quantum efficiencies of both the band edge and deep-level defect emission from annealed ZnO powders were measured as a function of excitation fluence and wavelength from a tunable sub-picosecond source. A simple model of excitonic decay reproduces the observed excitation dependence of rate constants and associated trap densities for all radiative and nonradiative processes. The analysis explores how phosphor performance deteriorates as excitation fluence and energy increase, provides an all-optical approach for estimating the number density of defects responsible for deep-level emission, and yields new insights for designing efficient ZnO-based phosphors.

  18. Linear-response calculation in the time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Inakura, Tsunenori; Avogadro, Paolo; Ebata, Shuichiro; Sato, Koichi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2012-11-12

    Linear response calculations based on the time-dependent density-functional theory are presented. Especially, we report results of the finite amplitude method which we have recently proposed as an alternative and feasible approach to the (quasiparticle-)random-phase approximation. Calculated properties of the giant resonances and low-energy E1 modes are discussed. We found a universal linear correlation between the low-energy E1 strength and the neutron skin thickness.

  19. Density dependence in marine fish populations revealed at small and large spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Darren W

    2006-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of population density has frequently been used to demonstrate demographic density dependence. However, such studies are usually small scale and typically provide evidence of spatial (within-generation) density dependence. It is often unclear whether small-scale, experimental tests of spatial density dependence will accurately describe temporal (between-generation) density dependence required for population regulation. Understanding the mechanisms generating density dependence may provide a link between spatial experiments and temporal regulation of populations. In this study, I manipulated the density of recently settled kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens) in both the presence and absence of predators to test for density-dependent mortality and whether predation was the mechanism responsible. I also examined mortality of rockfish cohorts within kelp beds throughout central California to evaluate temporal (between-generation) density dependence in mortality. Experiments suggested that short-term behavioral responses of predators and/or a shortage of prey refuges caused spatial density dependence. Temporal density dependence in mortality was also detected at larger spatial scales for several species of rockfish. It is likely that short-term responses of predators generated both spatial and temporal density dependence in mortality. Spatial experiments that describe the causal mechanisms generating density dependence may therefore be valuable in describing temporal density dependence and population regulation. PMID:16637357

  20. Time-dependent density functional theory of extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Magyar, Rudolph

    2013-04-01

    We describe the challenges involved when using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe warm dense matter (WDM) within a plane-wave, real-time formulation. WDM occurs under conditions of temperature and pressure (over 1000 K and 1 Mbar) where plasma physics meets condensed matter physics. TDDFT is especially important in this regime as it can describe ions and electrons strongly out of equilibrium. Several theoretical challenges must be overcome including assignment of initial state orbitals, choice of time-propogation scheme, treatment of PAW potentials, and inclusion of non-adiabatic effects in the potential energy surfaces. The results of these simulations are critical in several applications. For example, we will explain how the TDDFT calculation can resolve modeling inconsistencies in X-ray Thompson cross-sections, thereby improving an important temperature diagnostic in experiments. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Nuclear collective excitations: A relativistic density functional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2015-08-01

    Density functional theory provides the most promising, and likely unique, microscopic framework to describe nuclear systems ranging from finite nuclei to neutron stars. Properly optimized energy density functionals define a new paradigm in nuclear theory where predictive capability is possible and uncertainty quantification is demanded. Moreover, density functional theory offers a consistent approach to the linear response of the nuclear ground state. In this paper, we review the fundamental role played by nuclear collective modes in uncovering novel excitations and in guiding the optimization of the density functional. Indeed, without collective excitations the determination of the density functional remains incomplete. Without collective excitations, the equation of state of neutron-rich matter continues to be poorly constrained. We conclude with a discussion of some of the remaining challenges in this field and propose a path forward to address these challenges.

  2. Physical interpretation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock density matrix for heavy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Abraham; Umar, A. S.

    1987-05-01

    We suggest a quantum mechanical interpretation of the density matrix of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for heavy ion scattering. We show how with this interpretation the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations can be derived provided we admit (i) a generalized factorization of a suitably defined average of two-body density matrix elements in terms of a sum of products of the corresponding one-particle elements and (ii) additional semiclassical approximations which convert a sum of products into an antisymmetric product of sums. These ideas, previously recognized within the framework of soliton models, are extended here to include inelastic processes with the excitation of collective modes as the mechanism for producing deep inelastic scattering. An essential feature of the approach is that it provides, in principle, a theoretical method of obtaining exclusive amplitudes. We describe how these might be calculated.

  3. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    SciTech Connect

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E.; Romaniello, P.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na{sub 2}. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  4. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Romaniello, P.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-02-01

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.

  5. Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.

    PubMed

    Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E

    2015-02-28

    Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations. PMID:25725723

  6. Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ∞ neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.

  7. The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited.

    PubMed

    Manthe, Uwe

    2015-06-28

    The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example. PMID:26133412

  8. The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Manthe, Uwe

    2015-06-28

    The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example.

  9. Exact conditions on the temperature dependence of density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, K.; Smith, J. C.; Grabowski, P. E.; Pribram-Jones, A.

    2016-05-01

    Universal exact conditions guided the construction of most ground-state density functional approximations in use today. We derive the relation between the entropy and Mermin free energy density functionals for thermal density functional theory. Both the entropy and sum of kinetic and electron-electron repulsion functionals are shown to be monotonically increasing with temperature, while the Mermin functional is concave downwards. Analogous relations are found for both exchange and correlation. The importance of these conditions is illustrated in two extremes: the Hubbard dimer and the uniform gas.

  10. The viscosity of gaseous propane and its initial density dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, E.

    1995-11-01

    Results of five series of high-precision viscosity measurements on gaseous propane, each differing in density, are reported. The measurements were performed in a quartz oscillating-disk viscometer with small gaps from room temperature up to about 625 K and for densities between 0.01 and 0.05 mol · L-1. The experimental data were evaluated with a first-order expansion, in terms of density, for the viscosity. Reduced values of the second viscosity virial coefficients deduced from the zero-density and initial-density viscosity coefficients for propane and for further n-alkanes are in close agreement with the theoretical representation of the Rainwater-Friend theory for the potential parameter ratios by Bich and Vogel. A new representation of the viscosity of propane in the limit of zero density is provided using the new experimental data and some data sets from literature. The universal correlation based on the extended principle of corresponding states extends over the temperature range 293 to 625 K with an uncertainty of ±0.5 % and deviates from earlier representations by about 1 % at the upper temperature limit.

  11. The viscosity of gaseous propane and its initial density dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, E.

    1995-11-01

    Results of five series of high-precision viscosity measurements on gaseous propane, each differing in density, are reported. The measurements were performed in a quartz oscillating-disk viscometer with small gaps from room temperature up to about 625 K and for densities between 0.01 and 0.05 mol {center_dot} L{sup -1}. The experimental data were evaluated with a first-order expansion, in terms of density, for the viscosity. Reduced values of the second viscosity virial coefficients deduced from the zero-density and initial-density viscosity coefficients for propane and for further n-alkanes are in close agreement with the theoretical representation of the Rainwater-Friend theory for the potential parameter ratios by Bich and Vogel. A new representation of the viscosity of propane in the limit of zero density is provided using the new experimental data and some data sets from literature. The universal correlation based on the extended principle of corresponding states extends over the temperature range 293 to 625 K with an uncertainty of {plus_minus}0.5% and deviates from earlier representations by about 1% at the upper temperature limit.

  12. Electrical conductivity of metals from real-time time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo

    In this presentation, I will discuss how to apply real-time electron dynamics to study electronic currents in crystalline systems and, in particular, how to use this method to predict electrical conductivities in different regimes. This approach presents many interesting theoretical challenges associated to the representation of bulk systems as infinitely periodic. For example, in order to induce electronic currents in the system, we use a gauge transformation that allows us to include finite electric fields in the simulation. We have implemented this approach using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This implementation allows us to induce, measure and visualize the current density as a function of time, in simulations with thousands of electrons (hundreds and even thousands of atoms). We have found that real-time TDDFT can describe how currents naturally decay in metals. From this dissipation process we can directly calculate the frequency-dependent conductivity, including the direct current (DC) conductivity that is not accessible from linear-response approaches like Kubo-Greenwood.

  13. Efficient time-dependent density functional theory approximations for hybrid density functionals: analytical gradients and parallelization.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Taras; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of efficient approximations to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for hybrid density functionals. For the calculation of the TDDFT/TDA excitation energies and analytical gradients, we combine the resolution of identity (RI-J) algorithm for the computation of the Coulomb terms and the recently introduced "chain of spheres exchange" (COSX) algorithm for the calculation of the exchange terms. It is shown that for extended basis sets, the RIJCOSX approximation leads to speedups of up to 2 orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods, as demonstrated for hydrocarbon chains. The accuracy of the adiabatic transition energies, excited state structures, and vibrational frequencies is assessed on a set of 27 excited states for 25 molecules with the configuration interaction singles and hybrid TDDFT/TDA methods using various basis sets. Compared to the canonical values, the typical error in transition energies is of the order of 0.01 eV. Similar to the ground-state results, excited state equilibrium geometries differ by less than 0.3 pm in the bond distances and 0.5° in the bond angles from the canonical values. The typical error in the calculated excited state normal coordinate displacements is of the order of 0.01, and relative error in the calculated excited state vibrational frequencies is less than 1%. The errors introduced by the RIJCOSX approximation are, thus, insignificant compared to the errors related to the approximate nature of the TDDFT methods and basis set truncation. For TDDFT/TDA energy and gradient calculations on Ag-TB2-helicate (156 atoms, 2732 basis functions), it is demonstrated that the COSX algorithm parallelizes almost perfectly (speedup ~26-29 for 30 processors). The exchange-correlation terms also parallelize well (speedup ~27-29 for 30 processors). The solution of the Z-vector equations shows a speedup of ~24 on 30 processors. The

  14. Efficient time-dependent density functional theory approximations for hybrid density functionals: Analytical gradients and parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, Taras; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of efficient approximations to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for hybrid density functionals. For the calculation of the TDDFT/TDA excitation energies and analytical gradients, we combine the resolution of identity (RI-J) algorithm for the computation of the Coulomb terms and the recently introduced "chain of spheres exchange" (COSX) algorithm for the calculation of the exchange terms. It is shown that for extended basis sets, the RIJCOSX approximation leads to speedups of up to 2 orders of magnitude compared to traditional methods, as demonstrated for hydrocarbon chains. The accuracy of the adiabatic transition energies, excited state structures, and vibrational frequencies is assessed on a set of 27 excited states for 25 molecules with the configuration interaction singles and hybrid TDDFT/TDA methods using various basis sets. Compared to the canonical values, the typical error in transition energies is of the order of 0.01 eV. Similar to the ground-state results, excited state equilibrium geometries differ by less than 0.3 pm in the bond distances and 0.5° in the bond angles from the canonical values. The typical error in the calculated excited state normal coordinate displacements is of the order of 0.01, and relative error in the calculated excited state vibrational frequencies is less than 1%. The errors introduced by the RIJCOSX approximation are, thus, insignificant compared to the errors related to the approximate nature of the TDDFT methods and basis set truncation. For TDDFT/TDA energy and gradient calculations on Ag-TB2-helicate (156 atoms, 2732 basis functions), it is demonstrated that the COSX algorithm parallelizes almost perfectly (speedup ˜26-29 for 30 processors). The exchange-correlation terms also parallelize well (speedup ˜27-29 for 30 processors). The solution of the Z-vector equations shows a speedup of ˜24 on 30 processors. The

  15. Mechanisms of density dependence in ducks: importance of space and per capita food.

    PubMed

    Nummi, Petri; Holopainen, Sari; Rintala, Jukka; Pöysä, Hannu

    2015-03-01

    The growth rate of populations usually varies over time, often in a density-dependent manner. Despite the large amount of literature on density dependence, relatively little is known of the mechanisms underlying the density-dependent processes affecting populations, especially per capita natality. We performed a 20-year study on the density dependence of brood production in two duck species differing in the stability of habitat use. Our study was conducted in a boreal watershed in southern Finland. We predicted that a diving duck common goldeneye Bucephala clangula, with more stable habitat use, would show stronger density dependence than a dabbling duck common teal Anas crecca. We investigated reproductive output in relation to the duck pair density per se as well as in relation to per capita food availability. As predicted, the reproductive output of the goldeneye showed a more density-dependent pattern than that of the teal. The number of goldeneye broods per pair decreased when the pair density increased. This was not the case with the teal. However, when the breeding success was measured by taking into account per capita food availability, both species showed density dependence. Our results imply that the occurrence of density dependent processes may vary even in sympatric ducks breeding in the same, relatively stable landscape. Our analysis also emphasizes that it is important to take into account per capita resource availability when studying the density dependence of breeding success. Both findings have important implications for the management and conservation of species. PMID:25398723

  16. Density dependent stopping power and muon sticking in muon catalyzed D-T fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, H.E.; Mueller, B.

    1988-12-27

    The origin of the experimentally observed (1) density dependence of the muon alpha sticking fraction ..omega../sub s/ in muon catalyzed deuterium- tritium fusion is investigated. We show that the reactivation probability depends sensitively on the target stopping power at low ion velocities. The density dependence of the stopping power for a singly charged projectile in liquid heavy hydrogen is parametrized to simulate possible screening effects and a density dependent effective ionization potential. We find that, in principle, a description of the measured density dependence is possible, but the required parameters appear too large. Also, the discrepancy with observed (He..mu..) X-ray data widens.

  17. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  18. Experimental evidence for density-dependent reproduction in a cooperatively breeding passerine.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Lyanne; Tinbergen, Joost M; Both, Christiaan; Bristol, Rachel; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Temporal variation in survival, fecundity, and dispersal rates is associated with density-dependent and density-independent processes. Stable natural populations are expected to be regulated by density-dependent factors. However, detecting this by investigating natural variation in density is difficult because density-dependent and independent factors affecting population dynamics may covary. Therefore, experiments are needed to assess the density dependence of demographic rates. In this study, we investigate the effect of density on demographic rates of the Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species, endemic to a few islands in the Indian Ocean, went through a severe population bottleneck in the middle of the last century, with only approximately 30 individuals left on one small island, but has since recovered. Our monitoring shows that since reaching the island's carrying capacity, population density has remained stable. However, we detected neither density-dependent reproduction nor survival on the basis of natural density variation during this stable period. For conservation reasons, new populations have been established by transferring birds to nearby suitable islands. Using the change of numbers during the process of saturation as a natural experiment, we investigated whether we can detect regulation of numbers via density-dependent survival and reproduction within these new populations. We found that populations were mainly regulated by density-dependent reproduction, and not survival. Variation in density between islands can be explained by food abundance, measured as insect density. Islands with the highest insect densities also had the highest bird densities and the largest breeding groups. Consequently, we suggest that the density-dependent effect on reproduction is caused by competition for food. PMID:19341143

  19. Predators reverse the direction of density dependence for juvenile salmon mortality.

    PubMed

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Folt, Carol L

    2008-06-01

    The effect of predators on prey populations depends on how predator-caused mortality changes with prey population density. Predators can enforce density-dependent prey mortality and contribute to population stability, but only if they have a positive numerical or behavioral response to increased prey density. Otherwise, predator saturation can result in inversely density-dependent mortality, destabilizing prey populations and increasing extinction risk. Juvenile salmon and trout provide some of the clearest empirical examples of density-dependent mortality in animal populations. However, although juvenile salmon are very vulnerable to predators, the demographic effects of predators on juvenile salmon are unknown. We tested the interactive effects of predators and population density on the mortality of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using controlled releases of salmon in natural streams. We introduced newly hatched juvenile salmon at three population density treatments in six study streams, half of which contained slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), a common generalist predator (18 release sites in total, repeated over two summers). Sculpin reversed the direction of density dependence for juvenile salmon mortality. Salmon mortality was density dependent in streams with no sculpin, but inversely density dependent in streams where sculpin were abundant. Such predator-mediated inverse density dependence is especially problematic for prey populations suppressed by other factors, thereby presenting a fundamental challenge to persistence of rare populations and restoration of extirpated populations. PMID:18317816

  20. Density Dependent Functional Forms Drive Compensation in Populations Exposed to Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between density dependence (DD) and environmental stressors can result in a compensatory or synergistic response in population growth, and population models that use density-independent demographic rates or generic DD functions may be introducing bias into managem...

  1. Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; Magierski, P.; Roche, K. J.

    2015-01-06

    Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus 238U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.

  2. Effects of density dependence in a temperate forest in northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jie; Zhang, Xinna; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; von Gadow, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Negative density dependence may cause reduced clustering among individuals of the same species, and evidence is accumulating that conspecific density-dependent self-thinning is an important mechanism regulating the spatial structure of plant populations. This study evaluates that specific density dependence in three very large observational studies representing three successional stages in a temperate forest in northeastern China. The methods include standard spatial point pattern analysis and a heterogeneous Poisson process as the null model to eliminate the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The results show that most of the species exhibit conspecific density-dependent self-thinning. In the early successional stage 11 of the 16 species, in the intermediate successional stage 18 of the 21 species and in the old growth stage all 21 species exhibited density dependence after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The prevalence of density dependence thus varies among the three successional stages and exhibits an increase with increasing successional stage. The proportion of species showing density dependence varied depending on whether habitat heterogeneity was removed or not. Furthermore, the strength of density dependence is closely related with species abundance. Abundant species with high conspecific aggregation tend to exhibit greater density dependence than rare species. PMID:27604642

  3. Effects of density dependence in a temperate forest in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Zhang, Xinna; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; von Gadow, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Negative density dependence may cause reduced clustering among individuals of the same species, and evidence is accumulating that conspecific density-dependent self-thinning is an important mechanism regulating the spatial structure of plant populations. This study evaluates that specific density dependence in three very large observational studies representing three successional stages in a temperate forest in northeastern China. The methods include standard spatial point pattern analysis and a heterogeneous Poisson process as the null model to eliminate the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The results show that most of the species exhibit conspecific density-dependent self-thinning. In the early successional stage 11 of the 16 species, in the intermediate successional stage 18 of the 21 species and in the old growth stage all 21 species exhibited density dependence after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The prevalence of density dependence thus varies among the three successional stages and exhibits an increase with increasing successional stage. The proportion of species showing density dependence varied depending on whether habitat heterogeneity was removed or not. Furthermore, the strength of density dependence is closely related with species abundance. Abundant species with high conspecific aggregation tend to exhibit greater density dependence than rare species. PMID:27604642

  4. Density approach to ballistic anomalous diffusion: An exact analytical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, Mauro; Ascolani, Gianluca; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of deriving the probability distribution density of a diffusion process generated by a nonergodic dichotomous fluctuation using the Liouville equation (density method). The velocity of the diffusing particles fluctuates from the value of 1 to the value of -1, and back, with the distribution density of time durations τ of the two states proportional to 1/τμ in the asymptotic time limit. The adopted density method allows us to establish an exact analytical expression for the probability distribution density of the diffusion process generated by these fluctuations. Contrary to intuitive expectations, the central part of the diffusion distribution density is not left empty when moving from μ >2 (ergodic condition) to μ <2 (nonergodic condition). The intuitive expectation is realized for μ <μcr, with μcr≈1.6. For values of μ >μcr, the monomodal distribution density with a minimum at the origin is turned into a bimodal one, with a central bump whose intensity increases for μ →2. The exact theoretical treatment applies to the asymptotic time limit, which establishes for the diffusion process the ballistic scaling value δ =1. To assess the time evolution toward this asymptotic time condition, we use a numerical approach which relates the emergence of the central bump at μ =μcr with the generation of the ordinary scaling δ =0.5, which lasts for larger and larger times for μ coming closer and closer to the critical value μ =2. We assign to the waiting time distribution density two different analytical forms: one derived from the Manneville intermittence (MI) theory and one from the Mittag-Leffler (ML) survival probability. The adoption of the ML waiting time distribution density generates an exact analytical prediction, whereas the MI method allows us to get the same asymptotic time limit as the ML one for μ <2 as a result of an approximation. The joint adoption of these two waiting time distribution densities sheds

  5. Broadcasting but not receiving: density dependence considerations for SETI signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Reginald D.

    2009-04-01

    This paper develops a detailed quantitative model which uses the Drake equation and an assumption of an average maximum radio broadcasting distance by an communicative civilization. Using this basis, it estimates the minimum civilization density for contact between two civilizations to be probable in a given volume of space under certain conditions, the amount of time it would take for a first contact, and the question of whether reciprocal contact is possible.

  6. How important is self-consistency for the dDsC density dependent dispersion correction?

    SciTech Connect

    Brémond, Éric; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Golubev, Nikolay; Steinmann, Stephan N.

    2014-05-14

    The treatment of dispersion interactions is ubiquitous but computationally demanding for seamless ab initio approaches. A highly popular and simple remedy consists in correcting for the missing interactions a posteriori by adding an attractive energy term summed over all atom pairs to standard density functional approximations. These corrections were originally based on atom pairwise parameters and, hence, had a strong touch of empiricism. To overcome such limitations, we recently proposed a robust system-dependent dispersion correction, dDsC, that is computed from the electron density and that provides a balanced description of both weak inter- and intramolecular interactions. From the theoretical point of view and for the sake of increasing reliability, we here verify if the self-consistent implementation of dDsC impacts ground-state properties such as interaction energies, electron density, dipole moments, geometries, and harmonic frequencies. In addition, we investigate the suitability of the a posteriori scheme for molecular dynamics simulations, for which the analysis of the energy conservation constitutes a challenging tests. Our study demonstrates that the post-SCF approach in an excellent approximation.

  7. How important is self-consistency for the dDsC density dependent dispersion correction?

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Golubev, Nikolay; Steinmann, Stephan N; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-05-14

    The treatment of dispersion interactions is ubiquitous but computationally demanding for seamless ab initio approaches. A highly popular and simple remedy consists in correcting for the missing interactions a posteriori by adding an attractive energy term summed over all atom pairs to standard density functional approximations. These corrections were originally based on atom pairwise parameters and, hence, had a strong touch of empiricism. To overcome such limitations, we recently proposed a robust system-dependent dispersion correction, dDsC, that is computed from the electron density and that provides a balanced description of both weak inter- and intramolecular interactions. From the theoretical point of view and for the sake of increasing reliability, we here verify if the self-consistent implementation of dDsC impacts ground-state properties such as interaction energies, electron density, dipole moments, geometries, and harmonic frequencies. In addition, we investigate the suitability of the a posteriori scheme for molecular dynamics simulations, for which the analysis of the energy conservation constitutes a challenging tests. Our study demonstrates that the post-SCF approach in an excellent approximation. PMID:24832324

  8. Using time-dependent density functional theory in real time for calculating electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffhauser, Philipp; Kümmel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating electronic transport within the propagation approach to time-dependent density functional theory. Our scheme is based on solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations on grids in real space and real time for a finite system. We use absorbing and antiabsorbing boundaries for simulating the coupling to a source and a drain. The boundaries are designed to minimize the effects of quantum-mechanical reflections and electrical polarization build-up, which are the major obstacles when calculating transport by applying an external bias to a finite system. We show that the scheme can readily be applied to real molecules by calculating the current through a conjugated molecule as a function of time. By comparing to literature results for the conjugated molecule and to analytic results for a one-dimensional model system we demonstrate the reliability of the concept.

  9. Density-dependent effects in experimental larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) can be negative, neutral, or overcompensatory depending on density and diet levels.

    PubMed

    Gilles, J R L; Lees, R S; Soliban, S M; Benedict, M Q

    2011-03-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared from hatching to the adult stage in the laboratory under a range of diet and larval concentrations using a factorial design. The range circumscribed most of the larval densities and diet concentrations that would allow larval growth and survival using the particular diet formulation and water volume we tested. We determined how these variables affected three outcomes, as follows: larval development rate, survival, and wing length. As has been reported previously, negative density dependence of survival as a function of increased larval density was the prevalent effect on all outcomes when diet was limiting. When diet was not limiting, density dependence was not observed, and three cases of overcompensatory survival were seen. We discuss these results in the context of diet and larval densities for mass rearing and the effect of larval competition on control strategies. PMID:21485365

  10. Charge density-dependent strength of hydration and biological structure.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K D

    1997-01-01

    Small ions of high charge density (kosmotropes) bind water molecules strongly, whereas large monovalent ions of low charge density (chaotropes) bind water molecules weakly relative to the strength of water-water interactions in bulk solution. The standard heat of solution of a crystalline alkali halide is shown here to be negative (exothermic) only when one ion is a kosmotrope and the ion of opposite charge is a chaotrope; this standard heat of solution is known to become proportionally more positive as the difference between the absolute heats of hydration of the corresponding gaseous anion and cation decreases. This suggests that inner sphere ion pairs are preferentially formed between oppositely charged ions with matching absolute enthalpies of hydration, and that biological organization arises from the noncovalent association of moieties with matching absolute free energies of solution, except where free energy is expended to keep them apart. The major intracellular anions (phosphates and carboxylates) are kosmotropes, whereas the major intracellular monovalent cations (K+; arg, his, and lys side chains) are chaotropes; together they form highly soluble, solvent-separated ion pairs that keep the contents of the cell in solution. PMID:8994593

  11. Density-dependence of functional spiking networks in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Michael I; Gintautuas, Vadas; Rodriguez, Marko A; Bettencourt, Luis M A; Bennett, Ryan; Santa Maria, Cara L

    2008-01-01

    During development, the mammalian brain differentiates into specialized regions with unique functional abilities. While many factors contribute to this functional specialization, we explore the effect neuronal density can have on neuronal interactions. Two types of networks, dense (50,000 neurons and glia support cells) and sparse (12,000 neurons and glia support cells), are studied. A competitive first response model is applied to construct activation graphs that represent pairwise neuronal interactions. By observing the evolution of these graphs during development in vitro we observe that dense networks form activation connections earlier than sparse networks, and that link-!llltropy analysis of the resulting dense activation graphs reveals that balanced directional connections dominate. Information theoretic measures reveal in addition that early functional information interactions (of order 3) are synergetic in both dense and sparse networks. However, during development in vitro, such interactions become redundant in dense, but not sparse networks. Large values of activation graph link-entropy correlate strongly with redundant ensembles observed in the dense networks. Results demonstrate differences between dense and sparse networks in terms of informational groups, pairwise relationships, and activation graphs. These differences suggest that variations in cell density may result in different functional specialization of nervous system tissue also in vivo.

  12. Frequency and Density-Dependent Selection on Life-History Strategies – A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mappes, Tapio; Koivula, Minna; Koskela, Esa; Oksanen, Tuula A.; Savolainen, Tiina; Sinervo, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependence, which favors rare genotypes, promotes the maintenance of genetic variability and is of interest as a potential explanation for genetic differentiation. Density-dependent selection may also promote cyclic changes in frequencies of genotypes. Here we show evidence for both density-dependent and negative frequency-dependent selection on opposite life-history tactics (low or high reproductive effort, RE) in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Density-dependent selection was evident among the females with low RE, which were especially favored in low densities. Instead, both negative frequency-dependent and density-dependent selection were shown in females with high RE, which were most successful when they were rare in high densities. Furthermore, selection at the individual level affected the frequencies of tactics at the population level, so that the frequency of the rare high RE tactic increased significantly at high densities. We hypothesize that these two selection mechanisms (density- and negative frequency-dependent selection) may promote genetic variability in cyclic mammal populations. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether the origin of genetic variance in life-history traits is causally related to density variation (e.g. population cycles). PMID:18301764

  13. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Universal Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, David

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, I will discuss how the theorems of TDDFT can be applied to a class of qubit Hamiltonians that are universal for quantum computation. The theorems of TDDFT applied to universal Hamiltonians imply that single-qubit expectation values can be used as the basic variables in quantum computation and information theory, rather than wavefunctions. From a practical standpoint this opens the possibility of approximating observables of interest in quantum computations directly in terms of single-qubit quantities (i.e. as density functionals). Additionally, I will discuss how TDDFT provides an exact prescription for simulating universal Hamiltonians with other universal Hamiltonians that have different, and possibly easier-to-realize two-qubit interactions.

  14. High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, William D; Thomas, Alison S; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature in red flour beetles and tested the prediction that the strength of negative density dependence should decrease as temperature decreases. We measured the number of eggs laid, offspring development time, and the number of offspring that reached maturity at three temperatures and two food treatment combinations as we simultaneously manipulated adult population density. We demonstrated that low temperatures weaken negative density dependence in the number of eggs laid; this pattern was most evident when food was abundant. Density had no effect on development time, but low temperatures increased development time. The percent of eggs that emerged as adults decreased with both density and temperature and increased with food. Temperature, an abiotic driver, can thus modulate density-dependent processes in ectotherms. Therefore, models of population growth for ectotherms should incorporate the effects of temperature. PMID:25798223

  15. Density-dependent effects on group size are sex-specific in a gregarious ungulate.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Eric; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-01-01

    Density dependence can have marked effects on social behaviors such as group size. We tested whether changes in population density of a large herbivore (elk, Cervus canadensis) affected sex-specific group size and whether the response was density- or frequency-dependent. We quantified the probability and strength of changes in group sizes and dispersion as population density changed for each sex. We used group size data from a population of elk in Manitoba, Canada, that was experimentally reduced from 1.20 to 0.67 elk/km(2) between 2002 and 2009. Our results indicated that functional responses of group size to population density are sex-specific. Females showed a positive density-dependent response in group size at population densities ≥0.70 elk/km(2) and we found evidence for a minimum group size at population density ≤0.70 elk/km(2). Changes in male group size were also density-dependent; however, the strength of the relationship was lower than for females. Density dependence in male group size was predominantly a result of fusion of solitary males into larger groups, rather than fusion among existing groups. Our study revealed that density affects group size of a large herbivore differently between males and females, which has important implications for the benefits e.g., alleviating predation risk, and costs of social behaviors e.g., competition for resources and mates, and intra-specific pathogen transmission. PMID:23326502

  16. Density-Dependent Effects on Group Size Are Sex-Specific in a Gregarious Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, Eric; van Beest, Floris M.; Brook, Ryan K.

    2013-01-01

    Density dependence can have marked effects on social behaviors such as group size. We tested whether changes in population density of a large herbivore (elk, Cervus canadensis) affected sex-specific group size and whether the response was density- or frequency-dependent. We quantified the probability and strength of changes in group sizes and dispersion as population density changed for each sex. We used group size data from a population of elk in Manitoba, Canada, that was experimentally reduced from 1.20 to 0.67 elk/km2 between 2002 and 2009. Our results indicated that functional responses of group size to population density are sex-specific. Females showed a positive density-dependent response in group size at population densities ≥0.70 elk/km2 and we found evidence for a minimum group size at population density ≤0.70 elk/km2. Changes in male group size were also density-dependent; however, the strength of the relationship was lower than for females. Density dependence in male group size was predominantly a result of fusion of solitary males into larger groups, rather than fusion among existing groups. Our study revealed that density affects group size of a large herbivore differently between males and females, which has important implications for the benefits e.g., alleviating predation risk, and costs of social behaviors e.g., competition for resources and mates, and intra-specific pathogen transmission. PMID:23326502

  17. Position-dependent mass quantum Hamiltonians: general approach and duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego-Monteiro, M. A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S.; Curado, E. M. F.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze a general family of position-dependent mass (PDM) quantum Hamiltonians which are not self-adjoint and include, as particular cases, some Hamiltonians obtained in phenomenological approaches to condensed matter physics. We build a general family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians which are quantum mechanically equivalent to the non-self-adjoint proposed ones. Inspired by the probability density of the problem, we construct an ansatz for the solutions of the family of self-adjoint Hamiltonians. We use this ansatz to map the solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equations generated by the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians into the Hilbert space of the solutions of the respective dual self-adjoint Hamiltonians. This mapping depends on both the PDM and on a function of position satisfying a condition that assures the existence of a consistent continuity equation. We identify the non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians here studied with a very general family of Hamiltonians proposed in a seminal article of Harrison (1961 Phys. Rev. 123 85) to describe varying band structures in different types of metals. Therefore, we have self-adjoint Hamiltonians that correspond to the non-self-adjoint ones found in Harrison’s article.

  18. Optical response of extended systems from time-dependent Hartree-Fock and time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Leonardo; Webster, Ross; Tomić, Stanko; Harrison, Nicholas M.

    2012-05-01

    We describe a unified formulation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) and time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) for the accurate and efficient calculation of the optical response of infinite (periodic) systems. The method is formulated within the linear-response approximation, but it can easily be extended to include higher-order response contributions, and, in TD-DFT, it can treat with comparable computational efficiency purely local, semi-local or fully non-local approximations for the ground-state exchange-correlation (XC) functional and for the response TD-DFT XC kernel in the adiabatic approximation. At variance with existing methods for computing excitation energies based on the diagonalisation of suitable coupling matrices, or on the inversion of a dielectric matrix, our approach exploits an iterative procedure similar to a standard self-consistent field calculation. This results in a particularly efficient treatment of the coupling of excitations at different k points in the Brillouin zone. As a consequence, our method has the potential to describe completely from first principles the optically induced formation of bound particle-hole pairs in wide classes of materials. This point is illustrated by computing the optical gaps of a series of representative bulk semiconductors, (non-spin polarised) oxides and ionic insulators.

  19. Approaches to 100 Gbit/sq. in. recording density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryder, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    A recording density of 10 Gbit/sq. in. is being pursued by a number of companies and universities in the National Storage Industry Consortium. It is widely accepted that this goal will be achieved in the laboratory within a few years. In this paper approaches to achieving 100 Gbit/sq. in. storage densities are considered. A major obstacle to continued scaling of magnetic recording to higher densities is that as the bit size is reduced, the grain size in the magnetic media must be reduced in order that media noise does not become so large that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) degrades sufficiently to make detection impossible. At 100 Gbit/sq. in., the bit size is only 0.006 square micrometers, which, in order to achieve 30 dB SNR, requires a grain size of about 2.5 nm. Such small grains are subject to thermal instability, and the recorded information will degrade over time unless the magnetic anisotropy of the materials used is increased significantly, or the media thickness is made much larger than expected on the basis of scaling today's longitudinal media thickness.

  20. Kinetic Density Functional Theory: A Microscopic Approach to Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umberto Marini Bettolo, Marconi; Simone, Melchionna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper we give a brief summary of some recent theoretical advances in the treatment of inhomogeneous fluids and methods which have applications in the study of dynamical properties of liquids in situations of extreme confinement, such as nanopores, nanodevices, etc. The approach obtained by combining kinetic and density functional methods is microscopic, fully self-consistent and allows to determine both configurational and flow properties of dense fluids. The theory predicts the correct hydrodynamic behavior and provides a practical and numerical tool to determine how the transport properties are modified when the length scales of the confining channels are comparable with the size of the molecules. The applications range from the dynamics of simple fluids under confinement, to that of neutral binary mixtures and electrolytes where the theory in the limit of slow gradients reproduces the known phenomenological equations such as the Planck—Nernst—Poisson and the Smolochowski equations. The approach here illustrated allows for fast numerical solution of the evolution equations for the one-particle phase-space distributions by means of the weighted density lattice Boltzmann method and is particularly useful when one considers flows in complex geometries.

  1. Electron density dependence of impedance probe plasma potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, D. N.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2015-08-01

    In earlier works, we used spheres of various sizes as impedance probes in demonstrating a method of determining plasma potential, φp, when the probe radius is much larger than the Debye length, λD. The basis of the method in those works [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032108 (2006); ibid. 15, 123506 (2008); ibid. 17, 113503 (2010)] relies on applying a small amplitude signal of fixed frequency to a probe in a plasma and, through network analyzer-based measurements, determining the complex reflection coefficient, Γ, for varying probe bias, Vb. The frequency range of the applied signal is restricted to avoid sheath resonant effects and ion contributions such that ωpi ≪ ω ≪ ωpe, where ωpi is the ion plasma frequency and ωpe is the electron plasma frequency. For a given frequency and applied bias, both Re(Zac) and Im(Zac) are available from Γ. When Re(Zac) is plotted versus Vb, a minimum predicted by theory occurs at φp [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 113503 (2010)]. In addition, Im(Zac) appears at, or very near, a maximum at φp. As ne decreases and the sheath expands, the minimum becomes harder to discern. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that when using network analyzer-based measurements, Γ itself and Im(Zac) and their derivatives are useful as accompanying indicators to Re(Zac) in these difficult cases. We note the difficulties encountered by the most commonly used plasma diagnostic, the Langmuir probe. Spherical probe data is mainly used in this work, although we present limited data for a cylinder and a disk. To demonstrate the effect of lowered density as a function of probe geometry, we compare the cylinder and disk using only the indicator Re(Zac).

  2. Density-dependent host selection in ectoparasites: an application of isodar theory to fleas parasitizing rodents.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I

    2003-02-01

    Parasites should make the same decisions that every animal makes regarding fitness reward. They can maximize reproductive success by selection of those habitats that guarantee the greatest fitness output. We consider the host population as a habitat of a parasite population. Consequently, hosts (=habitats) that differ quantitatively or qualitatively will support different numbers of parasites. The nature of habitat selection can be detected by isodars, lines along which habitat selection yields equivalent fitness reward. We applied this approach to study host selection of five fleas, each infesting two desert rodents. Xenopsylla conformis, Xenopsylla ramesis, Nosopsyllus iranus theodori and Stenoponia tripectinata medialis parasitize Gerbillus dasyurus and Meriones crassus. Synosternus cleopatrae pyramidis parasitizes Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi and Gerbillus pyramidum. Three fleas ( X. conformis, X. ramesis and S. c. pyramidis) were able to perceive quantitative (amount of the resource; e.g. organic matter in the nest for flea larvae) and/or qualitative (pattern of resource acquisition; e.g. host defensiveness) differences between hosts. Two other fleas did not perceive between-host differences. X. conformis was a density-dependent host selector that showed sharp selectivity at low density. X. ramesis and S. c. pyramidis were density-independent host selectors with a direct correspondence of density with habitat quality. N. i. theodori and S. t. medialis were non-selectors with no relationship at all between density and host quality. The results of the application of the isodar theory suggest that ectoparasites, like other animals, behave as if they are able to make choices and decisions that favour environments in which their reproductive benefit is maximized. PMID:12647144

  3. Experimental evidence for density-dependent regulation and selection on Trinidadian guppy life histories.

    PubMed

    Bassar, Ronald D; Lopez-Sepulcre, Andres; Reznick, David N; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Recent study of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes has renewed interest in population regulation and density-dependent selection because they represent black-box descriptions of these feedbacks. The roles of population regulation and density-dependent selection in life-history evolution have received a significant amount of theoretical attention, but there are few empirical examples demonstrating their importance. We address this challenge in natural populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that differ in their predation regimes. First, we tested whether natural populations of guppies are regulated by density dependence and quantified in which phases of the life cycle the effects of density are important. We found that guppies from low-predation (LP) environments are tightly regulated and that the density-dependent responses disproportionately affected some size classes. Second, we tested whether there are differences in density-dependent selection between guppies from LP or high-predation (HP) environments. We found that the fitness of HP guppies is more sensitive to the depressant effects of density than the fitness of LP guppies. Finally, we used an evolutionary invasion analysis to show that, depending on the effect of density on survival of the HP phenotype, this greater sensitivity of the HP phenotype to density can partially explain the evolution of the LP phenotype. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the study of feedbacks between ecology and evolution. PMID:23234843

  4. Electron density dependence of impedance probe plasma potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. N.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2015-08-15

    In earlier works, we used spheres of various sizes as impedance probes in demonstrating a method of determining plasma potential, φ{sub p}, when the probe radius is much larger than the Debye length, λ{sub D}. The basis of the method in those works [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032108 (2006); ibid. 15, 123506 (2008); ibid. 17, 113503 (2010)] relies on applying a small amplitude signal of fixed frequency to a probe in a plasma and, through network analyzer-based measurements, determining the complex reflection coefficient, Γ, for varying probe bias, V{sub b}. The frequency range of the applied signal is restricted to avoid sheath resonant effects and ion contributions such that ω{sub pi} ≪ ω ≪ ω{sub pe}, where ω{sub pi} is the ion plasma frequency and ω{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency. For a given frequency and applied bias, both Re(Z{sub ac}) and Im(Z{sub ac}) are available from Γ. When Re(Z{sub ac}) is plotted versus V{sub b}, a minimum predicted by theory occurs at φ{sub p} [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 113503 (2010)]. In addition, Im(Z{sub ac}) appears at, or very near, a maximum at φ{sub p}. As n{sub e} decreases and the sheath expands, the minimum becomes harder to discern. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that when using network analyzer-based measurements, Γ itself and Im(Z{sub ac}) and their derivatives are useful as accompanying indicators to Re(Z{sub ac}) in these difficult cases. We note the difficulties encountered by the most commonly used plasma diagnostic, the Langmuir probe. Spherical probe data is mainly used in this work, although we present limited data for a cylinder and a disk. To demonstrate the effect of lowered density as a function of probe geometry, we compare the cylinder and disk using only the indicator Re(Z{sub ac})

  5. Reproductive success in two species of desert fleas: density dependence and host effect.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Hovhanyan, Anna; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2007-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a negative fitness-density relationship exists in haematophagous ectoparasites. We studied the effect of flea density on the number of blood meals necessary for starting oviposition and egg production in Xenopsylla conformis and Xenopsylla ramesis when exploiting two rodent hosts, Meriones crassus and Gerbillus dasyurus. The number of blood meals taken by a flea prior to first oviposition was similar in both flea species but was dependent on flea density and differed significantly between hosts. When parasitizing G. dasyurus, females of both flea species required a similar number of blood meals to start oviposition, independent of density. By contrast, fleas on M. crassus at higher densities needed less blood meals than at lower densities. Egg production of female fleas differed significantly between flea and host species and was affected by flea density. X. ramesis produced more eggs than X. conformis. When parasitizing G. dasyurus, density did not affect the number of eggs produced by X. conformis, however, when on M. crassus, this flea produced significantly less eggs at the highest density. The number of eggs produced by X. ramesis at high densities was significantly lower than at low densities when it parasitized either host species. Results of this study demonstrated that reproductive success of fleas was density dependent and, in general, decreased with an increase in density. However, the effect of density on reproductive performance was manifested differently on different host species. PMID:17562885

  6. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24770383

  7. Intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions in the electron-boson spectral density obtained from optical data

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    We investigate temperature smearing effects on the electron-boson spectral density function (I2χ(ω)) obtained from optical data using a maximum entropy inversion method. We start with two simple model input I2χ(ω), calculate the optical scattering rates at selected temperatures using the model input spectral density functions and a generalized Allen’s formula, then extract back I2χ(ω) at each temperature from the calculated optical scattering rate using the maximum entropy method (MEM) which has been used for analysis of optical data of high-temperature superconductors including cuprates, and finally compare the resulting I2χ(ω) with the input ones. From this approach we find that the inversion process can recover the input I2χ(ω) almost perfectly when the quality of fits is good enough and also temperature smearing (or thermal broadening) effects appear in the I2χ(ω) when the quality of fits is not good enough. We found that the coupling constant and the logarithmically averaged frequency are robust to the temperature smearing effects and/or the quality of fits. We use these robust properties of the two quantities as criterions to check whether experimental data have intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions or not. We carefully apply the MEM to two material systems (one optimally doped and the other underdoped cuprates) and conclude that the I2χ(ω) extracted from the optical data contain intrinsic temperature-dependent evolutions. PMID:27029840

  8. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B.; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism’s entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  9. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  10. Time-dependent density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order expansion of electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Yoshio

    2015-09-07

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well.

  11. Time-dependent density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order expansion of electron density.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well. PMID:26342360

  12. Negative density-dependent dispersal in the American black bear (Ursus americanus) revealed by noninvasive sampling and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Justin; Yannic, Glenn; Côté, Steeve D; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Although the dispersal of animals is influenced by a variety of factors, few studies have used a condition-dependent approach to assess it. The mechanisms underlying dispersal are thus poorly known in many species, especially in large mammals. We used 10 microsatellite loci to examine population density effects on sex-specific dispersal behavior in the American black bear, Ursus americanus. We tested whether dispersal increases with population density in both sexes. Fine-scale genetic structure was investigated in each of four sampling areas using Mantel tests and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Our results revealed male-biased dispersal pattern in low-density areas. As population density increased, females appeared to exhibit philopatry at smaller scales. Fine-scale genetic structure for males at higher densities may indicate reduced dispersal distances and delayed dispersal by subadults. PMID:22822432

  13. Application of a spherical harmonics expansion approach for calculating ligand density distributions around proteins.

    PubMed

    Parimal, Siddharth; Cramer, Steven M; Garde, Shekhar

    2014-11-20

    Protein-ligand interactions are central to many biological applications, including molecular recognition, protein formulations, and bioseparations. Complex, multisite ligands can have affinities for different locations on a protein's surface, depending on the chemical and topographical complementarity. We employ an approach based on the spherical harmonic expansion to calculate spatially resolved three-dimensional atomic density profiles of water and ligands in the vicinity of macromolecules. To illustrate the approach, we first study the hydration of model C180 buckyball solutes, with nonspherical patterns of hydrophobicity/-philicity on their surface. We extend the approach to calculate density profiles of increasingly complex ligands and their constituent groups around a protein (ubiquitin) in aqueous solution. Analysis of density profiles provides information about the binding face of the protein and the preferred orientations of ligands on the binding surface. Our results highlight that the spherical harmonic expansion based approach is easy to implement and efficient for calculation and visualization of three-dimensional density profiles around spherically nonsymmetric and topographically and chemically complex solutes. PMID:25198149

  14. Estimation of Density-Dependent Mortality of Juvenile Bivalves in the Wadden Sea

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Henrike; Strasser, Matthias; van der Meer, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship between the size of the reproductive adult stocks and the numbers of recruits for both species. It is not known however, when exactly density dependence in the pre-recruitment phase occurs and how prevalent it is. The magnitude of recruitment determines year class strength in bivalves. Thus, understanding pre-recruit mortality will improve the understanding of population dynamics. We analyzed count data from three years of temporal sampling during the first months after bivalve settlement at ten transects in the Sylt-Rømø-Bay in the northern German Wadden Sea. Analyses of density dependence are sensitive to bias through measurement error. Measurement error was estimated by bootstrapping, and residual deviances were adjusted by adding process error. With simulations the effect of these two types of error on the estimate of the density-dependent mortality coefficient was investigated. In three out of eight time intervals density dependence was detected for M. balthica, and in zero out of six time intervals for C. edule. Biological or environmental stochastic processes dominated over density dependence at the investigated scale. PMID:25105293

  15. Estimation of density-dependent mortality of juvenile bivalves in the Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Henrike; Strasser, Matthias; van der Meer, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship between the size of the reproductive adult stocks and the numbers of recruits for both species. It is not known however, when exactly density dependence in the pre-recruitment phase occurs and how prevalent it is. The magnitude of recruitment determines year class strength in bivalves. Thus, understanding pre-recruit mortality will improve the understanding of population dynamics. We analyzed count data from three years of temporal sampling during the first months after bivalve settlement at ten transects in the Sylt-Rømø-Bay in the northern German Wadden Sea. Analyses of density dependence are sensitive to bias through measurement error. Measurement error was estimated by bootstrapping, and residual deviances were adjusted by adding process error. With simulations the effect of these two types of error on the estimate of the density-dependent mortality coefficient was investigated. In three out of eight time intervals density dependence was detected for M. balthica, and in zero out of six time intervals for C. edule. Biological or environmental stochastic processes dominated over density dependence at the investigated scale. PMID:25105293

  16. Physical Origin of Density Dependent Force of the Skyrme Type within the Quark Meson Coupling Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre Guichon; Hrayr Matevosyan; N. Sandulescu; Anthony Thomas

    2006-03-17

    A density dependent, effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type is derived from the quark-meson coupling model--a self-consistent, relativistic quark level description of nuclear matter. This new formulation requires no assumption that the mean scalar field is small and hence constitutes a significant advance over earlier work. The similarity of the effective interaction to the widely used SkM* force encourages us to apply it to a wide range of nuclear problems, beginning with the binding energies and charge distributions of doubly magic nuclei. Finding impressive results in this conventional arena, we apply the same effective interaction, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, to the properties of nuclei far from stability. The resulting two neutron drip lines and shell quenching are quite satisfactory. Finally, we apply the relativistic formulation to the properties of dense nuclear matter in anticipation of future application to the properties of neutron stars.

  17. Sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Umar, A. S.; Stevenson, P. D.; Piekarewicz, J.; Oberacker, V. E.; Maruhn, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Background: The study of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is crucial to our understanding of many nuclear and astrophysical phenomena. Nuclear reactions serve as one of the means for studying the EOS. Purpose: It is the aim of this paper to discuss the impact of nuclear fusion on the EOS. This is a timely subject given the expected availability of increasingly exotic beams at rare isotope facilities [A. B. Balantekin et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A 29, 1430010 (2014), 10.1142/S0217732314300109]. In practice, we focus on 48Ca+48Ca fusion. Method: We employ three different approaches to calculate fusion cross sections for a set of energy density functionals with systematically varying nuclear matter properties. Fusion calculations are performed using frozen densities, using a dynamic microscopic method based on density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) approach, as well as direct TDHF study of above barrier cross sections. For these studies, we employ a family of Skyrme parametrizations with systematically varied nuclear matter properties. Results: The folding-potential model provides a reasonable first estimate of cross sections. DC-TDHF, which includes dynamical polarization, reduces the fusion barriers and delivers much better cross sections. Full TDHF near the barrier agrees nicely with DC-TDHF. Most of the Skyrme forces which we used deliver, on the average, fusion cross sections in good agreement with the data. Trying to read off a trend in the results, we find a slight preference for forces which deliver a slope of symmetry energy of L ≈50 MeV that corresponds to a neutron-skin thickness of 48Ca of Rskin=(0.180 -0.210 ) fm. Conclusions: Fusion reactions in the barrier and sub-barrier region can be a tool to study the EOS and the neutron skin of nuclei. The success of the approach will depend on reduced experimental uncertainties of fusion data as well as the development of fusion

  18. A high-performance Fortran code to calculate spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities. The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g- model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf. Program summaryProgram title: MM Catalogue identifier: AENM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 193181 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1298585 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, MPI. Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler and MPI. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our examples, up to 75Mb Classification: 17.15. External routines: MPICH2 (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpich2/) Nature of problem: Calculating of the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density. Solution method: The algorithm implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The code is parallelized using the Message

  19. Digging for answers: contributions of density- and frequency-dependent factors on ectoparasite burden in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Archer, Elizabeth K; Bennett, Nigel C; Faulkes, Chris G; Lutermann, Heike

    2016-02-01

    Due to the density-dependent nature of parasite transmission parasites are generally assumed to constrain the evolution of sociality. However, evidence for a correlation between group size and parasite burden is equivocal, particularly for mammals. Host contact rates may be modified by mobility of the host and parasite as well as social barriers. In the current study, we used the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus), a social subterranean rodent, as a model system to investigate the effect of host density and frequency of contact rates on ectoparasite burdens. To address these factors we used a study species that naturally varies in population densities and intergroup contact rates across its geographic range. We found that ectoparasite prevalence, abundance and species richness decreased with increasing host density at a regional scale. At the same time, measures of parasite burden increased with intergroup contact rates. Ectoparasite burdens decreased with colony size at the group level possibly as a result of increased grooming rates. Equating group size with population density might be too simplistic an approach when assessing parasite distributions in social mammals. Our data suggest that frequency-dependent mechanisms may play a much greater role at a population level than density-dependent mechanisms in determining parasite distributions in social species. We suggest that future studies should explicitly consider behavioural mechanisms that may affect parasite distribution. PMID:26546084

  20. Simultaneous positive and negative density-dependent dispersal in a colonial bird species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Contradictory patterns of density-dependent animal dispersal can potentially be reconciled by integrating the conspecific attraction hypothesis with the traditional competition hypothesis. We propose a hypothesis that predicts a U-shaped relationship between density and both natal and breeding dispersal distance. Using 10 years of observations on a breeding colony of the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), the hypothesis was confirmed by documenting simultaneous positive and negative density-dependent dispersal distances in natal and breeding dispersal of males and breeding dispersal of females within the colony. Point-pattern analyses demonstrated that the breeding sites of Blue-footed Boobies were highly aggregated in all years within a large study area, and aggregation presumably resulted in heterogeneity in patch density throughout the colony. As predicted, at moderate to high densities, dispersal distances showed positive density dependence, with individuals moving to lower density patches. In contrast, at low to moderate densities, dispersal distances showed negative density dependence, with individuals moving to higher density patches. In both sexes of the 1994 cohort, the higher the mean density in patches used by an individual over the long term (up to age 11 years), the fewer fledglings it produced. A positive effect of density on long-term reproductive success was not detected, possibly because birds that failed during pair formation or incubation were not sampled. Density of conspecifics may be an important influence on habitat selection of breeders, and dispersal may tend to carry individuals to patches where pair formation opportunities are better and negative effects of competition on reproductive success are reduced. PMID:19294928

  1. Intraspecific density dependence and a guild of consumers coexisting on one resource.

    PubMed

    McPeek, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    The importance of negative intraspecific density dependence to promoting species coexistence in a community is well accepted. However, such mechanisms are typically omitted from more explicit models of community dynamics. Here I analyze a variation of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model that includes negative intraspecific density dependence for consumers to explore its effect on the coexistence of multiple consumers feeding on a single resource. This analysis demonstrates that a guild of multiple consumers can easily coexist on a single resource if each limits its own abundance to some degree, and stronger intraspecific density dependence permits a wider variety of consumers to coexist. The mechanism permitting multiple consumers to coexist works in a fashion similar to apparent competition or to each consumer having its own specialized predator. These results argue for a more explicit emphasis on how negative intraspecific density dependence is generated and how these mechanisms combine with species interactions to shape overall community structure. PMID:23431602

  2. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

    SciTech Connect

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-05-15

    We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

  3. Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, M. B.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Danielewicz, P.; Famiano, F.; Hodges, R.; Kilburn, M.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Zhang, Y. X.

    2011-04-01

    Constraints on the equation of state (EoS) for symmetric matter (equal neutron and proton numbers) have been extracted from energetic collisions of heavy ions over a range of energies. Collisions of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich heavy ions now provide initial constraints on the EoS of neutron-rich matter at subsaturation densities from isospin diffusions and neutron proton ratios. This article reviews the experimental constraints on the density dependence of symmetry energy at subsaturation density.

  4. The energy balance relation for weak solutions of the density-dependent Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, T. M.; Shvydkoy, R.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations with constant viscosity coefficient and density which is bounded and bounded away from zero. We show that the energy balance relation for this system holds for weak solutions if the velocity, density, and pressure belong to a range of Besov spaces of smoothness 1/3. A density-dependent version of the classical Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation is derived.

  5. An evaluation of density-dependent and density-independent influences on population growth rates in Weddell seals.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Jay J; Link, William A; Nichols, James D; Hadley, Gillian L; Garrott, Robert A; Proffitt, Kelly M

    2009-04-01

    Much of the existing literature that evaluates the roles of density-dependent and density-independent factors on population dynamics has been called into question in recent years because measurement errors were not properly dealt with in analyses. Using state-space models to account for measurement errors, we evaluated a set of competing models for a 22-year time series of mark-resight estimates of abundance for a breeding population of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) studied in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. We tested for evidence of direct density dependence in growth rates and evaluated whether equilibrium population size was related to seasonal sea-ice extent and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We found strong evidence of negative density dependence in annual growth rates for a population whose estimated size ranged from 438 to 623 females during the study. Based on Bayes factors, a density-dependence-only model was favored over models that also included environmental covariates. According to the favored model, the population had a stationary distribution with a mean of 497 females (SD = 60.5), an expected growth rate of 1.10 (95% credible interval = 1.08-1.15) when population size was 441 females, and a rate of 0.90 (95% credible interval = 0.87-.93) for a population of 553 females. A model including effects of SOI did receive some support and indicated a positive relationship between SOI and population size. However, effects of SOI were not large, and including the effect did not greatly reduce our estimate of process variation. We speculate that direct density dependence occurred because rates of adult survival, breeding, and temporary emigration were affected by limitations on per capita food resources and space for parturition and pup-rearing. To improve understanding of the relative roles of various demographic components and their associated vital rates to population growth rate, mark-recapture methods can be applied that incorporate both

  6. An evaluation of density-dependent and density-independent influences on population growth rates in Weddell seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hadley, G.L.; Garrott, R.A.; Proffitt, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature that evaluates the roles of density-dependent and density-independent factors on population dynamics has been called into question in recent years because measurement errors were not properly dealt with in analyses. Using state-space models to account for measurement errors, we evaluated a set of competing models for a 22-year time series of mark-resight estimates of abundance for a breeding population of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) studied in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. We tested for evidence of direct density dependence in growth rates and evaluated whether equilibrium population size was related to seasonal sea-ice extent and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). We found strong evidence of negative density dependence in annual growth rates for a population whose estimated size ranged from 438 to 623 females during the study. Based on Bayes factors, a density-dependence-only model was favored over models that also included en! vironmental covariates. According to the favored model, the population had a stationary distribution with a mean of 497 females (SD = 60.5), an expected growth rate of 1.10 (95% credible interval 1.08-1.15) when population size was 441 females, and a rate of 0.90 (95% credible interval 0.87-0.93) for a population of 553 females. A model including effects of SOI did receive some support and indicated a positive relationship between SOI and population size. However, effects of SOI were not large, and including the effect did not greatly reduce our estimate of process variation. We speculate that direct density dependence occurred because rates of adult survival, breeding, and temporary emigration were affected by limitations on per capita food resources and space for parturition and pup-rearing. To improve understanding of the relative roles of various demographic components and their associated vital rates to population growth rate, mark-recapture methods can be applied that incorporate both

  7. An Experimental Field Study of Delayed Density Dependence in Natural Populations of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rachael K.; Bradley, Caitlin; Apperson, Charles S.; Gould, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation. PMID:22563428

  8. Practical methods in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Rudolph; Shulenburger, Luke; Baczewski, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    There is a great need to simulate dynamic material response properties under shock conditions where experimental data is often limited due to the extreme scales involved (MBars, 1000s of K, and manifold compressed solid densities). Knowing materials properties at this scale is vital element of simulations of planetary collisions, inertial confinement fusion experiments, and the surfaces of some stars. Considerable progress has been made using density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) to model thermodynamic properties of material under these conditions; however, the approach is limited to cases in which the electrons are constrained to a thermodynamic distribution within the Mermin formulation. We will explore practical schemes to generalize this method to the time-dependent case. Several challenges come up such as the role of non-adiabatic electron-electron and electron-nuclear physics and the correct choice of initial state. One of the most straightforward choices of initial state is to project the Mermin state since the original Runge-Gross proof does not make explicit choice of occupations. We will present some numerical tests of finite systems to examine this formulation. We will also explore how simple models of non-adiabatic effects might be sufficiently accurate under extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Relativistic Coulomb excitation within the time dependent superfluid local density approximation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stetcu, I.; Bertulani, C. A.; Bulgac, A.; Magierski, P.; Roche, K. J.

    2015-01-06

    Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus 238U. The approach is based on the superfluid local density approximation formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We compute the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, themore » dipole pygmy resonance, and giant quadrupole modes are excited during the process. As a result, the one-body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width Γ↓≈0.4 MeV and the number of preequilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.« less

  10. Fusion of neutron-rich systems using time-dependent density-constrained DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberacker, Volker; Umar, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    In connection with experiments at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities, we study fusion reactions with a new approach [1] which is based on a time-dependent density-constrained density functional theory (DFT). The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We calculate heavy-ion interaction potentials V(R), mass parameters M(R), and total fusion cross sections. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Results will be presented for low-energy fusion reactions of ^12C+^16,24O and for ^16,24O+^16,24,28O which occur in the crust of neutron stars [2]. Finally, we will discuss fusion with neutron-rich halo nuclei, in particular ^11Li+^208Pb.[4pt] [1] Umar and Oberacker, PRC 74, 021601(R) (2006)[0pt] [2] Umar, Oberacker, and Horowitz, PRC 85, 055801 (2012)

  11. Size selectivity of predation by brown bears depends on the density of their sockeye salmon prey.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Curry J; Ruggerone, Gregory T; Quinn, Thomas P

    2013-05-01

    Can variation in prey density drive changes in the intensity or direction of selective predation in natural systems? Despite ample evidence of density-dependent selection, the influence of prey density on predatory selection patterns has seldom been investigated empirically. We used 20 years of field data on brown bears (Ursus arctos) foraging on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Alaska, to test the hypothesis that salmon density affects the strength of size-selective predation. Measurements from 41,240 individual salmon were used to calculate variance-standardized selection differentials describing the direction and magnitude of selection. Across the time series, the intensity of predatory selection was inversely correlated with salmon density; greater selection for smaller salmon occurred at low salmon densities as bears' tendency to kill larger-than-average salmon was magnified. This novel connection between density dependence and selective predation runs contrary to some aspects of optimal foraging theory and differs from many observations of density-dependent selection because (1) the direction of selection remains constant while its magnitude changes as a function of density and (2) stronger selection is observed at low abundance. These findings indicate that sockeye salmon may be subject to fishery-induced size selection from both direct mechanisms and latent effects of altered predatory selection patterns on the spawning grounds, resulting from reduced salmon abundance. PMID:23594549

  12. Demographic variability and density-dependent dynamics of a free-ranging rhesus macaque population

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G.; Kessler, Matthew J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Ruiz-Maldonado, Tagrid M.; González-Martínez, Janis; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Sabat, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Density-dependence is hypothesized as the major mechanism of population regulation. However, the lack of long-term demographic data has hampered the use of density-dependent models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we make use of the long-term demographic data from Cayo Santiago’s rhesus macaques to parameterize and analyze both a density-independent and a density-dependent population matrix model, and compare their projections with the observed population changes. We also employ a retrospective analysis to determine how variance in vital rates, and covariance among them, contributed to the observed variation in long-term fitness across different levels of population density. The population exhibited negative density-dependence in fertility and the model incorporating this relationship accounted for 98% of the observed population dynamics. Variation in survival and fertility of sexually active individuals contributed the most to the variation in long-term fitness, while vital rates displaying high temporal variability exhibited lower sensitivities. Our findings are novel in describing density-dependent dynamics in a provisioned primate population, and in suggesting that selection is acting to lower the variance in the population growth rate by minimizing the variation in adult survival at high density. Because density-dependent mechanisms may become stronger in wild primate populations due to increasing habitat loss and food scarcity, our study demonstrates it is important to incorporate variation in population size, as well as demographic variability into population viability analyses for a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating the growth of primate populations. PMID:23847126

  13. An Empirical, Nonparametric Simulator for Multivariate Random Variables with Differing Marginal Densities and Nonlinear Dependence with Hydroclimatic Applications.

    PubMed

    Lall, Upmanu; Devineni, Naresh; Kaheil, Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate simulations of a set of random variables are often needed for risk analysis. Given a historical data set, the goal is to develop simulations that reproduce the dependence structure in that data set so that the risk of potentially correlated factors can be evaluated. A nonparametric, copula-based simulation approach is developed and exemplified. It can be applied to multiple variables or to spatial fields with arbitrary dependence structures and marginal densities. The nonparametric simulator uses logspline density estimation in the univariate setting, together with a sampling strategy to reproduce dependence across variables or spatial instances, through a nonparametric numerical approximation of the underlying copula function. The multivariate data vectors are assumed to be independent and identically distributed. A synthetic example is provided to illustrate the method, followed by an application to the risk of livestock losses in Mongolia. PMID:26177987

  14. Sexual segregation in North American elk: the role of density dependence

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kelley M; Walsh, Danielle R; Kie, John G; Dick, Brian L; Bowyer, R Terry

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how density-dependent processes and subsequent variation in nutritional condition of individuals influenced both timing and duration of sexual segregation and selection of resources. During 1999–2001, we experimentally created two population densities of North American elk (Cervus elaphus), a high-density population at 20 elk/km2, and a low-density population at 4 elk/km2 to test hypotheses relative to timing and duration of sexual segregation and variation in selection of resources. We used multi-response permutation procedures to investigate patterns of sexual segregation, and resource selection functions to document differences in selection of resources by individuals in high- and low-density populations during sexual segregation and aggregation. The duration of sexual segregation was 2 months longer in the high-density population and likely was influenced by individuals in poorer nutritional condition, which corresponded with later conception and parturition, than at low density. Males and females in the high-density population overlapped in selection of resources to a greater extent than in the low-density population, probably resulting from density-dependent effects of increased intraspecific competition and lower availability of resources. PMID:25691992

  15. Role of prey and intraspecific density dependence on the population growth of an avian top predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-de-Simon, Javier; Díaz-Ruiz, Francisco; Cirilli, Francesca; Tortosa, Francisco S.; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferreras, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Exploring predator-prey systems in diverse ecosystems increases our knowledge about ecological processes. Predator population growth may be positive when conspecific density is low but predators also need areas with prey availability, associated with competition, which increases the risk of suffering losses but stabilises populations. We studied relationships between European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (prey) and adult eagle owls Bubo bubo (predators) in south-western Europe. We assessed models explaining the predator population growth and stability. We estimated the abundance of rabbits and adult eagle owls during three years in eight localities of central-southern Spain. We explored models including rabbit and adult eagle owl abundance, accounting for yearly variations and including the locality as a random variable. We found that population growth of adult eagle owls was positive in situations with low conspecific abundance and tended to be negative but approaching equilibrium in situations of higher conspecific abundance. Population growth was also positively related to previous summer rabbit density when taking into account eagle owl conspecific abundance, possibly indicating that rabbits may support recruitment. Furthermore, abundance stability of adult eagle owls was positively related to previous winter-spring rabbit density, which could suggest predator population stabilisation through quick territory occupation in high-quality areas. These results exemplify the trade-off between prey availability and abundance of adult predators related to population growth and abundance stability in the eagle owl-rabbit system in south-western Europe. Despite rabbits have greatly declined during the last decades and eagle owls locally specialise on them, eagle owls currently have a favourable conservation status. As eagle owls are the only nocturnal raptor with such dependence on rabbits, this could point out that predators may overcome prey decreases in areas with

  16. Spatial, Temporal, and Density-Dependent Components of Habitat Quality for a Desert Owl

    PubMed Central

    Flesch, Aaron D.; Hutto, Richard L.; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Hartfield, Kyle; Jacobs, Sky

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may depend on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum) in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70) than weather (0.17) or conspecifics (0.13), evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was strong. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had strong multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways, integrated approaches

  17. Density-dependent habitat selection by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in tallgrass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.E.; Cully, J.F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Local distributions of avian brood parasites among their host habitats may depend upon conspecific parasite density. We used isodar analysis to test for density-dependent habitat selection in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) among tallgrass prairie adjacent to wooded edges, and prairie interior habitat (>100 m from wooded edges) with and without experimental perches. Eight study sites containing these three habitat treatments were established along a geographical gradient in cowbird abundance within the Flint Hills region of Eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. The focal host species of our study, the dickcissel (Spiza americana), is the most abundant and preferred cowbird host in the prairie of this region. Cowbird relative abundance and cowbird:host abundance ratios were used as estimates of female cowbird density, whereas cowbird egg density was measured as parasitism frequency (percent of dickcissel nests parasitized), and parasitism intensity (number of cowbird eggs per parasitized nest). Geographical variation in cowbird abundance was independent of host abundance. Within study sites, host abundance was highest in wooded edge plots, intermediate in the experimental perch plots, and lowest in prairie interior. Cowbirds exhibited a pattern of density-dependent selection of prairie edge versus experimental perch and interior habitats. On sites where measures of cowbird density were lowest, all cowbird density estimates (female cowbirds and their eggs) were highest near (???100 m) wooded edges, where host and perch availability are highest. However, as overall cowbird density increased geographically, these density estimates increased more rapidly in experimental perch plots and prairie interiors. Variation in cowbird abundance and cowbird:host ratios suggested density-dependent cowbird selection of experimental perch over prairie interior habitat, but parasitism levels on dickcissel nests were similar among these two habitats at all levels of local cowbird

  18. Time-dependent density functional methods for Raman spectra in open-shell systems.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Fredy W; Schatz, George C

    2014-01-16

    We present an implementation of a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) linear response module in NWChem for unrestricted DFT calculations and apply it to the calculation of resonant Raman spectra in open-shell molecular systems using the short-time approximation. The new source code was validated and applied to simulate Raman spectra on several doublet organic radicals (e.g., benzyl, benzosemiquinone, TMPD, trans-stilbene anion and cation, and methyl viologen) and the metal complex copper phthalocyanine. We also introduce a divide-and-conquer approach for the evaluation of polarizabilities in relatively large systems (e.g., copper phthalocyanine). The implemented tool gives comparisons with experiment that are similar to what is commonly found for closed-shell systems, with good agreement for most features except for small frequency shifts, and occasionally large deviations for some modes that depend on the molecular system studied, experimental conditions not being accounted in the modeling such as solvation effects and extra solvent-based peaks, and approximations in the underlying theory. The approximations used in the quantum chemical modeling include (i) choice of exchange-correlation functional and basis set; (ii) harmonic approximation used in the frequency analysis to determine vibrational normal modes; and (iii) short-time approximation (omission of nuclear motion effects) used in calculating resonant Raman spectra. PMID:24380604

  19. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  20. Filtered density function approach for reactive transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciu, Nicolae; Schüler, Lennart; Attinger, Sabine; Knabner, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering may be used in coarse-grained simulations (CGS) of reactive transport in groundwater, similar to the large eddy simulations (LES) in turbulence. The filtered density function (FDF), stochastically equivalent to a probability density function (PDF), provides a statistical description of the sub-grid, unresolved, variability of the concentration field. Besides closing the chemical source terms in the transport equation for the mean concentration, like in LES-FDF methods, the CGS-FDF approach aims at quantifying the uncertainty over the whole hierarchy of heterogeneity scales exhibited by natural porous media. Practically, that means estimating concentration PDFs on coarse grids, at affordable computational costs. To cope with the high dimensionality of the problem in case of multi-component reactive transport and to reduce the numerical diffusion, FDF equations are solved by particle methods. But, while trajectories of computational particles are modeled as stochastic processes indexed by time, the concentration's heterogeneity is modeled as a random field, with multi-dimensional, spatio-temporal sets of indices. To overcome this conceptual inconsistency, we consider FDFs/PDFs of random species concentrations weighted by conserved scalars and we show that their evolution equations can be formulated as Fokker-Planck equations describing stochastically equivalent processes in concentration-position spaces. Numerical solutions can then be approximated by the density in the concentration-position space of an ensemble of computational particles governed by the associated Itô equations. Instead of sequential particle methods we use a global random walk (GRW) algorithm, which is stable, free of numerical diffusion, and practically insensitive to the increase of the number of particles. We illustrate the general FDF approach and the GRW numerical solution for a reduced complexity problem consisting of the transport of a single scalar in groundwater

  1. Polymorphic Foraging Behavior Among Caenorhabditis elegans: Frequency- and Density-Dependent Selection

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, John J.; Livdahl, Todd P.

    2004-01-01

    Strains of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained from their natural soil environment exhibit one of two forms of foraging behavior. Some strains forage solitarily and disperse evenly on a bacterial lawn. Other strains move rapidly until they encounter groups of conspecifics, and then slow their movement and join the group. Strains expressing these behaviors are globally widespread and have been isolated from the same location, suggesting a foraging polymorphism. We hypothesized that density-dependent selection maintains both foraging alleles in populations. Alternatively, both foraging alleles could be retained in populations through frequency-dependent selection. We tested both of these hypotheses by manipulating strain density and frequency, and observing changes in population density over time. Our results indicated that neither density- nor frequency-dependent selection appears to be responsible for the observed polymorphism. The clumping strain consistently out-competed the solitary strain over all treatment levels. We suggest other potential factors that may maintain both alleles in populations. PMID:19262816

  2. A coarse-grain force field for RDX: Density dependent and energy conserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Joshua D.; Barnes, Brian C.; Izvekov, Sergei; Lísal, Martin; Sellers, Michael S.; Taylor, DeCarlos E.; Brennan, John K.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the development of a density-dependent transferable coarse-grain model of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) that can be used with the energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics method. The model is an extension of a recently reported one-site model of RDX that was developed by using a force-matching method. The density-dependent forces in that original model are provided through an interpolation scheme that poorly conserves energy. The development of the new model presented in this work first involved a multi-objective procedure to improve the structural and thermodynamic properties of the previous model, followed by the inclusion of the density dependency via a conservative form of the force field that conserves energy. The new model accurately predicts the density, structure, pressure-volume isotherm, bulk modulus, and elastic constants of the RDX crystal at ambient pressure and exhibits transferability to a liquid phase at melt conditions.

  3. Density Dependence of Charge-4 Vortex Splitting in Bose–Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Hitoshi; Tsukada, Akinori; Yoshihara, Takahisa; Kuwamoto, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    We studied the axial-direction density dependence of the splitting of a charge-4 vortex created in 87Rb Bose–Einstein condensates. Vortices were generated by topological phase imprinting, and the axial density of the condensates was controlled by an optical potential. Linear and triangular arrangements of four single-charged vortices that emerged through the charge-4 vortex collapse were observed. The splitting of the charge-4 vortices was suppressed by maintaining the density outside the l = 2 unstable mode regions where linear arrangements were formed. In addition, we studied vortex dynamics in a high density region for which investigations have not been previously performed.

  4. Comparison of real-time and linear-response time-dependent density functional theories for molecular chromophores ranging from sparse to high densities of states

    SciTech Connect

    Tussupbayev, Samat; Govind, Niranjan; Lopata, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2015-03-10

    We assess the performance of real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) for the calculation of absorption spectra of 12 organic dye molecules relevant to photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells with 8 exchange-correlation functionals (3 traditional, 3 global hybrids, and 2 range-separated hybrids). We compare the calculations with traditional linear-response (LR) TDDFT. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RT-TDDFT approach to calculate wide absorption spectra of two large chromophores relevant to photovoltaics and molecular switches.

  5. Cascading effects of belowground predators on plant communities are density-dependent.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Herrmann, Martina; Steinauer, Katja; Rennoch, Saskia; Cesarz, Simone; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-10-01

    Soil food webs comprise a multitude of trophic interactions that can affect the composition and productivity of plant communities. Belowground predators feeding on microbial grazers like Collembola could decelerate nutrient mineralization by reducing microbial turnover in the soil, which in turn could negatively influence plant growth. However, empirical evidences for the ecological significance of belowground predators on nutrient cycling and plant communities are scarce. Here, we manipulated predator density (Hypoaspis aculeifer: predatory mite) with equal densities of three Collembola species as a prey in four functionally dissimilar plant communities in experimental microcosms: grass monoculture (Poa pratensis), herb monoculture (Rumex acetosa), legume monoculture (Trifolium pratense), and all three species as a mixed plant community. Density manipulation of predators allowed us to test for density-mediated effects of belowground predators on Collembola and lower trophic groups. We hypothesized that predator density will reduce Collembola population causing a decrease in nutrient mineralization and hence detrimentally affect plant growth. First, we found a density-dependent population change in predators, that is, an increase in low-density treatments, but a decrease in high-density treatments. Second, prey suppression was lower at high predator density, which caused a shift in the soil microbial community by increasing the fungal: bacterial biomass ratio, and an increase of nitrification rates, particularly in legume monocultures. Despite the increase in nutrient mineralization, legume monocultures performed worse at high predator density. Further, individual grass shoot biomass decreased in monocultures, while it increased in mixed plant communities with increasing predator density, which coincided with elevated soil N uptake by grasses. As a consequence, high predator density significantly increased plant complementarity effects indicating a decrease in

  6. Spatially heterogeneous populations with mixed negative and positive local density dependence.

    PubMed

    Knipl, Diána; Röst, Gergely

    2016-06-01

    Identifying the steady states of a population is a key issue in theoretical ecology, that includes the study of spatially heterogeneous populations. There are several examples of real ecosystems in patchy environments where the habitats are heterogeneous in their local density dependence. We investigate a multi-patch model of a single species with spatial dispersal, where the growth of the local population is logistic in some localities (negative density dependence) while other patches exhibit a strong Allee effect (positive density dependence). When the local dynamics is logistic in each patch and the habitats are interconnected by dispersal then the total population has only the extinction steady state and a componentwise positive equilibrium, corresponding to persistence in each patch. We show that animal populations in patchy environments can have a large number of steady states if local density dependence varies over the locations. It is demonstrated that, depending on the network topology of migration routes between the patches, the interaction of spatial dispersal and local density dependence can create a variety of coexisting stable positive equilibria. We give a detailed description of the multiple ways dispersal can rescue local populations from extinction. PMID:26801607

  7. A physical-space approach for the probability hypothesis density and cardinalized probability hypothesis density filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdinc, Ozgur; Willett, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2006-05-01

    The probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, an automatically track-managed multi-target tracker, is attracting increasing but cautious attention. Its derivation is elegant and mathematical, and thus of course many engineers fear it; perhaps that is currently limiting the number of researchers working on the subject. In this paper, we explore a physical-space approach - a bin model - which leads us to arrive the same filter equations as the PHD. Unlike the original derivation of the PHD filter, the concepts used are the familiar ones of conditional probability. The original PHD suffers from a "target-death" problem in which even a single missed detection can lead to the apparent disappearance of a target. To obviate this, PHD originator Mahler has recently developed a new "cardinalized" version of PHD (CPHD). We are able to extend our physical-space derivation to the CPHD case as well. We stress that the original derivations are mathematically correct, and need no embellishment from us; our contribution here is to offer an alternative derivation, one that we find appealing.

  8. Representing the thermal state in time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modine, N. A.; Hatcher, R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) provides a powerful and widely used approach to determining thermodynamic properties by integrating the classical equations of motion of a system of atoms. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides a powerful and increasingly useful approach to integrating the quantum equations of motion for a system of electrons. TDDFT efficiently captures the unitary evolution of a many-electron state by mapping the system into a fictitious non-interacting system. In analogy to MD, one could imagine obtaining the thermodynamic properties of an electronic system from a TDDFT simulation in which the electrons are excited from their ground state by a time-dependent potential and then allowed to evolve freely in time while statistical data are captured from periodic snapshots of the system. For a variety of systems (e.g., many metals), the electrons reach an effective state of internal equilibrium due to electron-electron interactions on a time scale that is short compared to electron-phonon equilibration. During the initial time-evolution of such systems following electronic excitation, electron-phonon interactions should be negligible, and therefore, TDDFT should successfully capture the internal thermalization of the electrons. However, it is unclear how TDDFT represents the resulting thermal state. In particular, the thermal state is usually represented in quantum statistical mechanics as a mixed state, while the occupations of the TDDFT wavefunctions are fixed by the initial state in TDDFT. We work to address this puzzle by (A) reformulating quantum statistical mechanics so that thermodynamic expectations can be obtained as an unweighted average over a set of many-body pure states and (B) constructing a family of non-interacting (single determinant) TDDFT states that approximate the required many-body states for the canonical ensemble.

  9. Representing the thermal state in time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Modine, N. A.; Hatcher, R. M.

    2015-05-28

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) provides a powerful and widely used approach to determining thermodynamic properties by integrating the classical equations of motion of a system of atoms. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides a powerful and increasingly useful approach to integrating the quantum equations of motion for a system of electrons. TDDFT efficiently captures the unitary evolution of a many-electron state by mapping the system into a fictitious non-interacting system. In analogy to MD, one could imagine obtaining the thermodynamic properties of an electronic system from a TDDFT simulation in which the electrons are excited from their ground state by a time-dependent potential and then allowed to evolve freely in time while statistical data are captured from periodic snapshots of the system. For a variety of systems (e.g., many metals), the electrons reach an effective state of internal equilibrium due to electron-electron interactions on a time scale that is short compared to electron-phonon equilibration. During the initial time-evolution of such systems following electronic excitation, electron-phonon interactions should be negligible, and therefore, TDDFT should successfully capture the internal thermalization of the electrons. However, it is unclear how TDDFT represents the resulting thermal state. In particular, the thermal state is usually represented in quantum statistical mechanics as a mixed state, while the occupations of the TDDFT wavefunctions are fixed by the initial state in TDDFT. We work to address this puzzle by (A) reformulating quantum statistical mechanics so that thermodynamic expectations can be obtained as an unweighted average over a set of many-body pure states and (B) constructing a family of non-interacting (single determinant) TDDFT states that approximate the required many-body states for the canonical ensemble.

  10. Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a neotropical palm.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Patrick A; Visser, Marco D; Joseph Wright, S; Rutten, Gemma; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2014-09-01

    Negative density dependence (NDD) of recruitment is pervasive in tropical tree species. We tested the hypotheses that seed dispersal is NDD, due to intraspecific competition for dispersers, and that this contributes to NDD of recruitment. We compared dispersal in the palm Attalea butyracea across a wide range of population density on Barro Colorado Island in Panama and assessed its consequences for seed distributions. We found that frugivore visitation, seed removal and dispersal distance all declined with population density of A. butyracea, demonstrating NDD of seed dispersal due to competition for dispersers. Furthermore, as population density increased, the distances of seeds from the nearest adult decreased, conspecific seed crowding increased and seedling recruitment success decreased, all patterns expected under poorer dispersal. Unexpectedly, however, our analyses showed that NDD of dispersal did not contribute substantially to these changes in the quality of the seed distribution; patterns with population density were dominated by effects due solely to increasing adult and seed density. PMID:25039608

  11. Universal time dependence of nighttime F region densities at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, O.; Wickwar, V. B.; Caudal, G.; Holt, J. M.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Coincident auroral-zone experiments using three incoherent-scatter radars at widely spaced longitudes are reported. The observational results demonstrate that, during the night, the F layer electron density is strongly dependent on the longitude of the observing site. Ionization patches were observed in the nighttime F region from the Chatanika and EISCAT radars, while densities observed from the Millstone radar were substantially smaller. The electron density within these maxima is larger at EISCAT than at Chatanika. When observed in the midnight sector auroral zone, these densities had a peak density at a high altitude of 360-475 km. The density was maximum when EISCAT was in the midnight sector and minimum when Millstone was in the midnight sector. A minimum in insolation in the auroral zone occurs at the UT when Millstone is in the midnight sector.

  12. Assessment of dispersion-corrected density functional approaches for extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saidi, Wissam; Voora, Vamsee; Jordan, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Standard density functional (DFT) methods are known to fail in describing the long range van der Waals interactions, and currently, there is a great interest in incorporating dispersion corrections in density functionals. Recently, Tkatchenko and Scheffler introduced a new scheme where dispersion corrections are included by a summation of damped interatomic C6 / R6 terms. However, contrary to the DFT-D2 approach of Grimme, the C6 coefficients depend on the electron density through a Hirshfeld atom-in-a-molecule decomposition scheme. We have implemented the vdW-TS approach in VASP and applied it to the study of a series of prototype dispersion-dominated systems including layered materials, noble-gas solids and molecular crystals. Full optimization of all degrees of freedom is possible in our implementation because dispersion corrections are computed for the forces acting on the atoms, and also the stresses on the unitcell. Our results show that the vdW-TS method yield good structure, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies of weakly bonded systems in much better agreement with experiment than those obtained with standard DFT approaches.

  13. Dependence of SOL Widths on Plasma Current and Density in NSTX H-mode Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J W; Maingi, Rajesh; Boedo, J.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of various SOL widths on the line-averaged density ((n) over bar (e)) and plasma current (I(p)) for the quiescent H-mode plasmas with Type-V ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was investigated. It is found that the heat flux SOL width (lambda(q)), measured by the IR camera, is virtually insensitive to (n) over bar (e) and has a strong negative dependence on I(p). This insensitivity of lambda(q) to (n) over bare is consistent with the scaling law from JET H-mode plasmas that shows a very weak dependence on the upstream density. The electron temperature, ion saturation current density, electron density, and electron pressure decay lengths (lambda(Te), lambda(jsat), lambda(ne), and lambda(pe), respectively) measured by the probe showed that lambda(Te) and lambda(jsat) have strong negative dependence on I(p), whereas lambda(ne) and lambda(pe) revealed only a little or no dependence. The dependence of lambda(Te) on I(p) is consistent with the scaling law in the literature, while lambda(ne) and lambda(pe) dependence shows a different trend. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dependence of various SOL widths on plasma current and density in NSTX H-mode plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J; Maingi, R; Boedo, J; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-02-12

    The dependence of various SOL widths on the line-averaged density ({ovr n}{sub e}) and plasma current (l{sub p}) for the quiescent H-mode plasmas with Type-V ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was investigated. It is found that the heat flux SOL width ({lambda}{sub q}), measured by the IR camera, is virtually insensitive to {ovr n}{sub e} and has a strong negative dependence on l{sub p}. This insensitivity of {lambda}{sub q} to {ovr n}{sub e} is consistent with the scaling law from JET H-mode plasmas that shows a very weak dependence on the upstream density. The electron temperature, ion saturation current density, electron density, and electron pressure decay lengths ({lambda}{sub Te}, {lambda}{sub jsat}, {lambda}{sub ne}, and {lambda}{sub pe}, respectively) measured by the probe showed that {lambda}{sub Te} and {lambda}{sub jsat} have strong negative dependence on l{sub p}, whereas {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} revealed only a little or no dependence. The dependence of {lambda}{sub Te} on l{sub p} is consistent with the scaling law in the literature while {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} dependence shows a different trend.

  15. Time-dependent density functional theory for open systems with a positivity-preserving decomposition scheme for environment spectral functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, RuLin; Zheng, Xiao; Kwok, YanHo; Xie, Hang; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-04-14

    Understanding electronic dynamics on material surfaces is fundamentally important for applications including nanoelectronics, inhomogeneous catalysis, and photovoltaics. Practical approaches based on time-dependent density functional theory for open systems have been developed to characterize the dissipative dynamics of electrons in bulk materials. The accuracy and reliability of such approaches depend critically on how the electronic structure and memory effects of surrounding material environment are accounted for. In this work, we develop a novel squared-Lorentzian decomposition scheme, which preserves the positive semi-definiteness of the environment spectral matrix. The resulting electronic dynamics is guaranteed to be both accurate and convergent even in the long-time limit. The long-time stability of electronic dynamics simulation is thus greatly improved within the current decomposition scheme. The validity and usefulness of our new approach are exemplified via two prototypical model systems: quasi-one-dimensional atomic chains and two-dimensional bilayer graphene.

  16. Time-dependent density functional theory for open systems with a positivity-preserving decomposition scheme for environment spectral functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, RuLin; Zheng, Xiao; Kwok, YanHo; Xie, Hang; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-04-01

    Understanding electronic dynamics on material surfaces is fundamentally important for applications including nanoelectronics, inhomogeneous catalysis, and photovoltaics. Practical approaches based on time-dependent density functional theory for open systems have been developed to characterize the dissipative dynamics of electrons in bulk materials. The accuracy and reliability of such approaches depend critically on how the electronic structure and memory effects of surrounding material environment are accounted for. In this work, we develop a novel squared-Lorentzian decomposition scheme, which preserves the positive semi-definiteness of the environment spectral matrix. The resulting electronic dynamics is guaranteed to be both accurate and convergent even in the long-time limit. The long-time stability of electronic dynamics simulation is thus greatly improved within the current decomposition scheme. The validity and usefulness of our new approach are exemplified via two prototypical model systems: quasi-one-dimensional atomic chains and two-dimensional bilayer graphene.

  17. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  18. A comprehensive approach for the assessment of in-situ pavement density using GPR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    electromagnetic mixing (EM) theory, through the utilization of proper models. These models enable the prediction of asphalt mixture density dependent on its bulk dielectric constant as measured by the GPR, the dielectric properties of the asphalt mix materials, as well as other material information. The goal of the present study is to attempt to verify the prediction performance of various density models. To accomplish this goal GPR surveys were carried out in the field during asphalt pavement construction to evaluate the density results due to different compaction modes. The GPR data was analyzed to calculate the appropriate asphalt mix dielectric properties needed for the activation of the considered density prediction models. Predicted densities were compared with densities of the field cores extracted from the as-built asphalt pavement prior to trafficking. It was found that the predicted density values were significantly lower when compared to the ground truth data. A further investigation of the effect of temperature on GPR readings showed that GPR seems to overestimate the in-situ density. However, this approach could be used effectively to evaluate the performance of different compaction methods and set up the compaction pattern that is needed to achieve the desired asphalt pavement density.

  19. Ionic strength-dependent changes in tentacular ion exchangers with variable ligand density. I. Structural properties.

    PubMed

    Bhambure, Rahul; Gillespie, Christopher M; Phillips, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-09-01

    The ligand density critically affects the performance of ion-exchange resins in such measures as the adsorption capacity and transport characteristics. However, for tentacular and other polymer-modified exchangers, the mechanistic basis of the effect of ligand density on performance is not yet fully understood. In this study we map the ionic strength-dependent structural changes in tentacular cation exchangers with variable ligand densities as the basis for subsequent investigation of effects on functional properties. Inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to assess the effect of ionic strength on the pore size and intraparticle architecture of resin variants with different ligand densities. Comparison of ISEC and cryo-SEM results shows a considerable reduction in average pore size with increasing ligand density; these methods also confirm an increase of average pore size at higher ionic strengths. SAXS analysis of ionic strength-dependent conformational changes in the grafted polyelectrolyte layer shows a characteristic ionomer peak at values of the scattering vector q (0.1-0.2Å(-1)) that depend on the ligand density and the ionic strength of the solution. This peak attribution reflects nanoscale changes in the structure of the grafted polyelectrolyte chains that can in turn be responsible for observed pore-size changes in the resins. Finally, salt breakthrough experiments confirm a stronger Donnan exclusion effect on pore accessibility for small ions in the high ligand density variant. PMID:27544749

  20. Adaptive nest clustering and density-dependent nest survival in dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, John M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Density-dependent population regulation is observed in many taxa, and understanding the mechanisms that generate density dependence is especially important for the conservation of heavily-managed species. In one such system, North American waterfowl, density dependence is often observed at continental scales, and nest predation has long been implicated as a key factor driving this pattern. However, despite extensive research on this topic, it remains unclear if and how nest density influences predation rates. Part of this confusion may have arisen because previous studies have studied density-dependent predation at relatively large spatial and temporal scales. Because the spatial distribution of nests changes throughout the season, which potentially influences predator behavior, nest survival may vary through time at relatively small spatial scales. As such, density-dependent nest predation might be more detectable at a spatially- and temporally-refined scale and this may provide new insights into nest site selection and predator foraging behavior. Here, we used three years of data on nest survival of two species of waterfowl, mallards and gadwall, to more fully explore the relationship between local nest clustering and nest survival. Throughout the season, we found that the distribution of nests was consistently clustered at small spatial scales (˜50–400 m), especially for mallard nests, and that this pattern was robust to yearly variation in nest density and the intensity of predation. We demonstrated further that local nest clustering had positive fitness consequences – nests with closer nearest neighbors were more likely to be successful, a result that is counter to the general assumption that nest predation rates increase with nest density.

  1. A New Approach of Designing Superalloys for Low Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    New low-density single-crystal (LDS) alloy, have bee. developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust-to-weight ratio over current production superalloys. An innovative alloying strategy was wed to achieve alloy density reductions, high-temperature creep resistance, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The alloy design relies on molybdenum as a potent. lower-density solid-solution strengthener in the nickel-based superalloy. Low alloy density was also achieved with modest rhenium levels tmd the absence of tungsten. Microstructural, physical mechanical, and environmental testing demonstrated the feasibility of this new LDS superalloy design.

  2. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Eart&hacute;s interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birc&hacute;s law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Eart&hacute;s interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6

  3. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birch's law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Earth's interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6, 770

  4. Restricted dispersal reduces the strength of spatial density dependence in a tropical bird population

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Malcolm D; Nicoll, Malcolm A.C; Jones, Carl G; Norris, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Spatial processes could play an important role in density-dependent population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations—the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild populations, much less is known about how dispersal affects distribution patterns and ultimately density dependence. Here, we investigated the role of dispersal in spatial density dependence using an extraordinarily detailed dataset from a reintroduced Mauritius kestrel (Falco punctatus) population with a territorial (despotic) breeding system. We show that recruitment rates varied significantly between territories, and that territory occupancy was related to its recruitment rate, both of which are consistent with the buffer effect theory. However, we also show that restricted dispersal affects the patterns of territory occupancy with the territories close to release sites being occupied sooner and for longer as the population has grown than the territories further away. As a result of these dispersal patterns, the strength of spatial density dependence is significantly reduced. We conclude that restricted dispersal can modify spatial density dependence in the wild, which has implications for the way population dynamics are likely to be impacted by environmental change. PMID:18285284

  5. Density-dependent habitat selection and partitioning between two sympatric ungulates.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Floris M; McLoughlin, Philip D; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-08-01

    Theory on density-dependent habitat selection predicts that as population density of a species increases, use of higher quality (primary) habitat by individuals declines while use of lower quality (secondary) habitat rises. Habitat partitioning is often considered the primary mechanism for coexistence between similar species, but how this process evolves with changes in population density remains to be empirically tested for free-ranging ungulates. We used resource-selection functions to quantify density effects on landscape-scale habitat selection of two sympatric species of ungulates [moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis)] in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada (2000-2011). The density of elk was actively reduced from 1.2 to 0.4 elk km(-2) through increased hunting effort during the period of study, while moose density decreased without additional human influence from 1.6-0.7 moose km(-2). Patterns of habitat selection during winter by both species changed in accordance to expectations from density-dependent habitat-selection theory. At low intraspecific density, moose and elk did not partition habitat, as both species selected strongly for mixed forest (primary habitat providing both food and cover), but did so in different areas segregated across an elevational gradient. As intraspecific density increased, selection for primary habitat by both species decreased, while selection for secondary, lower quality habitat such as agricultural fields (for elk) and built-up areas (for moose) increased. We show that habitat-selection strategies during winter for moose and elk, and subsequent effects on habitat partitioning, depend heavily on the position in state space (density) of both species. PMID:24913777

  6. Effects of hepatocyte growth factor on glutathione synthesis, growth, and apoptosis is cell density-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Heping; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Xia Meng; Lu, Shelly C.

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatocyte mitogen that exerts opposing effects depending on cell density. Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in mammalian cells that modulates growth and apoptosis. We previously showed that GSH level is inversely related to cell density of hepatocytes and is positively related to growth. Our current work examined whether HGF can modulate GSH synthesis in a cell density-dependent manner and how GSH in turn influence HGF's effects. We found HGF treatment of H4IIE cells increased cell GSH levels only under subconfluent density. The increase in cell GSH under low density was due to increased transcription of GSH synthetic enzymes. This correlated with increased protein levels and nuclear binding activities of c-Jun, c-Fos, p65, p50, Nrf1 and Nrf2 to the promoter region of these genes. HGF acts as a mitogen in H4IIE cells under low cell density and protects against tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha})-induced apoptosis by limiting JNK activation. However, HGF is pro-apoptotic under high cell density and exacerbates TNF{alpha}-induced apoptosis by potentiating JNK activation. The increase in cell GSH under low cell density allows HGF to exert its full mitogenic effect but is not necessary for its anti-apoptotic effect.

  7. Insect herbivores, density dependence, and the performance of the perennial herb Solanum carolinense.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Nora; Halpern, Stacey L

    2012-05-01

    How insect herbivores affect plant performance is of central importance to basic and applied ecology. A full understanding of herbivore effects on plant performance requires understanding interactions (if any) of herbivore effects with plant density and size because these interactions will be critical for determining how herbivores influence plant population size. However, few studies have considered these interactions, particularly over a wide enough range of densities to detect nonlinear effects. Here we ask whether plant density and herbivores influence plant performance linearly or nonlinearly, how plant density affects herbivore damage, and how herbivores alter density dependence in transitions between plant size classes. In a large field experiment, we manipulated the density of the herbaceous perennial plant Solanum carolinense and herbivore presence in a fully crossed design. We measured plant size, sexual reproduction, and damage to plants in two consecutive years, and asexual reproduction of new stems in the second year, allowing us to characterize both plant performance and rates of transition between plant size classes across years. We found nonlinear effects of plant density on damage. Damage by herbivores and plant density both influenced sexual and asexual reproduction of S. carolinense; these effects were mostly mediated via effects on plant size. Importantly, we found that herbivores altered the pattern of linear density dependence in some transition rates (including survival and asexual reproduction) between plant size classes. These results suggest that understanding the ecological or evolutionary effects of herbivores on plant populations requires consideration of plant density and plant size, because feedbacks between density, herbivores, and plant size may complicate longer-term dynamics. PMID:22764489

  8. Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-10

    Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.

  9. Exposing extinction risk analysis to pathogens: Is disease just another form of density dependence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerber, L.R.; McCallum, H.; Lafferty, K.D.; Sabo, J.L.; Dobson, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States and several other countries, the development of population viability analyses (PVA) is a legal requirement of any species survival plan developed for threatened and endangered species. Despite the importance of pathogens in natural populations, little attention has been given to host-pathogen dynamics in PVA. To study the effect of infectious pathogens on extinction risk estimates generated from PVA, we review and synthesize the relevance of host-pathogen dynamics in analyses of extinction risk. We then develop a stochastic, density-dependent host-parasite model to investigate the effects of disease on the persistence of endangered populations. We show that this model converges on a Ricker model of density dependence under a suite of limiting assumptions, including a high probability that epidemics will arrive and occur. Using this modeling framework, we then quantify: (1) dynamic differences between time series generated by disease and Ricker processes with the same parameters; (2) observed probabilities of quasi-extinction for populations exposed to disease or self-limitation; and (3) bias in probabilities of quasi-extinction estimated by density-independent PVAs when populations experience either form of density dependence. Our results suggest two generalities about the relationships among disease, PVA, and the management of endangered species. First, disease more strongly increases variability in host abundance and, thus, the probability of quasi-extinction, than does self-limitation. This result stems from the fact that the effects and the probability of occurrence of disease are both density dependent. Second, estimates of quasi-extinction are more often overly optimistic for populations experiencing disease than for those subject to self-limitation. Thus, although the results of density-independent PVAs may be relatively robust to some particular assumptions about density dependence, they are less robust when endangered populations are

  10. Small-scale field experiments accurately scale up to predict density dependence in reef fish populations at large scales

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Mark A.; Forrester, Graham E.

    2005-01-01

    Field experiments provide rigorous tests of ecological hypotheses but are usually limited to small spatial scales. It is thus unclear whether these findings extrapolate to larger scales relevant to conservation and management. We show that the results of experiments detecting density-dependent mortality of reef fish on small habitat patches scale up to have similar effects on much larger entire reefs that are the size of small marine reserves and approach the scale at which some reef fisheries operate. We suggest that accurate scaling is due to the type of species interaction causing local density dependence and the fact that localized events can be aggregated to describe larger-scale interactions with minimal distortion. Careful extrapolation from small-scale experiments identifying species interactions and their effects should improve our ability to predict the outcomes of alternative management strategies for coral reef fishes and their habitats. PMID:16150721

  11. Small-scale field experiments accurately scale up to predict density dependence in reef fish populations at large scales.

    PubMed

    Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2005-09-20

    Field experiments provide rigorous tests of ecological hypotheses but are usually limited to small spatial scales. It is thus unclear whether these findings extrapolate to larger scales relevant to conservation and management. We show that the results of experiments detecting density-dependent mortality of reef fish on small habitat patches scale up to have similar effects on much larger entire reefs that are the size of small marine reserves and approach the scale at which some reef fisheries operate. We suggest that accurate scaling is due to the type of species interaction causing local density dependence and the fact that localized events can be aggregated to describe larger-scale interactions with minimal distortion. Careful extrapolation from small-scale experiments identifying species interactions and their effects should improve our ability to predict the outcomes of alternative management strategies for coral reef fishes and their habitats. PMID:16150721

  12. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  13. Bayesian Inference on the Effect of Density Dependence and Weather on a Guanaco Population from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Colchero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting that it might have reached its carrying capacity. We used a Bayesian state-space framework and model selection to determine the effect of density and environmental variables on guanaco population dynamics. Our results show that the population is under density dependent regulation and that it is currently fluctuating around an average carrying capacity of 45,000 guanacos. We also found a significant positive effect of previous winter temperature while sheep density has a strong negative effect on the guanaco population growth. We conclude that there are significant density dependent processes and that climate as well as competition with domestic species have important effects determining the population size of guanacos, with important implications for management and conservation. PMID:25514510

  14. Bayesian inference on the effect of density dependence and weather on a guanaco population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Colchero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive population dynamics is fundamental for management of wild populations. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is one of two wild camelid species in South America. We evaluated the effects of density dependence and weather variables on population regulation based on a time series of 36 years of population sampling of guanacos in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. The population density varied between 2.7 and 30.7 guanaco/km2, with an apparent monotonic growth during the first 25 years; however, in the last 10 years the population has shown large fluctuations, suggesting that it might have reached its carrying capacity. We used a Bayesian state-space framework and model selection to determine the effect of density and environmental variables on guanaco population dynamics. Our results show that the population is under density dependent regulation and that it is currently fluctuating around an average carrying capacity of 45,000 guanacos. We also found a significant positive effect of previous winter temperature while sheep density has a strong negative effect on the guanaco population growth. We conclude that there are significant density dependent processes and that climate as well as competition with domestic species have important effects determining the population size of guanacos, with important implications for management and conservation. PMID:25514510

  15. Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna; Rankin, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Two very basic ideas in sexual selection are heavily influenced by numbers of potential mates: the evolution of anisogamy, leading to sex role differentiation, and the frequency dependence of reproductive success that tends to equalize primary sex ratios. However, being explicit about the numbers of potential mates is not typical to most evolutionary theory of sexual selection. Here, we argue that this may prevent us from finding the appropriate ecological equilibria that determine the evolutionary endpoints of selection. We review both theoretical and empirical advances on how population density may influence aspects of mating systems such as intrasexual competition, female choice or resistance, and parental care. Density can have strong effects on selective pressures, whether or not there is phenotypic plasticity in individual strategies with respect to density. Mating skew may either increase or decrease with density, which may be aided or counteracted by changes in female behaviour. Switchpoints between alternative mating strategies can be density dependent, and mate encounter rates may influence mate choice (including mutual mate choice), multiple mating, female resistance to male mating attempts, mate searching, mate guarding, parental care, and the probability of divorce. Considering density-dependent selection may be essential for understanding how populations can persist at all despite sexual conflict, but simple models seem to fail to predict the diversity of observed responses in nature. This highlights the importance of considering the interaction between mating systems and population dynamics, and we strongly encourage further work in this area. PMID:16612890

  16. Dynamics of observables and exactly solvable quantum problems: Using time-dependent density-functional theory to control quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzanehpour, M.; Tokatly, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    We use analytic (current) density-potential maps of time-dependent (current) density-functional theory [TD(C)DFT] to inverse engineer analytically solvable time-dependent quantum problems. In this approach the driving potential (the control signal) and the corresponding solution of the Schrödinger equation are parametrized analytically in terms of the basic TD(C)DFT observables. We describe the general reconstruction strategy and illustrate it with a number of explicit examples. First we consider the real space one-particle dynamics driven by a time-dependent electromagnetic field and recover, from the general TDDFT reconstruction formulas, the known exact solution for a driven oscillator with a time-dependent frequency. Then we use analytic maps of the lattice TD(C)DFT to control quantum dynamics in a discrete space. As a first example we construct a time-dependent potential which generates prescribed dynamics on a tight-binding chain. Then our method is applied to the dynamics of spin-1/2 driven by a time-dependent magnetic field. We design an analytic control pulse that transfers the system from the ground to excited state and vice versa. This pulse generates the spin flip thus operating as a quantum not gate.

  17. Temperature and density dependence of XANES spectra in warm dense aluminum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Recoules, V.; Mazevet, S.

    2009-08-01

    Using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations combined with linear-response theory, we calculate the density and temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of a dense aluminum plasma. At solid density and for temperatures increasing up to 6 eV, we see that the XANES spectrum loses its well-known room-temperature structure, first due to melting and second due to loss of correlation in the liquid. Similarly, as the density decreases and the system evolves from a liquid to a plasma, the XANES spectrum becomes less structured. As the density is further lowered and the system turns into an atomic fluid, a pre-edge forms as the 3p state becomes bound. We suggest that direct measurements of the XANES spectra in this density region is a unique opportunity to validate pressure ionization models routinely used in plasma physics modeling.

  18. Effects of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy on the properties of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Weizhou

    2010-04-15

    Effects of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy on ground-state properties of superheavy nuclei are studied in the relativistic mean-field theory. It is found that the softening of the symmetry energy plays an important role in the empirical shift [Phys. Rev. C 67, 024309 (2003)] of spherical orbitals in superheavy nuclei. The calculation based on the relativistic mean-field models NL3 and FSUGold supports the double shell closure in {sup 292}120 with the softening of the symmetry energy. In addition, the significant effect of the density dependence of the symmetry energy on the neutron skin thickness in superheavy nuclei is investigated.

  19. Prediction of Iron K-Edge Absorption Spectra Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.DeBeer; Petrenko, T.; Neese, F.

    2009-05-14

    Iron K-edge X-ray absorption pre-edge features have been calculated using a time-dependent density functional approach. The influence of functional, solvation, and relativistic effects on the calculated energies and intensities has been examined by correlation of the calculated parameters to experimental data on a series of 10 iron model complexes, which span a range of high-spin and low-spin ferrous and ferric complexes in O{sub h} to T{sub d} geometries. Both quadrupole and dipole contributions to the spectra have been calculated. We find that good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained by using the BP86 functional with the CP(PPP) basis set on the Fe and TZVP one of the remaining atoms. Inclusion of solvation yields a small improvement in the calculated energies. However, the inclusion of scalar relativistic effects did not yield any improved correlation with experiment. The use of these methods to uniquely assign individual spectral transitions and to examine experimental contributions to backbonding is discussed.

  20. Density-dependent speciation alters the structure and dynamics of neutral communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Pacala, Stephen W; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-05-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity (NTB) provides an individual-based modeling framework to study eco-evolutionary dynamics. Previous NTB models usually assumed the same per capita rate of speciation across lineages. However, population dynamics may induce macroevolutionary feedbacks that can result in variable per capita speciation rates across lineages. In this paper, with analytical and simulation approaches, we explore how different scenarios of density-dependent speciation may impact the diversity and phylogenetic patterns of neutral communities, and compare the results to predictions of the original NTB model with an invariant speciation rate. Our results show that positive per capita speciation rate-abundance relationships could result in higher species richness and evenness, enhanced stability (evidenced by higher post-disturbance recovery rates and lower temporal variability in species diversity), and higher imbalance in phylogenetic trees. The opposite patterns are predicted when per capita speciation rates decrease with abundance. Particularly, strong negative speciation rate-abundance relationships can generate a positive correlation between phylogenetic age and abundance, which has been observed in Panamanian tree species. Our findings demonstrate the importance of eco-evolutionary feedbacks for understanding long-term diversity and phylogenetic patterns in ecological communities. PMID:25701450

  1. Linear-scaling time-dependent density-functional theory in the linear response formalism.

    PubMed

    Zuehlsdorff, T J; Hine, N D M; Spencer, J S; Harrison, N M; Riley, D J; Haynes, P D

    2013-08-14

    We present an implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) in the linear response formalism enabling the calculation of low energy optical absorption spectra for large molecules and nanostructures. The method avoids any explicit reference to canonical representations of either occupied or virtual Kohn-Sham states and thus achieves linear-scaling computational effort with system size. In contrast to conventional localised orbital formulations, where a single set of localised functions is used to span the occupied and unoccupied state manifold, we make use of two sets of in situ optimised localised orbitals, one for the occupied and one for the unoccupied space. This double representation approach avoids known problems of spanning the space of unoccupied Kohn-Sham states with a minimal set of localised orbitals optimised for the occupied space, while the in situ optimisation procedure allows for efficient calculations with a minimal number of functions. The method is applied to a number of medium sized organic molecules and a good agreement with traditional TDDFT methods is observed. Furthermore, linear scaling of computational cost with system size is demonstrated on (10,0) carbon nanotubes of different lengths. PMID:23947840

  2. Nonadiabatic dynamics with intersystem crossings: A time-dependent density functional theory implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco de Carvalho, F.; Tavernelli, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully's surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas and liquid phases.

  3. Nonadiabatic dynamics with intersystem crossings: A time-dependent density functional theory implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Franco de Carvalho, F.; Tavernelli, I.

    2015-12-14

    In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully’s surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in gas and liquid phases.

  4. Nonadiabatic dynamics with intersystem crossings: A time-dependent density functional theory implementation.

    PubMed

    Franco de Carvalho, F; Tavernelli, I

    2015-12-14

    In this work, we derive a method to perform trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics that is able to describe both nonadiabatic transitions and intersystem crossing events (transitions between states of different spin-multiplicity) at the same level of theory, namely, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). To this end, we combined our previously developed TDDFT-based trajectory surface hopping scheme with an accurate and efficient algorithm for the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements. More specifically, we designed two algorithms for the calculation of intersystem crossing transitions, one based on an extended Tully's surface hopping scheme including SOC and the second based on a Landau-Zener approximation applied to the spin sector of the electronic Hilbert space. This development allows for the design of an efficient on-the-fly nonadiabatic approach that can handle, on an equal footing, nonadiabatic and intersystem crossing transitions. The method is applied to the study of the photophysics of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas and liquid phases. PMID:26671356

  5. Scale-dependent shifts in the species composition of flower visitors with changing floral density.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Carla J

    2013-01-01

    Responses of flower-visiting animals to floral density can alter interactions between plants, influencing a variety of biological processes, including plant population dynamics and the evolution of flowering phenology. Many studies have found effects of floral or plant density on pollinator visitation rates at patch scales, but little is known about responses of flower visitors to floral densities at larger scales. Here, I present data from an observational field study in which I measured the effects of floral density on visitation to the annual composite Holocarpha virgata at both patch (4 m(2)) and site (12.6 ha) spatial scales. The species composition of flower visitors changed with floral density, and did so in different ways at the two scales. At the site scale, average floral density within patches of H. virgata or within patches of all summer-flowering species combined had a significant positive effect on per-flowerhead visitation by the long-horned bee Melissodes lupina and no significant effects on visitation by any other taxa. At the patch scale, per-flowerhead visitation by honeybees significantly increased whereas visitation by M. lupina often decreased with increasing floral density. For both species, responses to patch-scale floral density were strongest when site-scale floral density was high. The scale-dependence of flower visitor responses to floral density and the interactions between site- and patch-scale effects of floral density observed in this study underscore the importance of improving our understanding of pollinators' responses to floral density at population scales. PMID:22752187

  6. Density dependence in group dynamics of a highly social mongoose, Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Andrew W; Ozgul, Arpat; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2012-05-01

    1. For social species, the link between individual behaviour and population dynamics is mediated by group-level demography. 2. Populations of obligate cooperative breeders are structured into social groups, which may be subject to inverse density dependence (Allee effects) that result from a dependence on conspecific helpers, but evidence for population-wide Allee effects is rare. 3. We use field data from a long-term study of cooperative meerkats (Suricata suricatta; Schreber, 1776) - a species for which local Allee effects are not reflected in population-level dynamics - to empirically model interannual group dynamics. 4. Using phenomenological population models, modified to incorporate environmental conditions and potential Allee effects, we first investigate overall patterns of group dynamics and find support only for conventional density dependence that increases after years of low rainfall. 5. To explain the observed patterns, we examine specific demographic rates and assess their contributions to overall group dynamics. Although per-capita meerkat mortality is subject to a component Allee effect, it contributes relatively little to observed variation in group dynamics, and other (conventionally density dependent) demographic rates - especially emigration - govern group dynamics. 6. Our findings highlight the need to consider demographic processes and density dependence in subpopulations before drawing conclusions about how behaviour affects population processes in socially complex systems. PMID:22117843

  7. Comparison of Methods for Predicting the Compositional Dependence of the Density and Refractive Index of Organic-Aqueous Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chen; Miles, Rachael E H; Cotterell, Michael I; Marsh, Aleksandra; Rovelli, Grazia; Rickards, Andrew M J; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Reid, Jonathan P

    2016-08-25

    Representing the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles of complex composition is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting aerosol thermodynamic, kinetic, and optical properties and processes and for interpreting and comparing analysis methods. Here, we consider the representations of the density and refractive index of aqueous-organic aerosol with a particular focus on the dependence of these properties on relative humidity and water content, including an examination of the properties of solution aerosol droplets existing at supersaturated solute concentrations. Using bulk phase measurements of density and refractive index for typical organic aerosol components, we provide robust approaches for the estimation of these properties for aerosol at any intermediate composition between pure water and pure solute. Approximately 70 compounds are considered, including mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids, alcohols, diols, nitriles, sulfoxides, amides, ethers, sugars, amino acids, aminium sulfates, and polyols. We conclude that the molar refraction mixing rule should be used to predict the refractive index of the solution using a density treatment that assumes ideal mixing or, preferably, a polynomial dependence on the square root of the mass fraction of solute, depending on the solubility limit of the organic component. Although the uncertainties in the density and refractive index predictions depend on the range of subsaturated compositional data available for each compound, typical errors for estimating the solution density and refractive index are less than ±0.1% and ±0.05%, respectively. Owing to the direct connection between molar refraction and the molecular polarizability, along with the availability of group contribution models for predicting molecular polarizability for organic species, our rigorous testing of the molar refraction mixing rule provides a route to predicting refractive indices for aqueous solutions containing organic molecules

  8. Impact ionization in GaAs: A screened exchange density-functional approach

    SciTech Connect

    Picozzi, S.; Asahi, R.; Geller, C. B.; Continenza, A.; Freeman, A. J.

    2001-08-13

    Results are presented of a fully ab initio calculation of impact ionization rates in GaAs within the density functional theory framework, using a screened-exchange formalism and the highly precise all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The calculated impact ionization rates show a marked orientation dependence in k space, indicating the strong restrictions imposed by the conservation of energy and momentum. This anisotropy diminishes as the impacting electron energy increases. A Keldysh type fit performed on the energy-dependent rate shows a rather soft edge and a threshold energy greater than the direct band gap. The consistency with available Monte Carlo and empirical pseudopotential calculations shows the reliability of our approach and paves the way to ab initio calculations of pair production rates in new and more complex materials.

  9. Density-Dependent Natal Dispersal Patterns in a Leopard Population Recovering from Over-Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Fattebert, Julien; Balme, Guy; Dickerson, Tristan; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal enables population connectivity, gene flow and metapopulation dynamics. In polygynous mammals, dispersal is typically male-biased. Classically, the ‘mate competition’, ‘resource competition’ and ‘resident fitness’ hypotheses predict density-dependent dispersal patterns, while the ‘inbreeding avoidance’ hypothesis posits density-independent dispersal. In a leopard (Panthera pardus) population recovering from over-harvest, we investigated the effect of sex, population density and prey biomass, on age of natal dispersal, distance dispersed, probability of emigration and dispersal success. Over an 11-year period, we tracked 35 subadult leopards using VHF and GPS telemetry. Subadult leopards initiated dispersal at 13.6 ± 0.4 months. Age at commencement of dispersal was positively density-dependent. Although males (11.0 ± 2.5 km) generally dispersed further than females (2.7 ± 0.4 km), some males exhibited opportunistic philopatry when the population was below capacity. All 13 females were philopatric, while 12 of 22 males emigrated. Male dispersal distance and emigration probability followed a quadratic relationship with population density, whereas female dispersal distance was inversely density-dependent. Eight of 12 known-fate females and 5 of 12 known-fate male leopards were successful in settling. Dispersal success did not vary with population density, prey biomass, and for males, neither between dispersal strategies (philopatry vs. emigration). Females formed matrilineal kin clusters, supporting the resident fitness hypothesis. Conversely, mate competition appeared the main driver for male leopard dispersal. We demonstrate that dispersal patterns changed over time, i.e. as the leopard population density increased. We conclude that conservation interventions that facilitated local demographic recovery in the study area also restored dispersal patterns disrupted by unsustainable harvesting, and that this indirectly improved

  10. Parental care masks a density-dependent shift from cooperation to competition among burying beetle larvae.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Matthew; Jarrett, Benjamin J M; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2015-04-01

    Studies of siblings have focused mainly on their competitive interactions and to a lesser extent on their cooperation. However, competition and cooperation are at opposite ends on a continuum of possible interactions and the nature of these interactions may be flexible with ecological factors tipping the balance toward competition in some environments and cooperation in others. Here we show that the presence of parental care and the density of larvae on the breeding carcass change the outcome of sibling interactions in burying beetle broods. With full parental care there was a strong negative relationship between larval density and larval mass, consistent with sibling competition for resources. In the absence of care, initial increases in larval density had beneficial effects on larval mass but further increases in larval density reduced larval mass. This likely reflects a density-dependent shift between cooperation and competition. In a second experiment, we manipulated larval density and removed parental care. We found that the ability of larvae to penetrate the breeding carcass increased with larval density and that feeding within the carcass resulted in heavier larvae than feeding outside the carcass. However, larval density did not influence carcass decay. PMID:25648525

  11. Parental care masks a density-dependent shift from cooperation to competition among burying beetle larvae

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Matthew; Jarrett, Benjamin J M; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Studies of siblings have focused mainly on their competitive interactions and to a lesser extent on their cooperation. However, competition and cooperation are at opposite ends on a continuum of possible interactions and the nature of these interactions may be flexible with ecological factors tipping the balance toward competition in some environments and cooperation in others. Here we show that the presence of parental care and the density of larvae on the breeding carcass change the outcome of sibling interactions in burying beetle broods. With full parental care there was a strong negative relationship between larval density and larval mass, consistent with sibling competition for resources. In the absence of care, initial increases in larval density had beneficial effects on larval mass but further increases in larval density reduced larval mass. This likely reflects a density-dependent shift between cooperation and competition. In a second experiment, we manipulated larval density and removed parental care. We found that the ability of larvae to penetrate the breeding carcass increased with larval density and that feeding within the carcass resulted in heavier larvae than feeding outside the carcass. However, larval density did not influence carcass decay. PMID:25648525

  12. Catabolism of low density lipoproteins by perfused rabbit livers: cholestyramine promotes receptor-dependent hepatic catabolism of low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y S; Yamin, T T; Alberts, A W

    1982-07-01

    Rabbits fed a wheat starch/casein diet develop a marked hypercholesterolemia accompanied by a decrease in the number of EDTA-sensitive binding sites on plasma membrane fractions of the liver for low density lipoproteins (LDL) and beta-migrating very low density lipoproteins [Chao, Y.-S., Yamin, T.-T. & Alberts, A. W. (1982) J. Biol. Chem., in press]. Inclusion of 1% cholestyramine resin in this diet prevents the increase in plasma cholesterol, increases the removal of LDL from plasma, and increases the number of hepatic plasma membrane LDL-binding sites. To determine the functional role of hepatic LDL-binding sites in the catabolism of LDL, we studied the catabolism of (125)I-labeled LDL ((125)I-LDL) by in situ perfused rabbit livers in a recirculating system. The rate of catabolism was measured from the increment of nonprotein-bound radioiodine in the perfusate. The receptor-dependent catabolism of LDL by the liver was calculated from the difference of hepatic catabolism of (125)I-LDL and catabolism of (125)I-labeled cyclohexanedione-modified LDL, which does not bind to LDL receptors. The data show that about 74% of LDL catabolized by perfused livers from chow-fed rabbits is through the receptor-dependent pathway and 26% is through the receptor-independent pathway. In rabbits fed a cholesterol diet, the hepatic catabolism of (125)I-LDL is reduced, and the receptor-dependent catabolism of (125)I-LDL is abolished. In rabbits fed the wheat starch/casein diet, the receptor-dependent catabolism of (125)I-LDL is reduced by 40% when compared with hepatic catabolism in chow-fed rabbits. Perfused livers from rabbits fed the wheat starch/casein diet supplemented with 1% cholestyramine show a 5,4-fold increase of receptor-dependent catabolism of (125)I-LDL when compared with that of livers from rabbits fed the wheat starch/casein diet alone. Thus, these studies demonstrate that the change in the number of rabbit hepatic membrane LDL receptors induced by dietary manipulation

  13. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Koons, David N; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent; Gimenez, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semiarid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, USA, we applied a Bayesian state-space model to a 72-yr time series of abundance counts. While accounting for known harvest (as well as live removal) from the population, we found that the bison population in southern Utah exhibited a strong potential to grow from low density (β0 = 0.26; Bayesian credible interval based on 95% of the highest posterior density [BCI] = 0.19-0.33), and weak but statistically significant density dependence (β1 = -0.02, BCI = -0.04 to -0.004). Early spring temperatures also had strong positive effects on population growth (Pfat1 = 0.09, BCI = 0.04-0.14), much more so than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > three times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early spring temperature could have a greater relative effect on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or. the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife management policies and planning. PMID:26465036

  14. Collective motion of self-propelled particles with density-dependent switching effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu-shi; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2016-05-01

    We study the effect of density-dependent angular response on large scale collective motion, that particles are more likely to switch their moving direction within lower local density region. We show that the presence of density-dependent angular response leads to three typical phases: polar liquid, micro-phase separation and disordered gas states. In our model, the transition between micro-phase separation and disordered gas is discontinuous. Giant number fluctuation is observed in polar liquid phase with statistically homogeneous order. In the micro-phase separation parameter space, high order and high density bands dominate the dynamics. We also compare our results with Vicsek model and show that the density-dependent directional switching response can stabilize the band state to very low noise condition. This band stripe could recruit almost all the particles in the system, which greatly enhances the coherence of the system. Our results could be helpful for understanding extremely coherent motion in nature and also would have practical implications for designing novel self-organization pattern.

  15. Native Birds and Alien Insects: Spatial Density Dependence in Songbird Predation of Invading Oak Gallwasps

    PubMed Central

    Schönrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N.

    2013-01-01

    Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified spatial patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive spatial density dependence in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive spatial density dependence persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density dependence was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource. PMID:23342048

  16. An information theory approach to the density of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graber, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Information theory can develop a technique which takes experimentally determined numbers and produces a uniquely specified best density model satisfying those numbers. A model was generated using five numerical parameters: the mass of the earth, its moment of inertia, three zero-node torsional normal modes (L = 2, 8, 26). In order to determine the stability of the solution, six additional densities were generated, in each of which the period of one of the three normal modes was increased or decreased by one standard deviation. The superposition of the seven models is shown. It indicates that current knowledge of the torsional modes is sufficient to specify the density in the upper mantle but that the lower mantle and core will require smaller standard deviations before they can be accurately specified.

  17. Age- and race-dependence of the fibroglandular breast density analyzed on 3D MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ke; Su, Min-Ying; Chau, Man-Kwun; Chan, Siwa; Nguyen, Hoanglong; Tseng, Tiffany; Huang, Yuhong; McLaren, Christine E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the age- and race-dependence of the breast fibroglandular tissue density based on three-dimensional breast MRI. Methods: The normal breasts of 321 consecutive patients including Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics were studied. The subjects were separated into three age groups: Younger than 45, between 45 and 55, and older than 55. Computer algorithms based on body landmarks were used to segment the breast, and fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to segment the fibroglandular tissue. Linear regression analysis was applied to compare mean differences among different age groups and race∕ethnicity groups. The obtained parameters were not normally distributed, and the transformed data, natural log (ln) for the fibroglandular tissue volume, and the square root for the percent density were used for statistical analysis. Results: On the average, the transformed fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density decreased significantly with age. Racial differences in mean transformed percent density were found among women older than 45, but not among women younger than 45. Mean percent density was higher in Asians compared to Caucasians and Hispanics; the difference remained significant after adjustment for age, but not significant after adjusted for both age and breast volume. There was no significant difference in the density between the Caucasians and the Hispanics. Conclusions: The results analyzed using the MRI-based method show age- and race-dependence, which is consistent with literature using mammography-based methods. PMID:20632587

  18. Density-Dependent Demographic Variation Determines Extinction Rate of Experimental Populations

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Understanding population extinctions is a chief goal of ecological theory. While stochastic theories of population growth are commonly used to forecast extinction, models used for prediction have not been adequately tested with experimental data. In a previously published experiment, variation in available food was experimentally manipulated in 281 laboratory populations of Daphnia magna to test hypothesized effects of environmental variation on population persistence. Here, half of those data were used to select and fit a stochastic model of population growth to predict extinctions of populations in the other half. When density-dependent demographic stochasticity was detected and incorporated in simple stochastic models, rates of population extinction were accurately predicted or only slightly biased. However, when density-dependent demographic stochasticity was not accounted for, as is usual when forecasting extinction of threatened and endangered species, predicted extinction rates were severely biased. Thus, an experimental demonstration shows that reliable estimates of extinction risk may be obtained for populations in variable environments if high-quality data are available for model selection and if density-dependent demographic stochasticity is accounted for. These results suggest that further consideration of density-dependent demographic stochasticity is required if predicted extinction rates are to be relied upon for conservation planning. PMID:15934788

  19. Density-dependent state-space model for population-abundance data with unequal time intervals.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Brian; Ponciano, José Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The Gompertz state-space (GSS) model is a stochastic model for analyzing time-series observations of population abundances. The GSS model combines density dependence, environmental process noise, and observation error toward estimating quantities of interest in biological monitoring and population viability analysis. However, existing methods for estimating the model parameters apply only to population data with equal time intervals between observations. In the present paper, we extend the GSS model to data with unequal time intervals, by embedding it within a state-space version of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a continuous-time model of an equilibrating stochastic system. Maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood calculations for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck state-space model involve only numerical maximization of an explicit multivariate normal likelihood, and so the extension allows for easy bootstrapping, yielding confidence intervals for model parameters, statistical hypothesis testing of density dependence, and selection among sub-models using information criteria. Ecologists and managers previously drawn to models lacking density dependence or observation error because such models accommodated unequal time intervals (for example, due to missing data) now have an alternative analysis framework incorporating density dependence, process noise, and observation error. PMID:25230459

  20. Density dependent state space model for population abundance data with unequal time intervals

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brian; Ponciano, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The Gompertz state-space (GSS) model is a stochastic model for analyzing time series observations of population abundances. The GSS model combines density dependence, environmental process noise, and observation error toward estimating quantities of interest in biological monitoring and population viability analysis. However, existing methods for estimating the model parameters apply only to population data with equal time intervals between observations. In the present paper, we extend the GSS model to data with unequal time intervals, by embedding it within a state-space version of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a continuous-time model of an equilibrating stochastic system. Maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood calculations for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck state-space model involve only numerical maximization of an explicit multivariate normal likelihood, and so the extension allows for easy bootstrapping, yielding confidence intervals for model parameters, statistical hypothesis testing of density dependence, and selection among sub-models using information criteria. Ecologists and managers previously drawn to models lacking density dependence or observation error because such models accommodated unequal time intervals (for example, due to missing data) now have an alternative analysis framework incorporating density dependence, process noise and observation error. PMID:25230459

  1. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-10-20

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  2. DENSITY-DEPENDENT RESPONSES OF GRAY-TAILED VOLES TO MOWING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voles (Microtus spp.) commonly inhabit forage crops and may cause excessive damage to these crops. owever, cover removal by mowing or haying may cause vole populations to decline. o determine if gray-tailed voles responded to mowing of alfalfa in a density-dependent manner, the a...

  3. DENSITY-DEPENDENT FLOW IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL VARIABLY-SATURATED MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A one-dimensional finite element is developed to simulate density-dependent flow of saltwater in variably saturated media. The flow and solute equations were solved in a coupled mode (iterative), in a partially coupled mode (non-iterative), and in a completely decoupled mode. P...

  4. Demonstrating the Temperature Dependence of Density via Construction of a Galilean Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Marie A.; Padgett, Lea W.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the construction of a Galilean thermometer out of common chemistry glassware is described. Students in a first-semester physical chemistry (thermodynamics) class can construct the Galilean thermometer as an investigation of the thermal expansivity of liquids and the temperature dependence of density. This is an excellent first…

  5. Shape dependence of transmission, reflection, and absorption eigenvalue densities in disordered waveguides with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamilov, A.; Petrenko, S.; Sarma, R.; Cao, H.

    2016-03-01

    The universal bimodal distribution of transmission eigenvalues in lossless diffusive systems underpins such celebrated phenomena as universal conductance fluctuations, quantum shot noise in condensed matter physics, and enhanced transmission in optics and acoustics. Here, we show that in the presence of absorption, the density of the transmission eigenvalues depends on the confinement geometry of the scattering media. Furthermore, in an asymmetric waveguide, the densities of the reflection and absorption eigenvalues also depend on the side from which the waves are incident. With increasing absorption, the density of absorption eigenvalues transforms from a single-peak to a double-peak function. Our findings open an additional avenue for coherent control of wave transmission, reflection, and absorption in random media.

  6. Representing the thermal state in time-dependent density functional theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Modine, N. A.; Hatcher, R. M.

    2015-05-28

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) provides a powerful and widely used approach to determining thermodynamic properties by integrating the classical equations of motion of a system of atoms. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides a powerful and increasingly useful approach to integrating the quantum equations of motion for a system of electrons. TDDFT efficiently captures the unitary evolution of a many-electron state by mapping the system into a fictitious non-interacting system. In analogy to MD, one could imagine obtaining the thermodynamic properties of an electronic system from a TDDFT simulation in which the electrons are excited from their ground state bymore » a time-dependent potential and then allowed to evolve freely in time while statistical data are captured from periodic snapshots of the system. For a variety of systems (e.g., many metals), the electrons reach an effective state of internal equilibrium due to electron-electron interactions on a time scale that is short compared to electron-phonon equilibration. During the initial time-evolution of such systems following electronic excitation, electron-phonon interactions should be negligible, and therefore, TDDFT should successfully capture the internal thermalization of the electrons. However, it is unclear how TDDFT represents the resulting thermal state. In particular, the thermal state is usually represented in quantum statistical mechanics as a mixed state, while the occupations of the TDDFT wave functions are fixed by the initial state in TDDFT. Two key questions involve (1) reformulating quantum statistical mechanics so that thermodynamic expectations can be obtained as an unweighted average over a set of many-body pure states and (2) constructing a family of non-interacting (single determinant) TDDFT states that approximate the required many-body states for the canonical ensemble. In Section II, we will address these questions by first demonstrating that thermodynamic

  7. Representing the thermal state in time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Modine, N. A.; Hatcher, R. M.

    2015-05-28

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) provides a powerful and widely used approach to determining thermodynamic properties by integrating the classical equations of motion of a system of atoms. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides a powerful and increasingly useful approach to integrating the quantum equations of motion for a system of electrons. TDDFT efficiently captures the unitary evolution of a many-electron state by mapping the system into a fictitious non-interacting system. In analogy to MD, one could imagine obtaining the thermodynamic properties of an electronic system from a TDDFT simulation in which the electrons are excited from their ground state by a time-dependent potential and then allowed to evolve freely in time while statistical data are captured from periodic snapshots of the system. For a variety of systems (e.g., many metals), the electrons reach an effective state of internal equilibrium due to electron-electron interactions on a time scale that is short compared to electron-phonon equilibration. During the initial time-evolution of such systems following electronic excitation, electron-phonon interactions should be negligible, and therefore, TDDFT should successfully capture the internal thermalization of the electrons. However, it is unclear how TDDFT represents the resulting thermal state. In particular, the thermal state is usually represented in quantum statistical mechanics as a mixed state, while the occupations of the TDDFT wave functions are fixed by the initial state in TDDFT. Two key questions involve (1) reformulating quantum statistical mechanics so that thermodynamic expectations can be obtained as an unweighted average over a set of many-body pure states and (2) constructing a family of non-interacting (single determinant) TDDFT states that approximate the required many-body states for the canonical ensemble. In Section II, we will address these questions by first demonstrating that thermodynamic expectations

  8. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  9. Density-dependent home-range size revealed by spatially explicit capture–recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, M.G.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Jhala, Y.V.; Qureshi, Q.

    2016-01-01

    The size of animal home ranges often varies inversely with population density among populations of a species. This fact has implications for population monitoring using spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) models, in which both the scale of home-range movements σ and population density D usually appear as parameters, and both may vary among populations. It will often be appropriate to model a structural relationship between population-specific values of these parameters, rather than to assume independence. We suggest re-parameterizing the SECR model using kp = σp √Dp, where kp relates to the degree of overlap between home ranges and the subscript p distinguishes populations. We observe that kp is often nearly constant for populations spanning a range of densities. This justifies fitting a model in which the separate kp are replaced by the single parameter k and σp is a density-dependent derived parameter. Continuous density-dependent spatial variation in σ may also be modelled, using a scaled non-Euclidean distance between detectors and the locations of animals. We illustrate these methods with data from automatic photography of tigers (Panthera tigris) across India, in which the variation is among populations, from mist-netting of ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) in Maryland, USA, in which the variation is within a single population over time, and from live-trapping of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, modelling spatial variation within one population. Possible applications and limitations of the methods are discussed. A model in which kp is constant, while density varies, provides a parsimonious null model for SECR. The parameter k of the null model is a concise summary of the empirical relationship between home-range size and density that is useful in comparative studies. We expect deviations from this model, particularly the dependence of kp on covariates, to be biologically interesting.

  10. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...

  11. Density-dependent productivity in a colonial vulture at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bellon, Darío; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Arenas, Rafael; Donázar, José Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how density dependence modifies demographic parameters in long-lived vertebrates is a challenge for ecologists. Two alternative hypotheses have been used to explain the mechanisms behind density-dependent effects on breeding output: habitat heterogeneity and individual adjustment (also known as interference competition). A number of studies have highlighted the importance of habitat heterogeneity in density dependence in territorial species, but less information exists on demographic processes in colonial species. For these, we expect density-dependent mechanisms to operate at two spatial scales: colony and breeding unit. In this study, we used long-term data from a recovering population of Cinereous Vultures (Aegypius monachus) in southern Spain. We analyzed a long-term data set with information on 2162 breeding attempts at four colonies over a nine-year period (2002-2010) to evaluate environmental and population parameters influencing breeding output. Our results suggest that breeding productivity is subject to density-dependent processes at the colony and the nest site scale and is best explained by interference competition. Factors intrinsic to each colony, as well as environmental constraints linked to physiography and human presence, also play a role in regulatory processes. We detected the existence of a trade-off between the disadvantages of nesting too close to conspecifics and the benefits of coloniality. These could be mediated by the agonistic interactions between breeding pairs and the benefits derived from social sharing of information by breeding individuals. We propose that this trade-off may play a role in defining colony structure and may hold true for other colonial breeding bird species. Our findings also have important management implications for the conservation of this threatened species. PMID:27145615

  12. Directional Dependence of Hydrogen Bonds: a Density-based Energy Decomposition Analysis and Its Implications on Force Field Development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Nengjie; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Yingkai

    2011-01-01

    One well-known shortcoming of widely-used biomolecular force fields is the description of the directional dependence of hydrogen bonding (HB). Here we aim to better understand the origin of this difficulty and thus provide some guidance for further force field development. Our theoretical approaches center on a novel density-based energy decomposition analysis (DEDA) method [J. Chem. Phys., 131, 164112 (2009)], in which the frozen density energy is variationally determined through constrained search. This unique and most significant feature of DEDA enables us to find that the frozen density interaction term is the key factor in determining the HB orientation, while the sum of polarization and charge-transfer components shows very little HB directional dependence. This new insight suggests that the difficulty for current non-polarizable force fields to describe the HB directional dependence is not due to the lack of explicit polarization or charge-transfer terms. Using the DEDA results as reference, we further demonstrate that the main failure coming from the atomic point charge model can be overcome largely by introducing extra charge sites or higher order multipole moments. Among all the electrostatic models explored, the smeared charge distributed multipole model (up to quadrupole), which also takes account of charge penetration effects, gives the best agreement with the corresponding DEDA results. Meanwhile, our results indicate that the van der Waals interaction term needs to be further improved to better model directional hydrogen bonding. PMID:22267958

  13. Density- and Size-Dependent Winter Mortality and Growth of Late Chaoborus flavicans Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Winter processes such as overwinter survival and growth of individuals can have wide-ranging consequences for population dynamics and communities within and across seasons. In freshwater organisms winter processes have been mainly studied in fish despite that invertebrates also have substantial impacts on lake and pond food webs. One of the major invertebrate consumers in lake and ponds is the planktonic larvae of the dipteran insect Chaoborus spec. However, while much is known about Chaoborus feeding ecology, behaviour and structuring role in food webs, its winter ecology and how it affects its populations are poorly understood. Here size- and density-dependent winter mortality and body growth of late Chaoborus flavicans larvae were quantified over naturally occurring size and density ranges in autumn and under natural winter conditions using two field enclosure experiments. Winter mortality increased with autumn density but decreased with autumn body size while winter growth rates decreased with autumn density and body sizes. There was also a density- and size-independent background mortality component. The proportion of pupae found in spring decreased strongly and exponentially with autumn density. These results may explain the commonly observed univoltine life cycle and multi-annual density fluctuations in northern Chaoborus populations. They further demonstrate the relevance of winter processes and conditions for freshwater invertebrates and ecosystems. PMID:24124517

  14. Tight-binding approach to strain-dependent DNA electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Sadeq; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Small mechanical strain perturbations are considered in calculations of the poly(G)-poly(C) DNA molecular electronic structure, using a tight-binding framework in conjunction with the theories of Slater-Koster and linear elasticity. Results reveal a strain-induced band gap for DNA which is linearly dependent on the induced strain. Local density of states calculations expose that the contribution of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in the charge transport mechanism is significantly enhanced relative to the backbones when DNA is compressed. Transport investigations also disclose a strain-induced metal-semiconductor transition for the DNA molecule, which suggests possible potential uses for sensing applications.

  15. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  16. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Drewnowski, Adam; O'Neil, Carol E

    2014-12-01

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and peas (legumes), and nuts and seeds that are prepared without added solid fats, added sugars, and sodium' as nutrient dense. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans further states that nutrient-dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few (kilo)calories or kilojoules. Finally, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been 'diluted' by the addition of energy from added solid fats, added sugars or by the solid fats naturally present in the food. However, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and other scientists have failed to clearly define 'nutrient density' or to provide criteria or indices that specify cut-offs for foods that are nutrient dense. Today, 'nutrient density' is a ubiquitous term used in the scientific literature, policy documents, marketing strategies and consumer messaging. However, the term remains ambiguous without a definitive or universal definition. Classifying or ranking foods according to their nutritional content is known as nutrient profiling. The goal of the present commentary is to address the research gaps that still exist before there can be a consensus on how best to define nutrient density, highlight the situation in the USA and relate this to wider, international efforts in nutrient profiling. PMID:25166614

  17. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  18. How does habitat filtering affect the detection of conspecific and phylogenetic density dependence?

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Swenson, Nathan G; Brown, Calum; Zhang, Caicai; Yang, Jie; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Sha, Liqing; Cao, Min; Lin, Luxiang

    2016-05-01

    Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) has been recognized as a key mechanism underlying species coexistence, especially in tropical forests. Recently, some studies have reported that seedling survival is also negatively correlated with the phylogenetic relatedness between neighbors and focal individuals, termed phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD). In contrast to CNDD or PNDD, shared habitat requirements between closely related individuals are thought to be a cause of observed positive effects of closely related neighbors, which may affect the strength and detectability of CNDD or PNDD. In order to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms for tropical tree seedling survival, we used generalized linear mixed models to analyze how the survival of more than 10 000 seedlings of woody plant species related to neighborhood and habitat variables in a tropical rainforest in southwest China. By comparing models with and without habitat variables, we tested how habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD and PNDD. The best-fitting model suggested that CNDD and habitat filtering played key roles in seedling survival; but that, contrary to our expectations, phylogenetic positive density dependence (PPDD) had a distinct and important effect. While habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD by decreasing its apparent strength, it did not explain the positive effects of closely related neighbors. Our results demonstrate that a failure to control for habitat variables and phylogenetic relationships may obscure the importance of conspecific and heterospecific neighbor densities for seedling survival. PMID:27349095

  19. A coarse-grain force field for RDX: Density dependent and energy conserving.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joshua D; Barnes, Brian C; Izvekov, Sergei; Lísal, Martin; Sellers, Michael S; Taylor, DeCarlos E; Brennan, John K

    2016-03-14

    We describe the development of a density-dependent transferable coarse-grain model of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) that can be used with the energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics method. The model is an extension of a recently reported one-site model of RDX that was developed by using a force-matching method. The density-dependent forces in that original model are provided through an interpolation scheme that poorly conserves energy. The development of the new model presented in this work first involved a multi-objective procedure to improve the structural and thermodynamic properties of the previous model, followed by the inclusion of the density dependency via a conservative form of the force field that conserves energy. The new model accurately predicts the density, structure, pressure-volume isotherm, bulk modulus, and elastic constants of the RDX crystal at ambient pressure and exhibits transferability to a liquid phase at melt conditions. PMID:26979691

  20. Anopheles mortality is both age- and Plasmodium-density dependent: implications for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Daily mortality is an important determinant of a vector's ability to transmit pathogens. Original simplifying assumptions in malaria transmission models presume vector mortality is independent of age, infection status and parasite load. Previous studies illustrate conflicting evidence as to the importance of Plasmodium-induced vector mortality, but very few studies to date have considered the effect of infection density on mosquito survival. Methods A series of three experiments were conducted, each consisting of four cages of 400-1,000 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes fed on blood infected with different Plasmodium berghei ookinete densities per microlitre of blood. Twice daily the numbers of dead mosquitoes in each group were recorded, and on alternate days a sample of live mosquitoes from each group were dissected to determine parasite density in both midgut and salivary glands. Results Survival analyses indicate that mosquito mortality is both age- and infection intensity-dependent. Mosquitoes experienced an initially high, partly feeding-associated, mortality rate, which declined to a minimum before increasing with mosquito age and parasite intake. As a result, the life expectancy of a mosquito is shown to be dependent on both insect age and the density of Plasmodium infection. Conclusion These results contribute to understanding in greater detail the processes that influence sporogony in the mosquito, indicate the impact that parasite density could have on malaria transmission dynamics, and have implications for the design, development, and evaluation of transmission-blocking strategies. PMID:19822012

  1. Time-Dependent Density Wave Theory for Co-orbital Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2009-05-01

    The standard theory of density waves in planetary rings assumes that the orbit of the perturbing satellite is on a fixed orbit. However, the co-orbital satellites, Janus and Epimetheus, trade orbits every four years. Cassini images of Saturn's rings record the time evolution of the density waves excited by these satellites. Ticareno et al. (Ap. J. 651: L65-L68, 2006) attempted to model the observations by assuming the steady-state density waves shift locations in the rings instantaneously when the co-orbital satellites trade orbits. They found that certain wave-like features are observed in the evanescent region of the wave that were not predicted by the steady state theory. We will present the results of a new time-dependent density wave theory that can model the perturbations by the co-orbital satellites during their orbital exchange. Similar to our previous result for temporally modulated density waves excited by the satellite, Pandora (Stewart and Sremcevic, DDA 2008), we find that the effective sound velocity in the wave plays an important role in propagating the time-dependent signal in the wave train. Comparisons with Cassini observations as well as predictions for the next co-orbital exchange event in January 2010 will be presented. This research was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research Program.

  2. Time-Dependent Density Wave Theory for Co-orbital Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2008-09-01

    The standard theory of density waves in planetary rings assumes that the orbit of the perturbing satellite is on a fixed orbit. However, the co-orbital satellites, Janus and Epimetheus, trade orbits every four years. Cassini images of Saturn's rings record the time evolution of the density waves excited by these satellites. Ticareno et al. (Ap. J. 651: L65-L68, 2006) attempted to model the observations by assuming the steady-state density waves shift locations in the rings instantaneously when the co-orbital satellites trade orbits. They found that certain wave-like features are observed in the evanescent region of the wave that are not predicted by the steady state theory. We will present the results of a new time-dependent density wave theory that can model the perturbations by the co-orbital satellites during their orbital exchange. Similar to our previous result for temporally modulated density waves excited by the satellite, Pandora (Stewart and Sremcevic, DDA 2008), we find that the effective sound velocity in the wave plays an important role in propagating the time-dependent signal in the wave train. Comparisons with Cassini observations as well as predictions for the next co-orbital exchange event in January 2010 will be presented.

  3. Density-dependent settlement and mortality structure the earliest life phases of a coral population.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Sandin, Stuart A

    2008-07-01

    The local densities of heterospecifics and conspecifics are known to have profound effects on the dynamics of many benthic species, including rates of settlement and early post-settlement survivorship. We described the early life history of the Caribbean coral, Siderastrea radians by tracking the population dynamics from recently settled planulae to juveniles. Through three years of observation, settlement correlated with the abundance of other benthic organisms, principally turf algae (negatively) and crustose coralline algae (positively). In addition, adult density showed independent effects on coral settlement and early post-settlement survivorship. Settlement rates increased across low levels of adult cover and saturated at a maximum around 10% cover. Early post-settlement survivorship decreased with adult cover, revealing structuring density dependence in coral settlers. The earliest life stages of corals are defined by low survivorship, with survivorship increasing appreciably with colony size. However, recent settlers (one-polyp individuals, < 1-year-old) are more likely to grow into two-polyp juveniles than older single polyps (> 1-year-old) that were delayed in their development. The early benthic phase of corals is defined by a severe demographic bottleneck for S. radians, with appreciable density-dependent and density-independent effects on survivorship. For effective management and restoration of globally imperiled coral reefs, we must focus more attention on this little studied, but dynamic, early life history period of corals. PMID:18705385

  4. EVALUATING SYSTEMATIC DEPENDENCIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE INFLUENCE OF DEFLAGRATION TO DETONATION DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2010-09-01

    We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {sub sun} for a 1 Z{sub sun} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M{sub sun} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.

  5. Evaluating systematic dependencies of type Ia supernovae : the influence of deflagration to detonation density.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A. P.; Calder, A. C.; Townsley, D. M.; Chamulak, D. A.; Brown, E. F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2010-09-01

    We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations. Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} for a 1 Z {circle_dot} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.

  6. Density-dependence across dispersal stages in a hermaphrodite land snail: insights from discrete choice models.

    PubMed

    Dahirel, Maxime; Vardakis, Michalis; Ansart, Armelle; Madec, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal movements, i.e. movements leading to gene flow, are key behaviours with important, but only partially understood, consequences for the dynamics and evolution of populations. In particular, density-dependent dispersal has been widely described, yet how it is determined by the interaction with individual traits, and whether density effects differ between the three steps of dispersal (departure, transience, and settlement), remains largely unknown. Using a semi-natural landscape, we studied dispersal choices of Cornu aspersum land snails, a species in which negative effects of crowding are well documented, and analysed them using dispersal discrete choice models, a new method allowing the analysis of dispersal decisions by explicitly considering the characteristics of all available alternatives and their interaction with individual traits. Subadults were more dispersive than adults, confirming existing results. In addition, departure and settlement were both density dependent: snails avoided crowded patches at both ends of the dispersal process, and subadults were more reluctant to settle into crowded patches than adults. Moreover, we found support for carry-over effects of release density on subsequent settlement decisions: snails from crowded contexts were more sensitive to density in their subsequent immigration choices. The fact that settlement decisions were informed indicates that costs of prospecting are not as important as previously thought in snails, and/or that snails use alternative ways to collect information, such as indirect social information (e.g. trail following). The observed density-dependent dispersal dynamics may play an important role in the ability of C. aspersum to successfully colonise frequently human-disturbed habitats around the world. PMID:27139427

  7. New approaches for the calibration of exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals.

    PubMed

    Maier, Toni M; Haasler, Matthias; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-08-21

    The ambiguity of exchange-energy densities is a fundamental challenge for the development of local hybrid functionals, or of other functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities. In this work, a systematic construction of semi-local calibration functions (CFs) for adjusting the exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals is provided, which directly links a given CF to an underlying semi-local exchange functional, as well as to the second-order gradient expansion of the exchange hole. Using successive steps of integration by parts allows the derivation of correction terms of increasing order, resulting in more and more complicated but also more flexible CFs. We derive explicit first- and second-order CFs (pig1 and pig2) based on B88 generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange, and a first-order CF (tpig1) based on τ-dependent B98 meta-GGA exchange. We combine these CFs with different long-range damping functions and evaluate them for calibration of LDA, B88 GGA, and TPSS meta-GGA exchange-energy densities. Based on a minimization of unphysical nondynamical correlation contributions in three noble-gas dimer potential-energy curves, free parameters in the CFs are optimized, and performance of various approaches in the calibration of different exchange-energy densities is compared. Most notably, the second-order pig2 CF provides the largest flexibility with respect to the diffuseness of the damping function. This suggests that higher-order CFs based on the present integration-by-parts scheme may be particularly suitable for the flexible construction of local hybrid functionals. PMID:27080804

  8. A Concept for Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Smith, Colin L.; Shay, Richard F.; Hubbs, Clay

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing concept of operations has been previously developed to support the precise delivery of aircraft landing successively on the same runway. The high-precision and consistent delivery of inter-aircraft spacing allows for increased runway throughput and the use of energy-efficient arrivals routes such as Continuous Descent Arrivals and Optimized Profile Descents. This paper describes an extension to the Airborne Precision Spacing concept to enable dependent parallel approach operations where the spacing aircraft must manage their in-trail spacing from a leading aircraft on approach to the same runway and spacing from an aircraft on approach to a parallel runway. Functionality for supporting automation is discussed as well as procedures for pilots and controllers. An analysis is performed to identify the required information and a new ADS-B report is proposed to support these information needs. Finally, several scenarios are described in detail.

  9. Temperature dependence of seed pulse amplitude and density grating in Brillouin amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2016-02-01

    Seed pulse dynamics as well as plasma response during Brillouin amplification are investigated in the so called strong coupling regime. Due to the finite amplitudes trapping of electrons and ions may become important. These effects are not covered by the commonly used three-wave interaction equations derived from fluid theory. Therefore, here investigations based on a Vlasov model are presented. The kinetic calculations show that the density response is not as predicted by the fluid models. We find a pronounced density grating with significant particle trapping. The influence of the latter on the seed amplitude development is discussed in dependence on the electron and ion temperatures.

  10. Scaling out the density dependence of the α relaxation in glass-forming polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba-Simionesco, C.; Cailliaux, A.; Alegría, A.; Tarjus, G.

    2004-10-01

    We show that the density and temperature dependences of the α-relaxation time of several glass-forming polymers can be described through a single scaling variable X = e(ρ)/T, where e(ρ) is well fitted by a power law ρx, x being a species-specific parameter. This implies that "fragility" is an intrinsic, density-independent property of a glass-former characterizing its super-Arrhenius slowing-down of relaxations, and it leads us to propose a modification of the celebrated Angell plot.

  11. A simple weighted-density-functional approach to the structure of inhomogeneous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Chandra N.; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2002-05-01

    A simple weighted-density-functional approach is developed for inhomogeneous fluids by approximating the excess free energy density functional by that of the corresponding uniform system evaluated at an effective density. This effective weighted density is obtained by a suitable local averaging procedure of the actual density distribution using a weight function which is evaluated only once at the bulk density, thus being decoupled from the weighted density. This approach does not involve any power series expansion or solution of any nonlinear differential equation at every point and each iteration, as is required in some of the analogous schemes. The new theory is applied to predict the structure of simple classical fluids, interacting with hard sphere, Coulombic as well as Yukawa potentials, under confinement in several geometries. The calculated results on the density profiles are shown to compare quite well with available simulation data.

  12. Excited-State Absorption from Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Optical Limiting in Zinc Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sean A; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Optical-limiting materials are capable of attenuating light to protect delicate equipment from high-intensity light sources. Phthalocyanines have attracted a lot of attention for optical-limiting applications due to their versatility and large nonlinear absorption. With excited-state absorption (ESA) being the primary mechanism for optical limiting behavior in phthalocyanines, the ability to tune the optical absorption of ground and excited states in phthalocyanines would allow for the development of advanced optical limiters. We recently developed a method for the calculation of ESA based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory propagation of an excited-state density. In this work, we apply the approach to zinc phthalocyanine, demonstrating the ability of our method to efficiently identify the optical limiting potential of a molecular complex. PMID:27007445

  13. Nuclear clustering in the energy density functional approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) are a microscopic tool of choice extensively used over the whole chart to successfully describe the properties of atomic nuclei ensuing from their quantum liquid nature. In the last decade, they also have proved their ability to deal with the cluster phenomenon, shedding a new light on its fundamental understanding by treating on an equal footing both quantum liquid and cluster aspects of nuclei. Such a unified microscopic description based on nucleonic degrees of freedom enables to tackle the question pertaining to the origin of the cluster phenomenon and emphasizes intrinsic mechanisms leading to the emergence of clusters in nuclei.

  14. Nuclear clustering in the energy density functional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) are a microscopic tool of choice extensively used over the whole chart to successfully describe the properties of atomic nuclei ensuing from their quantum liquid nature. In the last decade, they also have proved their ability to deal with the cluster phenomenon, shedding a new light on its fundamental understanding by treating on an equal footing both quantum liquid and cluster aspects of nuclei. Such a unified microscopic description based on nucleonic degrees of freedom enables to tackle the question pertaining to the origin of the cluster phenomenon and emphasizes intrinsic mechanisms leading to the emergence of clusters in nuclei.

  15. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U.

  16. The local projection in the density functional theory plus U approach: A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Chao; Chen, Ze-Hua; Jiang, Hong

    2016-04-14

    Density-functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) method is widely used in first-principles studies of strongly correlated systems, as it can give qualitatively (and sometimes, semi-quantitatively) correct description of energetic and structural properties of many strongly correlated systems with similar computational cost as local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation. On the other hand, the DFT + U approach is limited both theoretically and practically in several important aspects. In particular, the results of DFT + U often depend on the choice of local orbitals (the local projection) defining the subspace in which the Hubbard U correction is applied. In this work we have systematically investigated the issue of the local projection by considering typical transition metal oxides, β-MnO2 and MnO, and comparing the results obtained from different implementations of DFT + U. We found that the choice of the local projection has significant effects on the DFT + U results, which are more significant for systems with stronger covalent bonding (e.g., MnO2) than those with more ionic bonding (e.g., MnO). These findings can help to clarify some confusion arising from the practical use of DFT + U and may also provide insights for the development of new first-principles approaches beyond DFT + U. PMID:27083707

  17. Density-Dependent Intraspecific Competition in the Larval Stage of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): Revisiting the Current Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Mathieu; Lloyd, Alun L.; Huang, Yunxin; Gould, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Density-dependent intraspecific competition has been considered an important determinant of the dynamics of larval stages of Aedes aegypti. A model was published in 1984 providing a mathematical description of this density dependence, based on field data, that has since been widely used. This description, however, is based on the strong assumption that all mortality is density-dependent. We re-examine the data without this premise and find a reduced importance of density dependence, as well as a different functional form. Based on these discrepancies, we emphasize that the characterization of density dependence in the larval stages of Ae. aegypti should be based on a more complete dataset, and we use artificially generated data to explore how such additional information could help developing a better description of this density dependence. We review other empirical studies on larval competition, discuss the need for further dedicated studies, and provide a few simple guidelines for the design of such studies. PMID:19496407

  18. A new approach to mass spectrometer measurements of thermospheric density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, L. T., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Brown, C. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The gas sampling problem in satellite and high velocity probes was investigated by applying the theory of a drifting Maxwellian gas. A lens system using a free stream ion source was developed and experimentally evaluated over the pressure range of 0.00001 to 0.01 N/m sq (approx. 10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0001 torr). The source has high beam transparency, which minimizes gas-surface collisions within, or near, the ionization volume. It is shown that for high ion energy (60 eV), the extracted ion beam has an on-axis energy spread of less than 4 eV, and that 90 percent of the ions are within 2.5 deg of the beam axis. It is concluded that the molecular beam mass spectrometer concept, developed for gas density measurements in the upper atmosphere, substantially reduces gas-surface scattering and gas-surface reactions in the sample, and preserves the integrity of the gas sample during the analysis process. Studies show that both the Scout and Delta launch vehicles have adequate volume, control, velocity, and data acquisition capability necessary to obtain thermospheric number density in real time.

  19. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  20. Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations.

    PubMed

    Minter, Ewan J A; Watts, Phillip C; Lowe, Chris D; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity. PMID:26063750

  1. Optoelectronic Properties of Carbon Nanorings: Excitonic Effects from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure and size-scaling of optoelectronic properties in cycloparaphenylene carbon nanorings are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The TDDFT calculations on these molecular nanostructures indicate that the lowest excitation energy surprisingly becomes larger as the carbon nanoring size is increased, in contradiction with typical quantum confinement effects. In order to understand their unusual electronic properties, I performed an extensive investigation of excitonic effects by analyzing electron-hole transition density matrices and exciton binding energies as a function of size in these nanoring systems. The transition density matrices allow a global view of electronic coherence during an electronic excitation, and the exciton binding energies give a quantitative measure of electron-hole interaction energies in the nanorings. Based on overall trends in exciton binding energies and their spatial delocalization, I find that excitonic effects play a vital role in understanding the unique photoinduced dynamics in these carbon nanoring systems. PMID:22481999

  2. Protein Adsorption on Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brushes: dependence on grafting density and chain collapse

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Changying; Yonet-Tanyeri, Nihan; Brouette, Nicolas; Sferrazza, Michele; Braun, Paul V.; Leckband, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    The protein resistance of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes grafted from silicon wafers was investigated as a function of the chain molecular weight, grafting density, and temperature. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32°C, the collapse of the water swollen chains, determined by ellipsometry, depends on the grafting density and molecular weight. Ellipsometry, radio assay, and fluorescence imaging demonstrated that, below the lower critical solution temperature, the brushes repel protein as effectively as oligoethylene oxide terminated monolayers. Above 32°C, very low levels of protein adsorb on densely grafted brushes, and the amounts of adsorbed protein increase with decreasing brush grafting densities. Brushes that do not exhibit a collapse transition also bind protein, even though the chains remain extended above the LCST. These findings suggest possible mechanisms underlying protein interactions with end-grafted PNIPAM brushes. PMID:21662243

  3. Laboratory calibration of density-dependent lines in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Desai, P.; Bitter, M.; Roquemore, L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2012-05-25

    We have been making spectral measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from different laboratory sources in order to investigate the electron density dependence of various astrophysically important emission lines and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. The measurement are being performed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap, the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which together span an electron density of four orders of magnitude and which allow us to test the various models at high and low density limits. Here we present measurements of Fe XXII and Ar XIV, which include new data from an ultra high resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} >4000) spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility. We found good agreement between the measurements and modeling calculations for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV.

  4. Negative frequency-dependent selection is intensified at higher population densities in protist populations

    PubMed Central

    Minter, Ewan J. A.; Watts, Phillip C.; Lowe, Chris D.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations of free-living protists often exhibit high-levels of intraspecific diversity, yet this is puzzling as classic evolutionary theory predicts dominance by genotypes with high fitness, particularly in large populations where selection is efficient. Here, we test whether negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) plays a role in the maintenance of diversity in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina using competition experiments between multiple pairs of strains. We observed strain-specific responses to frequency and density, but an overall signature of NFDS that was intensified at higher population densities. Because our strains were not selected a priori on the basis of particular traits expected to exhibit NFDS, these data represent a relatively unbiased estimate of the role for NFDS in maintaining diversity in protist populations. These findings could help to explain how bloom-forming plankton, which periodically achieve exceptionally high population densities, maintain substantial intraspecific diversity. PMID:26063750

  5. Two-component hybrid time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Michael; Weigend, Florian

    2015-01-21

    We report the implementation of a two-component variant of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for hybrid functionals that accounts for spin-orbit effects within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for closed-shell systems. The influence of the admixture of Hartree-Fock exchange on excitation energies is investigated for several atoms and diatomic molecules by comparison to numbers for pure density functionals obtained previously [M. Kühn and F. Weigend, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 5341 (2013)]. It is further related to changes upon switching to the local density approximation or using the full TDDFT formalism instead of TDA. Efficiency is demonstrated for a comparably large system, Ir(ppy)3 (61 atoms, 1501 basis functions, lowest 10 excited states), which is a prototype molecule for organic light-emitting diodes, due to its "spin-forbidden" triplet-singlet transition. PMID:25612698

  6. Temperature and density dependence of the shear viscosity of liquid sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, N.; Xu, H.; Wax, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    The density and temperature dependence of the shear viscosity of liquid sodium is studied. The stress autocorrelation function is calculated by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, which allow us to obtain the value of shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formula. The Fiolhais potential is used to calculate the interionic interactions, which are validated by comparison between simulation and experimental data along the liquid-gas coexistence curve. The behavior of viscosity over a wide range of the liquid phase of the phase diagram is studied. Along isochoric lines, it presents a minimum, while it monotonically increases along isotherms. An expression is proposed for the viscosity as a function of temperature and density which reproduces our data for liquid sodium at any density in the range [1000-2000 kg m-3 ] and any temperature in the range [700-7000 K]. The validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation over the investigated state points is discussed.

  7. Two-component hybrid time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kühn, Michael; Weigend, Florian

    2015-01-21

    We report the implementation of a two-component variant of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for hybrid functionals that accounts for spin-orbit effects within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for closed-shell systems. The influence of the admixture of Hartree-Fock exchange on excitation energies is investigated for several atoms and diatomic molecules by comparison to numbers for pure density functionals obtained previously [M. Kühn and F. Weigend, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 5341 (2013)]. It is further related to changes upon switching to the local density approximation or using the full TDDFT formalism instead of TDA. Efficiency is demonstrated for a comparably large system, Ir(ppy){sub 3} (61 atoms, 1501 basis functions, lowest 10 excited states), which is a prototype molecule for organic light-emitting diodes, due to its “spin-forbidden” triplet-singlet transition.

  8. Two-component hybrid time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Michael; Weigend, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We report the implementation of a two-component variant of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for hybrid functionals that accounts for spin-orbit effects within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) for closed-shell systems. The influence of the admixture of Hartree-Fock exchange on excitation energies is investigated for several atoms and diatomic molecules by comparison to numbers for pure density functionals obtained previously [M. Kühn and F. Weigend, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 5341 (2013)]. It is further related to changes upon switching to the local density approximation or using the full TDDFT formalism instead of TDA. Efficiency is demonstrated for a comparably large system, Ir(ppy)3 (61 atoms, 1501 basis functions, lowest 10 excited states), which is a prototype molecule for organic light-emitting diodes, due to its "spin-forbidden" triplet-singlet transition.

  9. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N.; Sawada, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  10. Coulomb potentials and Taylor expansions in time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournais, Søren; Lampart, Jonas; Lewin, Mathieu; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard

    2016-06-01

    We investigate when Taylor expansions can be used to prove the Runge-Gross theorem, which is at the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). We start with a general analysis of the conditions for the Runge-Gross argument, especially the time differentiability of the density. The latter should be questioned in the presence of singular (e.g., Coulomb) potentials. Then we show that a singular potential in a one-body operator considerably decreases the class of time-dependent external potentials to which the original argument can be applied. A two-body singularity has an even stronger impact and an external potential is essentially incompatible with it. For the Coulomb interaction and all reasonable initial many-body states, the Taylor expansion only exists to a finite order, except for constant external potentials. Therefore, high-order Taylor expansions are not the right tool to study atoms and molecules in TDDFT.

  11. Spin dependent momentum density and Fermi surface of ferromagnetic Ni obtained by positron annihilation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, A. S.; Uedono, A.

    2004-11-01

    The spin-dependent momentum density and Fermi surface of ferromagnetic Ni have been obtained through positron annihilation experiments. The measurements were carried out through 2D angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) using longitudinally polarized positrons. The magnetic field direction was reversed in order to study the effect of the spin-dependent positron-electron momentum space density on the Fermi surface of Ni. The results showed that ferromagnetic Ni had different Fermi surfaces for the majority-spin and minority-spin states. The differences due to the spin-states were studied in the momentum space and in the wave vector space. In general, the experimental results showed good agreement with previous theoretical calculations.

  12. Density-dependent tunneling in the extended Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maik, Michał; Hauke, Philipp; Dutta, Omjyoti; Lewenstein, Maciej; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has become apparent that when the interactions between polar molecules in optical lattices become strong, the conventional description using the extended Hubbard model has to be modified by additional terms, in particular a density-dependent tunneling term. We investigate here the influence of this term on the ground-state phase diagrams of the two-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the changes of the superfluid, supersolid and phase-separated parameter regions in the phase diagram of the system. By studying the interplay of the density-dependent hopping with the usual on-site interaction U and nearest-neighbor repulsion V , we show that the ground-state phase diagrams differ significantly from those expected from the standard extended Bose-Hubbard model.

  13. Density dependence of electron mobility in the accumulation mode for fully depleted SOI films

    SciTech Connect

    Naumova, O. V. Zaitseva, E. G.; Fomin, B. I.; Ilnitsky, M. A.; Popov, V. P.

    2015-10-15

    The electron mobility µ{sub eff} in the accumulation mode is investigated for undepleted and fully depleted double-gate n{sup +}–n–n{sup +} silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). To determine the range of possible values of the mobility and the dominant scattering mechanisms in thin-film structures, it is proposed that the field dependence of the mobility µ{sub eff} be replaced with the dependence on the density N{sub e} of induced charge carriers. It is shown that the dependences µ{sub eff}(N{sub e}) can be approximated by the power functions µ{sub eff}(N{sub e}) ∝ N{sub e}{sup -n}, where the exponent n is determined by the chargecarrier scattering mechanism as in the mobility field dependence. The values of the exponent n in the dependences µ{sub eff}(N{sub e}) are determined when the SOI-film mode near one of its surfaces varies from inversion to accumulation. The obtained results are explained from the viewpoint of the electron-density redistribution over the SOI-film thickness and changes in the scattering mechanisms.

  14. Temperature-dependence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product in Metallization Lines: A Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2016-04-01

    One of the important phenomena in Electromigration (EM) is Blech Effect. The existence of Threshold Current Density-Length Product or EM Threshold has such fundamental and technological consequences in the design, manufacture, and testing of electronics. Temperature-dependence of Blech Product had been thermodynamically established and the real behavior of such interconnect materials have been extensively studied. The present paper reviewed the temperature-dependence of EM threshold in metallization lines of different materials and structure as found in relevant published articles. It is expected that the reader can see a big picture from the compiled data, which might be overlooked when it was examined in pieces.

  15. Time-dependent Density Functional Results for the Dynamic Hyperpolarizability of C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    van Gisbergen, S.; Snijders, J.; Baerends, E.

    1997-04-01

    The experimental, as well as theoretical, values for the frequency-dependent hyperpolarizability of C{sub 60} differ by orders of magnitude. We present the first density functional calculation of a molecular frequency-dependent hyperpolarizability. Our implementation is very economical, enabling the treatment of molecules of this size, in a potentially much more accurate way than can be obtained with alternative methods. Our results strongly support the recent results by Geng and Wright, who report much lower experimental values than previous authors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. C.

    2012-06-01

    The density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis predicts that individuals at high density will invest more resources into immune defence than individuals at lower densities as a counter-measure to density-dependent pathogen transmission rates. Evidence has been found for this hypothesis in insects, but not in a non-arthropod taxon. To investigate this hypothesis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, density treatments were set up over 21 days, and pathogen infection was simulated with bacterial injection. Five immune responses: amoebocyte count, amoebocyte viability, lysosomal membrane integrity, respiratory burst and peroxidase activity were all upregulated at high density. These results demonstrate that immune investment shows phenotypic plasticity with adult population density in agreement with the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis. Here I show that the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis is neither dependent on larval density nor restricted to insects, and hence may potentially have important consequences on disease dynamics in any species with widely fluctuating population densities. This is the first demonstration of the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis outside arthropods.

  17. On the numerical simulation of population dynamics with density-dependent migrations and the Allee effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweilam, H. N.; Khader, M. M.; Al-Bar, F. R.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) and the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) are presented for the numerical simulation of the population dynamics model with density-dependent migrations and the Allee effects. The convergence of ADM is proved for the model problem. The results obtained by these methods are compared to the exact solution. It is found that these methods are always converges to the right solutions with high accuracy. Furthermore, VIM needs relative less computational work than ADM.

  18. Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation.

    PubMed

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2013-02-28

    Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration-Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short-range density-functional (DFT) description, is then considered. The resulting time-dependent multi-configuration short-range DFT (TD-MC-srDFT) model is applied to the calculation of singlet excitation energies in H2, Be, and ferrocene, considering both short-range local density (srLDA) and generalized gradient (srGGA) approximations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)], the description of both the 1(1)D doubly-excited state in Be and the 1(1)Σu(+) state in the stretched H2 molecule are improved, although the latter is still significantly underestimated. Exploratory TD-MC-srDFT/GGA calculations for ferrocene yield in general excitation energies at least as good as TD-DFT using the Coulomb attenuated method based on the three-parameter Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional (TD-DFT/CAM-B3LYP), and superior to wave-function (TD-MCSCF, symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction) and TD-DFT results based on LDA, GGA, and hybrid functionals. PMID:23464134

  19. A new time dependent density functional algorithm for large systems and plasmons in metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Baseggio, Oscar; Fronzoni, Giovanna; Stener, Mauro

    2015-07-14

    A new algorithm to solve the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) equations in the space of the density fitting auxiliary basis set has been developed and implemented. The method extracts the spectrum from the imaginary part of the polarizability at any given photon energy, avoiding the bottleneck of Davidson diagonalization. The original idea which made the present scheme very efficient consists in the simplification of the double sum over occupied-virtual pairs in the definition of the dielectric susceptibility, allowing an easy calculation of such matrix as a linear combination of constant matrices with photon energy dependent coefficients. The method has been applied to very different systems in nature and size (from H{sub 2} to [Au{sub 147}]{sup −}). In all cases, the maximum deviations found for the excitation energies with respect to the Amsterdam density functional code are below 0.2 eV. The new algorithm has the merit not only to calculate the spectrum at whichever photon energy but also to allow a deep analysis of the results, in terms of transition contribution maps, Jacob plasmon scaling factor, and induced density analysis, which have been all implemented.

  20. A Density Functional Approach to Polarizable Models: A Kim-Gordon-Response Density Interaction Potential for Molecular Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacchi, G; Hutter, J; Mundy, C

    2005-04-07

    A combined linear response--frozen electron density model has been implemented in a molecular dynamics scheme derived from an extended Lagrangian formalism. This approach is based on a partition of the electronic charge distribution into a frozen region described by Kim-Gordon theory, and a response contribution determined by the instaneous ionic configuration of the system. The method is free from empirical pair-potentials and the parameterization protocol involves only calculations on properly chosen subsystems. They apply this method to a series of alkali halides in different physical phases and are able to reproduce experimental structural and thermodynamic properties with an accuracy comparable to Kohn-Sham density functional calculations.

  1. Density-dependent prey mortality is determined by the spatial scale of predator foraging.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Erin K; White, J Wilson

    2016-02-01

    Foraging theory predicts which prey patches predators should target. However, in most habitats, what constitutes a 'patch' and how prey density is calculated are subjective concepts and depend on the spatial scale at which the predator (or scientist) is observing. Moreover, the predator's 'foraging scale' affects prey population dynamics: predators should produce directly density-dependent (DDD) prey mortality at the foraging scale, but inversely density-dependent (IDD) mortality (safety-in-numbers) at smaller scales. We performed the first experimental test of these predictions using behavioral assays with guppies (Poecilia reticulata) feeding on bloodworm 'prey' patches. The guppy's foraging scale had already been estimated in a prior study. Our experimental results confirmed theoretical predictions: predation was IDD when prey were aggregated at a scale smaller than the foraging scale, but not when prey were aggregated at larger scales. These results could be used to predict outcomes of predator-prey interactions in continuous, non-discrete habitats in the field. PMID:26116266

  2. Chirality-dependent densities of carbon nanotubes by in situ 2D fluorescence-excitation and Raman characterisation in a density gradient after ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambré, Sofie; Muyshondt, Pieter; Federicci, Remi; Wenseleers, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) becomes increasingly important for the sorting of nanomaterials according to the particles' density, hence structure and dimensions, which determine their unique properties, but the further development of this separation technique is hindered by the limited precision with which the densities could be characterized. In this work, we determine these densities by position-dependent 2D wavelength-dependent IR fluorescence-excitation and resonant Raman spectroscopy measured directly in the density gradient after ultracentrifugation. We apply this method to study the diameter and chirality-dependent sorting of empty and water-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with two different surfactants, sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (DOC). The results elucidate the long standing contradiction that SC would provide better diameter sorting, while DOC is the most efficient surfactant to solubilise the nanotubes. A more predictable separation is obtained for empty DOC-coated nanotubes since their density is found to vary very smoothly with diameter. The accurate and chirality-dependent densities furthermore provide information on the surfactant coating, which is also important for other separation techniques, and allow to determine the mass percentage of water encapsulated inside the nanotubes.Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) becomes increasingly important for the sorting of nanomaterials according to the particles' density, hence structure and dimensions, which determine their unique properties, but the further development of this separation technique is hindered by the limited precision with which the densities could be characterized. In this work, we determine these densities by position-dependent 2D wavelength-dependent IR fluorescence-excitation and resonant Raman spectroscopy measured directly in the density gradient after ultracentrifugation. We apply this method to study the diameter and chirality-dependent

  3. Chain Length and Grafting Density Dependent Enhancement in the Hydrolysis of Ester-Linked Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Melzak, Kathryn A; Yu, Kai; Bo, Deng; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2015-06-16

    Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) brushes with different grafting density and chain length were grown from an ester group-containing initiator using surface-initiated polymerization. Hydrolysis of the PDMA chains from the surface was monitored by measuring thickness of the polymer layer by ellipsometry and extension length by atomic force microscopy. It was found that the initial rate of cleavage of one end-tethered PDMA chains was dependent on the grafting density and chain length; the hydrolysis rate was faster for high grafting density brushes and brushes with higher molecular weights. Additionally, the rate of cleavage of polymer chains during a given experiment changed by up to 1 order of magnitude as the reaction progressed, with a distinct transition to a lower rate as the grafting density decreased. Also, polymer chains undergo selective cleavage, with longer chains in a polydisperse brush being preferentially cleaved at one stage of the hydrolysis reaction. We suggest that the enhanced initial hydrolysis rates seen at high grafting densities and high chain lengths are due to mechanical activation of the ester bond connecting the polymer chains to the surface in association with high lateral pressure within the brush. These results have implications for the preparation of polymers brushes, their stability under harsh conditions, and the analysis of polymer brushes from partial hydrolysates. PMID:26010390

  4. The ecological–evolutionary interplay: density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; Shriver, W Greg; Marra, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Little is understood about how environmental heterogeneity influences the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. Within human-dominated systems, habitat modification creates environmental heterogeneity that could influence the adaptive value of individual phenotypes. Here, we used the gray catbird to examine if the ecological conditions experienced in the suburban matrix (SM) and embedded suburban parks (SP) influence reproductive strategies and the strength of sexual selection. Our results show that these habitats varied in a key ecological factor, breeding density. Moreover, this ecological factor was closely tied to reproductive strategies such that local breeding density predicted the probability that a nest would contain extra-pair offspring. Partitioning reproductive variance showed that while within-pair success was more important in both habitats, extra-pair success increased the opportunity for sexual selection by 39% at higher breeding densities. Body size was a strong predictor of relative reproductive success and was under directional selection in both habitats. Importantly, our results show that the strength of sexual selection did not differ among habitats at the landscape scale but rather that fine-scale variation in an ecological factor, breeding density, influenced sexual selection on male phenotypes. Here, we document density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory bird and hypothesize that coarse-scale environmental heterogeneity, in this case generated by anthropogenic habitat modification, changed the fine-scale ecological conditions that drove the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. PMID:22837842

  5. Density-dependent host choice by disease vectors: epidemiological implications of the ideal free distribution.

    PubMed

    Basáñez, María-Gloria; Razali, Karina; Renz, Alfons; Kelly, David

    2007-03-01

    The proportion of vector blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, h) appears as a squared term in classical expressions of the basic reproduction ratio (R(0)) for vector-borne infections. Consequently, R(0) varies non-linearly with h. Estimates of h, however, constitute mere snapshots of a parameter that is predicted, from evolutionary theory, to vary with vector and host abundance. We test this prediction using a population dynamics model of river blindness assuming that, before initiation of vector control or chemotherapy, recorded measures of vector density and human infection accurately represent endemic equilibrium. We obtain values of h that satisfy the condition that the effective reproduction ratio (R(e)) must equal 1 at equilibrium. Values of h thus obtained decrease with vector density, decrease with the vector:human ratio and make R(0) respond non-linearly rather than increase linearly with vector density. We conclude that if vectors are less able to obtain human blood meals as their density increases, antivectorial measures may not lead to proportional reductions in R(0) until very low vector levels are achieved. Density dependence in the contact rate of infectious diseases transmitted by insects may be an important non-linear process with implications for their epidemiology and control. PMID:17112556

  6. Nanowire-density-dependent field emission of n-type 3C-SiC nanoarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin; Gao, Fengmei; Chen, Shanliang; Yang, Weiyou; Li, Chengming

    2015-09-21

    The density of the nanowires is one of the key issues for their field emission (FE) properties of the nanoarrays, since it plays an important role on the electron emission sites and field screening effect. Here, we reported the nanowire-density-dependent FE properties of the n-type 3C-SiC nanoarrays. The highly oriented and large-scale SiC nanoarrays were grown on the 6H-SiC wafer via pyrolysis of polyureasilazane by adjusting the thicknesses of Au films used as the catalysts. The densities of the nanoarrays were tunable to be ∼2.9 × 10{sup 7}, ∼4.0 × 10{sup 7}, and ∼5.7 × 10{sup 7} nanowires/cm{sup 2} by controlling the Au film thicknesses of 50, 70, and 90 nm, respectively. The measured FE characteristics disclosed that the turn-on fields of the samples could be tailored to be of ∼1.79, 1.57, and 1.95 V/μm with the increase of the densities, suggesting that a suitable nanowire density could favor the enhanced electron emission from the SiC nanoarrays with improved emission sites and limited field screening effects.

  7. A Dynamic Approach to Modeling Dependence Between Human Failure Events

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-09-01

    In practice, most HRA methods use direct dependence from THERP—the notion that error be- gets error, and one human failure event (HFE) may increase the likelihood of subsequent HFEs. In this paper, we approach dependence from a simulation perspective in which the effects of human errors are dynamically modeled. There are three key concepts that play into this modeling: (1) Errors are driven by performance shaping factors (PSFs). In this context, the error propagation is not a result of the presence of an HFE yielding overall increases in subsequent HFEs. Rather, it is shared PSFs that cause dependence. (2) PSFs have qualities of lag and latency. These two qualities are not currently considered in HRA methods that use PSFs. Yet, to model the effects of PSFs, it is not simply a matter of identifying the discrete effects of a particular PSF on performance. The effects of PSFs must be considered temporally, as the PSFs will have a range of effects across the event sequence. (3) Finally, there is the concept of error spilling. When PSFs are activated, they not only have temporal effects but also lateral effects on other PSFs, leading to emergent errors. This paper presents the framework for tying together these dynamic dependence concepts.

  8. Non-swarming grasshoppers exhibit density-dependent phenotypic plasticity reminiscent of swarming locusts.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Steven; Song, Hojun

    2013-11-01

    Locusts are well known for exhibiting an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity known as locust phase polyphenism. At low density, locust nymphs are cryptically colored and shy, but at high density they transform into conspicuously colored and gregarious individuals. Most of what we know about locust phase polyphenism come from the study of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), which is a devastating pest species affecting many countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The desert locust belongs to the grasshopper genus Schistocerca Stål, which includes mostly non-swarming, sedentary species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the desert locust is the earliest branching lineage within Schistocerca, which raises a possibility that the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity may be a plesiomorphic trait for the whole genus. In order to test this idea, we have quantified the effect of rearing density in terms of the resulting behavior, color, and morphology in two non-swarming Schistocerca species native to Florida. When reared in both isolated and crowded conditions, the two non-swarming species, Schistocerca americana (Drury) and Schistocerca serialis cubense (Saussure) clearly exhibited plastic reaction norms in all traits measured, which were reminiscent of the desert locust. Specifically, we found that both species were more active and more attracted to each other when reared in a crowded condition than in isolation. They were mainly bright green in color when isolated, but developed strong black patterns and conspicuous background colors when crowded. We found a strong effect of rearing density in terms of size. There were also more mechanoreceptor hairs on the outer face of the hind femora in the crowded nymphs in both species. Although both species responded similarly, there were some clear species-specific differences in terms of color and behavior. Furthermore, we compare and contrast our findings with

  9. Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.

    2011-10-15

    We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.

  10. Time-dependent resonant scattering: an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J M; Kirrander, Adam; Jungen, Ch

    2013-10-28

    A time-dependent description is given of a scattering process involving a single resonance embedded in a set of flat continua. An analytical approach is presented which starts from an incident free particle wave packet and yields the Breit-Wigner cross-section formula at infinite times. We show that at intermediate times the so-called Wigner-Weisskopf approximation is equivalent to a scattering process involving a contact potential. Applications in cold-atom scattering and resonance enhanced desorption of molecules are discussed. PMID:24182008

  11. Time-dependent resonant scattering: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, J. M.; Kirrander, Adam; Jungen, Ch.

    2013-10-01

    A time-dependent description is given of a scattering process involving a single resonance embedded in a set of flat continua. An analytical approach is presented which starts from an incident free particle wave packet and yields the Breit-Wigner cross-section formula at infinite times. We show that at intermediate times the so-called Wigner-Weisskopf approximation is equivalent to a scattering process involving a contact potential. Applications in cold-atom scattering and resonance enhanced desorption of molecules are discussed.

  12. Sampling-variance effects on detecting density dependence from temporal trends in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenk, T.M.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R

  13. Experimental Examination of Intraspecific Density-Dependent Competition during the Breeding Period in Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus)

    PubMed Central

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Martin, Tara G.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614

  14. Experimental examination of intraspecific density-dependent competition during the breeding period in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Martin, Tara G; Norris, D Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of population ecology is to identify the factors that regulate population growth. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America re-colonize the breeding range over several generations that result in population densities that vary across space and time during the breeding season. We used laboratory experiments to measure the strength of density-dependent intraspecific competition on egg laying rate and larval survival and then applied our results to density estimates of wild monarch populations to model the strength of density dependence during the breeding season. Egg laying rates did not change with density but larvae at high densities were smaller, had lower survival, and weighed less as adults compared to lower densities. Using mean larval densities from field surveys resulted in conservative estimates of density-dependent population reduction that varied between breeding regions and different phases of the breeding season. Our results suggest the highest levels of population reduction due to density-dependent intraspecific competition occur early in the breeding season in the southern portion of the breeding range. However, we also found that the strength of density dependence could be almost five times higher depending on how many life-stages were used as part of field estimates. Our study is the first to link experimental results of a density-dependent reduction in vital rates to observed monarch densities in the wild and show that the effects of density dependent competition in monarchs varies across space and time, providing valuable information for developing robust, year-round population models in this migratory organism. PMID:22984614

  15. Constraining the high-density nuclear symmetry energy with the transverse-momentum-dependent elliptic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjia; Guo, Chenchen; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongfei; Leifels, Y.; Trautmann, W.

    2014-04-01

    Within the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, the transverse-velocity dependence of the elliptic flow of free nucleons from Au197+Au197 collisions at the incident energy 400 MeV/nucleon is studied within different windows of the normalized c.m. rapidity y0. It is found that the elliptic flow difference v2n-v2p and ratio v2n/v2p of neutrons versus protons are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy, especially the ratio v2n/v2p at small transverse velocity in the intermediate rapidity intervals 0.4<|y0|<0.6. By comparing either transverse-momentum-dependent or integrated FOPI/LAND elliptic flow data of nucleons and hydrogen isotopes with calculations using various Skyrme interactions, all exhibiting similar values of isoscalar incompressibility but very different density dependences of the symmetry energy, a moderately soft to linear symmetry energy is extracted, in good agreement with previous UrQMD or Tübingen QMD model calculations but contrast with results obtained with π-/π+ yield ratios in the literature.

  16. Trade-Off between Toxicity and Signal Detection Orchestrated by Frequency- and Density-Dependent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Arthaud, Laury; Rokia-Mille, Selim Ben; Raad, Hussein; Dombrovsky, Aviv; Prevost, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Behaviors in insects are partly highly efficient Bayesian processes that fulfill exploratory tasks ending with the colonization of new ecological niches. The foraging (for) gene in Drosophila encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). It has been extensively described as a frequency-dependent gene and its transcripts are differentially expressed between individuals, reflecting the population density context. Some for transcripts, when expressed in a population at high density for many generations, concomitantly trigger strong dispersive behavior associated with foraging activity. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) analysis has highlighted a dormant role of for in energetic metabolism in a food deprivation context. In our current report, we show that alleles of for encoding different cGMP-dependent kinase isoforms influence the oxidation of aldehyde groups of aromatic molecules emitted by plants via Aldh-III and a phosphorylatable adaptor. The enhanced efficiency of oxidation of aldehyde odorants into carboxyl groups by the action of for lessens their action and toxicity, which should facilitate exploration and guidance in a complex odor environment. Our present data provide evidence that optimal foraging performance requires the fast metabolism of volatile compounds emitted by plants to avoid neurosensory saturation and that the frequency-dependent genes that trigger dispersion influence these processes. PMID:21625551

  17. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  18. Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  19. Survival Kinetics of Starving Bacteria Is Biphasic and Density-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Phaiboun, Andy; Zhang, Yiming; Park, Boryung; Kim, Minsu

    2015-01-01

    In the lifecycle of microorganisms, prolonged starvation is prevalent and sustaining life during starvation periods is a vital task. In the literature, it is commonly assumed that survival kinetics of starving microbes follows exponential decay. This assumption, however, has not been rigorously tested. Currently, it is not clear under what circumstances this assumption is true. Also, it is not known when such survival kinetics deviates from exponential decay and if it deviates, what underlying mechanisms for the deviation are. Here, to address these issues, we quantitatively characterized dynamics of survival and death of starving E. coli cells. The results show that the assumption – starving cells die exponentially – is true only at high cell density. At low density, starving cells persevere for extended periods of time, before dying rapidly exponentially. Detailed analyses show intriguing quantitative characteristics of the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics, including that the period of the perseverance is inversely proportional to cell density. These characteristics further lead us to identification of key underlying processes relevant for the perseverance of starving cells. Then, using mathematical modeling, we show how these processes contribute to the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics observed. Importantly, our model reveals a thrifty strategy employed by bacteria, by which upon sensing impending depletion of a substrate, the limiting substrate is conserved and utilized later during starvation to delay cell death. These findings advance quantitative understanding of survival of microbes in oligotrophic environments and facilitate quantitative analysis and prediction of microbial dynamics in nature. Furthermore, they prompt revision of previous models used to analyze and predict population dynamics of microbes. PMID:25838110

  20. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: density functional theory plus U approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-01

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T(c)) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T(c) of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE(HL) and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T(c) by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T(c) of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T(c) of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior. PMID:25481157

  1. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T{sub c} of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE{sub HL} and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T{sub c} by exploiting the ΔH/T − T and ΔS − T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T{sub c} of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T{sub c} of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  2. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Celina, Mathias C.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to

  3. Native defects in oxide semiconductors: a density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Oba, Fumiyasu; Choi, Minseok; Togo, Atsushi; Seko, Atsuto; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-09-29

    We report a semilocal and hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional study of native defects in three oxide semiconductors: ZnO, SrTiO(3), and SnO. The defect that is responsible for the n-type conductivity of ZnO has been debated, in which the O vacancy, Zn interstitial, their complexes, and residual H impurity are considered candidates. Our results indicate that the O vacancy induces a deep and localized in-gap state, whereas the Zn interstitial is a shallow donor and hence can be a source of the carriers. In view of the formation energies, the O vacancy is likely to form with a substantial concentration under O-poor conditions, but the Zn interstitial is unlikely. We thus propose that the O vacancy is relevant to the nonstoichiometry of ZnO and that a source other than the native defects, such as the H impurity, needs to be considered for the n-type conductivity. For SrTiO(3), the O vacancy and its complexes have been regarded as the origins of some of the remarkable electrical and optical properties. We suggest significant roles of the Ti antisite for a new insight into the defect-induced properties. Two types of Ti antisite, both of which are off-centered from the Sr site but toward different directions, exhibit low formation energies under Ti-rich conditions as does the O vacancy. They can explain optical properties such as visible-light emission, deep-level absorption, and the ferroelectricity observed in reduced SrTiO(3). As an example of p-type conductors, SnO has been investigated with a focus on the acceptor-like native defects. Under O-rich conditions, the Sn vacancy and O interstitial are found to be energetically favorable. The Sn vacancy induces shallow acceptor levels and can therefore be a source of carriers. The O interstitial shows no in-gap levels and hence it is inactive in terms of the carrier generation and compensation. However, this defect is a key to the understanding of the structures of intermediate compounds between SnO and SnO(2). PMID

  4. Dependency of the Cusp Density Anomaly on the Variability of Forcing Inside and Outside the Cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. G.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Clemmons, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs largely determine the neutral density structure in the cusp region. Measurements by the CHAMP satellite (460-390- km altitude) have shown a region of strong enhanced density attributed to the combination of cusp particle and Joule heating. The Streak mission (325-123 km), on the other hand, observed a relative depletion in density in the cusp. While particle precipitation in the cusp is comparatively well constrained, the characteristics of the steady and fluctuating components of the electric field in the cusp are poorly constrained. Also, the significance of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in particular at lower altitudes has not been addressed as it relates to the cusp density anomaly. We address the response of the cusp region to a range electrodynamical forcing with our high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent nonhydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model. We take advantage of our model's high resolution and focus on a more typical cusp width of 2 degrees in latitude. Earlier simulations have also shown a significant contribution from soft particle precipitation. We simulate the atmospheric response to a range of realizable magnitudes of the fluctuating and steady components of the electric field to examine the dependence of the magnitude of the cusp density anomaly on a large range of observed characteristics of the electrodynamical forcing and examine, in particular, the importance of particle heating relative to Joule heating. In addition we investigate the role of harder particle precipitation in areas adjacent to the cusp in determining the lower altitude cusp density and wind structure. We compare

  5. Density-dependent reduction and induction of milkweed cardenolides by a sucking insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martel, John W; Malcolm, Stephen B

    2004-03-01

    The effect of aphid population size on host-plant chemical defense expression and the effect of plant defense on aphid population dynamics were investigated in a milkweed-specialist herbivore system. Density effects of the aposematic oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, on cardenolide expression were measured in two milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica and A. incarnata. These plants vary in constitutive chemical investment with high mean cardenolide concentration in A. curassavica and low to zero in A. incarnata. The second objective was to determine whether cardenolide expression in these two host plants impacts mean A. nerii colony biomass (mg) and density. Cardenolide concentration (microgram/g) of A. curassavica in both aphid-treated leaves and opposite, herbivore-free leaves decreased initially in comparison with aphid-free controls, and then increased significantly with A. nerii density. Thus, A. curassavica responds to aphid herbivory initially with density-dependent phytochemical reduction, followed by induction of cardenolides to concentrations above aphid-free controls. In addition, mean cardenolide concentration of aphid-treated leaves was significantly higher than that of opposite, herbivore-free leaves. Therefore, A. curassavica induction is strongest in herbivore-damage tissue. Conversely, A. incarnata exhibited no such chemical response to aphid herbivory. Furthermore, neither host plant responded chemically to herbivore feeding duration time (days) or to the interaction between herbivore initial density and feeding duration time. There were also no significant differences in mean colony biomass or population density of A. nerii reared on high cardenolide (A. curassavica) and low cardenolide (A. incarnata) hosts. PMID:15139307

  6. Differential Tolerance to Direct and Indirect Density-Dependent Costs of Viral Infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Population density and costs of parasite infection may condition the capacity of organisms to grow, survive and reproduce, i.e. their competitive ability. In host–parasite systems there are different competitive interactions: among uninfected hosts, among infected hosts, and between uninfected and infected hosts. Consequently, parasite infection results in a direct cost, due to parasitism itself, and in an indirect cost, due to modification of the competitive ability of the infected host. Theory predicts that host fitness reduction will be higher under the combined effects of costs of parasitism and competition than under each factor separately. However, experimental support for this prediction is scarce, and derives mostly from animal–parasite systems. We have analysed the interaction between parasite infection and plant density using the plant-parasite system of Arabidopsis thaliana and the generalist virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Plants of three wild genotypes grown at different densities were infected by CMV at various prevalences, and the effects of infection on plant growth and reproduction were quantified. Results demonstrate that the combined effects of host density and parasite infection may result either in a reduction or in an increase of the competitive ability of the host. The two genotypes investing a higher proportion of resources to reproduction showed tolerance to the direct cost of infection, while the genotype investing a higher proportion of resources to growth showed tolerance to the indirect cost of infection. Our findings show that the outcome of the interaction between host density and parasitism depends on the host genotype, which determines the plasticity of life-history traits and consequently, the host capacity to develop different tolerance mechanisms to the direct or indirect costs of parasitism. These results indicate the high relevance of host density and parasitism in determining the competitive ability of a plant, and

  7. Emergent fungal entomopathogen does not alter density dependence in a viral competitor.

    PubMed

    Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth; Elkinton, Joseph S; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-06-01

    Population cycles in forest Lepidoptera often result from recurring density-dependent epizootics of entomopathogens. While these systems are typically dominated by a single pathogen species, insects are often infected by multiple pathogens, yet little is known how pathogens interact to affect host dynamics. The apparent invasion of northeastern North America by the fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga some time prior to 1989 provides a unique opportunity to evaluate such interactions. Prior to the arrival of E. maimaga, the oscillatory dynamics of host gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, populations were apparently driven by epizootics of a nucleopolyhedrovirus. Subsequent to its emergence, E. maimaiga has caused extensive mortality in host populations, but little is known about how it has altered multigenerational dynamics of the gypsy moth and its virus. Here we compared demographic data collected in gypsy moth populations prior to vs. after E. maimaiga's invasion. We found that the recently invading fungal pathogen virtually always causes greater levels of mortality in hosts than does the virus, but fungal mortality is largely density independent. Moreover, the presence of the fungus has apparently not altered the gypsy moth-virus density-dependent interactions that were shown to drive periodic oscillations in hosts before the arrival of the fungus. PMID:23923480

  8. Density-Dependent Differentiation of Bacteria in Spatially Structured Open Systems.

    PubMed

    Ribbe, Jan; Maier, Berenike

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial quorum sensing is usually studied in well-mixed populations residing within closed systems. The latter do not exchange mass with their surroundings; however, in their natural environment, such as the rhizosphere, bacteria live in spatially structured open systems. Here, we tested the hypothesis that trapping of bacteria within microscopic pockets of an open system triggers density-dependent differentiation. We designed a microfluidic device that trapped swimming bacteria within microscopic compartments. The geometry of the traps controlled their diffusive coupling to fluid flow that played a dual role as nutrient source and autoinducer sink. Bacillus subtilis differentiates into a state of competence in response to quorum sensing and nutrient limitation. Using a mutant strain with a high differentiation rate and fluorescent reporters for competence, we found that the cell density required for differentiation was 100-fold higher than that required in closed systems. A direct comparison of strongly and moderately coupled reservoirs showed that strong coupling supported early differentiation but required a higher number of bacteria for its initiation. Weak coupling resulted in retardation of growth and differentiation. We conclude that spatial heterogeneity can promote density-dependent differentiation in open systems, and propose that the minimal quorum is determined by diffusive coupling to the environment through a trade-off between retaining autoinducers and accessing nutrients. PMID:27074689

  9. Scale-dependent halo bias in the excursion set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, Marcello; Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-12-01

    If one accounts for correlations between scales, then non-local, k-dependent halo bias is part and parcel of the excursion set approach, and hence of halo model predictions for galaxy bias. We present an analysis that distinguishes between a number of different effects, each of which contributes to scale-dependent bias in real space. We show how to isolate these effects and remove the scale dependence, order by order, by cross-correlating the halo field with suitably transformed versions of the mass field. These transformations may be thought of as simple one-point, two-scale measurements that allow one to estimate quantities which are usually constrained using n-point statistics. As part of our analysis, we present a simple analytic approximation for the first-crossing distribution of walks with correlated steps which are constrained to pass through a specified point, and demonstrate its accuracy. Although we concentrate on non-linear, non-local bias with respect to a Gaussian random field, we show how to generalize our analysis to more general fields.

  10. Synthesizing mechanisms of density dependence in reef fishes: behavior, habitat configuration, and observational scale.

    PubMed

    White, J Wilson; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Wormald, Clare L; Hamilton, Scott L; Sandin, Stuart A

    2010-07-01

    Coral and rocky reef fish populations are widely used as model systems for the experimental exploration of density-dependent vital rates, but patterns of density-dependent mortality in these systems are not yet fully understood. In particular, the paradigm for strong, directly density-dependent (DDD) postsettlement mortality stands in contrast to recent evidence for inversely density-dependent (IDD) mortality. We review the processes responsible for DDD and IDD per capita mortality in reef fishes, noting that the pattern observed depends on predator and prey behavior, the spatial configuration of the reef habitat, and the spatial and temporal scales of observation. Specifically, predators tend to produce DDD prey mortality at their characteristic spatial scale of foraging, but prey mortality is IDD at smaller spatial scales due to attack-abatement effects (e.g., risk dilution). As a result, DDD mortality may be more common than IDD mortality on patch reefs, which tend to constrain predator foraging to the same scale as prey aggregation, eliminating attack-abatement effects. Additionally, adjacent groups of prey on continuous reefs may share a subset of refuges, increasing per capita refuge availability and relaxing DDD mortality relative to prey on patch reefs, where the patch edge could prevent such refuge sharing. These hypotheses lead to a synthetic framework to predict expected mortality patterns for a variety of scenarios. For nonsocial, nonaggregating species and species that aggregate in order to take advantage of spatially clumped refuges, IDD mortality is possible but likely superseded by DDD refuge competition, especially on patch reefs. By contrast, for species that aggregate socially, mortality should be IDD at the scale of individual aggregations but DDD at larger scales. The results of nearly all prior reef fish studies fit within this framework, although additional work is needed to test many of the predicted outcomes. This synthesis reconciles some

  11. Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.

    PubMed

    Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J

    2015-02-01

    It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge. PMID:26308805

  12. Quantum electrodynamical time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team

    2015-03-01

    We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).

  13. Density-dependent phytotoxicity of impatiens pallida plants exposed to extracts of Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Barto, E Kathryn; Cipollini, Don

    2009-04-01

    Invasive plants are by definition excellent competitors, either indirectly through competition for resources or directly through allelopathic inhibition of neighboring plants. Although both forms of competition are commonly studied, attempts to explore the interactions between direct and indirect competition are rare. We monitored the effects of several doses of extracts of Alliaria petiolata, a Eurasian invader in North America, on the growth of Impatiens pallida, a North American native, at several planting densities. The density-dependent phytotoxicity model predicts that as plant density increases, individual plant size will decrease, unless a toxin is present in the soil. In this case, individual plant size is predicted to increase as plant density increases, as plants share a limited toxin dose. We tested this model using fractions of an A. petiolata extract enriched in flavonoids or glucosinolates, as well as a combined fraction. The flavonoid-enriched fraction and the combined fraction suppressed I. pallida growth but only when applied at a dose eight times higher than that expected in the field. When treated with a dose equivalent to estimated field exposure levels, I. pallida growth was not distinguishable from that of control plants that received no extract, showing that indirect competition for resources was more important for determining the growth of I. pallida than direct allelopathic inhibition by A. petiolata. This is an important reminder that, even though many plants have the demonstrated potential to exert strong allelopathic effects, those effects may not always be apparent when other forms of competition are considered as well. PMID:19381723

  14. Estimation of size and number density of microbubbles based on analysis of frequency-dependent attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tamura, Kazuki; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    A method of estimating the size and number density of microbubbles in suspension is proposed, which matches the theoretically calculated frequency dependent attenuation coefficient with the experimental data. Assuming that the size distribution of bubbles is given by a log-normal function, three parameters (expected value and standard deviation of radius and the number density of bubbles) of Sonazoid® in the steady flow were estimated. Bubbles are exposed to ultrasound with a center frequency of 5 MHz and mechanical indices of 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.1. The expected value and standard deviation for the size distribution were estimated to be 70–85 and 45–60% of the reference values in the case of a lower mechanical index, respectively. The number density was estimated to be 20–30 times smaller than the reference values. This fundamental examination indicates that the number density of bubbles can be qualitatively evaluated by the proposed method.

  15. Thickness Dependent Carrier Density at the Surface of SrTiO3 (111) Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadas, Mr. Nikhil; Dixit, Hemant M; Cooper, Valentino R; Xiao, Di

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the surface electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of the SrTiO3 (111) slabs using density functional theory. We observe that, for Ti-terminated slabs it is indeed possible to create a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). However, the carrier density of the 2DEG displays a strong thickness dependence due to the competition between electronic reconstruction and polar distortions. As expected, having a surface oxygen atom at the Ti termination can stabilize the system, eliminating any electronic reconstruction, thereby making the system insulating. An analysis of the surface thermodynamic stability suggests that the Ti terminated (111) surface should be experimentally realizable. This surface may be useful for exploring the behavior of electrons in oxide (111) interfaces and may have implications for modern device applications.

  16. A modified NaSch model with density-dependent randomization for traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.; Ge, H. X.; Dong, L. Y.; Dai, S. Q.

    2007-05-01

    Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model of traffic flow, a modified cellular automaton (CA) traffic model with the density-dependent randomization (abbreviated as the DDR model) is proposed to simulate traffic flow. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation shows the ability of this modified NaSch model to capture the essential features of traffic flow, e.g., synchronized flow, metastable state, hysteresis and phase separation at higher densities. Comparisons are made between this DDR model and the NaSch model, also between this DDR model and the VDR model. And the underlying mechanism is analyzed. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  17. Effective electron displacements: A tool for time-dependent density functional theory computational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Guido, Ciro A. Cortona, Pietro; Adamo, Carlo; Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Bd Saint-Michel, F-75005 Paris

    2014-03-14

    We extend our previous definition of the metric Δr for electronic excitations in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory [C. A. Guido, P. Cortona, B. Mennucci, and C. Adamo, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 3118 (2013)], by including a measure of the difference of electronic position variances in passing from occupied to virtual orbitals. This new definition, called Γ, permits applications in those situations where the Δr-index is not helpful: transitions in centrosymmetric systems and Rydberg excitations. The Γ-metric is then extended by using the Natural Transition Orbitals, thus providing an intuitive picture of how locally the electron density changes during the electronic transitions. Furthermore, the Γ values give insight about the functional performances in reproducing different type of transitions, and allow one to define a “confidence radius” for GGA and hybrid functionals.

  18. Nonlinear magnetic field dependence of spin polarization in high-density two-dimensional electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K. F.; Liu, H. W.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.; Nagase, K.; Hirayama, Y.

    2011-08-01

    The spin polarization (P) of high-density InSb two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) has been measured using both parallel and tilted magnetic fields. P is found to exhibit a superlinear increase with the total field B. This P-B nonlinearity results in a difference in spin susceptibility between its real value χs and χgm~ m*g* (m* and g* are the effective mass and g factor, respectively) as routinely used in experiments. We demonstrate that such a P-B nonlinearity originates from the linearly P-dependent g* due to the exchange coupling of electrons rather than from the electron correlation as predicted for the low-density 2DES.

  19. Density-dependent recruitment of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.

    1992-01-01

    Density-dependent recruitment of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan during and after recovery of the population in about 1977-1983 was best reflected in the fit of the Beverton-Holt recruitment function to age -1 and -2 recruits and estimated eggs of parents surveyed with trawls. A lower growth rate and lower lipid content of bloaters at higher population densities and no evidence of cannibalism supported the conclusion that recruitment is resource limited when alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance is low. Predation on larvae by alewives was indicated in earlier studies as the probable cause of depressed recruitment of bloaters before their recovery, which coincided with declining alewife abundance. This negative interaction masked any bloater stock-recruitment relation in the earlier period.

  20. Electron density and temperature of gas-temperature-dependent cryoplasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Noma, Yuri; Hyuk Choi, Jai; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Terashima, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    A microsize cryoplasma jet was developed and analyzed at plasma gas temperatures ranging from room temperature down to 5 K. Experimental results obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements indicate that the average electron density and electron temperature of the cryoplasma jet depend on the gas temperature. In particular, the electron temperature in the cryoplasma starts to decrease rapidly near 60 K from about 13 eV at 60 K to 2 eV at 5 K, while the electron density increases from about 10{sup 9} to approximately 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} from room temperature to 5 K. This phenomenon induces an increase in the Coulomb interaction between electrons, which can be explained by the virial equation of state.

  1. Density dependent hadronic models and the relation between neutron stars and neutron skin thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Avancini, S. S.; Marinelli, J. R.; Menezes, D. P.; Moraes, M. M. W.; Providencia, C.

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, we investigate the main differences in the lead neutron skin thickness, binding energy, surface energy, and density profiles obtained with two different density dependent hadron models. Our results are calculated within the Thomas-Fermi approximation with two different numerical prescriptions and compared with results obtained with a common parametrization of the nonlinear Walecka model. The neutron skin thickness is a reflex of the equation of state properties. Hence, a direct correlation is found between the neutron skin thickness and the slope of the symmetry energy. We show that within the present approximations, the asymmetry parameter for low momentum transfer polarized electron scattering is not sensitive to the model differences.

  2. Studies of spuriously shifting resonances in time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Fuks, Johanna I; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-07-28

    Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is explained in Fuks et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition in the absence of time-dependent external fields and ionic motion is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationary Kohn-Sham reference state. We then present several case studies, including one that utilizes the adiabatically exact approximation, that illustrate the conditions and the impact of their violation on the accuracy of the ensuing dynamics. In particular, charge-transfer across a long-range molecule is hampered, and we show how adjusting the frequency of a driving field to match the time-dependent shift in the charge-transfer resonance frequency results in a larger charge transfer over time. PMID:27475342

  3. Studies of spuriously shifting resonances in time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai; Fuks, Johanna I.; Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-07-01

    Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is explained in Fuks et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition in the absence of time-dependent external fields and ionic motion is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationary Kohn-Sham reference state. We then present several case studies, including one that utilizes the adiabatically exact approximation, that illustrate the conditions and the impact of their violation on the accuracy of the ensuing dynamics. In particular, charge-transfer across a long-range molecule is hampered, and we show how adjusting the frequency of a driving field to match the time-dependent shift in the charge-transfer resonance frequency results in a larger charge transfer over time.

  4. Turbo charging time-dependent density-functional theory with Lanczos chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, Dario; Gebauer, Ralph; Saad, Yousef; Baroni, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    We introduce a new implementation of time-dependent density-functional theory which allows the entire spectrum of a molecule or extended system to be computed with a numerical effort comparable to that of a single standard ground-state calculation. This method is particularly well suited for large systems and/or large basis sets, such as plane waves or real-space grids. By using a superoperator formulation of linearized time-dependent density-functional theory, we first represent the dynamical polarizability of an interacting-electron system as an off-diagonal matrix element of the resolvent of the Liouvillian superoperator. One-electron operators and density matrices are treated using a representation borrowed from time-independent density-functional perturbation theory, which permits us to avoid the calculation of unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. The resolvent of the Liouvillian is evaluated through a newly developed algorithm based on the nonsymmetric Lanczos method. Each step of the Lanczos recursion essentially requires twice as many operations as a single step of the iterative diagonalization of the unperturbed Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. Suitable extrapolation of the Lanczos coefficients allows for a dramatic reduction of the number of Lanczos steps necessary to obtain well converged spectra, bringing such number down to hundreds (or a few thousands, at worst) in typical plane-wave pseudopotential applications. The resulting numerical workload is only a few times larger than that needed by a ground-state Kohn-Sham calculation for a same system. Our method is demonstrated with the calculation of the spectra of benzene, C60 fullerene, and of chlorophyll a.

  5. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-28

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. In vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  6. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-22

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potential for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. As a result, in vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.

  7. Size-dependent error of the density functional theory ionization potential in vacuum and solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2015-12-22

    Density functional theory is often the method of choice for modeling the energetics of large molecules and including explicit solvation effects. It is preferable to use a method that treats systems of different sizes and with different amounts of explicit solvent on equal footing. However, recent work suggests that approximate density functional theory has a size-dependent error in the computation of the ionization potential. We here investigate the lack of size-intensivity of the ionization potential computed with approximate density functionals in vacuum and solution. We show that local and semi-local approximations to exchange do not yield a constant ionization potentialmore » for an increasing number of identical isolated molecules in vacuum. Instead, as the number of molecules increases, the total energy required to ionize the system decreases. Rather surprisingly, we find that this is still the case in solution, whether using a polarizable continuum model or with explicit solvent that breaks the degeneracy of each solute, and we find that explicit solvent in the calculation can exacerbate the size-dependent delocalization error. We demonstrate that increasing the amount of exact exchange changes the character of the polarization of the solvent molecules; for small amounts of exact exchange the solvent molecules contribute a fraction of their electron density to the ionized electron, but for larger amounts of exact exchange they properly polarize in response to the cationic solute. As a result, in vacuum and explicit solvent, the ionization potential can be made size-intensive by optimally tuning a long-range corrected hybrid functional.« less

  8. Generalized time-dependent density-functional-theory response functions for spontaneous density fluctuations and nonlinear response: Resolving the causality paradox in real time

    SciTech Connect

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2005-02-01

    Time-ordered superoperators are used to develop a unified description of nonlinear density response and spontaneous fluctuations of many-electron systems. The pth-order density response functions are decomposed into 2{sup p+1} non-causal Liouville space pathways. Individual pathways are symmetric to the interchange of their space, time, and superoperator indices and can thus be calculated as functional derivatives. Other combinations of these pathways represent spontaneous density fluctuations and the response of such fluctuations to an external field. The resolution of the causality paradox of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is shown to be intimately connected with the nonretarded nature of fluctuations.

  9. Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-11-01

    Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm-3 density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source-target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate.

  10. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerber, L.R.; Buenau, K.E.; VanBlaricom, G.

    2004-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris (L.)) were hunted to extinction off the coast of Washington State early in the 20th century. A new population was established by translocations from Alaska in 1969 and 1970. The population, currently numbering at least 550 animals, A major threat to the population is the ongoing risk of majour oil spills in sea otter habitat. We apply population models to census and demographic data in order to evaluate the status of the population. We fit several density dependent models to test for density dependence and determine plausible values for the carrying capacity (K) by comparing model goodness of fit to an exponential model. Model fits were compared using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). A significant negative relationship was found between the population growth rate and population size (r2=0.27, F=5.57, df=16, p<0.05), suggesting density dependence in Washington state sea otters. Information criterion statistics suggest that the model is the most parsimonious, followed closely by the logistic Beverton-Holt model. Values of K ranged from 612 to 759 with best-fit parameter estimates for the Beverton-Holt model including 0.26 for r and 612 for K. The latest (2001) population index count (555) puts the population at 87-92% of the estimated carrying capacity, above the suggested range for optimum sustainable population (OSP). Elasticity analysis was conducted to examine the effects of proportional changes in vital rates on the population growth rate (??). The elasticity values indicate the population is most sensitive to changes in survival rates (particularly adult survival).

  11. A practical approach to lake water density from electrical conductivity and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Santiago; Schultze, Martin; Rahn, Karsten; Boehrer, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    Density calculations are essential to study stratification, circulation patterns, internal wave formation and other aspects of hydrodynamics in lakes and reservoirs. Currently, the most common procedure is the use of CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth) profilers and the conversion of measurements of temperature and electrical conductivity into density. In limnic waters, such approaches are of limited accuracy if they do not consider lake-specific composition of solutes, as we show. A new approach is presented to correlate density and electrical conductivity, using only two specific coefficients based on the composition of solutes. First, it is necessary to evaluate the lake-specific coefficients connecting electrical conductivity with density. Once these coefficients have been obtained, density can easily be calculated based on CTD data. The new method has been tested against measured values and the most common equations used in the calculation of density in limnic and ocean conditions. The results show that our new approach can reproduce the density contribution of solutes with a relative error of less than 10 % in lake waters from very low to very high concentrations as well as in lakes of very particular water chemistry, which is better than all commonly implemented density calculations in lakes. Finally, a web link is provided for downloading the corresponding density calculator.

  12. Excitons in solids with time-dependent density-functional theory: the bootstrap kernel and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Young-Moo; Yang, Zeng-Hui; Ullrich, Carsten

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is an efficient method to describe the optical properties of solids. Lately, a series of bootstrap-type exchange-correlation (xc) kernels have been reported to produce accurate excitons in solids, but different bootstrap-type kernels exist in the literature, with mixed results. In this presentation, we reveal the origin of the confusion and show a new empirical TDDFT xc kernel to compute excitonic properties of semiconductors and insulators efficiently and accurately. Our method can be used for high-throughput screening calculations and large unit cell calculations. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1408904.

  13. Density-dependent changes in the feeding behaviour of Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L G; Haimovici, M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term density-dependent changes in the population dynamics of the king weakfish Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil between 1976 and 2013 may be related to a change in diet and an increase in feeding intensity. The importance of the small crustacean, Artemesia longinaris, increased in the diet of adults, whereas the importance of teleosts decreased and the frequency of full stomachs increased. Macrodon atricauda currently benefits from a high availability of A. longinaris, which results in a higher energy intake per individual, which, in turn, induces faster body growth and an earlier onset of sexual maturation. PMID:27095149

  14. Observation of plasma density dependence of electromagnetic soliton excitation by an intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Sarri, G.; Kar, S.; Kourakis, I.; Borghesi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Bulanov, S. V.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Galimberti, M.; Heathcote, R.; Jung, R.; Osterholz, J.; Willi, O.; Schiavi, A.

    2011-08-15

    The experimental evidence of the correlation between the initial electron density of the plasma and electromagnetic soliton excitation at the wake of an intense (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) and short (1 ps) laser pulse is presented. The spatial distribution of the solitons, together with their late time evolution into post-solitons, is found to be dependent upon the background plasma parameters, in agreement with published analytical and numerical findings. The measured temporal evolution and electrostatic field distribution of the structures are consistent with their late time evolution and the occurrence of multiple merging of neighboring post-solitons.

  15. Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave gap in rare-earth tritellurides.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A; Arcangeletti, E; Perucchi, A; Baldassarre, L; Postorino, P; Lupi, S; Ru, N; Fisher, I R; Degiorgi, L

    2007-01-12

    We investigate the pressure dependence of the optical properties of CeTe3, which exhibits an incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) state already at 300 K. Our data are collected in the midinfrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 9 GPa. The energy for the single particle excitation across the CDW gap decreases upon increasing the applied pressure, similarly to the chemical pressure by rare-earth substitution. The broadening of the bands upon lattice compression removes the perfect nesting condition of the Fermi surface and therefore diminishes the impact of the CDW transition on the electronic properties of RTe3. PMID:17358625

  16. Defect-concentration dependence of the charge-density-wave transport in tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Forro, L.; Lacoe, R.; Bouffard, S.; Jerome, D.

    1987-04-15

    The effect of electron-irradiation-induced defects on the non-Ohmic dc conductivity of tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) has been studied. The threshold field (E/sub T/) for non-Ohmic transport increases linearly with the defect concentration. This impurity study lends strong support to the explanation of the nonlinear conductivity in TTF-TCNQ by the depinning of the charge-density-wave condensate in strong electric fields. Both the nonlinear current and the Ohmic conductivity present a similar temperature dependence in the Peierls state.

  17. Excitons in Organics Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: PPV, Pentacene, and Picene.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Dewhurst, J K; Shallcross, S; Madjarova, G K; Gross, E K U

    2015-04-14

    We apply the bootstrap kernel within time-dependent density functional theory to study the one-dimensional chain of polymer polyphenylenevinylene and molecular crystals of picene and pentacene. The absorption spectra of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) has a bound excitonic peak that is well-reproduced. Pentacene and picene, electronically similar materials, have remarkably different excitonic physics, and this difference is also well captured. We show that the inclusion of local-field effects dramatically changes the spectra of both picene and pentacene but not for poly(p-phenylenevinylene). PMID:26574381

  18. Descriptions of Carbon Isotopes Within Density-Dependent Relativistic Hartree-Fock Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiao-Li; Long, Wen-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (DDRHFB) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied, by taking the finite-range Gogny D1S with prefix factor 1.1 as the pairing force. The self-consistent DDRHFB calculations indicate the single neutron halo structures in both 17C and 19C. It is also found that close to the neutron drip line there exists distinct odd-even staggering on neutron radii, which is tightly related with the block effect.

  19. Measuring Depth-dependent Dislocation Densities and Elastic Strains in an Indented Ni-based Superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, O.M.; Santella, M.; Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Tischler, J.

    2011-12-14

    The indentation-induced elastic-plastic zone in an IN 740 Ni-based superalloy was studied by three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray microdiffraction and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Large lattice reorientations and the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations are observed in the area with a radius of {approx}75 {mu}m. A residual compression zone is found close to the indent edge. An elastic-plastic transition is observed at {approx}20 {mu}m from the indent edge. Depth dependent dislocation densities are determined at different distances from the indent edge.

  20. Reduced Glial and Neuronal Packing Density in the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Alcohol Dependence and Its Relationship with Suicide and Duration of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J.; Overholser, James C.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Background Reduced metabolism, blood flow, and tissue volume have been detected in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of neurologically intact alcoholic subjects and these deficits are accompanied by lower density of neurons and glial cells. Another prefrontal region, the orbitofrontal cortex (ORB), functionally and structurally differentiated from the dlPFC, and heavily involved in decision-making processes, also shows functional alterations in alcoholic subjects. However, it is unknown whether changes in the packing density of neurons or glial cells also occur in the ORB and whether that density may be related to the increased suicide probability of alcoholic subjects or to the duration of alcohol dependence. Methods The present study used a 3-dimensional cell-counting method in postmortem brain tissue to determine the packing density of neurons and glial cells in the ORB (area 47) of 15 subjects with alcohol dependence (8 suicides, 7 nonsuicides) and 8 normal controls and to determine whether cell density is correlated with suicide and duration of alcohol dependence. Results There was a significantly lower density of both neurons (by 27%) and glial cells (by 25%) in the ORB of alcoholic subjects compared with controls. Packing density of either neurons or glial cells was not significantly different in alcoholic suicides compared with alcoholic nonsuicides. Age was not correlated with neuronal or glial density in either group. However, the duration of alcohol dependence and the ratio of that duration to the length of life span were significantly and negatively correlated to the overall density of neurons. Conclusion The present results indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with a decrease in the packing density of neurons and glia in the ORB and that the reduction in neuronal but not glial density progresses with the duration of alcohol dependence. PMID:17067348

  1. Transverse momentum dependent parton densities in associated real and virtual photon and jet production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. V.; Zotov, N. P.

    2014-11-01

    We study the associated production of real (isolated) or virtual photons (with their subsequent leptonic decay) and hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the kT-factorization approach of QCD. The consideration is based on the off-shell quark-gluon QCD Compton scattering subprocesses. In the case of virtual photon production, the contributions from Z boson exchange as well as γ*-Z interference with the full spin correlations are included. The transversemomentum-dependent (TMD) quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription or Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) equation. In the latter, we restrict to the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the ATLAS Collaboration. We discuss the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and argue that further studies are capable of constraining the TMD parton densities in the proton.

  2. Ionic thermal effects on photo-electron emission within time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cong-Zhang; Dinh, Phuong Mai; Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard; Suraud, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We study the impact of thermal fluctuations of cluster/molecule shape on photo-electron spectra (PES) and photo-electron angular distributions (PAD) using a detailed time-dependent simulation of the emission dynamics and thermal ionic motion. Basis of the description is time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) coupled to molecular dynamics for ionic motion. Test cases are small Na clusters and the C3 molecule. For Na clusters, we find that PES signals are rather robust for one-photon processes while large smearing of the pattern are observed at lower frequencies in multi-photon processes. This effect can be related to the typical spectral response of the metal clusters. PAD are generally much more robust than PES. The C3 molecule produces a greater variety of thermal response. This happens because this molecule has eigenmodes with much different softness.

  3. Electric Double Layer electrostatics of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes with pH-dependent charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha; Soft Matter, Interfaces,; Energy Laboratory (Smiel) Team

    Understanding the electric double layer (EDL) electrostatics of spherical polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes, which are spherical particles grafted with PE layers, is essential for appropriate use of PE-grfated micro-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, oil recovery, water harvesting, emulsion stabilization, emulsion breaking, etc. Here we elucidate the EDL electrostatics of spherical PE brushes for the case where the PE exhibits pH-dependent charge density. This pH-dependence necessitates the consideration of explicit hydrogen ion concentration, which in turn dictates the distribution of monomers along the length of the grafted PE. This monomer distribution is shown to be a function of the nature of the sphere (metallic or a charged or uncharged dielectric or a liquid-filled sphere). All the calculations are performed for the case where the PE electrostatics can be decoupled from the PE elastic and excluded volume effects. Initial predictions are also provided for the case where such decoupling is not possible.

  4. Generalized information (entanglement) entropies depending on the probability (density matrix), (modified gravity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obregón, Octavio; Cabo Bizet, Nana Geraldine

    2016-03-01

    Generalized information (entanglement) entropy(ies) that depend only on the probability (the density matrix) will be exhibited. It will be shown that these generalized information entropy(ies) are obtained by means of the superstatistics proposal and they correspond to generalized entanglement entropy(ies) that are at the same time a consequence of generalizing the Replica trick. Following the entropic force formulation, these generalized entropy(ies) provide a modified Newtońs law of gravitation. We discuss the difficulties to get an associated theory of gravity. Moreover, our results show corrections to the von Neumann entropy S0 that are larger than the usual UV ones and also than the corrections to the length dependent AdS3 entropy which result comparable to the UV ones. The correction terms due to the new entropy would modify the Ryu-Takayanagi identification between the CFT and the gravitational AdS3 entropies.

  5. Molecular studies of pH dependent ligand interactions with the low-density lipoprotein receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    Ligand release from the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been postulated to involve a “histidine switch” induced intra-molecular rearrangement that discharges bound ligand. A recombinant soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor (sLDLR) was employed in ligand binding experiments with a fluorescent-tagged variant apolipoprotein E-N-terminal domain (apoE-NT). Binding was monitored as a function of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from excited Trp residues in sLDLR to an extrinsic fluorophore covalently attached to Trp null apoE3-NT. In binding experiments with wild type (WT) sLDLR, FRET-dependent AEDANS fluorescence decreased as the pH was lowered. To investigate the role of His190, His562 and His586 in sLDLR on pH dependent ligand binding and discharge, site directed mutagenesis studies were performed. Compared to WT sLDLR, triple His→Ala mutant sLDLR displayed attenuated pH-dependent ligand binding and decreased ligand release as a function of low pH. When these His residues were substituted for Lys, whose positively charged side chain does not ionize over this pH range, ligand binding was nearly abolished at all pH values. When sequential His to Lys mutants were examined, evidence obtained suggested that His562 and His586 function cooperatively. Whereas the sedimentation coefficient for WT sLDLR increased upon lowering the pH from 7 to 5, no such change occurred in the case of the triple Lys mutant receptor or a His562Lys / His586Lys double mutant receptor. The data support the existence of a cryptic, histidine side chain ionization-dependent alternative ligand that modulates ligand discharge via conformational reorganization. PMID:18847225

  6. Understanding spatial distributions: negative density-dependence in prey causes predators to trade-off prey quantity with quality.

    PubMed

    Bijleveld, Allert I; MacCurdy, Robert B; Chan, Ying-Chi; Penning, Emma; Gabrielson, Rich M; Cluderay, John; Spaulding, Eric L; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; Brugge, Maarten; van Gils, Jan A; Winkler, David W; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-04-13

    Negative density-dependence is generally studied within a single trophic level, thereby neglecting its effect on higher trophic levels. The 'functional response' couples a predator's intake rate to prey density. Most widespread is a type II functional response, where intake rate increases asymptotically with prey density; this predicts the highest predator densities at the highest prey densities. In one of the most stringent tests of this generality to date, we measured density and quality of bivalve prey (edible cockles Cerastoderma edule) across 50 km² of mudflat, and simultaneously, with a novel time-of-arrival methodology, tracked their avian predators (red knots Calidris canutus). Because of negative density-dependence in the individual quality of cockles, the predicted energy intake rates of red knots declined at high prey densities (a type IV, rather than a type II functional response). Resource-selection modelling revealed that red knots indeed selected areas of intermediate cockle densities where energy intake rates were maximized given their phenotype-specific digestive constraints (as indicated by gizzard mass). Because negative density-dependence is common, we question the current consensus and suggest that predators commonly maximize their energy intake rates at intermediate prey densities. Prey density alone may thus poorly predict intake rates, carrying capacity and spatial distributions of predators. PMID:27053747

  7. Modeling population density across major US cities: a polycentric spatial regression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Daniel A.; Wong, David W.

    2007-04-01

    A common approach to modeling population density gradients across a city is to adjust the specification of a selected set of mathematical functions to achieve the best fit to an urban place’s empirical density values. In this paper, we employ a spatial regression approach that takes into account the spatial autocorrelation latent in urban population density. We also use a Minkowskian distance metric instead of Euclidean or network distance to better describe spatial separation. We apply our formulation to the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the US according to the 2000 census, using block group level data. The general model furnishes good descriptions for both monocentric and polycentric cities.

  8. Time-dependent approach to electron pumping in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanucci, G.; Kurth, S.; Rubio, A.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2008-02-01

    We use a recently proposed time-dependent approach to investigate the motion of electrons in quantum pump device configurations. The occupied one-particle states are propagated in real time and employed to calculate the local electron density and current. The approach can also be embedded in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory to include electron-electron interactions. An advantage of the present computational scheme is that the same computational effort is required to simulate monochromatic, polychromatic, and nonperiodic drivings. Furthermore, initial-state dependence and history effects are naturally accounted for. We present results for one-dimensional devices exposed to a traveling potential wave. (i) We show that for pumping across a single potential barrier, electrons are transported in pockets and the transport mechanism resembles pumping of water with the Archimedean screw; (ii) we propose a simple model to study pumping through semiconductor nanostructures and we address the phenomenon of the current flowing in the opposite direction to the field propagation; (iii) we present the first numerical evidence of long-lived superimposed oscillations as induced by the presence of bound states and discuss the dependence of their lifetime on the frequency and amplitude of the driving field. By combining Floquet theory with nonequilibrium Green’s functions, we also obtain a general expression for the pumped current in terms of inelastic transmission probabilities. This latter result is used for benchmarking our propagation scheme in the long-time limit. Finally, we discuss the limitations of Floquet-based algorithms and suggest our approach as a possible way to go beyond them.

  9. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient’s and the doctor’s perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient’s active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  10. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  11. A comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of age-specific biokinetic models, current retention models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) frequently are used as a point of departure for evaluation of exposures to the general population. These models were designed and intended for estimation of long-term integrated doses to the adult worker. Their format and empirical basis preclude incorporation of much valuable physiological information and physiologically reasonable assumptions that could be used in characterizing the age-specific behavior of radioelements in humans. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive approach to age-dependent dosimetric modeling in which consideration is given not only to changes with age in masses and relative geometries of body organs and tissues but also to best available physiological and radiobiological information relating to the age-specific biobehavior of radionuclides. This approach is useful in obtaining more accurate estimates of long-term dose commitments as a function of age at intake, but it may be particularly valuable in establishing more accurate estimates of dose rate as a function of age. Age-specific dose rates are needed for a proper analysis of the potential effects on estimates or risk of elevated dose rates per unit intake in certain stages of life, elevated response per unit dose received during some stages of life, and age-specific non-radiogenic competing risks.

  12. Density dependent B parameter of relativistic stars with anisotropy in pseudo-spheroidal space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Paul, B. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present a class of relativistic solutions for compact cold stars with strange matter in a pseudo-spheroidal space-time. Considering strange matter equation of state namely, p = 1/3(ρ -4B), where ρ , p and B are energy density, pressure and MIT Bag parameter respectively, stellar models are obtained. In the presence of anisotropy with a pseudo-spheroidal geometry described by Vaidya-Tikekar, metric stellar models are explored where the Bag parameter varies with the energy density (ρ ) inside the compact object. We determine the density dependence of B at different anisotropy. It is noted that although B varies with anisotropy inside the star, finally at the surface it attains a value which is independent of the anisotropy. The Bag parameter B is found to increase with an increase in anisotropy for a given compactness factor (M/b) and spheroidicity λ . It is also noted that for a star with given mass and radius, the parameter B increases with the increase in λ and finally at large λ , it attains a constant. The equation of state (EoS) obtained here from geometrical consideration with allowed `B' value is found same to that one obtains from micro-physics. The stability of the stellar models for compact stars with anisotropy in hydrostatic equilibrium obtained here is also studied.

  13. Tobacco Retailer Proximity and Density and Nicotine Dependence Among Smokers With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Henriksen, Lisa; Delucchi, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and associations with smoking behavior and mental health in a diverse sample of 1061 smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) residing in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Methods. Participants’ addresses were geocoded and linked with retailer licensing data to determine the distance between participants’ residence and the nearest retailer (proximity) and the number of retailers within 500-meter and 1-kilometer service areas (density). Results. More than half of the sample lived within 250 meters of a tobacco retailer. A median of 3 retailers were within 500 meters of participants’ residences, and a median of 12 were within 1 kilometer. Among smokers with SMI, tobacco retailer densities were 2-fold greater than for the general population and were associated with poorer mental health, greater nicotine dependence, and lower self-efficacy for quitting. Conclusions. Our findings provide further evidence of the tobacco retail environment as a potential vector contributing to tobacco-related disparities among individuals with SMI and suggest that this group may benefit from progressive environmental protections that restrict tobacco retail licenses and reduce aggressive point-of-sale marketing. PMID:24922145

  14. Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey.

    PubMed

    Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2011-04-19

    Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such "masquerade" have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators' motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey. PMID:21464318

  15. A DENSITY DEPENDENCE FOR PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY IN CLASS I SOURCES: COLLABORATIVE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Hurst, Rachel; Koenig, Xavier

    2014-02-10

    Class I protostars in three high-mass star-forming regions are found to have correlations among the local projected density of other Class I protostars, the summed flux from these other protostars, and the protostellar luminosity in the WISE 22 μm band. Brighter Class I sources form in higher-density and higher-flux regions, while low luminosity sources form anywhere. These correlations depend slightly on the number of neighbors considered (from 2 to 20) and could include a size-of-sample effect from the initial mass function (i.e., larger numbers include rarer and more massive stars). Luminosities seem to vary by neighborhood with nearby protostars having values proportional to each other and higher density regions having higher values. If Class I luminosity is partially related to the accretion rate, then this luminosity correlation is consistent with the competitive accretion model, although it is more collaborative than competitive. The correlation is also consistent with primordial mass segregation and could explain why the stellar initial mass function resembles the dense core mass function even when cores form multiple stars.

  16. Hippo signaling regulates Microprocessor and links cell density-dependent miRNA biogenesis to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masaki; Triboulet, Robinson; Mohseni, Morvarid; Schlegelmilch, Karin; Shrestha, Kriti; Camargo, Fernando D.; Gregory, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs. Inactivation of the Hippo pathway or expression of constitutively active YAP causes widespread miRNA suppression in cells and tumors and a corresponding post-transcriptional induction of MYC expression. Thus, the Hippo pathway links contact-inhibition regulation to miRNA biogenesis and may be responsible for the widespread miRNA repression observed in cancer. PMID:24581491

  17. Exact-exchange time-dependent density-functional theory for static and dynamic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, So; Ivanov, Stanislav; Bartlett, Rodney J.; Grabowski, Ireneusz

    2005-03-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) employing the exact-exchange functional has been formulated on the basis of the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method of Talman and Shadwick for second-order molecular properties and implemented into a Gaussian-basis-set, trial-vector algorithm. The only approximation involved, apart from the lack of correlation effects and the use of Gaussian-type basis functions, was the consistent use of the adiabatic approximation in the exchange kernel and in the linear response function. The static and dynamic polarizabilities and their anisotropy predicted by the TDDFT with exact exchange (TDOEP) agree accurately with the corresponding values from time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, the exact-exchange counterpart in the wave function theory. The TDOEP is free from the nonphysical asymptotic decay of the exchange potential of most conventional density functionals or from any other manifestations of the incomplete cancellation of the self-interaction energy. The systematic overestimation of the absolute values and dispersion of polarizabilities that plagues most conventional TDDFT cannot be seen in the TDOEP.

  18. Zoospore density-dependent behaviors of Phytophthora nicotianae are autoregulated by extracellular products.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ping; Hong, Chuanxue

    2010-07-01

    Phytophthora species are destructive fungus-like plant pathogens that use asexual single-celled flagellate zoospores for dispersal and plant infection. Many of the zoospore behaviors are density-dependent although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use P. nicotianae as a model and demonstrate autoregulation of some zoospore behaviors using signal molecules that zoospores release into the environment. Specifically, zoospore aggregation, plant targeting, and infection required or were enhanced by threshold concentrations of these signal molecules. Below the threshold concentration, zoospores did not aggregate and move toward a cauline leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) and failed to individually attack annual vinca (Catharanthus roseus cv. Little Bright Eye). These processes were reversed when supplemented with zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) prepared from a zoospore suspension above threshold densities but not with calcium chloride at a concentration equivalent to extracellular Ca(2+) in ZFF. These results suggest that Ca(2+) is not a primary signal molecule regulating these communal behaviors. Zoospores coordinated their communal behaviors by releasing, detecting, and responding to signal molecules. This chemical communication mechanism raises the possibility that Phytophthora plant infection may not depend solely on zoospore number in the real world. Single zoospore infection may take place if it is signaled by a common molecule available in the environment which contributes to the destructiveness of these plant pathogens. PMID:20528180

  19. Cosmological constraints from the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski test: galaxy density gradient field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Park, Changbom; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Kim, Juhan E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr E-mail: kjhan@kias.re.kr

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method based on the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test to measure the expansion history of the universe. It uses the isotropy of the galaxy density gradient field to constrain cosmological parameters. If the density parameter Ω {sub m} or the dark energy equation of state w are incorrectly chosen, the gradient field appears to be anisotropic with the degree of anisotropy varying with redshift. We use this effect to constrain the cosmological parameters governing the expansion history of the universe. Although redshift-space distortions (RSD) induced by galaxy peculiar velocities also produce anisotropies in the gradient field, these effects are close to uniform in magnitude over a large range of redshift. This makes the redshift variation of the gradient field anisotropy relatively insensitive to the RSD. By testing the method on mock surveys drawn from the Horizon Run 3 cosmological N-body simulations, we demonstrate that the cosmological parameters can be estimated without bias. Our method is complementary to the baryon acoustic oscillation or topology methods as it depends on D{sub AH} , the product of the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter.

  20. Lifetime reproductive success and density-dependent, multi-variable resource selection

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Philip D; Boyce, Mark S; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Individuals are predicted to maximize lifetime reproductive success (LRS) through selective use of resources; however, a wide range of ecological and social processes may prevent individuals from always using the highest-quality resources available. Resource selection functions (RSFs) estimate the relative amount of time an individual spends using a resource as a function of the proportional availability of that resource. We quantified the association between LRS and coefficients of individual-based RSFs describing lifetime resource selection for 267 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) of the Isle of Rum, Scotland, from 1970 to 2001. LRS was significantly related to first- and second-order effects of selection for Agrostis/Festuca grassland and proximity to the sea coast (quality of forage within Agrostis/Festuca grassland was highest nearest the coast (ratio of short : long grassland)). The benefits of selecting for quality in Agrostis/Festuca grassland, however, traded-off with increases in LRS gained by avoiding conspecific density. LRS was inversely associated with local density, which was highest along the coast, and reproductive benefits of selecting Agrostis/Festuca grassland diminished with increasing density. We discuss the relevance of these results to our understanding of the spatial distribution of red deer abundance, and potential applications of our approach to evolutionary and applied ecology. PMID:16777736

  1. Time-dependent density functional theory with twist-averaged boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Time-dependent density functional theory is widely used to describe excitations of many-fermion systems. In its many applications, three-dimensional (3D) coordinate-space representation is used, and infinite-domain calculations are limited to a finite volume represented by a spatial box. For finite quantum systems (atoms, molecules, nuclei, hadrons), the commonly used periodic or reflecting boundary conditions introduce spurious quantization of the continuum states and artificial reflections from boundary; hence, an incorrect treatment of evaporated particles. Purpose: The finite-volume artifacts for finite systems can be practically cured by invoking an absorbing potential in a certain boundary region sufficiently far from the described system. However, such absorption cannot be applied in the calculations of infinite matter (crystal electrons, quantum fluids, neutron star crust), which suffer from unphysical effects stemming from a finite computational box used. Here, twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) have been used successfully to diminish the finite-volume effects. In this work, we extend TABC to time-dependent modes. Method: We use the 3D time-dependent density functional framework with the Skyrme energy density functional. The practical calculations are carried out for small- and large-amplitude electric dipole and quadrupole oscillations of 16O. We apply and compare three kinds of boundary conditions: periodic, absorbing, and twist-averaged. Results: Calculations employing absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) and TABC are superior to those based on periodic boundary conditions. For low-energy excitations, TABC and ABC variants yield very similar results. With only four twist phases per spatial direction in TABC, one obtains an excellent reduction of spurious fluctuations. In the nonlinear regime, one has to deal with evaporated particles. In TABC, the floating nucleon gas remains in the box; the amount of nucleons in the gas is found to be

  2. Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equation and Boltzmann Transport Equation for Charge-Density-Wave Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, Yositake; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and the Boltzmann transport equation for charge-density-wave (CDW) conductors are derived from a microscopic one-dimensional model by applying the Keldysh Green's function approach under a quasiclassical approximation. The effects of an external electric field and impurity pinning of the CDW are fully taken into account without relying on a phenomenological argument. These equations simultaneously describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of both the CDW and quasiparticles; thus, they serve as a starting point to develop a general framework to analyze various nonequilibrium phenomena, such as current conversion between the CDW condensate and quasiparticles, in realistic CDW conductors. It is shown that, in typical situations, the equations correctly describe the nonlinear behavior of electric conductivity in a simpler manner.

  3. Theoretical and numerical assessments of spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2012-01-01

    Spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TD-DFT) with the full noncollinear hybrid exchange-correlation kernel and its approximate variants are critically assessed, both formally and numerically. As demonstrated by the ethylene torsion and the C2v ring-opening of oxirane, SF-TD-DFT is very useful for describing nearly degenerate situations. However, it may occasionally yield unphysical results. This stems from the noncollinear form of the generalized gradient approximation, which becomes numerically instable in the presence of spin-flip excitations from the closed- to vacant-shell orbitals of an open-shell reference. To cure this defect, a simple modification, dubbed as ALDA0, is proposed in the spirit of adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). It is applicable to all kinds of density functionals and yields stable results without too much loss of accuracy. In particular, the combination of ALDA0 with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation is a promising tool for studying global potential energy surfaces. In addition to the kernel problem, SF-TD-DFT is also rather sensitive to the choice of reference states, as demonstrated by the spin multiplet states of closed-shell molecules of H2O, CH2O, and C2H4. Surprisingly, SF-TD-DFT with pure density functionals may also fail for valance excitations with large orbital overlaps, at variance with the spin-conserving counterpart (SC-TD-DFT). In this case, the inclusion of a large amount of Hartree-Fock exchange is mandatory for quantitative results. Nonetheless, for spatially degenerate cases such as CF, CH, and NH+, SF-TD-DFT is more advantageous than SC-TD-DFT, unless the latter is also space adapted. These findings are very instructive for future development and applications of TD-DFT.

  4. Density-dependent processes in the life history of fishes: evidence from laboratory populations of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Hazlerigg, Charles R E; Lorenzen, Kai; Thorbek, Pernille; Wheeler, James R; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Population regulation is fundamental to the long-term persistence of populations and their responses to harvesting, habitat modification, and exposure to toxic chemicals. In fish and other organisms with complex life histories, regulation may involve density dependence in different life-stages and vital rates. We studied density dependence in body growth and mortality through the life-cycle of laboratory populations of zebrafish Danio rerio. When feed input was held constant at population-level (leading to resource limitation), body growth was strongly density-dependent in the late juvenile and adult phases of the life-cycle. Density dependence in mortality was strong during the early juvenile phase but declined thereafter and virtually ceased prior to maturation. Provision of feed in proportion to individual requirements (easing resource limitation) removed density dependence in growth and substantially reduced density dependence in mortality, thus indicating that 'bottom-up' effects act on growth as well as mortality, but most strongly on growth. Both growth and mortality played an important role in population regulation, with density-dependent growth having the greater impact on population biomass while mortality had the greatest impact on numbers. We demonstrate a clear ontogenic pattern of change in density-dependent processes within populations of a very small (maximum length 5 mm) fish, maintained in constant homogeneous laboratory conditions. The patterns are consistent with those distilled from studies on wild fish populations, indicating the presence of broad ontogenic patterns in density-dependent processes that are invariant to maximum body size and hold in homogeneous laboratory, as well as complex natural environments. PMID:22655056

  5. Understanding the dependence of transport parameters on carrier concentration within a Gaussian density of states in molecular organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kumar, P; Rani, V; Ray, N; Ghosh, S

    2016-06-15

    We study charge transport in molecular organic semiconductors using two terminal and three terminal field effect transistor devices. Using phthalocyanines as examples, we achieve unification of carrier mobility between the different configurations in a Gaussian density of states. We find that the current density-voltage characteristics for two terminal devices can be understood by introducing a concentration dependence of the carrier mobility, as described by Oelerich et al (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 226403, 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 143302). Studying the evolution of the activation energy with the carrier density, we find results consistent with a percolation picture and a density dependent transport energy. PMID:27160656

  6. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) coupled with reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD).

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, D

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced. PMID:27608983

  7. Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on superfluid density.

    PubMed

    Božović, I; He, X; Wu, J; Bollinger, A T

    2016-08-18

    The physics of underdoped copper oxide superconductors, including the pseudogap, spin and charge ordering and their relation to superconductivity, is intensely debated. The overdoped copper oxides are perceived as simpler, with strongly correlated fermion physics evolving smoothly into the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer behaviour. Pioneering studies on a few overdoped samples indicated that the superfluid density was much lower than expected, but this was attributed to pair-breaking, disorder and phase separation. Here we report the way in which the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness depend on temperature and doping by investigating the entire overdoped side of the La2-xSrxCuO4 phase diagram. We measured the absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness to an accuracy of one per cent in thousands of samples; the large statistics reveal clear trends and intrinsic properties. The films are homogeneous; variations in the critical superconducting temperature within a film are very small (less than one kelvin). At every level of doping the phase stiffness decreases linearly with temperature. The dependence of the zero-temperature phase stiffness on the critical superconducting temperature is generally linear, but with an offset; however, close to the origin this dependence becomes parabolic. This scaling law is incompatible with the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer description. PMID:27535534

  8. Toward a model-independent constraint of the high-density dependence of the symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozma, M. D.; Leifels, Y.; Trautmann, W.; Li, Q.; Russotto, P.

    2013-10-01

    Neutron-proton elliptic flow difference and ratio have been shown to be promising observables in the attempt to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy above the saturation point from heavy-ion collision data. Their dependence on model parameters such as microscopic nucleon-nucleon cross sections, compressibility of nuclear matter, optical potential, and symmetry energy parametrization is thoroughly studied. By using a parametrization of the symmetry energy derived from the momentum-dependent Gogny force in conjunction with the Tübingen quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model and comparing the results with the experimental FOPI-LAND data for 197Au +197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon, a moderately stiff (Lsym=122±57 MeV and Ksym=229±363 MeV) symmetry energy is extracted, a result that agrees with that of a similar study that employed the UrQMD transport model and a power-law parametrization of the symmetry energy. This contrasts with diverging results extracted from the FOPI π-/π+ ratio available in the literature.

  9. Density-dependent life-history compensation of an iteroparous salmonid.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fiona D; Post, John R

    2009-03-01

    Over the course of a decade, the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) population in Lower Kananaskis Lake, Alberta, Canada, recovered from a heavily overexploited state, experiencing a 28-fold increase in adult abundance after the implementation of zero-harvest regulations. This system provided a unique opportunity to monitor the changes in life-history characteristics in a natural population throughout the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which life-history traits were able to compensate for harvest-induced changes and the implications of this for management. Density-dependent changes in growth, survival, and reproductive life-history characteristics were observed. As density increased, maturation was delayed, and the frequency of skipped reproductive events, primarily by individuals of poor condition, increased. However, size at maturation and the proportion of fish skipping reproduction differed between the sexes, suggesting that life-history trade-offs differ between the sexes. The rapid response of these life-history traits to changes in density suggests that these changes were primarily due to phenotypic plasticity, although the importance of natural and artificial selection should not be discounted. The magnitude of the variation in the traits represents the degree to which the population was able to compensate for overharvest, although the overexploited state of the population at the beginning of the study demonstrates it was not able to fully compensate for this mortality. However, no evidence of depensatory processes was found. This, in combination with the plasticity of the life-history traits, has important implications for the resilience of the population to overharvest. Furthermore, density-dependent growth may have the unintended result of making size-based regulations less conservative at low levels of population abundance, as younger fish, perhaps even immature fish, become vulnerable to harvest. Finally, the

  10. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  11. Constraining depth-dependent anisotropy: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, M.; Okeler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Splitting of shear waves is commonly used to infer anisotropy of the Earth's interior. However, most data, such as SKS splitting, provide depth-integrated measure of anisotropy along the ray path, and it is difficult to separate contributions from different layers within the Earth. There have been efforts to focus on specific depth range by analyzing differences in splitting between two ray paths, but these studies only report observed differences or rely upon forward modeling with limited parameter-space search. We have developed a new approach to examine the P-to-S converted phases that allows one to construct depth-dependent multi-layer anisotropy models through combination of inversion and grid search. In addition to the conventional fast splitting direction and delay time, the technique allows one to investigate the tilt of the symmetry axis and dip of the discontinuity associated with the P-to-S conversion. Furthermore, the formulation is such that it naturally extends to include and examine multiple layers with different anisotropic properties. With these flexibilities, we can address anisotropic contributions from different layers in two separate procedures. The first scheme takes advantage of data with similar ray paths (e.g., SKS and SKKS waves recorded at the same station). The rays sample different structure when their ray paths differ (e.g., near the core-mantle boundary), but they sample the same structure when the paths are similar (e.g., in the upper part of the mantle and crust). Using our new approach, we can set up the problem as a two-layer anisotropy model where the layer with ray paths sampling different regions (e.g., lowermost mantle) is allowed to vary laterally. The second type of problem that can be addressed by the new approach is layer-by-layer investigation of anisotropy from top to bottom. This procedure combines the new method with receiver function analysis to obtain anisotropic properties of each layer using P-to-S converted waves

  12. Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M; Morrison, Scott A; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-01-01

    Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number from its effects on reproductive failure, while also evaluating how biotic and abiotic factors jointly shape demography. We examined the effects of population density and precipitation on fecundity, nest survival, and adult survival in an insular population of orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) that breeds at high densities and exhibits a suite of traits suggesting strong intraspecific competition. Breeding density had a negative influence on fecundity, but it acted by increasing the probability of reproductive failure through nest predation, rather than through competition, which was predicted to reduce the number of offspring produced by successful individuals. Our results demonstrate that density-dependent nest predation can underlie the relationship between population density and fecundity even in a high-density, insular population where intraspecific competition should be strong. PMID:25077023

  13. Topside ionosphere plasma bubbles, seen in He+ density: longitudinal dependence and thermosphere meridional wind influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, L.

    2009-04-01

    + density depletion statistics, averaged for solstices and equinoxes, were compared with the model velocity variations of the thermosphere meridional wind, taken from (Maruyama, 1996). It was revealed that the meridional wind influence shows itself as modulation effect. The modulation has seasonal dependence and the best correlation in equinoxes (R=0.87). The best amplitude correlation was found for the longitudes of 270°-360° (Brasilia, Atlantic regions), where the declination angle of the magnetic meridional wind component is near 20°. It was concluded that the topside plasma bubbles, seen as He+ density depletions, are strong enough affected by thermosphere meridional wind. REFERENCE Maryama, T. and N. Matuura, Global distribution of occurrence probability of spread echoes based on ISS-b observation, RRL, vol.27, N 124, 201-216, 1980. Maryama, T. and N. Matuura, Longitudinal variability of annual changes in activity of equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles, J. Geophys. Res., 89(A12), 10,903-10,912, 1984. Maruyama, T., Modeling study of equatorial ionospheric height and spread F occurrence, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 101, A3, pp. 5157-5163, 1996. McClure, J. P., Singh S., Bamgboye D.K., Johnson F.S., Hyosub Kil. Occurrence of equatorial F region irregularities: Evidence for tropospheric seeding, J. Geophys. Res., 103(A12), 29,119-29,135, 1998. Sidorova, L.N., He+ density topside modeling based on ISS-b satellite data, Adv. Space Res., vol. 33, pp. 850-854, 2004. Sidorova, L.N., Plasma bubble phenomenon in the topside ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., Special issue (COSPAR), doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.03.067, 2007.

  14. Impact of density-dependent migration flows on epidemic outbreaks in heterogeneous metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, J; Avinyó, A; Pellicer, M; Saldaña, J

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the role of migration patterns on the spread of epidemics in complex networks. We enhance the SIS-diffusion model on metapopulations to a nonlinear diffusion. Specifically, individuals move randomly over the network but at a rate depending on the population of the departure patch. In the absence of epidemics, the migration-driven equilibrium is described by quantifying the total number of individuals living in heavily or lightly populated areas. Our analytical approach reveals that strengthening the migration from populous areas contains the infection at the early stage of the epidemic. Moreover, depending on the exponent of the nonlinear diffusion rate, epidemic outbreaks do not always occur in the most populated areas as one might expect. PMID:26382456

  15. Impact of density-dependent migration flows on epidemic outbreaks in heterogeneous metapopulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, J.; Avinyó, A.; Pellicer, M.; Saldaña, J.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the role of migration patterns on the spread of epidemics in complex networks. We enhance the SIS-diffusion model on metapopulations to a nonlinear diffusion. Specifically, individuals move randomly over the network but at a rate depending on the population of the departure patch. In the absence of epidemics, the migration-driven equilibrium is described by quantifying the total number of individuals living in heavily or lightly populated areas. Our analytical approach reveals that strengthening the migration from populous areas contains the infection at the early stage of the epidemic. Moreover, depending on the exponent of the nonlinear diffusion rate, epidemic outbreaks do not always occur in the most populated areas as one might expect.

  16. Debris spatial density dependence on control volume resolution in the geosynchronous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, H. G.; Swinerd, G. G.; Martin, C. E.; Smith, D. A. J.

    The debris environment of the Earth can be characterised using spatial density within the cells, or bins, of a spherical control volume, which has dimensions of geocentric radius (altitude), declination and right ascension. The characterisation of the debris environment in this way allows model predictions and measurement data from the USSTRATCOM catalogue, radar and returned surfaces to be compared. In addition, the volume-centred approach enables semi-deterministic models to compute debris fluxes relative to given target spacecraft orbits, provided the volume cells are of sufficiently high resolution. In this way semi-deterministic models employ the spatial density representation of the debris environment to predict future collision events and the future environment. The determination of debris spatial density for discrete sectors of near-Earth space is an integral part of the semi-deterministic models, IDES (Integrated Debris Evolution Suite), LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model) and DAMAGE (Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture for the Geosynchronous Environment). Comparative model studies for the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) utilise an agreed baseline incorporating the sizes of control volume cells but the sensitivity to the choice of these sizes has not been previously explored due to the computational expense involved. The results of two such sensitivity studies performed using DAMAGE are presented in this paper. DAMAGE characterized the current debris environment by simulating the debris source (launch and fragmentations only) and sink processes for objects larger than 10 cm from the beginning of the space age to May 2001. The simulated environment in the altitude range 35,000 km to 36,800 km was found to be generally consistent with the equivalent historical evolution performed using IDES and the two-line element (TLE) catalogue. Results from the sensitivity studies suggest that computed spatial densities are stable

  17. Optimized Effective Potential for Quantum Electrodynamical Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Camilla; Flick, Johannes; Tokatly, Ilya V; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-08-28

    We propose an orbital exchange-correlation functional for applying time-dependent density functional theory to many-electron systems coupled to cavity photons. The time nonlocal equation for the electron-photon optimized effective potential (OEP) is derived. In the static limit our OEP energy functional reduces to the Lamb shift of the ground state energy. We test the new approximation in the Rabi model. It is shown that the OEP (i) reproduces quantitatively the exact ground-state energy from the weak to the deep strong coupling regime and (ii) accurately captures the dynamics entering the ultrastrong coupling regime. The present formalism opens the path to a first-principles description of correlated electron-photon systems, bridging the gap between electronic structure methods and quantum optics for real material applications. PMID:26371646

  18. Inelastic collisions and density-dependent excitation suppression in a {sup 87}Sr optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Bishof, M.; Martin, M. J.; Swallows, M. D.; Benko, C.; Lin, Y.; Quemener, G.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J.

    2011-11-15

    We observe two-body loss of {sup 3} P{sub 0} {sup 87}Sr atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We measure loss rate coefficients for atomic samples between 1 and 6 {mu}K that are prepared either in a single nuclear-spin sublevel or with equal populations in two sublevels. The measured temperature and nuclear-spin preparation dependence of rate coefficients agree well with calculations and reveal that rate coefficients for distinguishable atoms are only slightly enhanced over those of indistinguishable atoms. We further observe a suppression of excitation and losses during interrogation of the {sup 1} S{sub 0}-{sup 3} P{sub 0} transition as density increases and Rabi frequency decreases, which suggests the presence of strong interactions in our dynamically driven many-body system.

  19. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from measurements of neutron radii in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Viñas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2014-07-23

    We study the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, characterized by its slope parameter L, by means of the information provided by the neutron radius and the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. These quantities are extracted from the analysis of data obtained in antiprotonic atoms, from the parity-violating asymmetry at low-momentum transfer in polarized electron scattering in {sup 208}Pb, and from the electric dipole polarizability obtained via polarized proton inelastic scattering at forward angles in {sup 208}Pb. All these experiments provide different constraints on the slope L of the symmetry energy but the corresponding values have a considerable overlap in a range around 50 MeV ≤ L ≤ 70 MeV, in a reasonable agreement with other estimates that use different observables and methods to extract L.

  20. Extrinsic spin-orbit coupling and density dependent weak antilocalization in three-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weizhe; Adroguer, Pierre; Bi, Xintao; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2015-03-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) have revolutionized our understanding of insulating behaviour. Three-dimensional TIs are insulators in the bulk but conducting along their surfaces. Much of recent researches on 3D TIs focus on overcoming the transport bottleneck, namely the fact that surface transport is overwhelmed by bulk transport stemming from unintentional doping. The key to overcoming this bottleneck is identifying unambiguous signatures of surface state transport. We will discuss one such signature: weak antilocalization, meaning that coherent backscattering increases the electrical conductivity. The features of this effect, however, are rather subtle, because in TI the impurities have also strong spin-orbit coupling. I will show that spin-orbit coupled impurities introduce an additional time scale, which is expected to be shorter than the dephasing time, and the resulting conductivity has a distinguished part with linear dependent on the carrier number density. The result we predict is directly observable experimentally.

  1. Pattern Formation in Populations with Density-Dependent Movement and Two Interaction Scales.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Ricardo; Murgui, Clara; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    We study the spatial patterns formed by a system of interacting particles where the mobility of any individual is determined by the population crowding at two different spatial scales. In this way we model the behavior of some biological organisms (like mussels) that tend to cluster at short ranges as a defensive strategy, and strongly disperse if there is a high population pressure at large ranges for optimizing foraging. We perform stochastic simulations of a particle-level model of the system, and derive and analyze a continuous density description (a nonlinear diffusion equation). In both cases we show that this interplay of scale-dependent-behaviors gives rise to a rich formation of spatial patterns ranging from labyrinths to periodic cluster arrangements. In most cases these clusters have the very peculiar appearance of ring-like structures, i.e., organisms arranging in the perimeter of the clusters, which we discuss in detail. PMID:26147351

  2. Thickness dependence of the charge-density-wave transition temperature in VSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jiyong; Liu, Yan; Du, Haifeng; Ning, Wei; Zheng, Guolin; Jin, Chiming; Han, Yuyan; Wang, Ning; Tian, Mingliang Zhang, Yuheng; Wang, Weike; Yang, Zhaorong

    2014-08-11

    A set of three-dimensional charge-density-wave (3D CDW) VSe{sub 2} nano-flakes with different thicknesses were obtained by the scotch tape-based micro-mechanical exfoliation method. Resistivity measurements showed that the 3D CDW transition temperature T{sub p} decreases systematically from 105 K in bulk to 81.8 K in the 11.6 nm thick flake. The Hall resistivity ρ{sub xy} of all the flakes showed a linear dependent behavior against the magnetic field with a residual electron concentration of the order of ∼10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} at 5 K. The electron concentration n increases slightly as the thickness d decreases, possibly due to the CDW gap is reduced with the decrease of the thickness.

  3. Energetics and dynamics of laser-assisted field evaporation: Time-dependent density functional theory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaeva, Elena P.; Uchida, Kazuki; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-10-01

    High positive electrostatic (dc) field can break the bonds in molecules and strip away atoms from the solid surfaces. The dynamics of this field evaporation under laser pulse is studied for a H2 molecule and a Si4 cluster using time-dependent density functional theory combined with molecular dynamics. This allows us to monitor the position and charge state of the evaporated atom in real time. Our simulations demonstrate that the critical dc field for the evaporation is lower if the molecule/cluster is illuminated by a laser pulse. The behavior of the evaporation threshold as a function of laser intensity and dc field is in qualitative agreement with experiments and provides important insights into the mechanisms of laser-assisted field evaporation. Additionally, the laser-assisted field evaporation is found to be sensitive to the laser energy according to the photoabsorption spectra that demonstrate a pronounced redshift in the lower energy region at higher dc field values.

  4. Global stability of a delayed SIR epidemic model with density dependent birth and death rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Hara, Tadayuki

    2007-04-01

    An SIR epidemic model with density dependent birth and death rates is formulated. In our model it is assumed that the total number of the population is governed by logistic equation. The transmission of infection is assumed to be of the standard form, namely proportional to I(t-h)/N(t-h) where N(t) is the total (variable) population size, I(t) is the size of the infective population and a time delay h is a fixed time during which the infectious agents develop in the vector. We consider transmission dynamics for the model. Stability of an endemic equilibrium is investigated. The stability result is stated in terms of a threshold parameter, that is, a basic reproduction number R0.

  5. Time-dependent density functional study on the photoisomerization mechanism of azobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Norihisa; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Takahisa

    2004-03-01

    Photochemical reactions in organic molecules have attracted considerable attention in semiconductor physics and also in bioscience. Azobenzene is a simple molecule which shows the reversible photoisomerization at high quantum yields, and can be used as a light-driven molecular switch and so on. However, the photoisomerization process of azobenzene is still an open question because of its femtosecond ultra-fast reaction. In this talk, we present time-dependent density functional calculations for the azobenzene molecule, and discuss the mechanism of photoisomerization induced by S1 and S2 excitations. This research is partially supported by ACT-JST, and also by FSIS and Special Coordination Funds of MEXT of Japanese Government. The calculations were carried out partly using the Numerical Materials Simulator in National Institute for Materials Science, and partly using the NEC-SX5 at Cybermedia Center of Osaka University.

  6. Time-dependent local density approximation study of attosecond time delays in the photoionization of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2016-05-01

    We investigate Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoionization from various subshells of xenon using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) with the Leeuwen and Baerends exchange-correlation functional. At the 4d giant dipole resonance region as well as near all the Cooper minimum anti-resonances in 5p, 5s and 4d photoemissions, effects of electron correlations uniquely determine the shapes of the emission quantum phase. The Wigner-Smith time delay derived from this phase indicates significant variations as a function of energy. The results qualitatively support our TDLDA predictions at the fullerene plasmon region and at 3p Cooper minimum in argon, and should encourage attosecond measurements of Xe photoemission via two-photon interferometric techniques, such as RABITT. The work is supported by the NSF, USA.

  7. A relativistic time-dependent density functional study of the excited states of the mercury dimer.

    PubMed

    Kullie, Ossama

    2014-01-14

    In previous works on Zn2 and Cd2 dimers we found that the long-range corrected CAMB3LYP gives better results than other density functional approximations for the excited states, especially in the asymptotic region. In this paper, we use it to present a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) study for the ground-state as well as the excited states corresponding to the (6s(2) + 6s6p), (6s(2) + 6s7s), and (6s(2) + 6s7p) atomic asymptotes for the mercury dimer Hg2. We analyze its spectrum obtained from all-electron calculations performed with the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb and relativistic spinfree Hamiltonian as implemented in DIRAC-PACKAGE. A comparison with the literature is given as far as available. Our result is excellent for the most of the lower excited states and very encouraging for the higher excited states, it shows generally good agreements with experimental results and outperforms other theoretical results. This enables us to give a detailed analysis of the spectrum of the Hg2 including a comparative analysis with the lighter dimers of the group 12, Cd2, and Zn2, especially for the relativistic effects, the spin-orbit interaction, and the performance of CAMB3LYP and is enlightened for similar systems. The result shows, as expected, that spinfree Hamiltonian is less efficient than Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for systems containing heavy elements such as Hg2. PMID:24437874

  8. The phenology of space: Spatial aspects of bison density dependence in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taper, M.L.; Meagher, M.; Jerde, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Yellowstone bison represent the only bison population in the United States that survived in the wild the near-extermination of the late 1800's. This paper capitalizes on a unique opportunity provided by the record of the bison population of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). This population has been intensely monitored for almost four decades. The analysis of long-term spatio-temporal data from 1970-1997 supports the following conclusions. 1) Even though the Yellowstone bison herd exhibits an extended period of what appears to be linear growth, this pattern can be explained with classical density dependent dynamics if one realizes that perhaps the primary response of the herd to increased density is range expansion. 2) Several spatial aspects of social behavior in the YNP bison may be behavioral adaptations by the bison to environmental changes. These behavioral strategies may buffer, temporarily at least, bison population dynamics from the immediate repercussions of possible environmental stress and habitat deterioration. 3) Bison ecological carrying capacity for YNP is on the order of 2800 to 3200 animals. 4) There do appear to be indications of changes in the bison dynamics that are associated with increasing use of sections of the interior road system in winter. 5) The possibility of habitat degradation is indicated.

  9. Open Quantum Transport and Non-Hermitian Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenewski, Justin; Zhao, Yanxiang; Chen, Hanning

    Sub-nanometer electronic devices are notoriously difficult to simulate, with the most widely adopted transport schemes predicting currents that diverge from experiment by several orders of magnitude. This deviation arises from numerous factors, including the inability of these methods to accommodate dynamic processes such as charge reorganization. A promising alternative entails the direct propagation of an electronic structure calculation, as exemplified by real-time time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT). Unfortunately this framework is inherently that of a closed system, and modifications must be made to handle incoming and outgoing particle fluxes. To this end, we establish a formal correspondence between the quantum master equation for an open, many-particle system and its description in terms of RT-TDDFT and non-Hermitian boundary potentials. By dynamically constraining the particle density within the boundary regions corresponding to the device leads, a simulation may be selectively converged to the non-equilibrium steady state associated with a given electrostatic bias. Our numerical tests demonstrate that this algorithm is both highly stable and readily integrated into existing electronic structure frameworks

  10. A relativistic time-dependent density functional study of the excited states of the mercury dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullie, Ossama

    2014-01-01

    In previous works on Zn2 and Cd2 dimers we found that the long-range corrected CAMB3LYP gives better results than other density functional approximations for the excited states, especially in the asymptotic region. In this paper, we use it to present a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) study for the ground-state as well as the excited states corresponding to the (6s2 + 6s6p), (6s2 + 6s7s), and (6s2 + 6s7p) atomic asymptotes for the mercury dimer Hg2. We analyze its spectrum obtained from all-electron calculations performed with the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb and relativistic spinfree Hamiltonian as implemented in DIRAC-PACKAGE. A comparison with the literature is given as far as available. Our result is excellent for the most of the lower excited states and very encouraging for the higher excited states, it shows generally good agreements with experimental results and outperforms other theoretical results. This enables us to give a detailed analysis of the spectrum of the Hg2 including a comparative analysis with the lighter dimers of the group 12, Cd2, and Zn2, especially for the relativistic effects, the spin-orbit interaction, and the performance of CAMB3LYP and is enlightened for similar systems. The result shows, as expected, that spinfree Hamiltonian is less efficient than Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for systems containing heavy elements such as Hg2.

  11. Temperature and composition-dependent density of states in organic small-molecule/polymer blend transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Simon; Mottram, Alexander D.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-07-01

    The density of trap states (DOS) in organic p-type transistors based on the small-molecule 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (diF-TES ADT), the polymer poly(triarylamine) and blends thereof are investigated. The DOS in these devices are measured as a function of semiconductor composition and operating temperature. We show that increasing operating temperature causes a broadening of the DOS below 250 K. Characteristic trap depths of ˜15 meV are measured at 100 K, increasing to between 20 and 50 meV at room-temperature, dependent on the semiconductor composition. Semiconductor films with high concentrations of diF-TES ADT exhibit both a greater density of trap states as well as broader DOS distributions when measured at room-temperature. These results shed light on the underlying charge transport mechanisms in organic blend semiconductors and the apparent freezing-out of hole conduction through the polymer and mixed polymer/small molecule phases at temperatures below 225 K.

  12. Reversal of density dependence of juvenile Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) growth in response to periphyton nutrient status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ulrich

    2001-05-01

    Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.

  13. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Freitas; Deboni, Liene; Lopes, Frederico Santos

    2005-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes is an aquatic macrophyte that grows in temporary-ponds in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. It reproduces both sexually and asexually and is usually observed forming dense mats on the water surface, a condition favored by the plant's vegetative reproduction coupled with an ability for rapid growth. In this study we examined the effect of densely crowded conditions on the production of reproductive and vegetative structures. In addition, we verified whether there is a trade-off between clonal growth and investment in sexual reproductive structures, and whether there is an allocation pattern with plant size. Individual plant biomass and the number of the rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures both increased with density. Increase in plant size resulted in increased proportional allocation to sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Allocation of biomass to reproduction did not occur at the expense of clonal growth. Thus, the density response appears as a increase of rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Therefore, long leaves and stolons may be adaptive under densely crowded conditions where competition for light is intense. An important aspect in the study of trade-offs is the size-dependency of the allocation patterns .Usually, larger plants produce more biomass. Therefore, larger plants can allocate more biomass to both vegetative and sexual reproduction than smaller plants and thus show a positive correlation between both traits rather than the expected negative one. PMID:17354448

  14. Density-Dependent Relations among Properties of Hadronic Matter and Applications to Hadron-Quark Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.

    2011-05-06

    Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.

  15. Performance of Tamm-Dancoff approximation on nonadiabatic couplings by time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunping; Sugino, Osamu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-01

    The Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA), widely used in physics to decouple excitations and de-excitations, is well known to be good for the calculation of excitation energies but not for oscillator strengths. In particular, the sum rule is violated in the latter case. The same concern arises within the TDA in the calculation of nonadiabatic couplings (NACs) by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), due to the similarities in the TDDFT formulations of NACs and oscillator strengths [C. Hu, H. Hirai, and O. Sugino, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064103 (2007)]. In this study, we present a systematic evaluation of the performance of TDDFT/TDA for the calculation of NACs. In the cases we considered, including a variety of systems possessing Jahn-Teller and Renner-Teller intersections, as well as an example with accidental conical intersections, it is found that the TDDFT/TDA performs better than the full TDDFT, contrary to the conjecture that the TDA might cause the NAC results to deteriorate and violate the sum rule. The surprisingly good performance of the TDA for NACs is probably because the TDA can partially compensate for the local-density-approximation error and give better excitation energies in the vicinity of intersections of potential energy surfaces. Our study also shows that it is important to use the TDA based on the rigorous full-TDDFT formulation of NACs, instead of using it based on an alternative approximate formulation.

  16. Heliocentric distance and temporal dependence of the interplanetary density-magnetic field magnitude correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Helios, IMP 8, ISEE 3, ad Voyager 2 spacecraft are used to examine the solar cycle and heliocentric distance dependence of the correlation between density n and magnetic field magnitude B in the solar wind. Previous work had suggested that this correlation becomes progressively more negative with heliocentric distance out to 9.5 AU. Here it is shown that this evolution is not a solar cycle effect, and that the correlations become even more strongly negative at heliocentric distance larger than 9.5 AU. There is considerable variability in the distributions of the correlations at a given heliocentric distance, but this is not simply related to the solar cycle. Examination of the evolution of correlations between density and speed suggest that most of the structures responsible for evolution in the anticorrelation between n and B are not slow-mode waves, but rather pressure balance structures. The latter consist of both coherent structures such as tangential discontinuities and the more generally pervasive 'pseudosound' which may include the coherent structures as a subset.

  17. The shell model Monte Carlo approach to level densities: Recent developments and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We review recent advances in the shell model Monte Carlo approach for the microscopic calculation of statistical and collective properties of nuclei. We discuss applications to the calculation of i) level densities in nickel isotopes, implementing a recent method to circumvent the odd-particle sign problem; ii) state densities in heavy nuclei; iii) spin distributions of nuclear levels; and iv) finite-temperature quadrupole distributions.

  18. Assessment of the ΔSCF density functional theory approach for electronic excitations in organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.; Yost, S. R.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the ΔSCF method for computing low-lying HOMO→LUMO transitions in organic dye molecules. For a test set of vertical excitation energies of 16 chromophores, surprisingly similar accuracy is observed for time-dependent density functional theory and for ΔSCF density functional theory. In light of this performance, we reconsider the ad hoc ΔSCF prescription and demonstrate that it formally obtains the exact stationary density within the adiabatic approximation, partially justifying its use. The relative merits and future prospects of ΔSCF for simulating individual excited states are discussed.

  19. Density-dependent prophylaxis in crowded beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to a parasitoid and a fungal pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of parasites and pathogens is generally positively density-dependent. Thus, as an insect population's density increases, the risk of an individual becoming attacked or infected increases. In some insect species, individuals experiencing crowded conditions are more resistant to natural e...

  20. Quantum confined stark effect in wide parabolic quantum wells: real density matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska-Raczyńska, Sylwia; Czajkowski, Gerard; Ziemkiewicz, David

    2015-12-01

    We show how to compute the optical functions of wide parabolic quantum wells (WPQWs) exposed to uniform electric F applied in the growth direction, in the excitonic energy region. The effect of the coherence between the electron-hole pair and the electromagnetic field of the propagating wave including the electron-hole screened Coulomb potential is adopted, and the valence band structure is taken into account in the cylindrical approximation. The role of the interaction potential and of the applied electric field, which mix the energy states according to different quantum numbers and create symmetry forbidden transitions, is stressed. We use the real density matrix approach (RDMA) and an effective e-h potential, which enable to derive analytical expressions for the WPQWs electrooptical functions. Choosing the susceptibility, we performed numerical calculations appropriate to a GaAs/GaAlAs WPQWs. We have obtained a red shift of the absorption maxima (quantum confined Stark effect), asymmetric upon the change of the direction of the applied field ( F → - F), parabolic for the ground state and strongly dependent on the confinement parameters (the QWs sizes), changes in the oscillator strengths, and new peaks related to the states with different parity for electron and hole.

  1. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alain; Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  2. Analytical Hessian of electronic excited states in time-dependent density functional theory with Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liang, WanZhen

    2011-07-01

    We present the analytical expression and computer implementation for the second-order energy derivatives of the electronic excited state with respect to the nuclear coordinates in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets. Here, the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to the full TDDFT is adopted, and therefore the formulation process of TDDFT excited-state Hessian is similar to that of configuration interaction singles (CIS) Hessian. However, due to the replacement of the Hartree-Fock exchange integrals in CIS with the exchange-correlation kernels in TDDFT, many quantitative changes in the derived equations are arisen. The replacement also causes additional technical difficulties associated with the calculation of a large number of multiple-order functional derivatives with respect to the density variables and the nuclear coordinates. Numerical tests on a set of test molecules are performed. The simulated excited-state vibrational frequencies by the analytical Hessian approach are compared with those computed by CIS and the finite-difference method. It is found that the analytical Hessian method is superior to the finite-difference method in terms of the computational accuracy and efficiency. The numerical differentiation can be difficult due to root flipping for excited states that are close in energy. TDDFT yields more exact excited-state vibrational frequencies than CIS, which usually overestimates the values. PMID:21744894

  3. Impact of numerical artifact of the forward model in the inverse solution of density-dependent flow problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed K.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the effect of computational error on the inversion of a density-dependent flow and transport model, using SEAWAT and UCODE-2005 in an inverse identification of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity using head and concentration data from a 2-D laboratory experiment. We investigated inversions using three different solution schemes including variation of number of particles and time step length, in terms of the three aspects: the shape and smoothness of the objective function surface, the consequent impacts to the optimization, and the resulting Pareto analyses. This study demonstrates that the inversion is very sensitive to the choice of the forward model solution scheme. In particular, standard finite difference methods provide the smoothest objective function surface; however, this is obtained at the cost of numerical artifacts that can lead to erroneous warping of the objective function surface. Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes limit these impacts at the cost of more computation time, while the hybrid method of characteristics (HMOC) approach with increased particle numbers and/or reduced time step gives both smoothed and accurate objective function surface. Use of the most accurate methods (TVD and HMOC) did lead to successful inversion of the two parameters; however, with distinct results for Pareto analyses. These results illuminate the sensitivity of the inversion to a number of aspects of the forward solution of the density-driven flow problem and reveal that parameter values may result that are erroneous but that counteract numerical errors in the solution.

  4. A unifying probabilistic Bayesian approach to derive electron density from MRI for radiation therapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Wang, Lei; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-11-01

    MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation in radiation therapy for certain tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT. A treatment planning process with MRI as the sole imaging modality will eliminate systematic CT/MRI co-registration errors, reduce cost and radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information necessary for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup. The purpose of this work is to develop a unifying method to derive electron density from standard T1-weighted MRI. We propose to combine both intensity and geometry information into a unifying probabilistic Bayesian framework for electron density mapping. For each voxel, we compute two conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of electron density given its: (1) T1-weighted MRI intensity, and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of the atlas and test patient. The two conditional PDFs containing intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior PDF, whose mean value corresponds to the optimal electron density value under the mean-square error criterion. We evaluated the algorithm's accuracy of electron density mapping and its ability to detect bone in the head for eight patients, using an additional patient as the atlas or template. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as receiver operating characteristics for bone detection (HU > 200) were calculated. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 126, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p = 2  ×  10(-4)), 283 for the intensity approach (p = 2  ×  10(-6)) and 282 without density

  5. A unifying probabilistic Bayesian approach to derive electron density from MRI for radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhan Reddy Gudur, Madhu; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Wang, Lei; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-11-01

    MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation in radiation therapy for certain tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT. A treatment planning process with MRI as the sole imaging modality will eliminate systematic CT/MRI co-registration errors, reduce cost and radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information necessary for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup. The purpose of this work is to develop a unifying method to derive electron density from standard T1-weighted MRI. We propose to combine both intensity and geometry information into a unifying probabilistic Bayesian framework for electron density mapping. For each voxel, we compute two conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of electron density given its: (1) T1-weighted MRI intensity, and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of the atlas and test patient. The two conditional PDFs containing intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior PDF, whose mean value corresponds to the optimal electron density value under the mean-square error criterion. We evaluated the algorithm’s accuracy of electron density mapping and its ability to detect bone in the head for eight patients, using an additional patient as the atlas or template. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as receiver operating characteristics for bone detection (HU > 200) were calculated. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 126, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p = 2  ×  10-4), 283 for the intensity approach (p = 2  ×  10-6) and 282 without density

  6. Evaluating the B-cell density with various activation functions using White Noise Path Integral Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aban, C. J. G.; Bacolod, R. O.; Confesor, M. N. P.

    2015-06-01

    A The White Noise Path Integral Approach is used in evaluating the B-cell density or the number of B-cell per unit volume for a basic type of immune system response based on the modeling done by Perelson and Wiegel. From the scaling principles of Perelson [1], the B- cell density is obtained where antigens and antibodies mutates and activation function f(|S-SA|) is defined describing the interaction between a specific antigen and a B-cell. If the activation function f(|S-SA|) is held constant, the major form of the B-cell density evaluated using white noise analysis is similar to the form of the B-cell density obtained by Perelson and Wiegel using a differential approach.A piecewise linear functionis also used to describe the activation f(|S-SA|). If f(|S-SA|) is zero, the density decreases exponentially. If f(|S-SA|) = S-SA-SB, the B- cell density increases exponentially until it reaches a certain maximum value. For f(|S-SA|) = 2SA-SB-S, the behavior of B-cell density is oscillating and remains to be in small values.

  7. Using an Epidemiological Model for Phylogenetic Inference Reveals Density Dependence in HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The control, prediction, and understanding of epidemiological processes require insight into how infectious pathogens transmit in a population. The chain of transmission can in principle be reconstructed with phylogenetic methods which analyze the evolutionary history using pathogen sequence data. The quality of the reconstruction, however, crucially depends on the underlying epidemiological model used in phylogenetic inference. Until now, only simple epidemiological models have been used, which make limiting assumptions such as constant rate parameters, infinite total population size, or deterministically changing population size of infected individuals. Here, we present a novel phylogenetic method to infer parameters based on a classical stochastic epidemiological model. Specifically, we use the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, which accounts for density-dependent transmission rates and finite total population size, leading to a stochastically changing infected population size. We first validate our method by estimating epidemic parameters for simulated data and then apply it to transmission clusters from the Swiss HIV epidemic. Our estimates of the basic reproductive number R0 for the considered Swiss HIV transmission clusters are significantly higher than previous estimates, which were derived assuming infinite population size. This difference in key parameter estimates highlights the importance of careful model choice when doing phylogenetic inference. In summary, this article presents the first fully stochastic implementation of a classical epidemiological model for phylogenetic inference and thereby addresses a key aspect in ongoing efforts to merge phylogenetics and epidemiology. PMID:24085839

  8. 2007 Time_Dependent Density-Functional Therory (July 15-20, 2007 Colby College, Maine)

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich Carsten Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-09-19

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) provides an efficient, elegant, and formally exact way of describing the dynamics of interacting many-body quantum systems, circumventing the need for solving the full time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the 20 years since it was first rigorously established in 1984, the field of TDDFT has made rapid and significant advances both formally as well as in terms of successful applications in chemistry, physics and materials science. Today, TDDFT has become the method of choice for calculating excitation energies of complex molecules, and is becoming increasingly popular for describing optical and spectroscopic properties of a variety of materials such as bulk solids, clusters and nanostructures. Other growing areas of applications of TDDFT are nonlinear dynamics of strongly excited electronic systems and molecular electronics. The purpose and scope of this Gordon Research Conference is to provide a platform for discussing the current state of the art of the rapidly progressing, highly interdisciplinary field of TDDFT, to identify and debate open questions, and to point out new promising research directions. The conference will bring together experts with a diverse background in chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  9. Cell-density-dependent expression of Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Indest, K J; Ramamoorthy, R; Solé, M; Gilmore, R D; Johnson, B J; Philipp, M T

    1997-01-01

    Previously, we had identified non-OspA-OspB surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi that are targeted by the antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing mechanism. Here we demonstrate by Western blotting that one of these proteins, P35, is upregulated at the onset of stationary phase in vitro. Northern analysis revealed that the upregulation of P35 is at the level of transcription. In addition, the expression of an open reading frame (ORF) located downstream of the p35 gene was found to be regulated in the same fashion as that of P35. This ORF encodes a 7.5-kDa lipoprotein. The transcriptional start sites for both of these genes were determined, to aid in the identification of the putative promoter regions. Additional sequencing of the 5' flanking region of the p35 gene revealed a region of dyad symmetry 52 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Southern analysis demonstrated that the expression of these genes was not due to a cell-density-dependent rearrangement in the genome of B. burgdorferi. These findings provide an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of gene regulation in B. burgdorferi. PMID:9119447

  10. An exponential scaling law for the strain dependence of the Nb3Sn critical current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordini, B.; Alknes, P.; Bottura, L.; Rossi, L.; Valentinis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The critical current density of the Nb3Sn superconductor is strongly dependent on the strain applied to the material. In order to investigate this dependence, it is a common practice to measure the critical current of Nb3Sn strands for different values of applied axial strain. In the literature, several models have been proposed to describe these experimental data in the reversible strain region. All these models are capable of fitting the measurement results in the strain region where data are collected, but tend to predict unphysical trends outside the range of data, and especially for large strain values. In this paper we present a model of a new strain function, together with the results obtained by applying the new scaling law on relevant datasets. The data analyzed consisted of the critical current measurements at 4.2 K that were carried out under applied axial strain at Durham University and the University of Geneva on different strand types. With respect to the previous models proposed, the new scaling function does not present problems at large strain values, has a lower number of fitting parameters (only two instead of three or four), and is very stable, so that, starting from few experimental points, it can estimate quite accurately the strand behavior in a strain region where there are no data. A relationship is shown between the proposed strain function and the elastic strain energy, and an analogy is drawn with the exponential form of the McMillan equation for the critical temperature.

  11. Phase interpretation for polarization-dependent near-field images of high-density gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiangjun; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Bo

    2008-06-01

    It has been described that the near-field images of a high-density grating at the half self-imaging distance could be different for TE and TM polarization states. We propose that the phases of the diffraction orders play an important role in such polarization dependence. The view is verified through the coincidence of the numerical result of finite-difference time-domain method and the reconstructed results from the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. Field distributions of TE and TM polarizations are given numerically for a grating with period d = 2.3 λ, which are verified through experiments with the scanning near-field optical microscopy technique. The concept of phase interpretation not only explains the polarization dependence at the half self-imaging distance of gratings with a physical view, but also, it could be widely used to describe the near-field diffraction of a variety of periodic diffractive optical elements whose feature size comparable to the wavelength.

  12. Emergent multicellular life cycles in filamentous bacteria owing to density-dependent population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Valentina; Filippini, Manuela; Svercel, Miroslav; Barbour, A. D.; Bagheri, Homayoun C.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are the oldest and simplest known multicellular life forms. By using computer simulations and experiments that address cell division in a filamentous context, we investigate some of the ecological factors that can lead to the emergence of a multicellular life cycle in filamentous life forms. The model predicts that if cell division and death rates are dependent on the density of cells in a population, a predictable cycle between short and long filament lengths is produced. During exponential growth, there will be a predominance of multicellular filaments, while at carrying capacity, the population converges to a predominance of short filaments and single cells. Model predictions are experimentally tested and confirmed in cultures of heterotrophic and phototrophic bacterial species. Furthermore, by developing a formulation of generation time in bacterial populations, it is shown that changes in generation time can alter length distributions. The theory predicts that given the same population growth curve and fitness, species with longer generation times have longer filaments during comparable population growth phases. Characterization of the environmental dependence of morphological properties such as length, and the number of cells per filament, helps in understanding the pre-existing conditions for the evolution of developmental cycles in simple multicellular organisms. Moreover, the theoretical prediction that strains with the same fitness can exhibit different lengths at comparable growth phases has important implications. It demonstrates that differences in fitness attributed to morphology are not the sole explanation for the evolution of life cycles dominated by multicellularity. PMID:21593029

  13. Electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels with pH-dependent charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-05-01

    "Smart" polyelectrolyte-grafted or "soft" nanochannels with pH-responsiveness have shown great promise for applications like manipulation of ion transport, ion sensing and selection, current rectification, and many more. In this paper, we develop a theory to study the electroosmotic transport in a polyelectrolyte-grafted (or soft) nanochannel with pH-dependent charge density. In one of our recent studies, we have identified that explicit consideration of hydrogen ion concentration is mandatory for appropriately describing the electrostatics of such systems and the resulting monomer concentration must obey a non-unique, cubic distribution. Here, we use this electrostatic calculation to study the corresponding electroosmotic transport. We establish that the effect of pH in the electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels introduces two separate issues: first is the consideration of the hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations in describing the electroosmotic body force, and second is the consideration of the appropriate drag force that bears the signature of this cubic monomeric distribution. Our results indicate that the strength of the electroosmotic velocity for the pH-dependent case is always smaller than that for the pH-independent case, with the extent of this difference being a function of the system parameters. Such nature of the electroosmotic transport will be extremely significant in suppressing the electroosmotic flow strength with implications in large number applications such as capillary electrophoresis induced separation, electric field mediated DNA elongation, electrophoretic DNA nanopore sequencing, and many more.

  14. High current density PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase bioanodes.

    PubMed

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Hickey, David P; Milton, Ross D; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we explore the bioelectrooxidation of ethanol using pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH and AldDH) enzymes for biofuel cell applications. The bioanode architectures were designed with both direct electron transfer (DET) and mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanisms employing high surface area materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT-decorated gold nanoparticles, along with different immobilization techniques. Three different polymeric matrices were tested (tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB)-modified Nafion; octyl-modified linear polyethyleneimine (C8-LPEI); and cellulose) in the DET studies. The modified Nafion membrane provided the best electrical communication between enzymes and the electrode surface, with catalytic currents as high as 16.8 ± 2.1 µA cm(-2). Then, a series of ferrocene redox polymers were evaluated for MET. The redox polymer 1,1'-dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethyleneimine (FcMe2-C3-LPEI) provided the best electrochemical response. Using this polymer, the electrochemical assays conducted in the presence of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-Au indicated a Jmax of 781 ± 59 µA cm(-2) and 925 ± 68 µA cm(-2), respectively. Overall, from the results obtained here, DET using the PQQ-dependent ADH and AldDH still lacks high current density, while the bioanodes that operate via MET employing ferrocene-modified LPEI redox polymers show efficient energy conversion capability in ethanol/air biofuel cells. PMID:25988787

  15. A density-dependant finite element model for analysis of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhamid, H. F.; Javadi, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    SummarySaltwater intrusion is a serious problem in coastal regions all over the world. It is one of the processes that degrade water-quality by raising salinity to levels exceeding acceptable drinking water standards. It may occur due to human activities and/or by natural events. Over-abstraction is considered the main cause of saltwater intrusion. Moreover, climate change and sea level rise speed up saltwater intrusion. This paper presents the development and validation of a coupled transient finite element model for simulation of fluid flow and solute transport in saturate and unsaturated soils with application to study saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. The model includes coupling of water flow, air flow, heat flow and solute transport. Furthermore, transient density-dependent flow is included in the model and the dependency of dispersion on velocity is considered. Different mechanisms that govern solute transport in porous media including, advection, diffusion, dispersion, adsorption, chemical reactions and biological degradation are included in the model. The governing equation of the solute transport is solved together with three balance equations for water flow, air flow and heat transfer. The nonlinear system of governing differential equations is solved using the finite element method in the space domain and a finite difference scheme in the time domain. The model is validated by application to a standard case study from the literature (Henry's problem) and then applied to predict saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer. The results of the model predictions are presented and discussed.

  16. Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on superfluid density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Božović, I.; He, X.; Wu, J.; Bollinger, A. T.

    2016-08-17

    The physics of underdoped copper-oxide superconductors, including the pseudogap, spin and charge ordering, and their relation to superconductivity1-3, is intensely debated. The overdoped side is perceived as simpler, with strongly-correlated fermion physics evolving smoothly into the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) behavior. Pioneering studies on a few overdoped samples4-11 indicated that the superfluid density was much smaller than expected, but this was attributed to pair-breaking, disorder, and phase separation. Here, we test this conjecture by studying how the magnetic penetration depth λ and the phase stiffness ρs depend on temperature and doping, scanning densely the entire overdoped side of the La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO)more » phase diagram. We have measured the absolute values of λ and ρs to the accuracy of ±1% in thousands of cuprate samples; the large statistics reveals clear trends and intrinsic properties. The films are quite homogeneous; variations in the critical temperature (Tc) within a film are very small (< 1 K). At every doping, ρs(T) decreases linearly with temperature. The Tc(ρ s0) dependence is linear but with an offset, (Tc - T0) ∝ ρs0 where T0 ≈ 7 K, except very close to the origin where Tc ∝ √ρ s0. This scaling law defies the standard BCS description, posing a challenge to theory.« less

  17. Modeling the potential energy field caused by mass density distribution with Eton approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkahtani, Badr Saad T.; Atangana, Abdon

    2016-04-01

    A new approach for modeling real world problems called the "Eton Approach" was presented in this paper. The "Eton approach" combines both the concept of the variable order derivative together with Atangana derivative with memory derivative. The Atangana derivative with memory is used to account for the memory and fractional derivative for its filter effect. The approach was used to describe the potential energy field that is caused by a given charge or mass density distribution.We solve the modified model numerically and present supporting numerical simulations.

  18. Merging Features from Green's Functions and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory: A Route to the Description of Correlated Materials out of Equilibrium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopjan, M.; Karlsson, D.; Ydman, S.; Verdozzi, C.; Almbladh, C.-O.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a description of nonequilibrium systems via a simple protocol that combines exchange-correlation potentials from density functional theory with self-energies of many-body perturbation theory. The approach, aimed to avoid double counting of interactions, is tested against exact results in Hubbard-type systems, with respect to interaction strength, perturbation speed and inhomogeneity, and system dimensionality and size. In many regimes, we find significant improvement over adiabatic time dependent density functional theory or second Born nonequilibrium Green's function approximations. We briefly discuss the reasons for the residual discrepancies, and directions for future work.

  19. Merging Features from Green's Functions and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory: A Route to the Description of Correlated Materials out of Equilibrium?

    PubMed

    Hopjan, M; Karlsson, D; Ydman, S; Verdozzi, C; Almbladh, C-O

    2016-06-10

    We propose a description of nonequilibrium systems via a simple protocol that combines exchange-correlation potentials from density functional theory with self-energies of many-body perturbation theory. The approach, aimed to avoid double counting of interactions, is tested against exact results in Hubbard-type systems, with respect to interaction strength, perturbation speed and inhomogeneity, and system dimensionality and size. In many regimes, we find significant improvement over adiabatic time dependent density functional theory or second Born nonequilibrium Green's function approximations. We briefly discuss the reasons for the residual discrepancies, and directions for future work. PMID:27341247

  20. Path integral density matrix dynamics: A method for calculating time-dependent properties in thermal adiabatic and non-adiabatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habershon, Scott

    2013-09-14

    We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.

  1. Momentum-dependent band spin splitting in semiconducting MnO2: a density functional calculation.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yusuke; Ohno, Kaoru; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-05-11

    Recently, manganese-oxide compounds have attracted considerable attention, in particular, as candidate materials for photochemical water-splitting reactions. Here, we investigate electronic states of pristine manganese dioxides (MnO2) in different crystal phases using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) with Hubbard U correction. Geometrical structures and band dispersions of α-, β-, δ-, and λ-MnO2 crystals with collinear magnetic [ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM)] orders are discussed in detail. We reveal that penalty energies that arise by violating the Goodenough-Kanamori rule are important and the origin of the magnetic interactions of the MnO2 crystals is governed by the superexchange interactions of Mn-O-Mn groups. In addition, it is found that momentum-dependent band spin splitting occurs in the AFM α-, β-, and δ-MnO2 crystals while no spin splitting occurs in the AFM λ-MnO2 crystal. Our results show that spin-split band dispersions stem from the different orientations of Mn-centred oxygen octahedra. Such interesting electronic states of the MnO2 crystals are unraveled by our discussion on the relationship between the effective (spin-dependent) single-electron potentials and the space-group symmetry operations that map up-spin Mn atoms onto down-spin Mn atoms. This work provides a basis to understand the relationship between the spin-dependent electronic states and the crystallography of manganese oxides. Another relationship to the recent experimental observations of the photochemical oxygen evolution of MnO2 crystals is also discussed. PMID:27119122

  2. Normal mode analysis of single bunch, charge density dependent behavior in electron/positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlichman, Michael

    Accelerator science in coming years will be increasingly dependent upon high single-bunch charges and/or small emittances. Under these conditions, single-particle dynamics are not a sufficient description of beam behavior and interactions between the beam particles must be taken into account. One such interaction is when collisions between the particles that compose a bunch perturb the motion of the colliding particles significantly and frequently enough to impact the beam dynamics. Multiple, small-angle, collisions blow up the emittance of the bunch and are referred to as intrabeam scattering (IBS). Here are documented the theoretical and experimental studies of IBS in storage rings undertaken as part of the CesrTA program. Under the conditions where IBS becomes dominant, other multi-particle effects can also appear. The additional effects we investigate include potential well distortion, coherent current-dependent tune shift, and direct space charge. CesrTA design and analysis is conducted in a normal mode coordinates environment which allows for natural handling of coupling. To that end, we develop a 6D normal modes decomposition of the linear beam optics. Multi-particle effects are also important for Energy Recovery Linear Accelerators (ERLs). Because the beam circulates for only a short period of time in an ERL, the beam lifetime imposed by Touschek scattering is not significant. However, the particles scattered out of the bunch can generate a radiation hazard where they collide with the beam pipe. We re-derive Piwinski's original Touschek scattering equation to check its validity when applied to ERL beams, then repurpose the formula to generate a profile of where scattered particles are generated and where they are lost. The results presented here advance our understanding of charge-dependent behavior in the sorts of high charge-density accelerators that will be implemented in coming years.

  3. Reconstructive approaches to one- and two-electron density matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, John Michael

    Novel computational methods for electronic structure theory are explored, in which the fundamental variable is either the one- or the two-electron reduced density matrix (1- or 2-RDM), rather than the electronic wavefunction. A unifying theme among these methods is density matrix reconstruction, that is, decoupling approximations that express higher-order density matrices as functionals of lower-order ones. On the 2-RDM side, a connected (extensive) version of the Contracted Schrodinger Equation (CSE) is developed, in which the basic unknowns are the RDM cumulants through order four. Reconstruction functionals that neglect the 3- and 4-RDM cumulants are examined and revealed to be significantly less accurate than suggested by previous minimal-basis results. Exact 3-RDM cumulants for some four-electron systems are calculated and found to be comparable in importance to unconnected products of lower-order cumulants. Decoupling approximations for the 3- and 4-RDM cumulants are developed based upon a renormalized, diagrammatic perturbation theory for the three- and four-particle Green's functions, in which the effective, pairwise interaction is extracted from the two-particle cumulant. Diagram rules suitable for both the time-dependent and time-independent versions of this perturbation theory are derived. Reconstructive approaches to natural orbital (1-RDM) functional theory are also examined, wherein the 2-RDM is parametrized in terms of the natural orbitals and their (generally fractional) occupancies. It is demonstrated, at the theorem level, that proposed "corrected Hartree" and "corrected Hartree-Fock" natural orbital functionals necessarily violate positivity of the 2-RDM, which is closely related to their failure to respect antisymmetry. Calculations demonstrate that negative eigenvalues of the 2-RDM are associated with a large, stabilizing (but ultimately spurious) contribution to the energy. Nevertheless, a partially self-interaction-corrected version of the

  4. Development of 3-dimensional time-dependent density functional theory and its application to gas diffusion in nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu

    2016-05-11

    I developed a novel time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and applied it to complicated 3-dimensional systems for the first time. Superior to conventional TDDFT, the diffusion coefficient is modeled as a function of density profile, which is self-determined by the entropy scaling rule instead using an input parameter. The theory was employed to mimic gas diffusion in a nanoporous material. The TDDFT prediction on the transport diffusivity was reasonable compared to simulations. Moreover, the time-dependent density profiles gave an insight into the microscopic mechanism of the diffusion process. PMID:27121986

  5. Understanding the dependence of transport parameters on carrier concentration within a Gaussian density of states in molecular organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Kumar, P.; Rani, V.; Ray, N.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-06-01

    We study charge transport in molecular organic semiconductors using two terminal and three terminal field effect transistor devices. Using phthalocyanines as examples, we achieve unification of carrier mobility between the different configurations in a Gaussian density of states. We find that the current density–voltage characteristics for two terminal devices can be understood by introducing a concentration dependence of the carrier mobility, as described by Oelerich et al (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 226403, 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 143302). Studying the evolution of the activation energy with the carrier density, we find results consistent with a percolation picture and a density dependent transport energy.

  6. Enhancing and controlling single-atom high-harmonic generation spectra: a time-dependent density-functional scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Alberto; Rubio, Angel; Gross, Eberhard K. U.

    2015-08-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) provides a flexible framework for the development of coherent light sources in the extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regimes. However it suffers from low conversion efficiencies as the control of the HHG spectral and temporal characteristics requires manipulating electron trajectories on attosecond time scale. The phase matching mechanism has been employed to selectively enhance specific quantum paths leading to HHG. A few important fundamental questions remain open, among those how much of the enhancement can be achieved by the single-emitter and what is the role of correlations (or the electronic structure) in the selectivity and control of HHG generation. Here we address those questions by examining computationally the possibility of optimizing the HHG spectrum of isolated hydrogen and helium atoms by shaping the slowly varying envelope of a 800 nm, 200-cycles long laser pulse. The spectra are computed with a fully quantum mechanical description, by explicitly computing the time-dependent dipole moment of the systems using a time-dependent density-functional approach (or the single-electron Schrödinger equation for the case of H), on top of a one-dimensional model. The sought optimization corresponds to the selective enhancement of single harmonics, which we find to be significant. This selectivity is entirely due to the single atom response, and not to any propagation or phase-matching effect. Moreover, we see that the electronic correlation plays a role in the determining the degree of optimization that can be obtained.

  7. A Multiple Motives Approach to Tobacco Dependence: The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Megan E.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Federman, E. Belle; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy C.

    2004-01-01

    The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used measures of dependence are either atheoretical or grounded in a unidimensional model of physical dependence. This research creates a multidimensional measure of dependence that is based on theoretically grounded motives for…

  8. Reconstruction of Layer Densities in a Multilayer Snowpack using a Bayesian Approach to Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo, M.; Marshall, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Mead, J.; Flores, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of snowpack parameters such as depth, density and grain structure is a central focus of hydrology in seasonally snow-covered lands. These parameters are directly estimated by field observations, indirectly estimated from other parameters using statistical correlations, or simulated with a model. Difficulty in sampling thin layers and uncertainty in the transition between layers can cause significant uncertainty in measurements of these parameters. Snow density is one of the most important parameters to measure because it is strictly related with snow water content, an important component of the global water balance. We develop a mathematical framework to estimate snow density from measurements of temperature and thickness of snowpack layers over a particular time period, in conjunction with a physics-based model of snowpack evolution. We formulate a Bayesian approach to estimate the snowpack density profile, using a full range of possible simulations that incorporate key sources of uncertainty to build in prior snowpack knowledge. The posterior probability density function of the snow density, conditioned on snowpack temperature measurements, is computed by multiplying the likelihoods and assumed prior distribution function. Random sampling is used to generate a range of densities with same probability when prior uniform probability function is assumed. A posterior probability density function calculated directly via Bayes' theorem is used to calculate the probability of every sample generated. The forward model is a 1D, multilayer snow energy and mass balance model, which solves for snow temperature, density, and liquid water content on a finite element mesh. The surface and ground temperature data of snowpack (boundary conditions), are provided by the Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies (CSAS), Silverton CO, from snow pits made at Swamp Angel and Senator Beck study plot sites. Standard errors between field observations and results computed denote the

  9. Factors Influencing Density-Dependent Groundwater Flow in the Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Regional-scale density-dependent groundwater flow is analyzed in an approximately 18000 sq km domain of the Michigan basin centered on a site at Tiverton Ontario near the shore of Lake Huron for a proposed deep geologic repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. Flow was also analyzed in an approximately 600 km west-to-east cross-section through the center of the basin. Both domains extend from the Precambrian basement to the surface and include minimal upscaling of the complex stratigraphy in the basin. The model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all analyses. The hydraulic gradients across the basin are small as both Lake Huron and Lake Michigan have the same water surface elevation. As a result, groundwater flow in the basin is expected to be stagnant. Hydrogeologic parameters for the models were developed from borehole and petrophysics data from the DGR site for units from the Cambrian sandstone to the Devonian. Literature data were used for the shallower units in Michigan. Excluding the surficial drift, the hydraulic conductivity in the basin ranges from 3x10e-6 m/s in the Cambrian to less than 10e-14 m/s in the Ordovician sediments. Groundwater flow is sensitive to the distribution of total dissolved solids concentration with concentrations ranging up to 384 g/L in the Guelph formation in the Silurian. Both TDS data from porewater and groundwater at the DGR site and literature data for TDS versus depth were assigned to the sedimentary rock. The TDS distribution with depth for the Precambrian rock was assigned using both data for the Canadian Shield and a literature based model. Data at the DGR site indicates that the Cambrian is overpressured with respect to the surface while the Ordovician sediments are underpressured. It is hypothesized that the underpressures are the result of the presence of a gas phase in the units. The steps in determining a converged solution for saturated density-dependent flow were as follows: (1) solve steady state

  10. The Effects of Text Density Levels and the Cognitive Style of Field Dependence on Learning from a CBI Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of variations in text density levels and the cognitive style of field dependence on learning from a CBI tutorial, based on the dependent measures of achievement, reading comprehension, and reading rate, and of lesson completion time. Eighty college undergraduate students were randomly…

  11. Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

    2013-07-01

    Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

  12. A relativistic time-dependent density functional study of the excited states of the mercury dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Kullie, Ossama E-mail: ossama.kullie@unistra.fr

    2014-01-14

    In previous works on Zn{sub 2} and Cd{sub 2} dimers we found that the long-range corrected CAMB3LYP gives better results than other density functional approximations for the excited states, especially in the asymptotic region. In this paper, we use it to present a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) study for the ground-state as well as the excited states corresponding to the (6s{sup 2} + 6s6p), (6s{sup 2} + 6s7s), and (6s{sup 2} + 6s7p) atomic asymptotes for the mercury dimer Hg{sub 2}. We analyze its spectrum obtained from all-electron calculations performed with the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb and relativistic spinfree Hamiltonian as implemented in DIRAC-PACKAGE. A comparison with the literature is given as far as available. Our result is excellent for the most of the lower excited states and very encouraging for the higher excited states, it shows generally good agreements with experimental results and outperforms other theoretical results. This enables us to give a detailed analysis of the spectrum of the Hg{sub 2} including a comparative analysis with the lighter dimers of the group 12, Cd{sub 2}, and Zn{sub 2}, especially for the relativistic effects, the spin-orbit interaction, and the performance of CAMB3LYP and is enlightened for similar systems. The result shows, as expected, that spinfree Hamiltonian is less efficient than Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for systems containing heavy elements such as Hg{sub 2}.

  13. Shape evolution and collective dynamics of quasifission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.

    2015-08-01

    Background: At energies near the Coulomb barrier, capture reactions in heavy-ion collisions result either in fusion or in quasifission. The former produces a compound nucleus in statistical equilibrium, while the second leads to a reseparation of the fragments after partial mass equilibration without formation of a compound nucleus. Extracting the compound nucleus formation probability is crucial to predict superheavy-element formation cross sections. It requires a good knowledge of the fragment angular distribution which itself depends on quantities such as moments of inertia and excitation energies which have so far been somewhat arbitrary for the quasifission contribution. Purpose: Our main goal is to utilize the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach to extract ingredients of the formula used in the analysis of experimental angular distributions. These include the moment-of-inertia and temperature. Methods: We investigate the evolution of the nuclear density in TDHF calculations leading to quasifission. We study the dependence of the relevant quantities on various initial conditions of the reaction process. Results: The evolution of the moment of inertia is clearly nontrivial and depends strongly on the characteristics of the collision. The temperature rises quickly when the kinetic energy is transformed into internal excitation. Then, it rises slowly during mass transfer. Conclusions: Fully microscopic theories are useful to predict the complex evolution of quantities required in macroscopic models of quasifission.

  14. An obstructive sleep apnea detection approach using kernel density classification based on single-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder that often remains undiagnosed, leading to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Polysomnogram (PSG) is currently used as a golden standard for screening OSA. However, because it is time consuming, expensive and causes discomfort, alternative techniques based on a reduced set of physiological signals are proposed to solve this problem. This study proposes a convenient non-parametric kernel density-based approach for detection of OSA using single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. Selected physiologically interpretable features are extracted from segmented RR intervals, which are obtained from ECG signals. These features are fed into the kernel density classifier to detect apnea event and bandwidths for density of each class (normal or apnea) are automatically chosen through an iterative bandwidth selection algorithm. To validate the proposed approach, RR intervals are extracted from ECG signals of 35 subjects obtained from a sleep apnea database ( http://physionet.org/cgi-bin/atm/ATM ). The results indicate that the kernel density classifier, with two features for apnea event detection, achieves a mean accuracy of 82.07 %, with mean sensitivity of 83.23 % and mean specificity of 80.24 %. Compared with other existing methods, the proposed kernel density approach achieves a comparably good performance but by using fewer features without significantly losing discriminant power, which indicates that it could be widely used for home-based screening or diagnosis of OSA. PMID:25732075

  15. Accuracy of estimated geometric parameters of trees depending on the LIDAR data density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Edyta; Estornell, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of dendrometric variables has become important for spatial planning and agriculture projects. Because classical field measurements are time consuming and inefficient, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements are successfully used in this area. Point clouds acquired for relatively large areas allows to determine the structure of forestry and agriculture areas and geometrical parameters of individual trees. In this study two LiDAR datasets with different densities were used: sparse with average density of 0.5pt/m2 and the dense with density of 4pt/m2. 25 olive trees were selected and field measurements of tree height, crown bottom height, length of crown diameters and tree position were performed. To determine the tree geometric parameters from LiDAR data, two independent strategies were developed that utilize the ArcGIS, ENVI and FUSION software. Strategy a) was based on canopy surface model (CSM) slicing at 0.5m height and in strategy b) minimum bounding polygons as tree crown area were created around detected tree centroid. The individual steps were developed to be applied also in automatic processing. To assess the performance of each strategy with both point clouds, the differences between the measured and estimated geometric parameters of trees were analyzed. As expected, the tree height were underestimated for both strategies (RMSE=0.7m for dense dataset and RMSE=1.5m for sparse) and tree crown height were overestimated (RMSE=0.4m and RMSE=0.7m for dense and sparse dataset respectively). For dense dataset, strategy b) allows to determine more accurate crown diameters (RMSE=0.5m) than strategy a) (RMSE=0.8m), and for sparse dataset, only strategy a) occurs to be relevant (RMSE=1.0m). The accuracy of strategies were also examined for their dependency on tree size. For dense dataset, the larger the tree (height or crown longer diameter), the higher was the error of estimated tree height, and for sparse dataset, the larger the tree

  16. A revised electronic Hessian for approximate time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Tom; Seth, Michael; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen

    2008-11-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the generalized gradient level of approximation (GGA) has shown systematic errors in the calculated excitation energies. This is especially the case for energies representing electron transitions between two separated regions of space or between orbitals of different spatial extents. It will be shown that these limitations can be attributed to the electronic ground state Hessian G(GGA). Specifically, we shall demonstrate that the Hessian G(GGA) can be used to describe changes in energy due to small perturbations of the electron density (Deltarho), but it should not be applied to one-electron excitations involving the density rearrangement (Deltarho) of a full electron charge. This is in contrast to Hartree-Fock theory where G(HF) has a trust region that is accurate for both small perturbations and one-electron excitations. The large trust radius of G(HF) can be traced back to the complete cancellation of Coulomb and exchange terms in Hartree-Fock (HF) theory representing self-interaction (complete self-interaction cancellation, CSIC). On the other hand, it is shown that the small trust radius for G(GGA) can be attributed to the fact that CSIC is assumed for GGA in the derivation of G(GGA) although GGA (and many other approximate DFT schemes) exhibits incomplete self-interaction cancellation (ISIC). It is further shown that one can derive a new matrix G(R-DFT) with the same trust region as G(HF) by taking terms due to ISIC properly into account. Further, with TD-DFT based on G(R-DFT), energies for state-to-state transitions represented by a one-electron excitation (psi(i)-->psi(a)) are approximately calculated as DeltaE(ai). Here DeltaE(ai) is the energy difference between the ground state Kohn-Sham Slater determinant and the energy of a Kohn-Sham Slater determinant where psi(i) has been replaced by psi(a). We make use of the new Hessian in two numerical applications involving charge-transfer excitations. It is

  17. Dependence of radiative and nonradiative recombination on carrier density and Al content in thick AlGaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlipskas, Ž.; Aleksiejūnas, R.; Kadys, A.; Mickevičius, J.; Jurkevičius, J.; Tamulaitis, G.; Shur, M.; Shatalov, M.; Yang, J.; Gaska, R.

    2016-04-01

    Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative recombination of non-equilibrium carriers is investigated in thick AlGaN epitaxial layers with Al content ranging from 0.11 to 0.71. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the epilayers was obtained using two approaches: either estimated from PL measurements or calculated using the recombination coefficients of a simple ABC model, retrieved by fitting the kinetics of light induced transient gratings (LITG). At photoexcited carrier densities below ~1019 cm-3, both approaches provided similar IQE values indicating that the simple ABC model is applicable to analyze carrier recombination at such carrier densities. The increase in IQE at higher carrier densities slowed down for the values extracted from PL considerably faster than for those obtained from LITG transients. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the mixed nature of the rate coefficient B caused by the onset of the density-activated nonradiative recombination at high carrier densities.

  18. Green Function Approach to the Calculation of the Local Density of States in the Graphitic Nanocone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smotlacha, Jan; Pinčák, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Graphene and other nanostructures belong to the center of interest of today's physics research. The local density of states of the graphitic nanocone influenced by the spin-orbit interaction was calculated. Numerical calculations and the Green function approach were used to solve this problem. It was proven in the second case that the second order approximation is not sufficient for this purpose.

  19. An Efficient Computational Approach for the Calculation of the Vibrational Density of States.

    PubMed

    Aieta, Chiara; Gabas, Fabio; Ceotto, Michele

    2016-07-14

    We present an optimized approach for the calculation of the density of fully coupled vibrational states in high-dimensional systems. This task is of paramount importance, because partition functions and several thermodynamic properties can be accurately estimated once the density of states is known. A new code, called paradensum, based on the implementation of the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm for parallel architectures is described and applied to real complex systems. We test the accuracy of paradensum on several molecular systems, including some benchmarks for which an exact evaluation of the vibrational density of states is doable by direct counting. In addition, we find a significant computational speedup with respect to standard approaches when applying our code to molecules up to 66 degrees of freedom. The new code can easily handle 150 degrees of freedom. These features make paradensum a very promising tool for future calculations of thermodynamic properties and thermal rate constants of complex systems. PMID:26840098

  20. Effect of measurement error on tests of density dependence of catchability for walleyes in northern Wisconsin angling and spearing fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.J.; Beard, T.D., Jr.; Hewett, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to determine how much measurement errors affected tests of density dependence of spearing and angling catchability for walleye Sander vitreus by quantifying relationships between spearing and angling catch rates (catch/h) and walleye population density (number/acre) in northern Wisconsin lakes. The mean measurement error of spearing catch rates was 43.5 times greater than the mean measurement error of adult walleye population densities, whereas the mean measurement error of angling catch rates was only 5.6 times greater than the mean measurement error of adult walleye population densities. The bias-corrected estimate of the relationship between spearing catch rate and adult walleye population density was similar to the ordinary-least-squares regression estimate but differed significantly from the geometric mean (GM) functional regression estimate. In contrast, the bias-corrected estimate of the relationship between angling catch rate and total walleye population density was intermediate between ordinary-least-squares and GM functional regression estimates. Catch rates of walleyes in both spearing and angling fisheries were not linearly related to walleye population density, which indicated that catch rates in both fisheries were hyperstable in relation to walleye population density. For both fisheries, GM functional regression overestimated the degree of hyperdepletion in catch rates and ordinary-least-squares regression overestimated the degree of hyperstability in catch rates. However, ordinary-least-squares regression induced significantly less bias in tests of density dependence than GM functional regression, so it may be suitable for testing the degree of density dependence in fisheries for which fish population density is estimated with mark-recapture methods similar to those used in our study. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  1. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  2. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S{sub 0} state and the doubly-excited S{sub 2} state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation.

  3. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Habenicht, Bradley F; Tani, Noriyuki P; Provorse, Makenzie R; Isborn, Christine M

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S0 state and the doubly-excited S2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation. PMID:25399137

  4. THE COLUMN DENSITY VARIANCE IN TURBULENT INTERSTELLAR MEDIA: A FRACTAL MODEL APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il

    2012-12-20

    Fractional Brownian motion structures are used to investigate the dependency of column density variance ({sigma}{sup 2}{sub lnN}) in the turbulent interstellar medium on the variance of three-dimensional density ({sigma}{sup 2}{sub ln{rho}}) and the power-law slope of the density power spectrum. We provide quantitative expressions to infer the three-dimensional density variance, which is not directly observable, from the observable column density variance and spectral slope. We also investigate the relationship between the column density variance and sonic Mach number (M{sub s}) in the hydrodynamic (HD) regime by assuming the spectral slope and density variance to be functions of sonic Mach number, as obtained from the HD turbulence simulations. They are related by the expression {sigma}{sup 2}{sub lnN} = A{sigma}{sub ln{rho}} {sup 2} = Aln (1 + b {sup 2} M{sup 2}{sub s}), suggested by Burkhart and Lazarian for the magnetohydrodynamic case. The proportional constant A varies from Almost-Equal-To 0.2 to Almost-Equal-To 0.4 in the HD regime as the turbulence forcing parameter b increases from 1/3 (purely solenoidal forcing) to 1 (purely compressive forcing). It is also discussed that the parameter A is lowered in the presence of a magnetic field.

  5. Density-Dependent Regulation of Brook Trout Population Dynamics along a Core-Periphery Distribution Gradient in a Central Appalachian Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Huntsman, Brock M.; Petty, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3–60 km2 and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335–0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for

  6. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2) and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for

  7. Flowing afterglow measurements of the density dependence of gas-phase ion-ion mutual neutralization reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2013-05-28

    We have studied the dependence of several ion-ion mutual neutralization (MN) reactions on helium density in the range from 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 300 K, using the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry method. The rate coefficients of the reactions Ar{sup +}+ Br{sub 2}{sup -}, Ar{sup +}+ SF{sub 6}{sup -}, and Ar{sup +}+ C{sub 7}F{sub 14}{sup -} were found to be independent of gas density over the range studied, in disagreement with earlier observations that similar MN reactions are strongly enhanced at the same gas densities. The cause of the previous enhancement with density is traced to the use of 'orbital-motion-limit' theory to infer ion densities from the currents collected by ion-attracting Langmuir probes in a region where it is not applicable.

  8. Eulerian Mapping Closure Approach for Probability Density Function of Concentration in Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Guowei; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Eulerian mapping closure approach is developed for uncertainty propagation in computational fluid mechanics. The approach is used to study the Probability Density Function (PDF) for the concentration of species advected by a random shear flow. An analytical argument shows that fluctuation of the concentration field at one point in space is non-Gaussian and exhibits stretched exponential form. An Eulerian mapping approach provides an appropriate approximation to both convection and diffusion terms and leads to a closed mapping equation. The results obtained describe the evolution of the initial Gaussian field, which is in agreement with direct numerical simulations.

  9. Size dependence of the surface charge density in EDL-MF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourinho, F. A.; Campos, A. F. C.; Aquino, R.; Lara, M. C. F. L.; Depeyrot, J.

    2002-11-01

    We determine the surface charge density of electric double layered magnetic fluids based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles of two different sizes using simultaneous potentiometric-conductimetric titrations. The saturation superficial density of charge is reduced for smaller particles.

  10. Drude-type conductivity of charged sphere colloidal crystals: density and temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Medebach, Martin; Jordán, Raquel Chuliá; Reiber, Holger; Schöpe, Hans-Joachim; Biehl, Ralf; Evers, Martin; Hessinger, Dirk; Olah, Julianna; Palberg, Thomas; Schönberger, Ernest; Wette, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    We report on extensive measurements in the low-frequency limit of the ac conductivity of colloidal fluids and crystals formed from charged colloidal spheres suspended in de-ionized water. Temperature was varied in a range of 5 degrees C < Theta < 35 degrees C and the particle number density n between 0.2 and 25 microm(-3) for the larger, respectively, 2.75 and 210 microm(-3) for the smaller of two investigated species. At fixed Theta the conductivity increased linearly with increasing n without any significant change at the fluid-solid phase boundary. At fixed n it increased with increasing Theta and the increase was more pronounced for larger n. Lacking a rigorous electrohydrodynamic treatment for counterion-dominated systems we describe our data with a simple model relating to Drude's theory of metal conductivity. The key parameter is an effectively transported particle charge or valence Z(*). All temperature dependencies other than that of Z(*) were taken from literature. Within experimental resolution Z(*) was found to be independent of n irrespective of the suspension structure. Interestingly, Z(*) decreases with temperature in near quantitative agreement with numerical calculations. PMID:16178620

  11. Time-dependent density functional theory beyond Kohn-Sham Slater determinants.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Johanna I; Nielsen, Søren E B; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Maitra, Neepa T

    2016-08-01

    When running time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations for real-time simulations of non-equilibrium dynamics, the user has a choice of initial Kohn-Sham state, and typically a Slater determinant is used. We explore the impact of this choice on the exchange-correlation potential when the physical system begins in a 50 : 50 superposition of the ground and first-excited state of the system. We investigate the possibility of judiciously choosing a Kohn-Sham initial state that minimizes errors when adiabatic functionals are used. We find that if the Kohn-Sham state is chosen to have a configuration matching the one that dominates the interacting state, this can be achieved for a finite time duration for some but not all such choices. When the Kohn-Sham system does not begin in a Slater determinant, we further argue that the conventional splitting of the exchange-correlation potential into exchange and correlation parts has limited value, and instead propose a decomposition into a "single-particle" contribution that we denote v, and a remainder. The single-particle contribution can be readily computed as an explicit orbital-functional, reduces to exchange in the Slater determinant case, and offers an alternative to the adiabatic approximation as a starting point for TDDFT approximations. PMID:27010732

  12. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations of the solvatochromism of some azo sulfonamide fluorochromes.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Przemysław

    2015-05-01

    The absorption and emission spectra of three azo sulfonamide compounds in different solvents were investigated theoretically by using response functions combined with density functional theory (DFT), while the solvent effect on the structure and the electronic transitions was determined using the integral equation formalism for the polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM). The results show that the applied different exchange-correlation functionals can reproduce the experimental values well. DFT calculations of the title compounds showed that the H-bond formed between the solute and solvent molecules is one of the major causes of the reversible solvatochromism observed in measured spectra. This is due to a better stabilization of the neutral form than the zwitterionic form in the polar protic solvents, which is characteristic of the hypsochromic shift. On the other hand, the molecules considered exhibit a monotonic behavior regarding the polarity of the low-lying excited state (Δμg-CT) as a function of the solvent polarity. This dependence occurs in the case of the positive solvatochromism and confirms the thesis regarding the H-bond solute-solvent interactions. Theoretically determined values of the two-photon cross section revealed that the (σOF(2)) shows similar trends with changes in λabs, in contrast to <δ(OF)> values. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the investigated molecules can be used successfully as fluorochromes in bioimaging. PMID:25877526

  13. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  14. Rotochemical heating of millisecond and classical pulsars with anisotropic and density-dependent superfluid gap models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, Nicolás; Petrovich, Cristobal; Reisenegger, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    When a rotating neutron star loses angular momentum, the progressive reduction of the centrifugal force makes it contract. This perturbs each fluid element, raising the local pressure and originating deviations from beta equilibrium, inducing reactions that release heat (`rotochemical heating'). This effect has previously been studied by Fernández & Reisenegger for non-superfluid neutron stars and by Petrovich & Reisenegger for superfluid millisecond pulsars. Both studies found that pulsars reach a quasi-steady state in which the compression driving the matter out of beta equilibrium is balanced by the reactions trying to restore the equilibrium. We extend previous studies by considering the effect of density-dependence and anisotropy of the superfluid energy gaps, for the case in which the dominant reactions are the modified Urca processes, the protons are non-superconducting, and the neutron superfluidity is parametrized by models proposed in the literature. By comparing our predictions with the surface temperature of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 and upper limits for 21 classical pulsars, we find the millisecond pulsar can be only explained by the models with the effectively largest energy gaps (type B models), the classical pulsars require with the gap models that vanish for some angle (type C) and two different envelope compositions. Thus, no single model for neutron superfluidity can simultaneously account for the thermal emission of all available observations of non-accreting neutron stars, possibly due to our neglect of proton superconductivity.

  15. Lower Within-Community Variance of Negative Density Dependence Increases Forest Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, António; Carvalho, Luís M.; Dionisio, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Local abundance of adult trees impedes growth of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, a mechanism first proposed by Janzen and Connell to explain plant diversity in forests. While several studies suggest the importance of this mechanism, there is still little information of how the variance of negative density dependence (NDD) affects diversity of forest communities. With computer simulations, we analyzed the impact of strength and variance of NDD within tree communities on species diversity. We show that stronger NDD leads to higher species diversity. Furthermore, lower range of strengths of NDD within a community increases species richness and decreases variance of species abundances. Our results show that, beyond the average strength of NDD, the variance of NDD is also crucially important to explain species diversity. This can explain the dissimilarity of biodiversity between tropical and temperate forest: highly diverse forests could have lower NDD variance. This report suggests that natural enemies and the variety of the magnitude of their effects can contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:25992631

  16. Dynamics of coastal cod populations: intra- and intercohort density dependence and stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Stenseth, N. C.; rnstad, O. N. Bj; Falck, W.; Fromentin, J.-M.; ter, J. Gj s; Gray, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Skagerrak populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) have been surveyed at several fixed stations since 1919. These coastal populations consist of local stocks with a low age of maturity and a short life span. We investigated 60 time-series of 0-group juveniles (i.e. young of the year) sampled annually from 1945 to 1994. An age-structured model was developed which incorporates asymmetrical interactions between the juvenile cohorts (0-group and 1-group; i.e. one-year-old juveniles) and stochastic reproduction. The model was expressed in delay coordinates in order to estimate model parameters directly from the time-series and thereby test the model predictions. The autocovariance structure of the time-series was consistent with the delay coordinates model superimposed upon a long-term trend. The model illustrates how both regulatory (density-dependent) and disruptive (stochastic) forces are crucial in shaping the dynamics of the coastal cod populations. The age-structured life cycle acts to resonance the stochasticity inherent in the recruitment process.

  17. Optical Rotation Calculated with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: The OR45 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Srebro, Monika; Govind, Niranjan; De Jong, Wibe A.; Autschbach, Jochen

    2011-10-13

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations are performed for 42 organic molecules and 3 transition metal complexes, with experimental molar optical rotations ranging from 2 to 2 x 10{sup 4} deg cm{sup 2} dmol{sup -1}. The performance of the global hybrid functionals B3LYP, PBE0, and BHLYP, and of the range-separated functionals CAM-B3LYP and LR-PBE0 (the latter being fully long-range corrected), are investigated. The performance of different basis sets is studied. When compared to liquid-phase experimental data, the range-separated functionals do, on average, not perform better than B3LYP and PBE0. Median relative deviations between calculations and experiment range from 25 to 29%. A basis set recently proposed for optical rotation calculations (LPol-ds) on average does not give improved results compared to aug-cc-pVDZ in TDDFT calculations with B3LYP. Individual cases are discussed in some detail, among them norbornenone for which the LR-PBE0 functional produced an optical rotation that is close to available data from coupled-cluster calculations, but significantly smaller in magnitude than the liquid-phase experimental value. Range-separated functionals and BHLYP perform well for helicenes and helicene derivatives. Metal complexes pose a challenge to first-principles calculations of optical rotation.

  18. Size dependent thermalization time of Ag nanoparticles and the surface density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bastidas, Catalina

    2009-03-01

    It is well known that the lack of d-electron screening in the s-electron spill-out region at the surface of Ag nanoparticles increases the electron-electron interaction in this region compared to the bulk. Therefore when comparing the electron-electron interaction contribution to the thermalization time of Ag nanoparticles of varying radius, smaller particles thermalize faster due to the increased surface to bulk ratio. One aspect which has not been addressed is the effect of the spatial distribution of charge at the surface of the nanoparticle. In this work it is shown that the size dependence of the thermalization time is very sensitive to the surface density profile. The electron thermalization time of conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles as a function of the radius is calculated. The sensitivity of the scattering rate to the spatial distribution of charge at the surface of the nanostructure is analyzed using several model surface profiles. The change in surface charge distribution via charging or coating of the nanospheres is shown to be a tool for control and probing of the ultra-fast electron-electron dynamics in metallic nanoparticles.

  19. A fast real time time-dependent density functional theory simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Zhi; Li, Shu-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an efficient real-time time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method that can increase the effective time step from <1 attosecond in traditional methods to 0.1 0.5 femtosecond. Our algorithm, which carries out the non-adiabatic molecular dynamics TDDFT simulations, can have comparable speed to the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). As an application, we simulated the process of an energetic Cl particle colliding onto a monolayer of MoSe2. Our simulations show a significant energy transfer from the kinetic energy of the Cl particle to the electronic energy of MoSe2, and the result of TDDFT is very different from that of BO MD simulations. This new algorithm will enable the use of real-time TD-DFT for many new simulations involving carrier dynamics and electron-phonon couplings. This work is supported by the Director, Office of Science, BES/MSED, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, through the Material Theory program in LBNL. Zhi Wang is supported by the China Scholarship Council.

  20. The electronic absorption study of imide anion radicals in terms of time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejak, Marcin; Sterzel, Mariusz; Pawlikowski, Marek T.

    2005-07-01

    The absorption spectra of the N-(2,5-di- tert-butylphenyl) phthalimide ( 1-), N-(2,5-di- tert-butylphenyl)-1,8-naphthalimide ( 2-) and N-(2,5-di- tert-butylphenyl)-perylene-3,4-dicarboximide ( 3-) anion radicals are studied in terms of time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). For these anion radicals a large number electronic states (from 30 to 60) was found in the visible and near-IR regions (5000-45000 cm -1). In these regions the TD/B3LYP treatment at the 6-1+G* level is shown to reproduce satisfactorily the empirical absorption spectra of all three anion radicals studied. The most apparent discrepancies between purely electronic theory and the experiment could be found in the excitation region corresponding to D0→ D1 transitions in the 2- and 3- molecules. For these species we argue that the structures seen in the lowest energy part of the absorptions of the 2- and 3- species are very likely due to Franck-Condon (FC) activity of the totally symmetric vibrations not studied in this Letter.

  1. Resonance Raman Scattering of Rhodamine 6G as Calculated Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Lasse; Schatz, George C.

    2006-03-27

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In this work, we present the first calculation of the resonance Raman scattering (RRS) spectrum of rhodamine 6G (R6G) which is a prototype molecule in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The calculation is done using a recently developed time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method, which uses a short-time approximation to evaluate the Raman scattering cross section. The normal Raman spectrum calculated with this method is in good agreement with experimental results. The calculated RRS spectrum shows qualitative agreement with SERS results at a wavelength that corresponds to excitation of the S1 state, but there are significant differences with the measured RRS spectrum at wavelengths that correspond to excitation of the vibronic sideband of S1. Although the agreement with the experiments is not perfect, the results provide insight into the RRS spectrum of R6G at wavelengths close to the absorption maximum where experiments are hindered due to strong fluorescence. The calculated resonance enhancements are found to be on the order of 105. This indicates that a surface enhancement factor of about 1010 would be required in SERS in order to achieve single-molecule detection of R6G.

  2. Delineating effects of tensor force on the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Ang; Li, Bao-An

    2013-03-01

    In this talk, we report results of our recent studies to delineate effects of the tensor force on the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy within phenomenological models. The tensor force active in the isosinglet neutron roton interaction channel leads to appreciable depletion/population of nucleons below/above the Fermi surface in the single-nucleon momentum distribution in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM). We found that as a consequence of the high momentum tail in SNM the kinetic part of the symmetry energy Ekinsym(ρ) is significantly below the well-known Fermi gas model prediction of approximately 125(ρ/ρ0)2/3. With about 15% nucleons in the high momentum tail as indicated by the recent experiments at J-Lab by the CLAS Collaboration, the Ekinsym(ρ) is negligibly small. It even becomes negative when more nucleons are in the high momentum tail in SNM. These features have recently been confirmed by three independent studies based on the state-of-the-art microscopic nuclear many-body theories. In addition, we also estimate the second-order tensor force contribution to the potential part of the symmetry energy. Implications of these findings in extracting information about nuclear symmetry energy from nuclear reactions are discussed briefly.

  3. Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660

  4. Adiabatic approximation in time-dependent reduced-density-matrix functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2010-04-15

    With the aim of describing real-time electron dynamics, we introduce an adiabatic approximation for the equation of motion of the one-body reduced density matrix (one-matrix). The eigenvalues of the one-matrix, which represent the occupation numbers of single-particle orbitals, are obtained from the constrained minimization of the instantaneous ground-state energy functional rather than from their dynamical equations. The performance of the approximation vis-a-vis nonadiabatic effects is assessed in real-time simulations of a two-site Hubbard model. Due to Landau-Zener-type transitions, the system evolves into a nonstationary state with persistent oscillations in the observables. The amplitude of the oscillations displays a strongly nonmonotonic dependence on the strength of the electron-electron interaction and the rate of variation of the external potential. We interpret an associated resonance behavior in the phase of the oscillations in terms of 'scattering' with spectator energy levels. To clarify the motivation for the minimization condition, we derive a sequence of energy functionals E{sub v}{sup (n)}, for which the corresponding sequence of minimizing one-matrices is asymptotic to the exact one-matrix in the adiabatic limit.

  5. Vertical Singlet Excitations on Adenine Dimer: A Time Dependent Density Functional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.; Marai, Christopher N. J.

    2007-12-01

    The condense phase, excited state dynamics of the adenylyl(3'→5')adenine (ApA) dinucleotide has been previously studied using transient absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution (Crespo-Hernández et al. Chem. Rev. 104, 1977-2019 (2004)). An ultrafast and a long-lived component were observed with time constants of <1 ps and 60±16 ps, respectively. Comparison of the time constants measured for the dinucleotide with that for the adenine nucleotide suggested that the fast component observed in ApA could be assigned to monomer dynamics. The long-lived component observed in ApA was assigned to an excimer state that originates from a fraction of base stacked conformations present at the time of excitation. In this contribution, supermolecule calculations using the time dependent implementation of density functional theory is used to provide more insights on the origin of the initial Franck-Condon excitations. Monomer-like, localized excitations are observed for conformations having negligible base stacking interactions, whereas delocalized excitations are predicted for conformations with significant vertical base-base overlap.

  6. Modes of Competition: Adding and Removing Brown Trout in the Wild to Understand the Mechanisms of Density-Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kaspersson, Rasmus; Sundström, Fredrik; Bohlin, Torgny; Johnsson, Jörgen I.

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of density-dependence is well-established in population ecology, few field studies have investigated its underlying mechanisms and their relative population-level importance. Here, we address these issues, and more specifically, how differences in body-size influence population regulation. For this purpose, two experiments were performed in a small coastal stream on the Swedish west coast, using juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a study species. We manipulated densities of large and small individuals, and observed effects on survival, migration, condition and individual growth rate in a target group of intermediate-sized individuals. The generality of the response was investigated by reducing population densities below and increasing above the natural levels (removing and adding large and small individuals). Reducing the density (relaxing the intensity of competition) had no influence on the response variables, suggesting that stream productivity was not a limiting factor at natural population density. Addition of large individuals resulted in a negative density-dependent response, while no effect was detected when adding small individuals or when maintaining the natural population structure. We found that the density-dependent response was revealed as reduced growth rate rather than increased mortality and movement, an effect that may arise from exclusion to suboptimal habitats or increased stress levels among inferior individuals. Our findings confirm the notion of interference competition as the primary mode of competition in juvenile salmonids, and also show that the feedback-mechanisms of density-dependence are primarily acting when increasing densities above their natural levels. PMID:23658736

  7. Lianas escape self-thinning: Experimental evidence of positive density dependence in temperate lianas Celastrus orbiculatus and C. scandens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Latimer, A.M.; Silander, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The neighborhood density of plants strongly affects their growth, reproduction, and survival. In most cases, high density increases competition and negatively affects a focal plant in predictable ways, leading to the self-thinning law. There are, however, situations in which high densities of plants facilitate focal plant performance, resulting in positive density dependence. Despite their importance in forest gap dynamics and distinctive growth form, there have been very few studies of the effect of density on lianas or vines. We grew an invasive (Celastrus orbiculatus) and a native (Celastrus scandens) liana species together in three different density treatments, while also manipulating the light and support availability. We found that across treatment conditions, C. orbiculatus always out-performed C. scandens, showing greater relative growth rate in height and diameter, greater biomass and higher survival. Both species responded similarly to the density treatments: with plants in high density not showing a decrease in relative height growth rate compared to medium density. Aboveground biomass for C. scandens was not affected by density, while for C. orbiculatus, the most massive plants were growing in medium density without support. More surprisingly, survival analysis indicated that the two species both had significantly lower mortality rates in the highest density treatment; this trend held true across the other treatments of light and supports. More generally, this study demonstrates that these lianas can escape the consequences of high density and thus the self-thinning law that affects self-supporting plants. This suggests a broader hypothesis about lianas in general: their greater flexibility in allocating growth resources allows them to grow taller and thinner without collapsing and thereby potentially escape shading and mortality even at high densities.

  8. Including diffusion time dependence in the extra-axonal space improves in vivo estimates of axonal diameter and density in human white matter

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Silvia; Jones, Derek K.; Roebroeck, Alard

    2016-01-01

    Axonal density and diameter are two fundamental properties of brain white matter. Recently, advanced diffusion MRI techniques have made these two parameters accessible in vivo. However, the techniques available to estimate such parameters are still under development. For example, current methods to map axonal diameters capture relative trends over different structures, but consistently over-estimate absolute diameters. Axonal density estimates are more accessible experimentally, but different modeling approaches exist and the impact of the experimental parameters has not been thoroughly quantified, potentially leading to incompatibility of results obtained in different studies using different techniques. Here, we characterise the impact of diffusion time on axonal density and diameter estimates using Monte Carlo simulations and STEAM diffusion MRI at 7 T on 9 healthy volunteers. We show that axonal density and diameter estimates strongly depend on diffusion time, with diameters almost invariably overestimated and density both over and underestimated for some commonly used models. Crucially, we also demonstrate that these biases are reduced when the model accounts for diffusion time dependency in the extra-axonal space. For axonal density estimates, both upward and downward bias in different situations are removed by modeling extra-axonal time-dependence, showing increased accuracy in these estimates. For axonal diameter estimates, we report increased accuracy in ground truth simulations and axonal diameter estimates decreased away from high values given by earlier models and towards known values in the human corpus callosum when modeling extra-axonal time-dependence. Axonal diameter feasibility under both advanced and clinical settings is discussed in the light of the proposed advances. PMID:26826514

  9. Including diffusion time dependence in the extra-axonal space improves in vivo estimates of axonal diameter and density in human white matter.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Silvia; Jones, Derek K; Roebroeck, Alard

    2016-04-15

    Axonal density and diameter are two fundamental properties of brain white matter. Recently, advanced diffusion MRI techniques have made these two parameters accessible in vivo. However, the techniques available to estimate such parameters are still under development. For example, current methods to map axonal diameters capture relative trends over different structures, but consistently over-estimate absolute diameters. Axonal density estimates are more accessible experimentally, but different modeling approaches exist and the impact of the experimental parameters has not been thoroughly quantified, potentially leading to incompatibility of results obtained in different studies using different techniques. Here, we characterise the impact of diffusion time on axonal density and diameter estimates using Monte Carlo simulations and STEAM diffusion MRI at 7 T on 9 healthy volunteers. We show that axonal density and diameter estimates strongly depend on diffusion time, with diameters almost invariably overestimated and density both over and underestimated for some commonly used models. Crucially, we also demonstrate that these biases are reduced when the model accounts for diffusion time dependency in the extra-axonal space. For axonal density estimates, both upward and downward bias in different situations are removed by modeling extra-axonal time-dependence, showing increased accuracy in these estimates. For axonal diameter estimates, we report increased accuracy in ground truth simulations and axonal diameter estimates decreased away from high values given by earlier models and towards known values in the human corpus callosum when modeling extra-axonal time-dependence. Axonal diameter feasibility under both advanced and clinical settings is discussed in the light of the proposed advances. PMID:26826514

  10. A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards.

    PubMed

    Karlis, A K; Diakonos, F K; Constantoudis, V

    2012-06-01

    The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration. PMID:22757579

  11. A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlis, A. K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.

    2012-06-01

    The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.

  12. Influence of Force Fields and Quantum Chemistry Approach on Spectral Densities of BChl a in Solution and in FMO Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Suryanarayanan; Aghtar, Mortaza; Valleau, Stéphanie