Extracting primordial density fluctuations
Gawiser; Silk
1998-05-29
The combination of detections of anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale distribution of galaxies probes the primordial density fluctuations of the universe on spatial scales varying by three orders of magnitude. These data are found to be inconsistent with the predictions of several popular cosmological models. Agreement between the data and the cold + hot dark matter model, however, suggests that a significant fraction of the matter in the universe may consist of massive neutrinos. PMID:9603724
Density Fluctuations in Liquid Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.
2011-01-01
The density distributions and fluctuations in grids of varying size in liquid water at ambient pressure, both above the freezing point and in the supercooled state, are analyzed from the trajectories obtained from large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the occurrence of low- and high-density regions (LDL and HDL) is transient and their respective residence times are dependent on the size of the simulated system. The spatial extent of density-density correlation is found to be within 7 Å or less. The temporal existence of LDL and HDL arises as a result of natural density fluctuations of an equilibrium system. The density of bulk water at ambient conditions is homogenous.
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center_dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
Multicellular density fluctuations in epithelial monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehnder, Steven M.; Wiatt, Marina K.; Uruena, Juan M.; Dunn, Alison C.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.
2015-09-01
Changes in cell size often accompany multicellular motion in tissue, and cell number density is known to strongly influence collective migration in monolayers. Density fluctuations in other forms of active matter have been explored extensively, but not the potential role of density fluctuations in collective cell migration. Here we investigate collective motion in cell monolayers, focusing on the divergent component of the migration velocity field to probe density fluctuations. We find spatial patterns of diverging and converging cell groups throughout the monolayers, which oscillate in time with a period of approximately 3-4 h. Simultaneous fluorescence measurements of a cytosol dye within the cells show that fluid passes between groups of cells, facilitating these oscillations in cell density. Our findings reveal that cell-cell interactions in monolayers may be mediated by intercellular fluid flow.
Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolb, Edward W.; Salopek, David S.; Turner, Michael S.
1990-01-01
The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies.
Density fluctuations from strings and galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilenkin, A.; Shafi, Q.
1983-01-01
The spectra of density fluctuations caused by strings in a universe dominated either by baryons, neutrinos, or axions are presented. Realistic scenarios for galaxy formation seem possible in all three cases. Examples of grand unified theories which lead to strings with the desired mass scales are given.
Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.
Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen
2015-04-01
Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148
Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter.
Arutyunov, K Yu; Lehtinen, J S
2016-12-01
Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|e(iφ), the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed. PMID:27535694
Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations
Toroczkai; Korniss; Das Sarma S; Zia
2000-07-01
We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. PMID:11088461
Density fluctuations in premixed turbulent flames
Namazian, M.; Talbot, L.; Robben, F.
1984-03-01
The simultaneous two-point density fluctuations in a V-shaped turbulent flame are measured using a two-point Rayleigh scattering method. A wrinkle laminar flame model with finite instantaneous flame thickness is developed for the flames studied. The reaction front probability density function (pdf) is both measured directly and also calculated from the measured mean density. An analytical expression for this pdf is given which is derived based on a thin flame model. The mean, rms and correlation coefficients are calculated using the finite reaction front thickness model and the results are compared with the experimental data. The pdf of the intermediate states are shown to be due to the reaction front thickness.
Nearly incompressible fluids: Decay of solar wind density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Shaikh, D.
2008-11-01
The evolution of density fluctuations throughout the solar wind is investigated as the basis of a newly developed theory of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics for an inhomogeneous flow. The model is explored using two-dimensional numerical simulations. The lowest-order density fluctuations (absent in the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory) obey a passive scalar evolution equation with an additional source term that results from coupling to the large-scale inhomogeneous mean density gradient. The importance of this source term is explored, and we estimate analytically an upper bound for the maximum possible effect of a source term for nearly incompressible flows with an inhomogeneous background (static and spherically symmetric). For typical solar wind parameters, we show that this effect is rather weak beyond 0.1 AU and that the density fluctuations can be described sufficiently accurately as a pure passive scalar. Our simulations identify the sensitive dependence of density fluctuation evolution on typical initial length-scale ratio of scalar (density) and velocity fields, an effect known from the theory of passive scalar decay and experimentally measured in grid-generated turbulence. It has long been thought that the variance in the density fluctuations (δρ)2 should decay in the manner analogous to the mean background density, implying that with heliocentric distance (δρ)2 ∝ R-4 throughout the heliosphere. Analysis of plasma data obtained by the Voyager spacecraft by Bellamy et al. (2005) showed that the density fluctuations decay much more slowly than R-4 and the decay rate exhibits a flattening between 20-30 AU and a possible rise afterward. A possible mechanism to reduce the decay rate within 30 AU was suggested to be turbulence driven by stream-stream interactions followed by more dominant pickup ion interactions beyond 30 AU. Here we show that the variance in the density fluctuations as described by the inhomogeneous nearly
Energy density fluctuations in early universe
Guardo, G. L.; Ruggieri, M.; Greco, V.
2014-05-09
The primordial nucleosinthesys of the element can be influenced by the transitions of phase that take place after the Big Bang, such as the QCD transition. In order to study the effect of this phase transition, in this work we compute the time evolution of thermodynamical quantities of the early universe, focusing on temperature and energy density fluctuations, by solving the relevant equations of motion using as input the lattice QCD equation of state to describe the strongly interacting matter in the early universe plasma. We also study the effect of a primordial strong magnetic field by means of a phenomenological equation of state. Our results show that small inhomogeneities of strongly interacting matter in the early Universe are moderately damped during the crossover.
Nonlinear density fluctuation field theory for large scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Miao, Hai-Xing
2009-05-01
We develop an effective field theory of density fluctuations for a Newtonian self-gravitating N-body system in quasi-equilibrium and apply it to a homogeneous universe with small density fluctuations. Keeping the density fluctuations up to second order, we obtain the nonlinear field equation of 2-pt correlation ξ(r), which contains 3-pt correlation and formal ultra-violet divergences. By the Groth-Peebles hierarchical ansatz and mass renormalization, the equation becomes closed with two new terms beyond the Gaussian approximation, and their coefficients are taken as parameters. The analytic solution is obtained in terms of the hypergeometric functions, which is checked numerically. With one single set of two fixed parameters, the correlation ξ(r) and the corresponding power spectrum P(κ) simultaneously match the results from all the major surveys, such as APM, SDSS, 2dfGRS, and REFLEX. The model gives a unifying understanding of several seemingly unrelated features of large scale structure from a field-theoretical perspective. The theory is worth extending to study the evolution effects in an expanding universe.
The Phase Coherence of Interstellar Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.
2016-08-01
Studies of MHD turbulence often investigate the Fourier power spectrum to provide information on the nature of the turbulence cascade. However, the Fourier power spectrum only contains the Fourier amplitudes and rejects all information regarding the Fourier phases. Here, we investigate the utility of two statistical diagnostics for recovering information on Fourier phases in ISM column density maps: the averaged amplitudes of the bispectrum and the phase coherence index (PCI), a new phase technique for the ISM. We create three-dimensional density and two-dimensional column density maps using a set of simulations of isothermal ideal MHD turbulence with a wide range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. We find that the bispectrum averaged along different angles with respect to either the k 1 or k 2 axis is primarily sensitive to the sonic Mach number while averaging the bispectral amplitudes over different annuli is sensitive to both the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. The PCI of density suggests that the most correlated phases occur in supersonic sub-Alfvénic turbulence and near the shock scale. This suggests that nonlinear interactions with correlated phases are strongest in shock-dominated regions, in agreement with findings from the solar wind. Our results suggest that the phase information contained in the bispectrum and PCI can be used to find the turbulence parameters in column density maps.
Fluctuating charge-density waves in a cuprate superconductor.
Torchinsky, Darius H; Mahmood, Fahad; Bollinger, Anthony T; Božović, Ivan; Gedik, Nuh
2013-05-01
Cuprate materials hosting high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) also exhibit various forms of charge and spin ordering whose significance is not fully understood. So far, static charge-density waves (CDWs) have been detected by diffraction probes only at particular doping levels or in an applied external field . However, dynamic CDWs may also be present more broadly and their detection, characterization and relationship with HTS remain open problems. Here we present a method based on ultrafast spectroscopy to detect the presence and measure the lifetimes of CDW fluctuations in cuprates. In an underdoped La(1.9)Sr(0.1)CuO4 film (T(c) = 26 K), we observe collective excitations of CDW that persist up to 100 K. This dynamic CDW fluctuates with a characteristic lifetime of 2 ps at T = 5 K that decreases to 0.5 ps at T = 100 K. In contrast, in an optimally doped La(1.84)Sr(0.16)CuO4 film (T(c) = 38.5 K), we detect no signatures of fluctuating CDWs at any temperature, favouring the competition scenario. This work forges a path for studying fluctuating order parameters in various superconductors and other materials. PMID:23435216
Current-density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C. )
1992-03-02
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MST reversed-field-pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, ad the measured radial profile of the {ital k} spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, support the view that low-frequency fluctuations ({ital f}{lt}30 kHz) are tearing modes and high-frequency fluctuations (30 kHz{lt}{ital f}{lt}250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., {bold k}{center dot}{bold B}=0). Correlation of current-density and magnetic fluctuations ({l angle}{ital {tilde j}}{sub {parallel}}{ital {tilde B}{ital r}}{r angle}) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
The Transport of Density Fluctuations Throughout the Heliosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zank, G. P.; Jetha, N.; Hu, Q.; Hunana, P.
2012-01-01
The solar wind is recognized as a turbulent magnetofluid, for which the properties of the turbulent velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are often described by the equations of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, low-frequency density turbulence is also ubiquitous. On the basis of a nearly incompressible formulation of MHD in the expanding inhomogeneous solar wind, we derive the transport equation for the variance of the density fluctuations (Rho(exp 2)). The transport equation shows that density fluctuations behave as a passive scalar in the supersonic solar wind. In the absence of sources of density turbulence, such as within 1AU, the variance (Rho(exp 2)) approximates r(exp -4). In the outer heliosphere beyond 1 AU, the shear between fast and slow streams, the propagation of shocks, and the creation of interstellar pickup ions all act as sources of density turbulence. The model density fluctuation variance evolves with heliocentric distance within approximately 300 AU as (Rho(exp 2)) approximates r(exp -3.3) after which it flattens and then slowly increases. This is precisely the radial profile for the density fluctuation variance observed by Voyager 2. Using a different analysis technique, we confirm the radial profile for Rho(exp 2) of Bellamy, Cairns, & Smith using Voyager 2 data. We conclude that a passive scalar description for density fluctuations in the supersonic solar wind can explain the density fluctuation variance observed in both the inner and the outer heliosphere.
Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering.
Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir
2016-01-01
In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Q_{mL} and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law 〈Q_{mL}〉∼L^{-ϕ}f(m/L) with ϕ≃2/3 and ϕ≃3/5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ≃3/4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P(Q_{mL}) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t/L^{z}, where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z=2 for EW and z=3/2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0. PMID:26871034
How plasma parameters fluctuations influence emissive probe measurements
Bousselin, G. Plihon, N.; Lemoine, N.; Heuraux, S.; Cavalier, J.
2015-05-15
Relationship between the floating potential of an emissive probe and plasma potential oscillations is studied in the case of controlled oscillations of plasma parameters. This relationship is compared to a quasi-static model for floating potential oscillations that assumes a constant emission current and includes the fluctuations of plasma parameters (density and electron temperature). Two different plasma regimes are considered. In the first one, the model is coherent with experimental results. In the second, the model does not fulfill one of the assumption due to the evidence of emission current oscillations when the mean emission current exceeds a given threshold. This second regime highlights the importance of taking into account emission current oscillations in the interpretation of emissive probe measurements. Nevertheless, discrepancies are still observed between emissive probe floating potential and plasma potential oscillations.
Fermion pseudogap from fluctuations of an order parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchernyshyov, Oleg Vladimirovich
Pseudogap behavior, observed in cuprate superconductors and Peierls chains, is studied using various phenomenological approaches. (1) A work of M. V. Sadovskii on Peierls chains with Gaussian fluctuations of the order parameter is revisited. A more transparent diagrammatic method is given and a serious error is pointed out. The method is applied to a recent work of J. Schmalian, B. Stojkovic and D. Pines on "hot spots". It is shown that, while their model is not affected by Sadovskii's mistake, it predicts no pseudogap in the local density of states. (2) A simple analytical treatment based on the self-consistent t-matrix approach is suggested to describe Cooper pair fluctuations deeply in the pseudogap regime. It is argued that a pronounced depletion of the fermion density of states by the pseudogap suppresses the decay of pairing fluctuations, giving them a propagating, rather than diffusing, nature. In view of an approximate particle-hole symmetry at the Fermi surface, both electron pairs and hole pairs should exist in the pseudogap regime, in addition to gapped fermions. Near 2 dimensions, the condensation temperature of these pairs is linearly proportional to the fermion density (the Uemura scaling). (3) A work of J. R. Schrieffer and A. R. Kampf on the crossover between an antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator and a Fermi liquid is complemented by an exactly solvable toy model with all essential features intact. Based on that solution, the three bands of Schrieffer and Kampf are reinterpreted as just two AFM bands with a gap slowly varying in time or across the sample.
Time-dependent density fluctuations in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waldron, Conor J.; English, Niall J.
2016-04-01
Temporal system-mass-density fluctuation analysis was performed on liquid-water molecular-dynamics simulations at ambient pressure and 200 and 300 K, in three increasingly-large systems. A prominent mode in system-density fluctuations was observed at molecular-librational frequencies of ∼600-800 cm-1 (with pronounced temperature dependence). This mode displayed marked system-size dependence, disappearing for larger systems. Persistent system-density fluctuations were clearly evident at 10-11 cm-1 for all systems and temperatures, with lower-amplitude 'overtones' evident only in larger systems. It is conjectured that this reflects ∼3 ps timescales observed in earlier studies for dissipation of local-density fluctuations in liquid water in this 200-300 K temperature range.
Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Coda, S.
2012-09-01
Density fluctuations near the edge of tokamak plasmas can affect the propagation of electron cyclotron (EC) waves. In the present paper, the EC wave propagation in a fluctuating equilibrium is determined using the ray-tracing code C3PO. The evolution of the electron distribution function is calculated self-consistently with the EC wave damping using the 3-D Fokker-Planck solver LUKE. The cumulative effect of fluctuations results in a significant broadening of the current profile combined with a fluctuating power deposition profile. This mechanism improves the simulation of fully non-inductive EC discharges in the TCV tokamaks. Predictive simulations for ITER show that density fluctuations could make the stabilization of NTMs in ITER more challenging.
Effects of stream-associated fluctuations upon the radial variation of average solar wind parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, B. E.; Jokipii, J. R.
1977-01-01
A numerical MHD model in both spherically symmetric time-dependent and corotating equatorial flow approximations is used to compute the effects of nonlinear fluctuations due to solar wind streams upon radial gradients of average solar wind parameters. Significant effects of correlations between fluctuations on the gradients of azimuthal magnetic field, radial velocity, density, and azimuthal velocity are found. It is found that nonlinear fluctuations are a significant effect in determining the radial gradients of the solar wind at distances as small as 0.2 AU; at distances greater than 1 AU, nonlinear fluctuations dominate the behavior of the radial gradients.
The power associated with density fluctuations and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Intriligator, D. S.
1974-01-01
Direct observations from Pioneer 6 of solar-wind-proton fluctuations have been used to obtain the power spectra associated with solar-wind-proton number density and velocity fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz, extending previous analyses by an order of magnitude at the higher frequencies. The slopes of the power spectra associated with the density fluctuations and the velocity fluctuations are similar and are in agreement with the shape of the power spectra found at the lower frequencies. The power spectra indicate that the power-law density spectrum observed at lower frequencies extends to at least 0.01 Hz. This smooth variation in the spectrum at these frequencies is consistent with previous extrapolations of both spacecraft and interplanetary scintillation observations.
Current density fluctuations, nonlinear coupling, and transport in MST
Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.E.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Fiksel, G.; Fonck, R.J.; Henry, J.S.; Hokin, S.A.; Holly, D.J.; Ji, H.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Watts, C.
1992-09-01
New information on magnetic fluctuations and transport in toroidal devices has been obtained in the MST reversed field pinch through measurement of nonlinear coupling of three waves in k-space, and measurement of current density fluctuations. Measurements of nonlinear coupling of magnetic fluctuations reveals that (1) two poloidal mode number m = 1 modes couple strongly to an m = 2 mode, (2) toroidal mode coupling is broad extending up to n = 20, (3) these features agree with predictions for tearing fluctuations from a nonlinear MHD code, (4) during a sawtooth crash the number of modes involved in nonlinear interactions increases dramatically and the k-spectrum broadens simultaneously. Measurements of current density fluctuations over the outer 20% of the minor radius reveal that (1) low frequency fluctuations are consistent with tearing modes, (2) high frequency fluctuations are localized turbulence which maintains resonance with the equilibrium field as q changes with radius, (3) particle transport from magnetic fluctuations is ambipolar (i.e., <{delta}j{sub {parallel}}B{sub r}> = O).
Density fluctuations of polymers in disordered media
Deutsch, Joshua M.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2011-03-02
We study self-avoiding random walks in an environment where sites are excluded randomly, in two and three dimensions. For a single polymer chain, we study the statistics of the time averaged monomer density and show that these are well described by multifractal statistics. This is true even far from the percolation transition of the disordered medium. We investigate solutions of chains in a disordered environment and show that the statistics cease to be multifractal beyond the screening length of the solution.
Charge and spin fluctuations in the density functional theory
Gyoerffy, B.L.; Barbieri, A. . H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Staunton, J.B. . Dept. of Physics); Shelton, W.A.; Stocks, G.M. )
1990-01-01
We introduce a conceptual framework which allow us to treat charge and spin fluctuations about the Local density Approximation (LDA) to the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We illustrate the approach by explicit study of the Disordered Local Moment (DLM) state in Fe above the Curie Temperature {Tc} and the Mott insulating state in MnO. 27 refs., 6 figs.
Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nygârd, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Hyltegren, Kristin; Chodankar, Shirish; Perret, Edith; Buitenhuis, Johan; van der Veen, J. Friso; Kjellander, Roland
2016-01-01
Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.
Density fluctuations of polymers in disordered media.
Deutsch, J M; de la Cruz, M Olvera
2011-03-01
We study self-avoiding random walks in an environment where sites are excluded randomly, in two and three dimensions. For a single polymer chain, we study the statistics of the time averaged monomer density and show that these are well described by multifractal statistics. This is true even far from the percolation transition of the disordered medium. We investigate solutions of chains in a disordered environment and show that the statistics cease to be multifractal beyond the screening length of the solution. PMID:21517516
Topological defects and density fluctuations in collectively moving systems
Schaller, Volker; Bausch, Andreas R.
2013-01-01
Ensembles of collectively moving particles like flocks of birds, bacteria, or filamentous polymers show a broad range of intriguing phenomena, yet seem to obey very similar physical principles. These generic principles have been predicted to lead to characteristic density fluctuations, which are in sharp contrast to normal fluctuations determining the properties of ordered systems in thermal equilibrium. Using high-density motility assays of driven filaments, we characterize here the origin and nature of giant fluctuations that emerge in this class of systems. By showing that these unique statistical properties result from the coupling between particle density and the topology of the velocity field of the particles, we provide insight in the physics of collective motion.
Density fluctuation measurements using beam emission spectroscopy on Heliotron J
Kobayashi, S.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Konoshima, S.; Toushi, K.; Sano, F.; Kado, S.; Oishi, T.; Kagawa, T.; Nagae, Y.; Lee, H. Y.; Minami, T.; Harada, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Estrada, T.; Murakami, S.
2012-10-15
This paper describes the measurement of the density fluctuation using beam emission spectroscopy in Heliotron J, having the non-symmetrical helical-magnetic-axis configuration. In order to optimize the sightlines, the numerical calculations are carried out to estimate the spatial resolution and the observation location. When a tangential neutral beam is used as diagnostic one, suitable sightlines from the newly installed diagnostic port are selected whose spatial resolution {Delta}{rho} is less than {+-}0.07 over the entire plasma region. Modification of the interference filter and the detection systems enables us to measure the radial profile of the density fluctuation. Each of the three coherent modes due to the fast-ion-driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities has different radial structure of the density fluctuation.
MEASUREMENTS OF RAPID DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND
Malaspina, D. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Kellogg, P. J.; Bale, S. D.
2010-03-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations in the solar wind is inferred by tracking small timescale changes in the electron plasma frequency during periods of strong Langmuir wave activity. STEREO electric field waveform data are used to produce time profiles of plasma density from which the density power spectrum is derived. The power spectra obtained by this method extend the observed frequency range by an order of magnitude while remaining consistent with previous results near a few Hertz. Density power spectral indices are found to be organized by the angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind direction, indicating significant anisotropy in solar wind high-frequency density turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikawa, Shohei; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Nagashima, Hiroki; Tsuda, Shin-Ichi
2014-11-01
In this study, we evaluated the density fluctuation of diatomic fluids around the critical point. We simulated the density fluctuation of 2-Center-Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) fluids, which have molecular elongations as one of the parameters, by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. We focused on the effect of anisotropy of diatomic fluid on fluctuation structure to evaluate the principle of corresponding state of the density fluctuation. As the evaluation methods, we calculated the dispersion of number of molecules at certain domain and also computed static structure factor. We calculated those values of diatomic fluids which have various molecular elongations to compare the difference of fluctuation structure of fluids. As results, the principle of corresponding state is satisfied because there is no significant difference in the fluctuation structure between fluids which have shorter molecular elongation and longer one. Hereafter, we are going to calculate the intermediate scattering function and dynamic structure factor to evaluate the principle of corresponding state of the density fluctuation in detail. This study has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (23360380) and the Collaborative Research Project of the Institute of Fluids Science, Tohoku University.
Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Yates, T. F.
2010-10-15
Differential interferometry employs two parallel laser beams with a small spatial offset (less than beam width) and frequency difference (1-2 MHz) using common optics and a single mixer for a heterodyne detection. The differential approach allows measurement of the electron density gradient, its fluctuations, as well as the equilibrium density distribution. This novel interferometry technique is immune to fringe skip errors and is particularly useful in harsh plasma environments. Accurate calibration of the beam spatial offset, accomplished by use of a rotating dielectric wedge, is required to enable broad application of this approach. Differential interferometry has been successfully used on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch plasma to directly measure fluctuation-induced transport along with equilibrium density profile evolution during pellet injection. In addition, by combining differential and conventional interferometry, both linear and nonlinear terms of the electron density fluctuation energy equation can be determined, thereby allowing quantitative investigation of the origin of the density fluctuations. The concept, calibration, and application of differential interferometry are presented.
Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann: Numerical Sampling of Charge Density Fluctuations.
Poitevin, Frédéric; Delarue, Marc; Orland, Henri
2016-07-01
We present a method aimed at sampling charge density fluctuations in Coulomb systems. The derivation follows from a functional integral representation of the partition function in terms of charge density fluctuations. Starting from the mean-field solution given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, an original approach is proposed to numerically sample fluctuations around it, through the propagation of a Langevin-like stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE). The diffusion tensor of the SPDE can be chosen so as to avoid the numerical complexity linked to long-range Coulomb interactions, effectively rendering the theory completely local. A finite-volume implementation of the SPDE is described, and the approach is illustrated with preliminary results on the study of a system made of two like-charge ions immersed in a bath of counterions. PMID:27075231
Bettelheim, F A; Paunovic, M
1979-01-01
Light-scattering intensities in the I parallel and I+ mode were obtained on thin sections of three human lenses. Random density and orientation fluctuation theory, without cross correlation, was employed to evaluate light-scattering parameters. Both the density correlation distances, as well as the orientation correlation distances, were related to structural elements in the lens fiber cell that have been observed by other investigators with different techniques. The magnitude of these fluctuations were evaluated, and it was demonstrated that the density fluctuations are the main contributors to light scattering in normal human lenses. Changes in the light-scattering parameters were evaluated as a function of position within the lens. The changes observed agree with the biochemical data in the literature that reflects that an aging process occurs when one proceeds from the periphery of the lens toward the center. PMID:262413
Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
Particle-density fluctuations and universality in the conserved stochastic sandpile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickman, Ronald; da Cunha, S. D.
2015-08-01
We examine fluctuations in particle density in the restricted-height, conserved stochastic sandpile (CSS). In this and related models, the global particle density is a temperaturelike control parameter. Thus local fluctuations in this density correspond to disorder; if this disorder is a relevant perturbation of directed percolation (DP), then the CSS should exhibit non-DP critical behavior. We analyze the scaling of the variance Vℓ of the number of particles in regions of ℓd sites in extensive simulations of the quasistationary state in one and two dimensions. Our results, combined with a Harris-like argument for the relevance of particle-density fluctuations, strongly suggest that conserved stochastic sandpiles belong to a universality class distinct from that of DP.
Particle-density fluctuations and universality in the conserved stochastic sandpile.
Dickman, Ronald; da Cunha, S D
2015-08-01
We examine fluctuations in particle density in the restricted-height, conserved stochastic sandpile (CSS). In this and related models, the global particle density is a temperaturelike control parameter. Thus local fluctuations in this density correspond to disorder; if this disorder is a relevant perturbation of directed percolation (DP), then the CSS should exhibit non-DP critical behavior. We analyze the scaling of the variance Vℓ of the number of particles in regions of ℓd sites in extensive simulations of the quasistationary state in one and two dimensions. Our results, combined with a Harris-like argument for the relevance of particle-density fluctuations, strongly suggest that conserved stochastic sandpiles belong to a universality class distinct from that of DP. PMID:26382328
Scattering of radio frequency waves by density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram, A. K.; Hizanidis, K.; Ioannidis, Z.; Tigelis, I.
2015-11-01
The scattering of radio frequency waves by density fluctuations in magnetized fusion plasmas is studied theoretically and computationally. For coherent fluctuations, such as filaments in the edge region, we use a full-wave model for which the theory is similar to that for Mie scattering of electromagnetic waves by dielectric objects. The filaments are considered to be cylindrical with their axes aligned along the magnetic field. The results from the theoretical model are compared with numerical simulations using COMSOL. The simulations are extended to plasma conditions that are beyond the scope of the theoretical model, e.g., multiple filaments and filaments with density gradients. For incoherent planar fluctuations, which can be either in the core of the plasma or in the edge region, our theory is based on the Kirchhoff approach in tandem with Huygen's principle. The coherent and incoherent fluctuations scatter the incident plane wave, as well as couple some of the power to different plasma waves. The scattered spectrum is affected by the size of the fluctuations, the frequency, and the direction of propagation of the incident wave.
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations.
Donev, Aleksandar; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-21
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, "Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, "A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law," J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions. PMID:24952531
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donev, Aleksandar; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-01
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, "Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, "A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law," J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations
Donev, Aleksandar Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-21
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, “Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, “A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law,” J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.
Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind
Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2014-05-01
We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.
Effects of Density Fluctuations on Weakly Nonlinear Alfven Waves: An IST Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, R.; Hadley, N.
2012-12-01
The effects of random density fluctuations on oblique, 1D, weakly nonlinear Alfven waves is examined through a numerical study of an analytical model developed by Ruderman [M.S. Ruderman, Phys. Plasmas, 9 (7), pp. 2940-2945, (2002).]. Consistent with Ruderman's application to the one-parameter dark soliton, the effects on both one-parameter bright and dark solitons, the two-parameter soliton as well as pairs of one-parameter solitons were similar to that of Ohmic dissipation found by Hamilton et al. [R. Hamilton, D. Peterson, and S. Libby, J. Geophys. Res 114, A03104,doi:10.1029/2008JA013582 (2009).] It was found in all cases where bright or two-parameter solitons are present initially, that the effects of density fluctuations results in the eventual damping of such compressive wave forms and the formation of a train of dark solitons, or magnetic depressions.
Electronic density fluctuation associated to coherent plasmon excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gervasoni, Juana; Segui, Silvina; Arista, Nestor
2011-10-01
In this work we analyze, in the frame of the coherent states, the fluctuation of the electronic collective modes associated with the wake potential generated by an external particle of charge Ze. This perturbation is described as coherent states of plasmons spatially localized in an average distance of the order of the velocity of the projectile divided by the plasmon frequency of the material. One of the most important features is that in all the cases, for different trajectories of the external particle, and for different structures of the material, the fluctuations are not negligible. In particular, we observe that due to the importance of the surface in nanostructured materials, the fluctuation of density is very sensitive to their geometry and composition, fact that must have taken into account for the nanodevices designs. In this work we analyze, in the frame of the coherent states, the fluctuation of the electronic collective modes associated with the wake potential generated by an external particle of charge Ze. This perturbation is described as coherent states of plasmons spatially localized in an average distance of the order of the velocity of the projectile divided by the plasmon frequency of the material. One of the most important features is that in all the cases, for different trajectories of the external particle, and for different structures of the material, the fluctuations are not negligible. In particular, we observe that due to the importance of the surface in nanostructured materials, the fluctuation of density is very sensitive to their geometry and composition, fact that must have taken into account for the nanodevices designs. Acknowledgements to CNEA and CONICET, Argentina.
Density and temperature of bosons from quantum fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Hua; Giuliani, Gianluca; Bonasera, Aldo
2012-10-01
A method to determine the density and temperature of a system is proposed based on quantum fluctuations typical of bosons in the limit where the temperature T is close to the critical temperature Tc for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at a given density ρ. Quadrupole and particle multiplicity fluctuations using Landau's theory of fluctuations near the critical point are derived. As an example, we apply our approach to heavy ion collisions using the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model (CoMD) which includes the Fermi statistics. The model shows some clusterization into deuteron (d) and alpha (α) clusters but it is not enough to reproduce available experimental data. We propose a modification of the collision term in the approach to include the possibility of α-α collisions. The relevant Bose-Einstein factor in the collision term is properly taken into account. This approach increases the yields of bosons relative to fermions closer to data. Boson fluctuations become larger than 1 as expected. If they are confirmed a new field of research could open up for a mixture of strongly interacting fermions and bosons which requires novel techniques both theoretically and experimentally.
Density fluctuations as an intrinsic mechanism of pressure profile formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vershkov, V. A.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Subbotin, G. F.; Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Danilov, A. V.; Melnikov, A. V.; Eliseev, L. G.; Maltsev, S. G.; Gorbunov, E. P.; Sergeev, D. S.; Krylov, S. V.; Myalton, T. B.; Ryzhakov, D. V.; Trukhin, V. M.; Chistiakov, V. V.; Cherkasov, S. V.
2015-06-01
This article provides new insight into previous and new experimental data regarding behaviour of small-scale density fluctuations in T-10 ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) discharges. The experiments demonstrate the existence of certain peaked-‘marginal’ normalized plasma pressure profiles in both ohmic and discharges with on-axis ECRH. Strong particle confinement degradation occurred when the normalized plasma pressure gradient exceeded this marginal profile gradient (fast density decay in ohmic, ‘density pump out’ in ECRH). The marginal profile could be achieved either with a flat density and peaked temperature profile or vice versa. Minimal turbulence level did not depend on heating power and was observed with the ‘optimal’ pressure profile, which was slightly broader than the marginal profile. The density fluctuations did not significantly contribute to the heat transport but determined particle fluxes to maintain the pressure profile. The experimental density behaviour could be reasonably described with the modified model of canonical profiles, which includes particle confinement deterioration under marginal pressure profile conditions.
Langmuir turbulence driven by beams in solar wind plasmas with long wavelength density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.
2016-03-01
The self-consistent evolution of Langmuir turbulence generated by electron beams in solar wind plasmas with density inhomogeneities is calculated by numerical simulations based on a 1D Hamiltonian model. It is shown, owing to numerical simulations performed with parameters relevant to type III solar bursts' conditions at 1 AU, that the presence of long-wavelength random density fluctuations of sufficiently large average level crucially modifies the well-known process of beam interaction with Langmuir waves in homogeneous plasmas.
Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.
1995-01-01
On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.
Spontaneous density fluctuations in granular flow and traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Hans J.
It is known that spontaneous density waves appear in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. A similar phenomenon is known from traffic jams on highways. Using numerical simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that the density fluctuations follow a power law spectrum. We also investigate one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. Lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann models reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a non-linear dependence on density or shear rate as it is the case in traffic or granular flow.
Effect of Heating on Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Noise Generation From High Speed Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.; Mielke, Amy F.; Eck, Dennis G.
2004-01-01
Heated jets in a wide range of temperature ratios (TR), and acoustic Mach numbers (Ma) were investigated experimentally using far field microphones and a molecular Rayleigh scattering technique. The latter provided density fluctuations measurements. Two sets of operating conditions were considered: (1) TR was varied between 0.84 and 2.7 while Ma was fixed at 0.9; (2) Ma was varied between 0.6 and 1.48, while TR was fixed at 2.27. The implementation of the molecular Rayleigh scattering technique required dust removal and usage of a hydrogen combustor to avoid soot particles. Time averaged density measurements in the first set of data showed differences in the peripheral density shear layers between the unheated and heated jets. The nozzle exit shear layer showed increased turbulence level with increased plume temperature. Nevertheless, further downstream the density fluctuations spectra are found to be nearly identical for all Mach number and temperature ratio conditions. To determine noise sources a correlation study between plume density fluctuations and far field sound pressure fluctuations was conducted. For all jets the core region beyond the end of the potential flow was found to be the strongest noise source. Except for an isothermal jet, the correlations did not differ significantly with increasing temperature ratio. The isothermal jet created little density fluctuations. Although the far field noise from this jet did not show any exceptional trend, the flow-sound correlations were very low. This indicated that the density fluctuations only acted as a "tracer parameter" for the noise sources.
Cluster evolution as a probe of primordial density fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.
1993-01-01
Although COBE's detection of large angle microwave background anisotropies fixes the amplitude of density fluctuations on length scales k exp -1 approximately = (300-6000) h(exp -1)Mpc, what is crucial for the level of large scale clustering is the amplitude of density fluctuations on scales (5-50) h(exp -1)Mpc. The level of dynamical clustering is usually parameterized by the size of the mass fluctuations in 8 h exp -1 Mpc spheres, sigma sub 8. For the cold dark matter model, COBE gives sigma sub 8 approximately = 1, while models with extra large scale power give sigma sub 8 approximately = 1/2. The most massive clusters of galaxies (greater than or approximately = 10 exp 15 solar mass) form from rare 'peak patches' found in the initial mass density distribution. Their abundance as a function of redshift is a sensitive probe of the wave number band k(exp -1) approx. (3-8) h(exp -1)Mpc, hence of sigma sub 8, and so cluster evolution can discriminate among models allowed by the COBE results. We use our Hierarchical Peaks Method, which accurately reproduces the results of P3M N-body simulations, to calculate the evolution of cluster x-ray flux counts, luminosity, and temperature functions as a function of sigma sub 8 for CDM models and those with more large scale power. We find that the EMSS and Edge et al. cluster samples support sigma sub 8 in the range from approx. 0.6-0.9, and that models with more large scale power (and hence flatter fluctuation spectra in the cluster regime) fit the x-ray bright end better.
Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Boudouridis, A.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Hartinger, M.
2013-10-01
We report on Pc5 wave related electric field and vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers for an extended period on 9 August 2008. We show that the magnetometer-estimated equatorial E×B drift oscillates with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activity. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using ground-based magnetometer data from the African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Upstream solar wind conditions are provided by the ACE spacecraft. We find that the wave power observed on the ground also occurs in the upstream solar wind and in the magnetosphere. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. While no direct drift measurements from equatorial radars exist for the 9 August 2008 event, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities observed on 2 May 2010 and found similar fluctuations with the period of 5-8 min, as a means of an independent confirmation of our magnetometer derived drift dynamics.
Density fluctuations due to Raman forward scattering in quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Punit; Singh, Shiv; Rathore, Nisha Singh
2016-05-01
Density fluctuations due Raman forward scattering (RFS) is analysed in the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with high density quantum plasma. The interaction model is developed using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model which consist of a set of equations describing the transport of charge, density, momentum and energy of a charged particle system interacting through a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The nonlinear source current has been obtained incorporating the effects of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and electron spin. The laser spectrum is strongly modulated by the interaction, showing sidebands at the plasma frequency. Furthermore, as the quiver velocity of the electrons in the high electric field of the laser beam is quit large, various quantum effects are observed which can be attributed to the variation of electron mass with laser intensity.
Vallée, R A L; Tomczak, N; Vancso, G J; Kuipers, L; van Hulst, N F
2005-03-15
We investigated the nanometer scale mobility of polymers in the glassy state by monitoring the dynamics of embedded single fluorophores. Recently we reported on fluorescence lifetime fluctuations which reflect the segmental rearrangement dynamics of the polymer in the surroundings of the single molecule probe. Here we focus on the nature of these fluorescence lifetime fluctuations. First the potential role of quenching and molecular conformational changes is discussed. Next we concentrate on the influence of the radiative density of states on the spontaneous emission of individual dye molecules embedded in a polymer. To this end we present a theory connecting the effective-medium theory to a cell-hole model, originating from the Simha-Somcynsky free-volume theory. The relation between the derived distributions of free volume and fluorescence lifetime allows one to determine the number of segments involved in the local rearrangement directly from experimental data. Results for two different polymers as a function of temperature are presented. PMID:15836240
Yang, Shanshan; Cai, Suxian; Zheng, Fang; Wu, Yunfeng; Liu, Kaizhi; Wu, Meihong; Zou, Quan; Chen, Jian
2014-10-01
This article applies advanced signal processing and computational methods to study the subtle fluctuations in knee joint vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals. Two new features are extracted to characterize the fluctuations of VAG signals. The fractal scaling index parameter is computed using the detrended fluctuation analysis algorithm to describe the fluctuations associated with intrinsic correlations in the VAG signal. The averaged envelope amplitude feature measures the difference between the upper and lower envelopes averaged over an entire VAG signal. Statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that both of the fractal scaling index (p=0.0001) and averaged envelope amplitude (p=0.0001) features are significantly different between the normal and pathological signal groups. The bivariate Gaussian kernels are utilized for modeling the densities of normal and pathological signals in the two-dimensional feature space. Based on the feature densities estimated, the Bayesian decision rule makes better signal classifications than the least-squares support vector machine, with the overall classification accuracy of 88% and the area of 0.957 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Such VAG signal classification results are better than those reported in the state-of-the-art literature. The fluctuation features of VAG signals developed in the present study can provide useful information on the pathological conditions of degenerative knee joints. Classification results demonstrate the effectiveness of the kernel feature density modeling method for computer-aided VAG signal analysis. PMID:25096412
Fluctuation-dissipation theorem density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furche, Filipp; Van Voorhis, Troy
2005-04-01
Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in the context of density-functional theory (DFT), one can derive an exact expression for the ground-state correlation energy in terms of the frequency-dependent density response function. When combined with time-dependent density-functional theory, a new class of density functionals results that use approximations to the exchange-correlation kernel fxc as input. This FDT-DFT scheme holds promise to solve two of the most distressing problems of conventional Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) It leads to correlation energy functionals compatible with exact exchange, and (ii) it naturally includes dispersion. The price is a moderately expensive O(N6) scaling of computational cost and a slower basis set convergence. These general features of FDT-DFT have all been recognized previously. In this paper, we present the first benchmark results for a set of molecules using FDT-DFT beyond the random-phase approximation (RPA)—that is, the first such results with fxc≠0. We show that kernels derived from the adiabatic local-density approximation and other semilocal functionals suffer from an "ultraviolet catastrophe," producing a pair density that diverges at small interparticle distance. Nevertheless, dispersion interactions can be treated accurately if hybrid functionals are employed, as is demonstrated for He2 and HeNe. We outline constraints that future approximations to fxc should satisfy and discuss the prospects of FDT-DFT.
Listening to the noise: random fluctuations reveal gene network parameters
Munsky, Brian; Khammash, Mustafa
2009-01-01
The cellular environment is abuzz with noise. The origin of this noise is attributed to the inherent random motion of reacting molecules that take part in gene expression and post expression interactions. In this noisy environment, clonal populations of cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability that frequently manifests as significant phenotypic differences within the cellular population. The stochastic fluctuations in cellular constituents induced by noise can be measured and their statistics quantified. We show that these random fluctuations carry within them valuable information about the underlying genetic network. Far from being a nuisance, the ever-present cellular noise acts as a rich source of excitation that, when processed through a gene network, carries its distinctive fingerprint that encodes a wealth of information about that network. We demonstrate that in some cases the analysis of these random fluctuations enables the full identification of network parameters, including those that may otherwise be difficult to measure. This establishes a potentially powerful approach for the identification of gene networks and offers a new window into the workings of these networks.
Electron density fluctuations in a disturbed ionospheric environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Ganguli, G.
1988-01-01
Electron density fluctuations in the earth's ionosphere can adversely affect SDIO systems which involve electromagnetic wave propagation, e.g., laser beams. This is particularly true for severely disturbed ionospheric conditions produced by high-altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs). This paper briefly describes, in general terms, the HANE environment and the various plasma instabilities which could generate small-scale electron density irregularities. As an example, an analysis of a single instability, the lower-hybrid-drift instability, which is likely to be excited in the ionosphere following a high altitude burst. Both the linear and nonlinear behavior of this instability are discussed. It is shown how these results can be applied to potential SDIO laser systems in a HANE environment.
Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Wu, Zefei; Cai, Yuan; Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Yang; Han, Yu; Lortz, Rolf W.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Sheng, Ping; Wang, Ning
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that fluctuations of the local density of states (LDOS) in strongly disordered graphene play an important role in determining the quantum capacitance of the top-gate graphene devices. Depending on the strength of the disorder induced by metal-cluster decoration, the measured quantum capacitance of disordered graphene can dramatically decrease in comparison with pristine graphene. This is opposite to the common belief that quantum capacitance should increase with disorder. To explain this counterintuitive behavior, we present a two-parameter model which incorporates both the non-universal power law behavior for the ADOS and a lognormal distribution of LDOS. We find excellent quantitative agreements between the model and measured quantum capacitance for three disordered samples in a wide range of Fermi energies. Thus, by measuring the quantum capacitance, we can simultaneously determine the ADOS and its fluctuations. It is the LDOS fluctuations that cause the dramatic reduction of the quantum capacitance.
The nucleation process and the roles of structure and density fluctuations in supercooled liquid Fe
Li, Rong; Wu, Yongquan Xiao, Junjiang
2014-01-21
We observed homogeneous nucleation process of supercooled liquid Fe by molecular dynamics simulations. Using bond-orientational order parameters together with Voronoi polyhedron method, we characterized local structure, calculated the volume of Voronoi polyhedra of atoms and identified the structure and density fluctuations. We monitored the formation of nucleus and analyzed its inner structure. The birth and growth of the pre-nucleus and nucleus are accompanied with aggregating and disaggregating processes in the time scale of femtosecond. Only the initial solid-like clusters (ISLC), ranging from 1 to 7 atoms, pop up directly from liquid. The relation between the logarithm of number of clusters and the cluster size was found to be linear for ISLCs and was observed to be parabolic for all solid-like clusters (SLC) due to aggregating and disaggregating effects. The nucleus and pre-nuclei mainly consist of body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close packed atoms, while the BCC atoms tend to be located at the surface. Medium-range structure fluctuations induce the birth of ISLCs, benefit the aggregation of embryos and remarkably promote the nucleation. But density fluctuations contribute little to nucleation. The lifetime of most icosahedral-like atoms (ICO) is shorter than 0.7 ps. No obvious relationship was found between structure/density fluctuations and the appearance of ICO atoms.
Plasma density fluctuations observed during Space Shuttle Orbiter water releases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pickett, J. S.; D'Angelo, N.; Kurth, W. S.
1989-01-01
Observations by the Langmuir probe on the Plasma Diagnostics Package flown as part of the Spacelab 2 mission in the summer of 1985 show a strong increase in the level of turbulence near the Shuttle Orbiter during operations in which liquid water is released. The spectrum of the plasma density fluctuations peaks at the lowest frequencies measured (a few Hz) and extends up to a few kHz, near the lower hybrid frequency. Two potential mechanisms for generating the plasma turbulence are suggested which are both based on the production of water ions as a result of charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions in the ionosphere. The first mechanism proposed is the ion-plasma instability which arises from the drift of the contaminant with respect to the ambient oxygen ions. The other mechanism proposed is the Ott-Farley instability, which is a result of the ring distribution formed by the 'pick-up' water ions.
Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.
2015-07-01
A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.
Simulation of Density Fluctuation Intermittency in Decaying Kinetic Alfvén Wave Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kurt; Terry, Paul
2006-10-01
We investigate the possibility that the distance-to-source scaling of the temporal width of pulsar signals is caused by intermittency in the turbulent density fluctuations of the interstellar medium. We simulate the small scales near the ion gyroradius where density fluctuations reach equipartition with the turbulent magnetic field in a kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) cascade^1. Examination of decaying KAW turbulence using a fluid model establishes the presence of strong intermittency in the current fluctuation field, and a profile of Gaussian curvature of magnetic field that supports the theoretical prediction that the intermittent current filaments avoid turbulent mixing by refracting turbulent KAW activity away from filaments. The theory predicts correlated structures in electron density. These are observed but their intermittency is less pronounced. The role of parameter values, including the ratio of resistivity to density diffusivity, and the initial spectrum are explored to determine the effect on intermittency.^ ^1P.W. Terry, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2707 (2001).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schunck, M.; Hegmann, M.; Sedlmayr, E.
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of stochastic density fluctuations on the dust temperatures and the resulting infrared (IR) emission spectra of interstellar clouds as an extension of preceding investigations by Hegmann & Kegel. We consider absorption and scattering by dust grains in spherical clouds which are, on average, homogeneous but have a fluctuating density. The spatial variation of the density is described by means of a Markov process. This clump model introduces two parameters: the correlation length ln and the Gaussian width σn of the density fluctuations. As the intensity Iλ,n inherits the randomness of the density n, the ordinary radiative transfer equation has to be replaced by a generalized transfer equation of Fokker-Planck type. In the first part, we investigate the influence of our model parameters on the radiative transport in the ultraviolet (UV) and use the results to calculate the dust temperature in radiative equilibrium. Afterwards, the IR emission of the dust is modelled for the same set of clump parameters. We find that the presence of clumps decreases the effective extinction and therefore leads to substantial differences in UV illumination and dust temperatures, compared with the homogeneous case. Because of the distribution of dust temperatures, the presence of clumps also affects the IR emission and thus possible observations. In the second part, we use a fit with two blackbody spectra to determine the cloud dust mass from our synthetic IR fluxes. It is shown that in a clumpy environment the overall dust mass is generally underestimated. This effect correlates with the degree of cloud fragmentation.
Density fluctuations dispersion relationship for a polymer confined to a nanotube
Carpenter, Joshua H.; Karpusenko, Alena; Pan, Junhan; Lim, Shuang Fang; Riehn, Robert
2011-01-01
DNA confined to rigid nanotubes shows density fluctuations around its stretched equilibrium conformation. We report an experimental investigation of the length-scale dependent dynamics of these density fluctuations. We find that for highly elongated molecules a Rouse description is consistent with observations at sufficiently large length scales. We further find that for strongly fluctuating molecules, or short length scales, such Rouse modes cannot be detected due to strong mixing of fluctuation modes. PMID:21772582
Yates, T. F.; Ding, W. X.; Carter, T. A.; Brower, D. L.
2008-10-15
Fluctuations are expected to play an important role in anomalous particle, momentum, and energy transport for magnetic confinement devices. Magnetic and density fluctuations are simultaneously measured using a high-speed laser-based Faraday rotation-interferometry system with a bandwidth of 500 kHz and 8 cm chord spacing. Density fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation profiles are obtained by using a newly developed fitting procedure.
Dynamical Selection of the Primordial Density Fluctuation Amplitude
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2011-02-25
In inflationary models, the predicted amplitude of primordial density perturbations Q is much larger than the observed value ({approx}10{sup -5}) for natural choices of parameters. To explain the requisite exponential fine-tuning, anthropic selection is often invoked, especially in cases where microphysics is expected to produce a complex energy landscape. By contrast, we find examples of ekpyrotic models based on heterotic M theory for which dynamical selection naturally favors the observed value of Q.
Ion Density Fluctuations at the Kinetic Scale: Experimental Investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Nemec, F.; Chen, C. H. K.
2014-12-01
It is well established that the solar wind undergoes a heating along its path through the solar system but the sources of this heating are still under debate. Among them, a gradual dissipation of large scale discontinuities toward smaller scales and, eventually, to the heat via turbulent cascades is frequently discussed.The contribution presents the analysis of ion density variations that are measured onboard the Spektr R spacecraft with a unique time resolution of 32 ms. The analysis reveals that (1) the mean frequency spectrum of density variations in the MHD range (up to about 0.05 Hz) is steeper than usually discussed -5/3, and (2) this part is followed by a plateau that is terminated near proton kinetic scales. We study the dependence of the slopes of different parts of the frequency spectra on background plasma parameters and discuss the results in view of present theories of Alfvenic turbulence in the solar wind.
Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.
2001-02-10
The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1-D reflectometer model taking into account the influence of finite density fluctuation levels and the upper hybrid resonance. It is found that a high level of O-X correlation can only be achieved for sufficiently small density fluctuation levels (typically much less than 1%) or very low magnetic field strengths. The influence of the upper hybrid resonance on the O-X correlation was found to also degrade the correlation between the O and X mode signals for very low magnetic field strengths or for very short density scale lengths. The extrapolation of these results to reactor-scale parameters indicates that the magnetic field strength can reliably be measured in the core plasma provided the density fluctuation level is typically much less than 1%.
Statistics of beam-driven waves in plasmas with ambient fluctuations: Reduced-parameter approach
Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.
2008-09-15
A reduced-parameter (RP) model of quasilinear wave-plasma interactions is used to analyze statistical properties of beam-driven waves in plasmas with ambient density fluctuations. The probability distribution of wave energies in such a system is shown to have a relatively narrow peak just above the thermal wave level, and a power-law tail at high energies, the latter becoming progressively more evident for increasing characteristic amplitude of the ambient fluctuations. To better understand the physics behind these statistical features of the waves, a simplified model of stochastically driven thermal waves is developed on the basis of the RP model. An approximate analytic solution for stationary statistical distribution of wave energies W is constructed, showing a good agreement with that of the original RP model. The 'peak' and 'tail' features of the wave energy distribution are shown to be a result of contributions of two groups of wave clumps: those subject to either very slow or very fast random variations of total wave growth rate (due to fluctuations of ambient plasma density), respectively. In the case of significant ambient plasma fluctuations, the overall wave energy distribution is shown to have a clear power-law tail at high energies, P(W){proportional_to}W{sup -{alpha}}, with nontrivial exponent 1<{alpha}<2, while for weak fluctuations it is close to the lognormal distribution predicted by pure stochastic growth theory. The model's wave statistics resemble the statistics of plasma waves observed by the Ulysses spacecraft in some interplanetary type III burst sources. This resemblance is discussed qualitatively, and it is suggested that the stochastically driven thermal waves might be a candidate for explaining the power-law tails in the observed wave statistics without invoking mechanisms such as self-organized criticality or nonlinear wave collapse.
Effects of stream-associated fluctuations upon the radial variation of average solar-wind parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, B. E.; Jokipii, J. R.
1976-01-01
The effects of nonlinear fluctuations due to solar wind streams upon radial gradients of average solar wind parameters are computed, using a numerical MHD model for both spherically symmetric time dependent and corotating equatorial flow approximations. Significant effects of correlations are found between fluctuations upon the gradients of azimuthal magnetic fields, radial velocity, density and azimuthal velocity. Between 400 to 900 solar radii stream interactions have transferred the major portion of the angular momentum flux to the magnetic field; at even greater distances the plasma again carries the bulk of the angular momentum flux. The average azimuthal component of the magnetic field may decrease as much as 10% faster than the Archimedean spiral out to 6 AU due to stream interactions, but this result is dependent upon inner boundary conditions.
Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.
2013-11-28
We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.
2013-11-01
We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.
Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys
Labini, Francesco Sylos; Tekhanovich, Daniil; Baryshev, Yurij V. E-mail: d.tekhanovich@spbu.ru
2014-07-01
One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determining the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effects. In order to quantify these effects, we introduce a new method based on the computation of the gradient of galaxy counts along tiny cylinders. We show, by using artificial homogeneous and inhomogeneous point distributions, that this method identifies redshift dependent selection effects and disentangles them from the presence of large scale density fluctuations. We then apply this new method to several redshift catalogs and we find evidence that galaxy distribution, in those samples where selection effects are small enough, is characterized by power-law correlations with exponent γ=0.9 up to 20 Mpc/h followed by a change of slope that, in the range 20–100 Mpc/h, corresponds to a power-law exponent γ=0.25. Whether a crossover to spatial uniformity occurs at ∼ 100 Mpc/h or larger scales cannot be clarified by the present data.
Hirsch, M.; Hartfuss, H.; Geist, T.; de la Luna, E.
1996-05-01
A broadband heterodyne reflectometer operating in the frequency range 75{endash}110 GHz in extraordinary mode polarization is used at the W7-AS stellarator for both fast density profile determination and density fluctuation studies. The probing signal is amplitude modulated at a frequency 133 MHz using the envelope phase for profile evaluation and the carrier phase to determine the fluctuation information simultaneously. Separate Gaussian beam optics for final signal launch and detection permits a beam waist of about 2 cm at the reflecting layer in the plasma. Amplitude modulated detection is accomplished in the intermediate frequency part by synchronous detection after recovery of the carrier by narrow-band filtering. Voltage controlled solid state oscillators followed by active frequency multiplication allow to scan the full frequency band within less than 1 ms. For typical W7-AS operation the accessible density range is 1{times}10{sup 19} to 6{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for on axis magnetic field of 2.5 T and 4.5{times}10{sup 19} to 10{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for 1.25 T, respectively. The probed radial positions range between 0.2{lt}{ital r}/{ital a}{lt}1.1 depending on plasma conditions ({ital a}{approx_equal}17 cm). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere.
Banakh, V A; Smalikho, I N
2014-09-22
Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere have been studied based on numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. It has been shown that under conditions of strong optical turbulence, the relative variance of energy density fluctuations of pulsed radiation of femtosecond duration becomes much less than the relative variance of intensity fluctuations of continuous-wave radiation. The spatial structure of fluctuations of the energy density with a decrease of the pulse duration becomes more large-scale and homogeneous. For shorter pulses the maximal value of the probability density distribution of energy density fluctuations tends to the mean value of the energy density. PMID:25321700
Magnetic-Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a High-Temperature Plasma
Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.
2009-07-10
The first direct measurement of magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle flux in the core of a high-temperature plasma is reported. Transport occurs due to magnetic field fluctuations associated with global tearing instabilities. The electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density and radial magnetic fluctuations, accounts for density profile relaxation during a magnetic reconnection event. The measured particle transport is much larger than that expected for ambipolar particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field.
Reflectometer measurements of density fluctuations in tokamak plasmas
Nazikian, R.; Mazzucato, E.
1994-08-01
We show that many anomalous features observed in reflectometer measurements of turbulent fluctuations in tokamak plasmas, such as loss of coherent reflection, large amplitude fluctuations, large angular divergence of the reflected waves and correlation lengths of the order of the free space wavelength of the probe beam, can be explained by modeling the plasma fluctuations as a poloidally varying random phase grating located at the cutoff with a phase magnitude given by 1D geometric optics. A key result of our analysis is that the turbulence spectrum cannot be inferred from phase measurements when large amplitude fluctuations are observed at the receiver. However, the turbulence spectrum may still be recovered from phase measurements by use of imaging optics, and wide angle phase sensitive receivers.
DXA parameters: beyond bone mineral density.
Briot, Karine
2013-05-01
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) to diagnose osteoporosis. However, BMD measurement alone does not reliably predict the fracture risk. DXA can be used to assess other parameters (e.g. presence of vertebral fractures, bone microarchitecture, bone geometry, and body composition) simultaneously with BMD measurements, to help identify individuals at high fracture risk. Among these parameters, some are suitable for use in clinical practice, whereas others are reserved for research. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a very low radiation-dose method for detecting thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. Compared to standard radiography, VFA can be used in a broader population to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures. The very good negative predictive value of VFA leads, in one-third of cases, to changes in patient management (drug treatment and prescription of radiographs). The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a noninvasively measured texture parameter that correlates with 3D bone microarchitecture parameters independently from BMD and that can be determined from lumbar-spine DXA images. Several cross-sectional studies and a prospective study established that the TBS was effective in identifying individuals with fractures. Additional studies will have to be performed to determine whether TBS determination can be recommended for everyday practice when treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:23622733
Effect of fluctuations on the onset of density-driven convection in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bestehorn, Michael; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2012-11-01
We study the dissolution of CO2 in saline aquifers. The long diffusion times can be accelerated by orders of magnitude from mass transfer that origins from convection. Convection occurs at a critical time via a phase transition from the horizontally homogeneous diffusion state. To start the instability, perturbations that break the horizontal translation symmetry are necessary. We start with the basic equations and the boundary conditions, examine the linearized equations around the diffusive time and z-dependent base state and compare different definitions of the critical time found in the literature. Taking a simple model we show the role of fluctuations for delayed instabilities if the control parameter is slowly swept through the bifurcation point. Apart from the critical time we use a "visible" time where convection is manifested in the vertical CO2 transport. We specify the perturbations with respect to their strength and length scale, and compute the critical times for various cases by numerical integration of the basic equations in two spatial dimensions. Fluctuating concentration at the upper boundary, fluctuating porosity as well fluctuating permeability are studied in detail. For the permeability fluctuation, the compressibility of the fluid becomes important and the velocity field cannot be derived from a stream function. Our work also includes non-isothermal conditions with a prescribed vertical geothermal gradient and space dependent thermal conductivity. Temperature fields for different standard configurations are computed numerically and serve as starting condition for density-driven convection. Based on our work, we conclude that the visible time is much larger than the critical time. The visible time is a strong function of strength and length scale of the perturbations.
Lower thermospheric density fluctuations during the time period of Typhoon Dinah
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Chen, A. J.; Liu, J. M.
1989-01-01
High frequency Doppler sounder arrays were used to study the thermospheric density fluctuations caused by Typhoon Dinah in August, 1987. The results show that the maximum density fluctuations caused by the typhoon at altitudes of 150 to 350 km were close to + or - 30 percent deviation from the quiet background. The time-dependent density fluctuations were in phase with the horizontal phase velocity of major gravity waves excited by the storm. It is suggested that the study demonstrates the use of HF Doppler sounder measurement of gravity waves, horizontal wind velocity in the direction of gravity wave propagation, and density perturbations at thermospheric heights.
Density fluctuations and dielectric constant of water in low and high density liquid states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lascaris, Erik; Zhang, Cui; Galli, Giulia A.; Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H. Eugene
2012-02-01
The hypothesis of a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) in the phase diagram of water, though first published many years ago, still remains the subject of a heated debate. According to this hypothesis there exists a critical point near T 244 K, and P 215 MPa, located at the end of a coexistence line between a high density liquid (HDL) and a low density liquid state (LDL). The LLCP lies below the homogenous nucleation temperature of water and it has so far remained inaccessible to experiments. We study a model of water exhibiting a liquid-liquid phase transition (that is a liquid interacting through the ST2 potential) and investigate the properties of dipolar fluctuations as a function of density, in the HDL and LDL. We find an interesting correlation between the macroscopic dielectric constants and the densities of the two liquids in the vicinity of the critical point, and we discuss possible implications for measurements close to the region where the LLCP may be located.
Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata
2016-05-01
Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.
Wavelet analysis of the parameters of edge plasma fluctuations in the L-2M stellarator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslov, S. A.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Kholnov, Yu V.; Skvortsova, N. N.
2016-01-01
Wavelet analysis results are presented for evolution of the spectral fluctuation characteristics of the edge plasma density and potential in the L-2M stellarator for fast and slow transport transitions. The fast transition comes out as a sharp increase of the energy and electron density within ∼0.1ms and the slow one as a weak parameter change during a 0.5 to 1 ms time interval. It is shown that the use of the “Mexican hat” and Morlet wavelets allows one to detect the moment of the fast transition, whereas applying the Haar wavelet adds to this also an estimate of its duration, conforming to the analytical calculations, and reveals the temporal structure of the slow transition.
Effects of turbulent fluctuations on density measurements with microwave reflectometry in tokamaks
Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.
1994-08-01
The short-scale turbulence of tokamak plasmas has deleterious effects on the measurement of plasma density with microwave reflectometry. Density fluctuations may lead to large amplitude and phase modulations of the reflected wave which can impair the measurement of the wave group delay, and hence the determination of the plasma density. The role played by different types of turbulent fluctuations and the limitations imposed on microwave reflectometry are discussed in this paper.
Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10.
Yoshikawa, M; Negishi, S; Shima, Y; Hojo, H; Mase, A; Kogi, Y; Imai, T
2010-10-01
Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10. PMID:21033869
Density fluctuations in thermal inflation and non-Gaussianity
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2009-12-01
We consider primordial fluctuations in thermal inflation scenario. Since the thermal inflation drives about 10 e-folds after the standard inflation, the time of horizon-exit during inflation corresponding to the present observational scale shifts toward the end of inflation. It generally makes the primordial power spectrum more deviated from a scale-invariant one and hence renders some models inconsistent with observations. We present a mechanism of generating the primordial curvature perturbation at the end of thermal inflation utilizing a fluctuating coupling of a flaton field with the fields in thermal bath. We show that, by adopting the mechanism, some inflation models can be liberated even in the presence of the thermal inflation. We also discuss non-Gaussianity in the mechanism and show that large non-Gaussianity can be generated in this scenario.
Density Fluctuations Upstream and Downstream of Interplanetary Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.
2016-03-01
Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream-stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubkov, Alexander A.; Kharcheva, Anna A.
2014-05-01
Two generalized Verhulst equations with non-Gaussian fluctuations of the reproduction rate and the volume of resources are under analytical investigation. For the first model, using the central limit theorem, we find the asymptotic behavior of the probability distribution of population density for an arbitrary non-Gaussian colored noise with nonzero power spectral density at zero frequency. Specifically, we confirm this result in the case of Markovian dichotomous noise and examine the evolution of mean population density. For fluctuating resources with one-sided stable distribution the transient dynamics of probability density function and statistical characteristics in the steady state are obtained. As shown, the scenario of the population's evolution depends on the parameter of nonlinearity in the original stochastic equation.
Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.
2015-12-01
An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav
2012-04-01
Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Optimum parameter for estimating phase fluctuations on transionospheric signals at high latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forte, Biagio; Materassi, Massimo; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; de Franceschi, Giorgiana; Spalla, Paolo
2011-06-01
Transionospheric radio signals may experience fluctuations in their amplitude and phase due to irregularity in the spatial electron density distribution, referred to as scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation is responsible for transionospheric signal degradation that can affect the performance of satellite based navigation systems. Usually, the scintillation activity is measured by means of indices such as the normalised standard deviation of the received intensity S4 and the standard deviation of the received phase σϕ typically calculated over 1 min of data. Data from a GPS scintillation monitor based on 50 Hz measurements recorded at Dirigibile Italia Station (Ny-Alesund, Svalbard), in the frame of the ISACCO project (De Franceschi et al., 2006) are used to investigate possible adoption of an alternative parameter for the estimate of phase fluctuations: i.e., the standard deviation of the phase rate of change Sϕ. This parameter is shown to better correlate with S4 being much less detrending dependent than σϕ. The couple (S4, Sϕ) should be then considered a more physical proxy of radio scintillation than the couple (S4, σϕ).
Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo
2015-04-01
Experimentally observed electrical breakdown voltages (U(B)) in high-pressure gases and supercritical fluids deviate from classical theories for low-pressure gas discharges, and the underlying breakdown mechanisms for the high-density fluids making the U(B) differ from those in the classical discharges are not yet well understood. In this study, we developed an electrical breakdown model for the high-density fluids taking into account the effects of density fluctuations and ion-enhanced field emission (IEFE). The model is based on the concept that a critical anomaly of the U(B) (local minimum near the critical point) is caused by long mean free electron path leading to a large first Townsend coefficient in locally low-density spatial domains generated by the density fluctuations. Also, a modified Paschen's curve considering the effect of the IEFE on the second Townsend coefficient was used to reproduce the U(B) curve in the high-density fluids. Calculations based on the novel model showed good agreements with the experimentally measured U(B) even near the critical point and it also suggested that the critical anomaly of the U(B) depends on the gap distance. These results indicate that both the density fluctuations and the IEFE have to be considered to comprehend the plasmas in high-density and density-fluctuating fluids. PMID:25974500
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo
2015-04-01
Experimentally observed electrical breakdown voltages (UB) in high-pressure gases and supercritical fluids deviate from classical theories for low-pressure gas discharges, and the underlying breakdown mechanisms for the high-density fluids making the UB differ from those in the classical discharges are not yet well understood. In this study, we developed an electrical breakdown model for the high-density fluids taking into account the effects of density fluctuations and ion-enhanced field emission (IEFE). The model is based on the concept that a critical anomaly of the UB (local minimum near the critical point) is caused by long mean free electron path leading to a large first Townsend coefficient in locally low-density spatial domains generated by the density fluctuations. Also, a modified Paschen's curve considering the effect of the IEFE on the second Townsend coefficient was used to reproduce the UB curve in the high-density fluids. Calculations based on the novel model showed good agreements with the experimentally measured UB even near the critical point and it also suggested that the critical anomaly of the UB depends on the gap distance. These results indicate that both the density fluctuations and the IEFE have to be considered to comprehend the plasmas in high-density and density-fluctuating fluids.
Power Spectral Density of Fluctuations of Bulk and Thermal Speeds in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.
2016-07-01
This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s‑1 bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are ‑1.43 and ‑1.38, respectively, whereas they are ‑3.08 and ‑2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.
Quenching of the beam-plasma instability by 3-D spectra of large scale density fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muschietti, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D.
1984-01-01
A model is presented to explain the highly variable yet low level of Langmuir waves measured in situ by spacecraft when electron beams associated with Type III solar bursts are passing by; the low level of excited waves allows the propagation of such streams from the Sun to well past 1 AU without catastrophic energy losses. The model is based, first, on the existence of large scale density fluctuations that are able to efficiently diffuse small k beam unstable Langmuir waves in phase space, and, second, on the presence of a significantly isotropic nonthermal tail in the distribution function of the background electron population, which is capable of stabilizing larger k modes. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict various levels of Langmuir waves depending on the parameters. This feature is consistent with the high variability actually observed in the measurements.
Quantum dynamics with non-Markovian fluctuating parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goychuk, Igor
2004-07-01
A stochastic approach to the quantum dynamics randomly modulated in time by a discrete state non-Markovian noise, which possesses an arbitrary nonexponential distribution of the residence times, is developed. The formally exact expression for the Laplace-transformed quantum propagator averaged over the stationary realizations of such N -state non-Markovian noise is obtained. The theory possesses a wide range of applications. It includes some previous Markovian and non-Markovian theories as particular cases. In the context of the stochastic theory of spectral line shape and relaxation, the developed approach presents a non-Markovian generalization of the Kubo-Anderson theory of sudden modulation. In particular, the exact analytical expression is derived for the spectral line shape of optical transitions described by a Kubo oscillator with randomly modulated frequency which undergoes jumplike non-Markovian fluctuations in time.
Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors.
Christensen, Morten H; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A; Andersen, Brian M
2016-04-22
Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d-wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La_{1.905}Ba_{0.095}CuO_{4} [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)]. PMID:27152819
Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Morten H.; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A.; Andersen, Brian M.
2016-04-01
Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d -wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La1.905 Ba0.095 CuO4 [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)].
Modeling of Fluctuating Mass Flux in Variable Density Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mongia, H. C.; Nikjooy, M.
1983-01-01
The approach solves for both Reynolds and Favre averaged quantities and calculates the scalar pdf. Turbulent models used to close the governing equations are formulated to account for complex mixing and variable density effects. In addition, turbulent mass diffusivities are not assumed to be in constant proportion to turbulent momentum diffusivities. The governing equations are solved by a combination of finite-difference technique and Monte-Carlo simulation. Some preliminary results on simple variable density shear flows are presented. The differences between these results and those obtained using conventional models are discussed.
Cosmological Inflation with Multiple Fields and the Theory of Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tent, B. J. W.
2002-09-01
Inflation is a stage of extremely rapid expansion in the very early universe. It was proposed to solve a number of problems in the standard Big Bang theory. In particular it others an explanation for the origin of structures like (clusters of) galaxies on the one hand (by generating small density fluctuations that act as gravitational seeds), and for the largescale homogeneity of the universe on the other hand (because of the enormous expansion). Inflation is driven by one or more scalar fields with an appropriate potential. In this thesis we develop an analytical formalism to describe the generation of density fluctuations during inflation with multiple scalar fields. We allow these fields to live on a non-trivial (curved) field manifold, as is often the case in high-energy theories. We also treat the evolution of the fluctuations after inflation, until the time of recombination when the cosmic microwave background radiation was formed. Using our formalism observations of the CMBR can then be used to set constraints on the parameters in (multiple-field) inflation models. In more detail this thesis covers the following topics. After introductory chapters on cosmology in general and single-field inflation, the theory of inflation with multiple fields and a general (non-trivial) field metric is derived. In particular we introduce a basis in field space that is induced by the background dynamics and allows a clear distinction between effectively single-field and truly multiple-field effects. The important slow-roll approximation is generalized to the case of multiple fields. Next we derive how scalar and tensor fluctuations are generated from a quantum origin during multiple-field inflation, paying special attention to the transition that occurs when a perturbation mode crosses the Hubble scale. Using some simplifying assumptions the evolution of both adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation modes after inflation is treated. The final results are expressions for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikawa, Shohei; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi
2014-03-01
In this study, we investigated the principle of corresponding state on the density fluctuation around the critical points of non-polar diatomic fluids. We performed the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for the extraction of the fluctuation structure around the critical points of 2-Center-Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) fluids, which have anisotropy depending on the molecular elongations. We estimated the fluctuation structure by two methods. One is the evaluation of the dispersion of the number of molecules at a certain domain, and the other is the calculation of static structure factor. As a result, in 2CLJ fluids that have shorter molecular elongations comparatively, the principle of corresponding state is satisfied because of the small differences in the fluctuation structure extracted in the present two methods. In addition, paying attention to the time variation of the density fluctuation, we confirmed that the characteristic frequency of the fluctuation is clearly lower around the critical point compared with the other conditions. Hereafter, we are going to calculate a dynamic structure factor, further investigating the principle of corresponding state of density fluctuation.
High Speed Digital Holography for Density and Fluctuation Measurements
ThomasJr., C. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.
2010-01-01
The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras up to 40 000 fps at 644 pixels with resolutions up to 640512 pixels suitable for use with a CO2 laser are readily available, if expensive.
High speed digital holography for density and fluctuation measurements (invited)
Thomas, C. E. Jr.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R. P.; Kaita, R.
2010-10-15
The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras (up to {approx}40 000 fps at {approx}64x4 pixels) with resolutions up to 640x512 pixels suitable for use with a CO{sub 2} laser are readily available, if expensive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip
2014-03-01
The physics of air-water interfaces plays a central role in modern theories of the hydrophobic effect such as the Lum-Chandler-Weeks (LCW) theory. Implementing these theories, however, has been hampered by the difficulty of addressing fluctuations in the shape of such soft interfaces. We show that this challenge is a fundamental consequence of mapping long wavelength density variations onto discrete degrees of freedom. Specifically, through an analysis of the lattice gas model and related approximations, we identify a narrow parameter regime in which the lattice gas model can optimally be used to describe long wavelength liquid density fluctuations such as the capillary modes at a liquid-vapor interface. Coupling fluctuations in the lattice model to fluctuations on finer molecular scales through the least complicated realization of the LCW perspective, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian for lattice occupation variables in the presence of a hydrophobic solute. We show that this Hamiltonian - with no unknown parameters - in fact suffices to describe quantitatively the the solvation of hydrophobic objects with various shapes and sizes. This model is uniquely well suited for exploring hydrophobic and interfacial phenomena that involve disparate length scales.
Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U
Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.
2006-10-15
The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1 MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q=2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2 km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67{+-}35 {mu}s and 70 mm, respectively.
Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.
2006-10-01
The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q =2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67±35μs and 70mm, respectively.
Slow dynamics of ablated zone observed around the density fluctuation ridge of fluid medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koizumi, Masato; Kulinich, Sergei A.; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Ito, Tsuyohito
2013-12-01
In-situ shadowgraph images were recorded to follow and study processes during laser ablation of Sn targets in pressurized carbon dioxide medium. The dynamics of the low-density region with a bubble-like structure forming by ablated Sn in CO2 at different pressures was studied. The lifetime of the region is shown to be pressure-dependent, being the longest near the density fluctuation ridge of the medium, i.e., at 8.8 MPa at 40 °C. The present work is to report on the slower dynamics of ablated zone near the medium density fluctuation maximum, which can be used in nanoparticle synthesis and processing.
Analytic Approach to the Cloud-in-Cloud Problem for Non-Gaussian Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Nagashima, Masahiro
2002-07-01
We revisit the cloud-in-cloud problem for non-Gaussian density fluctuations. We show that the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism for non-Gaussian fluctuations has a flaw in describing mass functions regardless of the type of filtering. As an example, we consider non-Gaussian models in which density fluctuations at a point obey a χ2 distribution with ν degrees of freedom. We find that mass functions predicted by using an integral formula proposed by Jedamzik and Yano, Nagashima, and Gouda, properly taking into account correlation between objects at different scales, deviate from those predicted by using the EPS formalism, especially for strongly non-Gaussian fluctuations. Our results for the mass function at large mass scales are consistent with those by Avelino and Viana obtained from numerical simulations.
Goswami, Varun R; Getz, Lowell L; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Ozgul, Arpat; Oli, Madan K
2011-08-01
Although ecologists have long recognized that certain mammalian species exhibit high-amplitude, often multiannual, fluctuations in abundance, their causes have remained poorly understood and the subject of intense debate. A key contention has been the relative role of density-dependent and density-independent processes in governing population dynamics. We applied capture-mark-recapture analysis to 25 years of monthly trapping data from a fluctuating prairie vole Microtus ochrogaster population in Illinois, USA, to estimate realized population growth rates and associated vital rates (survival and recruitment) and modeled them as a function of vole density and density-independent climatic variation. We also tested for phase dependence and seasonality in the effects of the above processes. Variation in the realized population growth rate was best explained by phase-specific changes in vole density lagged by one month and mean monthly temperatures with no time lags. The underlying vital rates, survival and recruitment, were influenced by the additive and interactive effects of phase, vole density, and mean monthly temperatures. Our results are consistent with the observation that large-scale population fluctuations are characterized by phase-specific changes in demographic and physiological characteristics. Our findings also support the growing realization that the interaction between climatic variables and density-dependent factors may be a widespread phenomenon, and they suggest that the direction and magnitude of such interactive effects may be phase specific. We conclude that density-dependent and density-independent climatic variables work in tandem during each phase of density fluctuations to drive the dynamics of fluctuating populations. PMID:21905434
Spectral density of velocity fluctuations under switching field conditions in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, J. M.; Martín, M. J.; Pascual, E.; Rengel, R.
2016-05-01
In this paper we present an analysis of the velocity fluctuations during transient regimes arising from an abrupt shift of the electric field in bulk monolayer graphene. For this purpose a material Ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to examine these fluctuations by means of the transient autocorrelation function and power spectral density. The evolution of these quantities as well as the non-stationary phenomena taking place during the transients is explained with a microscopic approach.
Salimullah, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.
2007-11-15
Dust charge fluctuation instability in a dusty plasma in the presence of equilibrium density and external/ambient static magnetic field inhomogeneities has been examined in detail. The plasma ions acquire a uniform drift speed due to the equilibrium magnetic field gradient. For strongly magnetized electrons and ions, the dust charge fluctuation effect is contributed dominantly by ion dynamics. This results in an instability when the ion drift speed exceeds the perpendicular phase velocity of the waves under consideration.
High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V
Werner, S.A.; Fawcett, E.; Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G.
1992-11-01
Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.
High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V
Werner, S.A. . Dept. of Physics); Fawcett, E. . Dept. of Physics); Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. )
1992-01-01
Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.
Maps of the little bangs through energy density and temperature fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Sumit; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nandi, Basanta K.; Nayak, Tapan K.
2016-01-01
Heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies are often referred to as little bangs. We propose for the first time to map the heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, similar to the maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation, using fluctuations of energy density and temperature in small phase space bins. We study the evolution of fluctuations at each stage of the collision using an event-by-event hydrodynamic framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of making fluctuation maps from experimental data and its usefulness in extracting considerable information regarding the early stages of the collision and its evolution.
Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Dingemanse, Niels J
2016-04-01
Heritable personality variation is subject to fluctuating selection in many animal taxa; a major unresolved question is why this is the case. A parsimonious explanation must involve a general ecological process: a likely candidate is the omnipresent spatiotemporal variation in conspecific density. We tested whether spatiotemporal variation in density within and among nest box plots of great tits (Parus major) predicted variation in selection acting on exploratory behaviour (n = 48 episodes of selection). We found viability selection favouring faster explorers under lower densities but slower explorers under higher densities. Temporal variation in local density represented the primary factor explaining personality-related variation in viability selection. Importantly, birds did not anticipate changes in selection by means of adaptive density-dependent plasticity. This study thereby provides an unprecedented example of the key importance of the interplay between fluctuating selection and lack of adaptive behavioural plasticity in maintaining animal personality variation in the wild. PMID:26929092
Schlickeiser, R.
2012-01-15
A systematic calculation of the electromagnetic properties (Poynting vector, electromagnetic energy, and pressure) of the collective transverse fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas with velocity-anisotropic plasma particle distributions functions is presented. Time-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly damped wave-like fluctuations and space-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly propagating and aperiodic fluctuations are calculated. For aperiodic fluctuations, the Poynting vector as well as the sum of the space-averaged electric and magnetic field energy densities vanish. However, aperiodic fluctuations possess a positive pressure given by its magnetic energy density. This finite pressure density p{sub a} of aperiodic fluctuations has important consequences for the dynamics of cosmic unmagnetized plasmas such as the intergalactic medium after reionization. Adopting the standard cosmological evolution model, we show that this additional pressure changes the expansion law of the universe leading to further deceleration. Negative vacuum pressure counterbalances this deceleration to an accelerating universe provided that the negative vacuum pressure is greater than 1.5p{sub a}, which we estimate to be of the order 2.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -16} dyn cm{sup -2}.
Density Fluctuation in Asymmetric Nozzle Plumes and Correlation with Far Field Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2001-01-01
A comparative experimental study of air density fluctuations in the unheated plumes of a circular, 4-tabbed-circular, chevron-circular and 10-lobed rectangular nozzles was performed at a fixed Mach number of 0.95 using a recently developed Rayleigh scattering based technique. Subsequently, the flow density fluctuations are cross-correlated with the far field sound pressure fluctuations to determine sources for acoustics emission. The nearly identical noise spectra from the baseline circular and the chevron nozzles are found to be in agreement with the similarity in spreading, turbulence fluctuations, and flow-sound correlations measured in the plumes. The lobed nozzle produced the least low frequency noise, in agreement with the weakest overall density fluctuations and flow-sound correlation. The tabbed nozzle took an intermediate position in the hierarchy of noise generation, intensity of turbulent fluctuation and flow-sound correlation. Some of the features in the 4-tabbed nozzle are found to be explainable in terms of splitting of the jet in a central large core and 4 side jetlets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higdon, J. C.
1984-10-01
A model of anisotropic magnetogasdynamic turbulence is developed in order to investigate quantitatively a turbulent fluid origin for the small spatial scale density fluctuations observed in 1981 by Armstrong, Cordes, and Rickett in the interstellar medium. The anisotropy at these small spatial scales results from the presence of a large-scale approximately uniform magnetic field that is a sum of the steady-state galactic magnetic field and the large-scale turbulent magnetic field fluctuations. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted to be two-dimensional isobaric entropy variations with oppositely directed gradients in temperature and density projected transverse to the local approximately uniform magnetic field. Three possible sites - cloud shell H II regions, diffuse H II regions produced by O stars, and the tenuous intercloud medium - are investigated as possible locations for turbulent flows.
Control of density fluctuations in atomistic-continuum simulations of dense liquids.
Kotsalis, E M; Walther, J H; Koumoutsakos, P
2007-07-01
We present a control algorithm to eliminate spurious density fluctuations associated with the coupling of atomistic and continuum descriptions for dense liquids. A Schwartz domain decomposition algorithm is employed to couple molecular dynamics for the simulation of the atomistic system with a continuum solver for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The lack of periodic boundary conditions in the molecular dynamics simulations hinders the proper accounting for the virial pressure leading to spurious density fluctuations at the continuum-atomistic interface. An ad hoc boundary force is usually employed to remedy this situation. We propose the calculation of this boundary force using a control algorithm that explicitly cancels the density fluctuations. The results demonstrate that the present approach outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. The conceptual and algorithmic simplicity of the method makes it suitable for any type of coupling between atomistic and continuum descriptions of dense fluids. PMID:17677596
Impact of parameter fluctuations on RF stability performance of DG tunnel FET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivasankaran, K.; Mallick, P. S.
2015-08-01
This paper presents the impact of parameter fluctuation due to process variation on radio frequency (RF) stability performance of double gate tunnel FET (DG TFET). The influence of parameter fluctuation due to process variation leads to DG TFET performance degradation. The RF figures of merit (FoM) such as cut-off frequency (ft), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) along with stability factor for different silicon body thickness, gate oxide thickness and gate contact alignment are obtained from extracted device parameters through numerical simulation. The impact of parameter fluctuation of silicon body thickness, gate oxide thickness and gate contact alignment was found significant and the result provides design guidelines of DG TFET for RF applications.
Investigation of Density Fluctuations in Supersonic Free Jets and Correlation with Generated Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.
2000-01-01
The air density fluctuations in the plumes of fully-expanded, unheated free jets were investigated experimentally using a Rayleigh scattering based technique. The point measuring technique used a continuous wave laser, fiber-optic transmission and photon counting electronics. The radial and centerline profiles of time-averaged density and root-mean-square density fluctuation provided a comparative description of jet growth. To measure density fluctuation spectra a two-Photomultiplier tube technique was used. Crosscorrelation between the two PMT signals significantly reduced electronic shot noise contribution. Turbulent density fluctuations occurring up to a Strouhal number (Sr) of 2.5 were resolved. A remarkable feature of density spectra, obtained from the same locations of jets in 0.5< M<1.5 range, is a constant Strouhal frequency for peak fluctuations. A detailed survey at Mach numbers M = 0.95, 1.4 and 1.8 showed that, in general, distribution of various Strouhal frequency fluctuations remained similar for the three jets. In spite of the similarity in the flow fluctuation the noise characteristics were found to be significantly different. Spark schlieren photographs and near field microphone measurements confirmed that the eddy Mach wave radiation was present in Mach 1.8 jet, and was absent in Mach 0.95 jet. To measure correlation between the flow and the far field sound pressure fluctuations, a microphone was kept at a distance of 50 diameters, 30 deg. to the flow direction, and the laser probe volume was moved from point to point in the flow. The density fluctuations in the peripheral shear layer of Mach 1.8 jet showed significant correlation up to the measurement limit of Sr = 2.5, while for Mach 0.95 jet no correlation was measured. Along the centerline measurable correlation was found from the end of the potential core and at the low frequency range (Sr less than 0.5). Usually the normalized correlation values increased with an increase of the jet Mach
Tsikata, S.; Pisarev, V.; Gresillon, D. M.; Lemoine, N.
2009-03-15
Kinetic models and numerical simulations of E-vectorxB-vector plasma discharges predict microfluctuations at the scales of the electron cyclotron drift radius and the ion plasma frequency. With the help of a specially designed collective scattering device, the first experimental observations of small-scale electron density fluctuations inside the plasma volume are obtained, and observed in the expected ranges of spatial and time scales. The anisotropy, dispersion relations, form factor, amplitude, and spatial distribution of these electron density fluctuations are described and compared to theoretical expectations.
Comparison of density fluctuation measurements between O-mode and X-mode reflectometry on Tore Supra
Gerbaud, T.; Clairet, F.; Sabot, R.; Sirinelli, A.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Vermare, L.
2006-10-15
Reflectometry is a versatile diagnostic which allows both electronic density profile and density fluctuation measurements. Fast sweep heterodyne technique is particularly suitable for precise measurement of the phase of the reflected signal, which records the story of the wave propagation through the plasma up to the cutoff layer, including the density fluctuations. The present article exhibits a comparison of the density fluctuation radial profile measurements between fast sweep frequency technique, both using O-mode and X-mode polarizations, and fixed frequency technique. The correct agreement between all measurements of the relative values of the density fluctuation profiles reinforces the validity of the approximations used.
Gas density fluctuations in the Perseus Cluster: clumping factor and velocity power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arévalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.
2015-07-01
X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ˜10-30 kpc within radii of 30-220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90-140 km s-1 on ˜20-30 kpc scales and 70-100 km s-1 on smaller scales ˜7-10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7-8 per cent for radii ˜30-220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3-4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density-velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.
Characterisation of SOL density fluctuations in front of the LHCD PAM launcher in Tore
Oosako, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Achard, J.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.
2011-12-23
The density fluctuations, modified by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW), is analyzed in Tore Supra with reference to the injected LHW power, density and the gap between LCFS (Last Closed Flux Surface) and the PAM (passive-active-multijunction) launcher. The density fluctuations are measured with RF probes installed at the PAM launcher front. A density scan at nominal toroidal field (3.8 T) shows that the fluctuations rate stays nearly constant ({approx}50%) for
Nanoscale density fluctuations in swift heavy ion irradiated amorphous SiO{sub 2}
Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Ridgway, M. C.; Pakarinen, O. H.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Byrne, A. P.
2011-12-15
We report on the observation of nanoscale density fluctuations in 2 {mu}m thick amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. At high fluences, in excess of approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where the surface is completely covered by ion tracks, synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal the existence of a steady state of density fluctuations. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, this steady state is consistent with an ion track ''annihilation'' process, where high-density regions generated in the periphery of new tracks fill in low-density regions located at the center of existing tracks.
Mukamel, Shaul
2005-02-01
Time-ordered superoperators are used to develop a unified description of nonlinear density response and spontaneous fluctuations of many-electron systems. The pth-order density response functions are decomposed into 2{sup p+1} non-causal Liouville space pathways. Individual pathways are symmetric to the interchange of their space, time, and superoperator indices and can thus be calculated as functional derivatives. Other combinations of these pathways represent spontaneous density fluctuations and the response of such fluctuations to an external field. The resolution of the causality paradox of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is shown to be intimately connected with the nonretarded nature of fluctuations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravia, Eduardo
A Heavy Ion Beam Probe Diagnostic System with dual energy analyzers was used to measure potential, pressure and density fluctuations in RENTOR. The main advantage of the system is the capability to measure directly the correlation length of the fluctuations by varying the primary beam injection conditions. Broadband density and potential spectra obtained in these experiments are characteristics of turbulent plasmas, with most of the power concentrated in the low part of the spectrum, below 100 kHz. The spectra fall off as f^{rm -n}, where the power-index n is approximately 3.5. The density fluctuation levels n/n are about 10% and they are independent of the plasma radius. Pressure and density fluctuations in RENTOR scale approximately like 3rho_ {rm s}/L_{rm p}~ 0.06, except for points near the plasma center. This is in agreement with the scaling observed in other small and medium tokamak experiments. Strong potential fluctuations were measured all across the plasma with levels nearly ten times larger than the corresponding n/n values. These results agree with the prediction that e~{phi }/k_{rm B}T _{rm e} > n/n in the resistive-MHD rippling mode theory developed by Thayer and Diamond. An rms value for the poloidal correlation length l_{rm c} ~sigma_{rm k}^ {-1} of about 5 mm is obtained for sample points in the plasma interior. The total particle flux across the field lines due to electrostatic fluctuations was estimated at 3 times 10 ^{19} particles/sec, which yields an estimate for the particle confinement time of tau_{rm p}~ 2 ms. Similarly, the total heat loss rate due to fluctuations was estimated at 12 times 10 ^{20} eV/sec, which gives an energy confinement time of tau_{rm E}~ 1 ms. The results clearly indicate that the particle and energy losses in RENTOR due to electrostatic fluctuations of the plasma account for a very significant part of the limited plasma confinement. The results of the experiments performed in this thesis have demonstrated the
Short-term variations in gene flow related to cyclic density fluctuations in the common vole.
Gauffre, Bertrand; Berthier, Karine; Inchausti, Pablo; Chaval, Yannick; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Cosson, Jean-François
2014-07-01
In highly fluctuating populations with complex social systems, genetic patterns are likely to vary in space and time due to demographic and behavioural processes. Cyclic rodents are extreme examples of demographically instable populations that often exhibit strong social organization. In such populations, kin structure and spacing behaviour may vary with density fluctuations and impact both the composition and spatial structure of genetic diversity. In this study, we analysed the multiannual genetic structure of a cyclic rodent, Microtus arvalis, using a sample of 875 individuals trapped over three complete cycles (from 1999 to 2007) and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested the predictions that genetic diversity and gene flow intensity vary with density fluctuations. We found evidences for both spatial scale-dependant variations in genetic diversity and higher gene flow during high density. Moreover, investigation of sex-specific relatedness patterns revealed that, although dispersal is biased toward males in this species, distances moved by both sexes were lengthened during high density. Altogether, these results suggest that an increase in migration with density allows to restore the local loss of genetic diversity occurring during low density. We then postulate that this change in migration results from local competition, which enhances female colonization of empty spaces and male dispersal among colonies. PMID:24888708
Density fluctuations in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas as observed in free expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawryluk, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz; Brewczyk, Mirosław
2015-10-01
We study, within the framework of the classical-field approximation, the density correlations of a weakly interacting expanding Bose gas for the whole range of temperatures across the Bose-Einstein condensation threshold. We focus on elongated quasi-one-dimensional systems where there is a huge discrepancy between the existing theory and experimental results [A. Perrin et al., Nat. Phys. 8, 195 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2212]. We find that the density correlation function is not reduced for temperatures below the critical one as it is predicted for the ideal gas or for a weakly interacting system within the Bogoliubov approximation. This behavior of the density correlations agrees with the above-mentioned experiment with the elongated system. Although the system was much larger than that studied here, we believe that the behavior of the density correlation function found there is quite generic. Our theoretical study indicates also large density fluctuations in the trap in the quasicondensate regime where only phase fluctuations were expected. We argue that the enhanced density fluctuations can originate in the presence of interactions in the system, or more precisely in the presence of spontaneous dark solitons in the elongated gas at thermal equilibrium.
Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madi, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K. Y.
2015-12-01
The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations.
Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a Stochastic Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brower, David L.
2009-11-01
Particle transport and density relaxation associated with electromagnetic fluctuations is an unresolved problem of long standing in plasma physics and magnetic fusion research. In toroidal fusion plasmas, magnetic field fluctuations can arise spontaneously from global MHD instabilities, e.g., tearing fluctuations associated with sawtooth oscillations. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have also been externally imposed to mitigate the effect of edge localized modes (ELMs) by locally enhancing edge transport in Tokamaks. Understanding stochastic-field-driven transport processes is thus not only of basic science interest but possibly critical to ELM control in ITER. We report on the first direct measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle transport in the core of a high-temperature plasma, the MST reversed field pinch. Measurements focus on the sawtooth crash, when the stochastic field resulting from tearing reconnection is strongest, and are accomplished using newly developed, laser-based, differential interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques. The measured electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density (δn) and radial magnetic fluctuations (δbr), accounts for density profile relaxation during these magnetic reconnection events. Surprisingly, the electron diffusion is 30 times larger than estimates of ambipolarity-constrained transport in a stochastic magnetic field. A significant ion flux associated with parallel ion flow velocity fluctuations (δvi,//) correlated with δbr appears responsible for transport larger than predictions from the quasi-linear test particle model. These results indicate the need for improved understanding of particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. Work performed in collaboration with W.X. Ding, W.F. Bergerson, T.F. Yates, UCLA; D.J. Den Hartog, G. Fiksel, S.C. Prager, J.S. Sarff and the MST Group, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Two Point Space-Time Correlation of Density Fluctuations Measured in High Velocity Free Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2006-01-01
Two-point space-time correlations of air density fluctuations in unheated, fully-expanded free jets at Mach numbers M(sub j) = 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a Rayleigh scattering based diagnostic technique. The molecular scattered light from two small probe volumes of 1.03 mm length was measured for a completely non-intrusive means of determining the turbulent density fluctuations. The time series of density fluctuations were analyzed to estimate the integral length scale L in a moving frame of reference and the convective Mach number M(sub c) at different narrow Strouhal frequency (St) bands. It was observed that M(sub c) and the normalized moving frame length scale L*St/D, where D is the jet diameter, increased with Strouhal frequency before leveling off at the highest resolved frequency. Significant differences were observed between data obtained from the lip shear layer and the centerline of the jet. The wave number frequency transform of the correlation data demonstrated progressive increase in the radiative part of turbulence fluctuations with increasing jet Mach number.
Intermediate-k density and magnetic field fluctuations during inter-ELM pedestal evolution in MAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillesheim, J. C.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Kirk, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Meyer, H.; the MAST Team
2016-01-01
Measurements of local density and magnetic field fluctuations near the pedestal top, conditionally averaged over the edge localized mode (ELM) cycle, have been made in Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). A Doppler backscattering (DBS) system installed at MAST was used to measure intermediate-k ≤ft({{k}\\bot}{ρi}≈ 3~\\text{to}~4\\right) density fluctuations at the top of the pedestal. A novel diagnostic technique combining DBS with cross-polarization scattering (CP-DBS) enabled magnetic field fluctuations to also be locally measured at similar wave numbers. Polarization isolation and other effects for CP-DBS are discussed. Both measurements were used in a series of high-β ≤ft({βn}≈ 4.0\\right. –4.5) MAST plasmas with large type-I ELMs with an ∼ 8~\\text{to}~9~\\text{ms} period where microtearing modes (MTMs) had been predicted to be unstable in similar conditions (Dickinson 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 135002). The measured density fluctuation level increased by a factor of about 4 between 2 and 4 ms after the ELM, which was correlated with the recovery of the density profile while the temperature pedestal height continued to increase slowly. Magnetic field fluctuations showed different temporal behaviors, slowly increasing throughout the ELM cycle as the local β increased. Linear GS2 calculations show both MTM and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes unstable at similar wave numbers as the measurements (although with more overlap between ETG wave numbers and diagnostic spectral resolution) at the top of the pedestal, along with kinetic ballooning modes are unstable lower in the pedestal (at larger wavelengths). The inferred ratio of fluctuation levels from experiment was ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 1/20 . The comparable ratios from GS2 were ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.4 for the MTM and ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.02 for the ETG. Both the experimental wave number range and the fluctuation
Characterising density fluctuations in liquid yttria aluminates with small angle x-ray scattering
Greaves, G. Neville; Wilding, Martin C.; Vu Van, Quang; Majerus, Odile; Hennet, Louis
2009-01-29
Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been measured in the wavevector range 0.01density fluctuations deriving from isothermal compressibility. With decreasing Q a minimum is located close to 0.1 A{sup -1} at the foot of the inter-atomic structure factor, below which SAXS rises, suggesting scatter from longer range fluctuating volumes.
Size scaling effects on the particle density fluctuations in confined plasmas
Vazquez, Federico; Markus, Ferenc
2009-11-15
In this paper, memory and nonlocal effects on fluctuating mass diffusion are addressed in the context of fusion plasmas. Nonlocal effects are included by considering a diffusivity coefficient depending on the size of the container in the transverse direction to the applied magnetic field. It is obtained by resorting to the general formulation of the extended version of irreversible thermodynamics in terms of the higher order dissipative fluxes. The developed model describes two different types of the particle density time correlation function. Both have been observed in tokamak and nontokamak devices. These two kinds of time correlation function characterize the wave and the diffusive transport mechanisms of particle density perturbations. A transition between them is found, which is controlled by the size of the container. A phase diagram in the (L,2{pi}/k) space describes the relation between the dynamics of particle density fluctuations and the size L of the system together with the oscillating mode k of the correlation function.
Field equation of the correlation function of mass-density fluctuations for self-gravitating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Chen, Qing
2015-09-01
We study the mass-density distribution of Newtonian self-gravitating systems. Modeling the system as a fluid in hydrostatical equilibrium, we obtain from first principles the field equation and its solution of the correlation function ξ(r) of the mass-density fluctuation itself. We apply this to studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe within a small redshift range. The equation shows that ξ(r) depends on the point mass m and the Jeans wavelength scale λ0, which are different for galaxies and clusters. It explains several long-standing prominent features of the observed clustering: that the profile of ξcc(r) of clusters is similar to ξgg(r) of galaxies, but with a higher amplitude and a longer correlation length, and that the correlation length increases with the mean separation between clusters as a universal scaling r0 ≃ 0.4d. Our solution ξ(r) also shows that the observed power-law correlation function of galaxies ξgg(r) ≃ (r0/r)1.7 is only valid in a range 1
Simultaneous Microwave Imaging System for Density and Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on TEXTOR
H. Park; E. Mazzucato; T. Munsat; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-05-07
Diagnostic systems for fluctuation measurements in plasmas have, of necessity, evolved from simple 1-D systems to multi-dimensional systems due to the complexity of the MHD and turbulence physics of plasmas illustrated by advanced numerical simulations. Using the recent significant advancements in millimeter wave imaging technology, Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI), simultaneously measuring density and temperature fluctuations, are developed for TEXTOR. The MIR system was installed on TEXTOR and the first experiment was performed in September, 2003. Subsequent MIR campaigns have yielded poloidally resolved spectra and assessments of poloidal velocity. The new 2-D ECE Imaging system (with a total of 128 channels), installed on TEXTOR in December, 2003, successfully captured a true 2-D images of Te fluctuations of m=1 oscillation (''sawteeth'') near the q {approx} 1 surface for the first time.
Brookman, M. W. Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.
2015-12-10
Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cranmer, Steven R.
2016-05-01
The solar corona has been revealed in the past few decades to be a highly dynamic nonequilibrium plasma environment. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be strongly turbulent, and models that invoke the dissipation of incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. However, many of these models neglect the mounting evidence that density and pressure variations may play an important role in the mass and energy balance of this system. In this presentation I will briefly review observations of both compressible and incompressible MHD fluctuations in the corona and solar wind, and discuss future prospects with DKIST. I will also attempt to outline the many ways that these different fluctuation modes have been proposed to interact with one another -- usually with an eye on finding ways to enhance their dissipation and heating. One under-appreciated type of interaction is the fact that Alfven waves will undergo multiple reflections and refractions in a "background plasma" filled with localized density fluctuations. It is becoming increasingly clear that models must not only include the effects of longitudinal variability (e.g., magnetoacoustic waves and pulse-like jets) but also transverse "striations" that appear naturally in a structured magnetic field with small-scale footpoint variability. Future off-limb observations, such as those with DKIST's Cryo-NIRSP instrument, will be crucial for providing us with a detailed census of MHD waves and their mutual interactions in the corona.
Quantifying Density Fluctuations in Water at a Hydrophobic Surface: Evidence for Critical Drying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Robert; Wilding, Nigel B.
2015-07-01
Employing smart Monte Carlo sampling techniques within the grand canonical ensemble, we investigate the properties of water at a model hydrophobic substrate. By reducing the strength of substrate-water attraction, we find that fluctuations in the local number density, quantified by a rigorous definition of the local compressibility χ (z ) , increase rapidly for distances z within one or two molecular diameters from the substrate as the degree of hydrophobicity, measured by the macroscopic contact angle θ , increases. Our simulations provide evidence for a continuous (critical) drying transition as the substrate-water interaction becomes very weak: cos (θ )→-1 . We speculate that the existence of such a transition might account for earlier simulation observations of strongly enhanced density fluctuations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.; Logan, P.
1987-01-01
A laser-induced fluorescence method has been developed that provides simultaneous measurements of temperature, density, and their fluctuations owing to turbulence in unheated compressible flows. Pressure and its fluctuations are also deduced using the equation of state. Fluorescence is induced in nitric oxide that has been seeded into a nitrogen flow in concentrations of 100 ppm. Measurements are obtained from each laser pulse, with a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a temporal resolution of 125 ns. The method was applied to a supersonic, turbulent, boundary-layer flow with a free-stream Mach number of 2. For stream conditions in the range from 150-300 K and 0.3-1 atm, temperature is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 1 percent rms, while density and pressure uncertainties are approximately 2 percent rms.
Wavelike charge density fluctuations and van der Waals interactions at the nanoscale.
Ambrosetti, Alberto; Ferri, Nicola; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2016-03-11
Recent experiments on noncovalent interactions at the nanoscale have challenged the basic assumptions of commonly used particle- or fragment-based models for describing van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion forces. We demonstrate that a qualitatively correct description of the vdW interactions between polarizable nanostructures over a wide range of finite distances can only be attained by accounting for the wavelike nature of charge density fluctuations. By considering a diverse set of materials and biological systems with markedly different dimensionalities, topologies, and polarizabilities, we find a visible enhancement in the nonlocality of the charge density response in the range of 10 to 20 nanometers. These collective wavelike fluctuations are responsible for the emergence of nontrivial modifications of the power laws that govern noncovalent interactions at the nanoscale. PMID:26965622
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. A.
1979-01-01
Scalar density fluctuations were measured nonintrusively in the shear layer of a 5.08-cm (2-in.) cold air jet using a crossed-beam schlieren method. Two statistics, covariance and three-dimensional spectrum function, were estimated for an exit Mach number range of 0.3 to 0.97. The density fluctuation intensity, integral scale, and eddy convection speed were calculated and compared to available data where possible. Spectra were found to change significantly in shape becoming less peaked between 3 and 9 jet diameters downstream from the orifice, but they consistently exhibited a -5/3 power law decay at 3, 6, and 9 diameters for frequencies above the peak.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.
Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER
Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas; Strintzi, Dafni
2009-11-15
The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.
Density fluctuations and radiated noise for a high-temperature supersonic jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, S. P.; Massier, P. F.; Cuffel, R. F.; Radbill, J. R.
1975-01-01
Experimental data on density fluctuations were obtained by the laser Schlieren method in a supersonic jet which at the nozzle exit had a Mach number of 1.43 and a stagnation temperature of about 1090 K. The jet emerged into the ambient atmosphere in an anechoic chamber, correctly expanded from a nozzle which had an exit diameter of 10.8 cm. Using the information on the density fluctuations and the mean shear obtained by probes, the autocorrelation of the radiated noise was calculated by a theory that is suitable for Mach wave emission. This theory is a modification of that developed by Ffowcs Williams and Maidanik (1965). The calculated noise field agrees well with that obtained by using microphones outside the jet.
Space-potential and density fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak
Hallock, G.A.; Wootton, A.J.; Hickok, R.L.
1987-09-21
The fluctuating plasma potential and electron density has been measured in Ohmic and neutral-beam--heated tokamak discharges. Radial profiles are presented in the outer two-thirds of the plasma, and the E x B transport calculated. The transport is found to be an order of magnitude larger for beam driven plasmas. Measurements indicate the linearized Boltzman equation is satisfied in the interior, but not at the plasma edge.
Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ejiri, A.
2010-10-15
In order to measure the internal structure of density fluctuations using a microwave reflectometer, the broadband frequency tunable system, which has the ability of fast and stable hopping operation, has been improved in the Large Helical Device. Simultaneous multipoint measurement is the key issue of this development. For accurate phase measurement, the system utilizes a single sideband modulation technique. Currently, a dual channel heterodyne frequency hopping reflectometer system has been constructed and applied to the Alfven eigenmode measurements.
Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K.
2015-12-01
In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.
Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer
Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Kabalan, K.; Decker, J.
2015-12-10
In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.
Minima of the fluctuations of the order parameter of global seismicity
Sarlis, N. V. Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Skordas, E. S.
2015-06-15
It has been recently shown [N. V. Sarlis, Phys. Rev. E 84, 022101 (2011) and N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Chaos 22, 023123 (2012)] that earthquakes of magnitude M greater or equal to 7 are globally correlated. Such correlations were identified by studying the variance κ{sub 1} of natural time which has been proposed as an order parameter for seismicity. Here, we study the fluctuations of this order parameter using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog for a magnitude threshold M{sub thres} = 5.0 and focus on its behavior before major earthquakes. Natural time analysis reveals that distinct minima of the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity appear within almost five and a half months on average before all major earthquakes of magnitude larger than 8.4. This phenomenon corroborates the recent finding [N. V. Sarlis et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 13734 (2013)] that similar minima of the seismicity order parameter fluctuations had preceded all major shallow earthquakes in Japan. Moreover, on the basis of these minima a statistically significant binary prediction method for earthquakes of magnitude larger than 8.4 with hit rate 100% and false alarm rate 6.67% is suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, G. A.; Lemon, C. J.
1984-01-01
A tunable line-narrowed ArF laser can selectively excite several rotation al lines of the Schumann-Runge band system of O2 in air. The resulting ultraviolet fluorescence can be monitored at 90 deg to the laser beam axis, permitting space and time resolved observation of density and temperature fluctuations in turbulence. Experiments and calculations show that + or - 1 K, + or - 1 percent density, 1 cu mm spatial, and 1 microsecond temporal resolution can be achieved simultaneously under some conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen; Panda, Jayanta
2006-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 10 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in a heated air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature, velocity, and density of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. Power spectral density calculations of temperature, velocity, and density fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are demonstrated for various radial locations in the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Results are compared with constant current anemometry and pitot probe measurements at the same locations.
A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasten, C. P.; Irby, J. H.; Murray, R.; White, A. E.; Pace, D. C.
2012-10-01
The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with kR < 20.3 cm-1 and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.
Lin, L. Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.
2014-11-15
Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H. X.; Deng, Z. C.; Yi, J.; Ji, X. Q.; HL-2A Team
2016-02-01
Based on the fact that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the electron density fluctuation amplitude, the four-channel formic acid (HCOOH, λ=432.5 um) laser interferometer has been firstly upgraded to measure the far-forward collective scattering (FCS) from the electron density fluctuation (ñe) on HL-2A tokamak in 2014-15 experimental campaign. The HCOOH-FCS system provides the line-integrated measurement of fluctuations covering the wavenumber range: k⊥ <1.6 cm-1 (perpendicular to the magnetic field). A lot of electron density fluctuations have been successfully measured by the HCOOH-FCS. In especial, the high-frequency density fluctuation (up to 500 kHz) induced by the core-localized Alfvénic eigenmode (AE) has been observed by the innermost scattering chord. The HCOOH-FCS system will be extremely helpful for the research of energetic particles instability on HL-2A.
Planets in other universes: habitability constraints on density fluctuations and galactic structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Fred C.; Coppess, Katherine R.; Bloch, Anthony M.
2015-09-01
Motivated by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes, this paper delineates the galactic structure parameters that allow for habitable planets and revisits constraints on the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations. Previous work indicates that large values of Q lead to galaxies so dense that planetary orbits cannot survive long enough for life to develop. Small values of Q lead to delayed star formation, loosely bound galaxies, and compromised heavy element retention. This work generalizes previous treatments in the following directions: [A] We consider models for the internal structure of the galaxies, including a range of stellar densities, and find the fraction of the resulting galactic real estate that allows for stable, long-lived planetary orbits. [B] For high velocity encounters, we perform a large ensemble of numerical simulations to estimate cross sections for the disruption of planetary orbits due to interactions with passing stars. [C] We consider the background radiation fields produced by the galaxies: if a galaxy is too compact, the night sky seen from a potentially habitable planet can provide more power than the host star. [D] One consequence of intense galactic background radiation fields is that some portion of the galaxy, denoted as the Galactic Habitable Zone, will provide the right flux levels to support habitable planets for essentially any planetary orbit including freely floating bodies (but excluding close-in planets). As the value of Q increases, the fraction of stars in a galaxy that allow for (traditional) habitable planets decreases due to both orbital disruption and the intense background radiation. However, the outer parts of the galaxy always allow for habitable planets, so that the value of Q does not have a well-defined upper limit (due to scattering or radiation constraints). Moreover, some Galactic Habitable Zones are large enough to support more
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaolong; Li, Wei; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Wu, Zefei; Cai, Yuan; Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Yang; Han, Yu; Lortz, Rolf W.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Sheng, Ping; Wang, Ning
2013-03-01
We demonstrate that local fluctuations of the density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered graphene play an important role in determining the quantum capacitance of the top-gate device geometry. Depending on the strength of the disorder induced by metal-cluster decoration, the measured quantum capacitance of disordered graphene could dramatically decrease in comparison with pristine graphene (previous work on transport of metal-cluster decoration has been published on Phys. Rev. B 84, 045431, 2011). A quantitative model for correlating fluctuations of local density of states with the disorder strength and quantum capacitance is presented and discussed. The DOS of disordered graphene obeys a non-universal power law. By measuring the quantum capacitance of disordered graphene, we simultaneously determined both the DOS and its local fluctuations, which is in agreement with the lognormal distributions reported previously for localized samples. Financial support from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project Nos. HKUST9/CRF/08, 604112) and technical support of the Raith-HKUST Nanotechnology Laboratory (Project No. SEG_HKUST08) are hereby acknowledged.
Dominguez, Luis Garcia; Nenadovic, Vera; Wennberg, Richard A.
2010-01-01
The identification of epileptic seizure precursors has potential clinical relevance. It is conjectured that seizures may be represented by dynamical bifurcations and that an adequate order parameter to characterize brain dynamics is the phase difference in the oscillatory activity of neural systems. In this study, the critical point hypothesis that seizures, or more generally periods of widespread high synchronization, represent bifurcations is empirically tested by monitoring the growth of fluctuations in the putative order parameter of phase differences between magnetoencephalographic and electroencephalographic signals in nearby brain regions in patients with epilepsy and normal subjects during hyperventilation. Implications of the results with regard to epileptic phenomena are discussed. PMID:22210968
Impact of density and environmental factors on population fluctuations in a migratory passerine.
Pasinelli, Gilberto; Schaub, Michael; Häfliger, Guido; Frey, Monika; Jakober, Hans; Müller, Mathis; Stauber, Wolfgang; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Zollinger, Jean-Luc; Jenni, Lukas
2011-01-01
1. Populations of plants and animals typically fluctuate because of the combined effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes. The study of these processes is complicated by the fact that population sizes are typically not known exactly, because population counts are subject to sampling variance. Although the existence of sampling variance is broadly acknowledged, relatively few studies on time-series data have accounted for it, which can result in wrong inferences about population processes. 2. To increase our understanding of population dynamics, we analysed time series from six Central European populations of the migratory red-backed shrike Lanius collurio by simultaneously assessing the strength of density dependence, process and sampling variance. In addition, we evaluated hypotheses predicting effects of factors presumed to operate on the breeding grounds, at stopover sites in eastern Africa during fall and spring migration and in the wintering grounds in southern Africa. We used both simple and state-space formulations of the Gompertz equation to model population size. 3. Across populations and modelling approaches, we found consistent evidence for negative density-dependent population regulation. Further, process variance contributed substantially to variation in population size, while sampling variance did not. Environmental conditions in eastern and southern Africa appear to influence breeding population size, as rainfall in the Sahel during fall migration and in the south African wintering areas were positively related to population size in the following spring in four of six populations. In contrast, environmental conditions in the breeding grounds were not related to population size. 4. Our findings suggest negative density-dependent regulation of red-backed shrike breeding populations and are consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that conditions in the African staging and wintering areas influence population numbers of species
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babst, Flurin; Wright, William; Szejner, Paul; Wells, Leon; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Monson, Russell
2016-04-01
Rapidly rising evaporative demand threatens forests in semi-arid areas around the world, but the timing of stem growth response to drought is often coarsely known. This is partly due to a shortage of sub-annual growth records, particularly outside the Mediterranean region where most intra-annual density fluctuation (IADF) chronologies are based. We anticipate that an automated, cost-effective, and easily implementable method to characterize IADFs could foster more widespread development of sub-annual chronologies. Here, we applied a peak detection algorithm to fine-spatial resolution blue intensity (BI) profiles of Ponderosa pine tree rings from two sites located in neighboring mountain ranges in southern Arizona (~300 m elevation difference). This automated procedure proved reliable to isolate and characterize IADFs, thus offering an efficient and objective alternative to visual identification. Out of seven investigated BI parameters, peak height, width, and area showed satisfactory chronology statistics. We assessed the response of these BI and radial growth parameters to six monthly-resolved climate variables and to the onset date of the North American summer monsoon (NAM). The NAM is an atmospheric mode that provides a clear time marker for the termination of a pre-summer drought period (May-June) causing regular IADFs in trees growing near the dry margin of their distribution range. We observed divergent water limitation at the two sites, despite comparable site characteristics. Radial growth at the lower-elevation site depended mainly on winter precipitation, whereas the higher site relied on spring and monsoon precipitation. The pre-summer drought period indeed promoted IADFs in early ring portions at both sites. Yet, IADFs at the higher site were only formed, if spring was sufficiently humid to assume enough radial growth. Late-position IADFs were caused by a weak monsoon and additionally promoted by favorable conditions towards the end of the growing
Density fluctuations in saturated phospholipid bilayers increase as the acyl-chain length decreases.
Ipsen, J H; Jørgensen, K; Mouritsen, O G
1990-01-01
A systematic computer simulation study is conducted for a model of the main phase transition of fully hydrated saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers (DMPC, DPPC, and DSPC). With particular focus on the fluctuation effects on the thermal properties in the transition region, the study yields data for the specific heat, the lateral compressibility, and the lipid-domain size distribution. Via a simple model assumption the transmembrane passive ion permeability is derived from the lipid-domain interfacial measure. A comparative analysis of the various data shows, in agreement with a number of experiments, that the lateral density fluctuations and hence the response functions increase as the acyl-chain length is decreased. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:2291936
Fluctuation effects on the Raman scattering from the charge-density-wave system TTF-TCNQ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Eldridge, J. E.
1998-08-01
The resonant Raman spectrum of TTF-TCNQ has been measured from room temperature to 10 K, using a Fourier Raman spectrometer. Only features due to the TCNQ molecule are observed. New Raman lines appear at temperatures below 150 K as the fluctuating charge-density wave (CDW) occurs. The intensity of the new Raman lines increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the Raman allowed modes, we observe numerous lines originating from the usually infrared-active-only modes, which become Raman active via the Fröhlich interaction in the fluctuating and static CDW phases. The appearance of the strong out-of-plane intramolecular B3u vibrational modes of TCNQ confirms an earlier x-ray study that found that the CDW on the TCNQ chain involved such an out-of-plane distortion of the TCNQ molecule. The condensation of the longitudinal acoustic phonon is also observed in the Raman spectrum.
Quantum Lattice Fluctuations in the Charge Density Wave State beyond the Adiabatic Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shida, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yuko; Gomi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Akira; Tomita, Norikazu
2015-12-01
We have developed a tractable numerical method in which large-amplitude quantum lattice fluctuations can be described beyond the adiabatic approximation using the coherent state representation of phonons. A many-body wave function is constructed by the superposition of direct products of non-orthogonal Slater determinants for electrons and coherent states of phonons. Both orbitals in all the Slater determinants and the amplitudes of all the coherent states are simultaneously optimized. We apply the method to the one-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with the on-site and nearest-neighbor-site Coulomb interactions. It is shown the lattice fluctuations in doped charge density wave (CDW) systems are described by the translational and vibrational motion of lattice solitons. Such lattice solitons induce bond alternation in the doped CDW system while the lattice becomes equidistant in the half-filled CDW system.
Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.
Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R
2009-08-01
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind. PMID:19792547
Scaling Laws of Turbulence and Heating of Fast Solar Wind: The Role of Density Fluctuations
Carbone, V.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Bruno, R.
2009-08-07
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvenic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.
Incommensurate charge density fluctuations in underdoped YBCO detected by resonant x-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiringhelli, Giacomo
2013-03-01
A key issue in high Tc superconductivity is the short and mid range ordering of spin and charge degrees of freedom when doping disrupts the long range antiferromagnetic order of parent compounds. Cu sites are the main, although not the only, actors in the play. Inelastic and elastic scattering of x rays, when performed at the Cu L3 absorption resonance, can be used to map the spin and charge excitation spectra and, simultaneously, to unveil the presence of spatial modulations in the charge or spin densities. We have used angle-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) and resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (REXS) to identify two-dimensional charge fluctuations with an incommensurate periodicity of ~ 3 . 2 lattice units in the copper oxide planes of the superconductors (Y,Nd)Ba2Cu3O6+x with hole concentrations 0 . 09 < p < 0 . 13 per planar Cu ion [G. Ghiringhelli et al, Science 337, 821 (2012)]. The intensity and correlation length of the fluctuation signal increase strongly upon cooling down to the superconducting transition temperature, Tc; further cooling below Tc abruptly reverses the divergence of the charge correlations. In combination with prior observations of a large gap in the spin excitation spectrum, these data indicate an incipient charge-density-wave instability that competes with superconductivity. Further measurements on an Ortho III sample have confirmed that the charge fluctuations are independent of the chain ordering [A. J. Achkar et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 167001 (2012)]. Put into perspective, these results show that often elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering experiments should be ideally performed jointly, to explore with the greatest sensitivity charge and spin fluctuations [L. Braicovich et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 077002, (2010)].
Large-scale fluctuations in the number density of galaxies in independent surveys of deep fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, S. I.; Lovyagin, N. Yu.; Baryshev, Yu. V.; Gorokhov, V. L.
2016-06-01
New arguments supporting the reality of large-scale fluctuations in the density of the visible matter in deep galaxy surveys are presented. A statistical analysis of the radial distributions of galaxies in the COSMOS and HDF-N deep fields is presented. Independent spectral and photometric surveys exist for each field, carried out in different wavelength ranges and using different observing methods. Catalogs of photometric redshifts in the optical (COSMOS-Zphot) and infrared (UltraVISTA) were used for the COSMOS field in the redshift interval 0.1 < z < 3.5, as well as the zCOSMOS (10kZ) spectroscopic survey and the XMM-COSMOS and ALHAMBRA-F4 photometric redshift surveys. The HDFN-Zphot and ALHAMBRA-F5 catalogs of photometric redshifts were used for the HDF-N field. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the fluctuations in the numbers of galaxies obtained for independent surveys of the same deep field reaches R = 0.70 ± 0.16. The presence of this positive correlation supports the reality of fluctuations in the density of visible matter with sizes of up to 1000 Mpc and amplitudes of up to 20% at redshifts z ~ 2. The absence of correlations between the fluctuations in different fields (the correlation coefficient between COSMOS and HDF-N is R = -0.20 ± 0.31) testifies to the independence of structures visible in different directions on the celestial sphere. This also indicates an absence of any influence from universal systematic errors (such as "spectral voids"), which could imitate the detection of correlated structures.
Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, De-Chang
2015-12-01
We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; Ahn et al.) 10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this paper, we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.
1979-01-01
Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2-215 solar radii and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances of about 20 solar radii the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrum is well modeled by a single power law in the frequency range 0.0001-0.05 Hz. The flattening of the density spectrum within 20 solar radii is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadić, Bosiljka; Thurner, Stefan; Rodgers, G. J.
2004-03-01
We study the microscopic time fluctuations of traffic load and the global statistical properties of a dense traffic of particles on scale-free cyclic graphs. For a wide range of driving rates R the traffic is stationary and the load time series exhibits antipersistence due to the regulatory role of the superstructure associated with two hub nodes in the network. We discuss how the superstructure affects the functioning of the network at high traffic density and at the jamming threshold. The degree of correlations systematically decreases with increasing traffic density and eventually disappears when approaching a jamming density Rc. Already before jamming we observe qualitative changes in the global network-load distributions and the particle queuing times. These changes are related to the occurrence of temporary crises in which the network-load increases dramatically, and then slowly falls back to a value characterizing free flow.
Freeze-out parameters from electric charge and baryon number fluctuations: is there consistency?
Borsanyi, S; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Ratti, C; Szabo, K K
2014-08-01
Recent results for moments of multiplicity distributions of net protons and net-electric charge from the STAR Collaboration are compared to lattice QCD results for higher order fluctuations of baryon number and electric charge by the Wuppertal-Budapest Collaboration, with the purpose of extracting the freeze-out temperature and chemical potential. All lattice simulations are performed for a system of 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, at the physical mass for light and strange quarks; all results are continuum extrapolated. We show that it is possible to extract an upper value for the freeze-out temperature, as well as precise baryochemical potential values corresponding to the four highest collision energies of the experimental beam energy scan. Consistency between the freeze-out parameters obtained from baryon number and electric charge fluctuations is found. The freeze-out chemical potentials are now in agreement with the statistical hadronization model. PMID:25126910
Phase Separation, Density Fluctuations, and Boiling Near the Liquid-Gas Critical Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegseth, John; Oprisan, Ana; Roy, Arun; Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, Daniel; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre-Chabot, Carole
2002-11-01
A pure liquid-gas mixture is one of the simplest examples of a soft-matter system. In fact, when co-existing gas and liquid phases of pure fluid are heated to their critical point, large-scale density fluctuations make the fluid extremely compressible (to external forces), expandable (to heating), slows the diffusive transport, and decreases the surface tension. In principle these properties and others either diverge to infinity or converge to zero at the critical temperature. These properties lead to some very unusual behavior: large density gradients at the laboratory scale, a large mechanical response to heating, and perfect wetting of a solid wall by the liquid phase (zero contact-angle). We have further simplified this system by performing experiments in weightlessness (Mir spaces station). By controlling the fluid's temperature, these properties may be varied over large ranges in a single sample. When the fluid is driven out of equilibrium by a fast temperature quench from the single-phase (supercritical fluid) state into the two-phase state, we have observed universal growth laws of minority domains (gas bubbles) during phase separation. Prior to this quench we have also observed density fluctuations using optical microscopy near the critical point. When heat is applied to a liquid-gas mixture, we have observed a spectacular spreading of a gas bubble along a hot solid wall as well as gas bubble over-heating (where the interior of a gas bubble gains a higher temperature than the heating wall). Although this gas phase over-heating appears to violate the second law, it is really a transient our-of-equilibrium effect. Inside of these unusual bubbles we also have observed unusually large variations in liquid wetting film thickness that often appear to evolve into spreading contact lines on the sapphire wall when heat is applied. We have observed coarsening and growth of minority domains (gas bubbles) in SF6 near its liquid-gas critical point. Phase separation in
Theory of small-scale density and electric field fluctuations in the nightside Venus ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huba, J. D.
1992-01-01
Recently, it has been reported that small-scale (lambda about 0.1-2 km) density irregularities occur during 100-Hz electric field bursts in the nightside ionosphere of Venus. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the lower-hybrid-drift instability as a mechanism to generate the observed irregularities. A fully electromagnetic theory is developed that is relevant to the finite beta plasma in Venus's ionosphere and includes collisional effects (e.g., electron-ion, electron-neutral, and ion-neutral collisions). The key features of the analysis that favor this instability are the following: (1) it is a flute mode and propagates orthogonal to the ambient magnetic field; (2) it is a relatively short wavelength mode and the Doppler-shifted frequency can be greater than about 100 Hz; (3) it can produce both electric field and density fluctuations, as well as magnetic field fluctuations in a finite beta plasma; and (4) it is most unstable in low-beta plasmas so that it is likely to occur in the low-density, high-magnetic-field ionospheric holes. These features are consistent with observational results.
Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations.
Hecksher, Tina
2016-04-28
This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus. PMID:27131521
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, Sunanda; Mackenzie, E.; Basu, Santimay; Fougere, P. F.; Maynard, N. C.; Coley, W. R.; Hanson, W. B.; Winningham, J. D.; Sugiura, M.; Hoegy, W. R.
1988-01-01
A detailed study is presented of simultaneous density and electric field fluctuation spectra over a large-scale length range seen in association with large structured convective plasma flows, field-aligned currents, and particle precipitation at high latitudes. The data were obtained for two Dynamics Explorer 2 orbits at two different altitudes within the F region and the topside ionosphere. The observations are compared with results of nonlinear simulations of shear flow-driven instabilities and predictions based on two-dimensional turbulence arguments, with particular reference to the Kelvin-Helmholtz process.
Exact analytic solution for non-linear density fluctuation in a ΛCDM universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Jaiyul; Gong, Jinn-Ouk
2016-07-01
We derive the exact third-order analytic solution of the matter density fluctuation in the proper-time hypersurface in a ΛCDM universe, accounting for the explicit time-dependence and clarifying the relation to the initial condition. Furthermore, we compare our analytic solution to the previous calculation in the comoving gauge, and to the standard Newtonian perturbation theory by providing Fourier kernels for the relativistic effects. Our results provide an essential ingredient for a complete description of galaxy bias in the relativistic context.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravichandran, S.; Bagchi, Biman
1996-01-01
We have carried out a computer ``experiment'' of orientational relaxation in a spatially random and orientationally disordered dipolar lattice (RDL), generated by quenching only the translational motion of a dense liquid. In the high polarity limit, the orientational relaxation of the RDL is dramatically different from that of the parent liquid, the former exhibits a very slow, nonexponential long time decay of the orientational correlation functions and markedly non-Debye dielectric relaxation. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of spatial density fluctuations in orientational relaxation.
Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hecksher, Tina
2016-04-01
This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.
Kharchev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2008-10-01
A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k(s) approximately 34 cm(-1)) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose. PMID:19044538
Kharchev, Nikolay; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2008-10-15
A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k{sub s}{approx_equal}34 cm{sup -1}) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose.
Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J. R.; Sarff, J. S.
2012-10-15
The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with {approx}8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 {mu}m (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k{sub Up-Tack} < 1.3 cm{sup -1}, corresponding k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} < 1.3 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, M.
1972-01-01
Fluctuations in electron density and temperature coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-linear treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. M.
1972-01-01
Fluctuations in electron density and temperature coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-linear treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.
Density fluctuation spectrum of solar wind turbulence between ion and electron scales.
Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; Bonnell, J W; Mozer, F S; Bale, S D
2012-07-20
We present a measurement of the spectral index of density fluctuations between ion and electron scales in solar wind turbulence using the EFI instrument on the ARTEMIS spacecraft. The mean spectral index at 1 AU was found to be -2.75±0.06, steeper than predictions for pure whistler or kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence but consistent with previous magnetic field measurements. The steep spectra are also consistent with expectations of increased intermittency or damping of some of the turbulent energy over this range of scales. Neither the spectral index nor the flattening of the density spectra before ion scales were found to depend on the proximity to the pressure anisotropy instability thresholds, suggesting that they are features inherent to the turbulent cascade. PMID:22861861
Critical density fluctuations in lipid bilayers detected by fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity.
Ruggiero, A; Hudson, B
1989-01-01
The heterogeneity of the decay of the fluorescence of transparinaric acid in single-component lipid bilayers at temperatures above their gel/liquid crystalline phase transition is shown to be due to the presence of regions of higher local density and higher acyl chain order than the predominant fluid regions. This conclusion is based on selective excitation behavior and the observation of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies that increase at long times. The fractional amplitude of the long lifetime component of the fluorescence shows a temperature variation that conforms to conventional descriptions of critical behavior. The critical exponent extracted from this variation is 1.1, close to the value of 1.0 that describes ultrasonic data. We therefore conclude that liquid crystalline lipid bilayers exhibit critical behavior with significant density and order fluctuations. This behavior must be taken into account in the interpretation of fluorescence and other spectroscopic measurements of the properties of bilayers. PMID:2765649
Measurement of temperature and density fluctuations in turbulence using an ultraviolet laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, G. A.
1984-01-01
Noninvasive measurement of density and temperature fluctuations in turbulent air flow was examined. The approach used fluorescence of oxygen molecules which are selectively excited by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser beam. The strength of the fluorescence signal and its dependence on laser wavelength vary with the density and temperature of the air in the laser beam. Because fluorescence can be detected at 90 degrees from the beam propagation direction, spatial resolution in three dimensions, rather than path-integrated measurements can be achieved. With spatial resolutions of the order of a millimeter and at supersonic air velocities it is necessary to perform each measurement in a time of the order of a microsecond; this is possible by by using laser pulses of ten nanosecond duration. In this method atmospheric O2 is excited by the emission of a tunable ArF excimer laser, and the fluorescence, which spans the 210 to 420 range, is detected by an ultraviolet phototube.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Tobias, B.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Donné, A. J. H.
2010-10-01
The ECE imaging (ECEI) diagnostic tested on the TEXTOR tokamak revealed the sawtooth reconnection physics in unprecedented detail, including the first observation of high-field-side crash and collective heat transport [H. K. Park, N. C. Luhmann, Jr., A. J. H. Donné et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 195003 (2006)]. An improved ECEI system capable of visualizing both high- and low-field sides simultaneously with considerably better spatial coverage has been developed for the KSTAR tokamak in order to capture the full picture of core MHD dynamics. Direct 2D imaging of other MHD phenomena such as tearing modes, edge localized modes, and even Alfvén eigenmodes is expected to be feasible. Use of ECE images of the optically thin edge region to recover 2D electron density changes during L/H mode transitions is also envisioned, providing powerful information about the underlying physics. The influence of density fluctuations on optically thin ECE is discussed.
Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Used to Measure Velocity and Density Fluctuation Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seasholtz, Richard G.; Panda, Jayanta; Elam, Kristie A.
2003-01-01
A new, molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based flow diagnostic developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been used for the first time to measure the power spectrum of both gas density and radial velocity components in the plumes of high-speed jets. The objective of the work is to develop an unseeded, nonintrusive dynamic measurement technique for studying turbulent flows in NASA test facilities. This technique provides aerothermodynamic data not previously obtainable. It is particularly important for supersonic flows, where hot wire and pitot probes are difficult to use and disturb the flow under study. The effort is part of the nonintrusive instrumentation development program supporting propulsion research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In particular, this work is measuring fluctuations in flow velocity, density, and temperature for jet noise studies. These data are valuable to researchers studying the correlation of flow fluctuations with far-field noise. One of the main objectives in jet noise research is to identify noise sources in the jet and to determine their contribution to noise generation. The technique is based on analyzing light scattered from molecules within the jet using a Fabry-Perot interferometer operating in a static imaging mode. The PC-based data acquisition system can simultaneously sample velocity and density data at rates to about 100 kHz and can handle up to 10 million data records. We used this system to interrogate three different jet nozzle designs in a Glenn free-jet facility. Each nozzle had a 25.4-mm exit diameter. One was convergent, used for subsonic flow measurements and to produce a screeching underexpanded jet with a fully expanded Mach number of 1.42. The other nozzles (Mach 1.4 and 1.8) were convergent-divergent types. The radial component of velocity and gas density were simultaneously measured in this work.
Klatt, Michael A; Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
In the first paper of this series, we introduced Voronoi correlation functions to characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales. In the present paper, we determine a variety of different correlation functions that arise in rigorous expressions for the effective physical properties of MRJ sphere packings and compare them to the corresponding statistical descriptors for overlapping spheres and equilibrium hard-sphere systems. Such structural descriptors arise in rigorous bounds and formulas for effective transport properties, diffusion and reactions constants, elastic moduli, and electromagnetic characteristics. First, we calculate the two-point, surface-void, and surface-surface correlation functions, for which we derive explicit analytical formulas for finite hard-sphere packings. We show analytically how the contact Dirac delta function contribution to the pair correlation function g_{2}(r) for MRJ packings translates into distinct functional behaviors of these two-point correlation functions that do not arise in the other two models examined here. Then we show how the spectral density distinguishes the MRJ packings from the other disordered systems in that the spectral density vanishes in the limit of infinite wavelengths; i.e., these packings are hyperuniform, which means that density fluctuations on large length scales are anomalously suppressed. Moreover, for all model systems, we study and compute exclusion probabilities and pore size distributions, as well as local density fluctuations. We conjecture that for general disordered hard-sphere packings, a central limit theorem holds for the number of points within an spherical observation window. Our analysis links problems of interest in material science, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. In the third paper of this series, we will evaluate bounds and estimates of a host of different physical properties of the MRJ sphere packings that are based on the
Pedestal density fluctuation dynamics during the inter-ELM cycle in DIII-D
Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. H.; Burrell, K. H.; Beurskens, M. N.
2011-05-15
Detailed 2D measurements of long-wavelength density fluctuations in the pedestal region with beam emission spectroscopy during the period between edge localized modes (ELMs) indicate two distinct bands of fluctuations propagating in opposite poloidal directions in the plasma frame: one lower frequency band (50-150 kHz) advects in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction (ion mode) and a higher frequency band (200-400 kHz) advects in the electron diamagnetic drift direction (electron mode). The ion mode amplitude is modulated with the ELM cycle: it increases rapidly after an ELM and then saturates, similar to the evolution of the pedestal electron pressure and density gradients. The electron mode, in contrast, has no significant time evolution between ELMs. The decorrelation time of the ion mode is <5 {mu}s[{tau}{sub c}(c{sub s}/c{sub s}aa){<=}1], the radial correlation length is of order 10 {rho}{sub i} and has poloidal wave-number k{sub {theta}{rho}i{approx}}0.1, and the mode advects at near the ion diamagnetic velocity in the plasma frame. These spatiotemporal dynamics are qualitatively similar to features predicted for kinetic ballooning modes.
White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J. C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G. M.; Waltz, R. E.; Makowski, M. A.
2008-05-15
For the first time, profiles (0.3<{rho}<0.9) of electron temperature and density fluctuations in a tokamak have been measured simultaneously and the results compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. Electron temperature and density fluctuations measured in neutral beam-heated, sawtooth-free low confinement mode (L-mode) plasmas in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] are found to be similar in frequency and normalized amplitude, with amplitude increasing with radius. The measured radial profile of two fluctuation fields allows for a new and rigorous comparison with gyrokinetic results. Nonlinear gyrokinetic flux-tube simulations predict that electron temperature and density fluctuations have similar normalized amplitudes in L-mode. At {rho}=0.5, simulation results match experimental heat diffusivities and density fluctuation amplitude, but overestimate electron temperature fluctuation amplitude and particle diffusivity. In contrast, simulations at {rho}=0.75 do not match either the experimentally derived transport properties or the measured fluctuation levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zachary, Chase E.; Torquato, Salvatore
2011-05-01
We provide numerical constructions of one-dimensional hyperuniform many-particle distributions that exhibit unusual clustering and asymptotic local number density fluctuations growing more slowly than the volume of an observation window but faster than the surface area. Hyperuniformity, defined by vanishing infinite-wavelength local density fluctuations, provides a quantitative metric of global order within a many-particle configuration and signals the onset of an “inverted” critical point in which the direct correlation function becomes long ranged. By targeting a specified form of the structure factor at small wavenumbers (S(k)~kα for 0<α<1) using collective density variables, we are able to tailor the form of asymptotic local density fluctuations while simultaneously measuring the effect of imposing weak and strong constraints on the available degrees of freedom within the system. This procedure is equivalent to finding the (possibly disordered) classical ground state of an interacting many-particle system with up to four-body interactions. Even in one dimension, the long-range effective interactions induce clustering and nontrivial phase transitions in the resulting ground-state configurations. We provide an analytical connection between the fraction of constrained degrees of freedom within the system and the disorder-order phase transition for a class of target structure factors by examining the realizability of the constrained contribution to the pair correlation function. Our results explicitly demonstrate that disordered hyperuniform many-particle ground states, and therefore also point distributions, with substantial clustering can be constructed. We directly relate the local coordination structure of our point patterns to the distribution of the void space external to the particles, and we provide a scaling argument for the configurational entropy (analogous to spin-frustated system) of the disordered ground states. By emphasizing the intimate
The Effect of Input Torque Ramps on Density Fluctuations Generated in the QH-mode Edge on DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rost, Chris; Davis, E. M.; Marinoni, A.; Porkolab, M. A.; Burrell, K. H.
2015-11-01
Recent studies of Quiescent H-mode with varied input torque have exhibited two regimes of edge density turbulence, as observed with the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) density fluctuation diagnostic. The PCI is especially sensitive to turbulence in regions of large velocity shear, as seen in the Er well in the H-mode edge. QH-modes were first discovered in discharges with large input torque from neutral beams. Such plasmas possess a deep Er well inside the separatrix and have highly sheared ion-scale turbulence in the outer portion of the well propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction at 50 % of the largest E × B velocity. As input torque decreases, additional sheared turbulence appears which propagates at 2-3 × the largest E × B velocity, coincident with discontinuous changes in the velocity shear in the Er well and the characteristics of the Edge Harmonic Oscillation. Robust performance is observed to continue throughout these qualitative changes in the QH-mode edge parameters and density turbulence. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Jing; Wang, Qiang
2013-03-01
How fluctuations change the order-disorder transition (ODT) of symmetric diblock copolymers (DBC) is a classic yet unsolved problem in polymer physics.[1] Taking a model system of discrete Gaussian chains interacting with soft, finite-range repulsions as commonly used in dissipative-particle dynamics simulations we formulate a density-functional theory (DFT) based on the polymer integral equation theories,[2] which includes the system fluctuations and correlations neglected by the mean-field theory (i.e., the widely applied self-consistent field theory) and can be reduced to the latter under the mean-spherical approximation. We then unambiguously reveal the fluctuation/correlation effects on the ODT of symmetric DBC by direct comparisons among the mean-field theory, DFT, and fast off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations,[3] all using exactly the same model system (Hamiltonian) and thus without any parameter-fitting.
Pursuing parameters for critical-density dark matter models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liddle, Andrew R.; Lyth, David H.; Schaefer, R. K.; Shafi, Q.; Viana, Pedro T. P.
1996-07-01
We present an extensive comparison of models of structure formation with observations, based on linear and quasi-linear theory. We assume a critical matter density, and study both cold dark matter models and cold plus hot dark matter models. We explore a wide range of parameters, by varying the fraction of hot dark matter , the Hubble parameter h and the spectral index of density perturbations n, and allowing for the possibility of gravitational waves from inflation influencing large-angle microwave background anisotropies. New calculations are made of the transfer functions describing the linear power spectrum, with special emphasis on improving the accuracy on short scales where there are strong constraints. For assessing early object formation, the transfer functions are explicitly evaluated at the appropriate redshift. The observations considered are the four-year COBE observations of microwave background anisotropies, peculiar velocity flows, the galaxy correlation function, and the abundances of galaxy clusters, quasars and damped Lyman alpha systems. Each observation is interpreted in terms of the power spectrum filtered by a top-hat window function. We find that there remains a viable region of parameter space for critical-density models when all the dark matter is cold, though h must be less than 0.5 before any fit is found and n significantly below unity is preferred. Once a hot dark matter component is invoked, a wide parameter space is acceptable, including n 1. The allowed region is characterized by 0.35 and 0.60 n 1.25, at 95 per cent confidence on at least one piece of data. There is no useful lower bound on h, and for curious combinations of the other parameters it is possible to fit the data with h as high as 0.65.
Structure and Function of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps.
Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin
2016-01-01
Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events. PMID:27200063
Structure and Function of Intra–Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps
Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin
2016-01-01
Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events. PMID:27200063
Density-based penalty parameter optimization on C-SVM.
Liu, Yun; Lian, Jie; Bartolacci, Michael R; Zeng, Qing-An
2014-01-01
The support vector machine (SVM) is one of the most widely used approaches for data classification and regression. SVM achieves the largest distance between the positive and negative support vectors, which neglects the remote instances away from the SVM interface. In order to avoid a position change of the SVM interface as the result of an error system outlier, C-SVM was implemented to decrease the influences of the system's outliers. Traditional C-SVM holds a uniform parameter C for both positive and negative instances; however, according to the different number proportions and the data distribution, positive and negative instances should be set with different weights for the penalty parameter of the error terms. Therefore, in this paper, we propose density-based penalty parameter optimization of C-SVM. The experiential results indicated that our proposed algorithm has outstanding performance with respect to both precision and recall. PMID:25114978
Density-Based Penalty Parameter Optimization on C-SVM
Liu, Yun; Lian, Jie; Bartolacci, Michael R.; Zeng, Qing-An
2014-01-01
The support vector machine (SVM) is one of the most widely used approaches for data classification and regression. SVM achieves the largest distance between the positive and negative support vectors, which neglects the remote instances away from the SVM interface. In order to avoid a position change of the SVM interface as the result of an error system outlier, C-SVM was implemented to decrease the influences of the system's outliers. Traditional C-SVM holds a uniform parameter C for both positive and negative instances; however, according to the different number proportions and the data distribution, positive and negative instances should be set with different weights for the penalty parameter of the error terms. Therefore, in this paper, we propose density-based penalty parameter optimization of C-SVM. The experiential results indicated that our proposed algorithm has outstanding performance with respect to both precision and recall. PMID:25114978
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjhung, Elsen; Berthier, Ludovic
2015-04-01
The emergence of particle irreversibility in periodically driven colloidal suspensions has been interpreted as resulting either from a nonequilibrium phase transition to an absorbing state or from the chaotic nature of particle trajectories. Using a simple model of a driven suspension, we show that a nonequilibrium phase transition is accompanied by hyperuniform static density fluctuations in the vicinity of the transition, where we also observe strong dynamic heterogeneities reminiscent of dynamics in glassy materials. We find that single particle dynamics becomes intermittent and strongly non-Fickian, and that collective dynamics becomes spatially correlated over diverging length scales. Our results suggest that the two theoretical scenarii can be experimentally discriminated using particle-resolved measurements of standard static and dynamic observables.
Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo
2009-02-01
Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents. PMID:19391693
Extracting galactic structure parameters from multivariated density estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, B.; Creze, M.; Robin, A.; Bienayme, O.
1992-01-01
Multivariate statistical analysis, including includes cluster analysis (unsupervised classification), discriminant analysis (supervised classification) and principle component analysis (dimensionlity reduction method), and nonparameter density estimation have been successfully used to search for meaningful associations in the 5-dimensional space of observables between observed points and the sets of simulated points generated from a synthetic approach of galaxy modelling. These methodologies can be applied as the new tools to obtain information about hidden structure otherwise unrecognizable, and place important constraints on the space distribution of various stellar populations in the Milky Way. In this paper, we concentrate on illustrating how to use nonparameter density estimation to substitute for the true densities in both of the simulating sample and real sample in the five-dimensional space. In order to fit model predicted densities to reality, we derive a set of equations which include n lines (where n is the total number of observed points) and m (where m: the numbers of predefined groups) unknown parameters. A least-square estimation will allow us to determine the density law of different groups and components in the Galaxy. The output from our software, which can be used in many research fields, will also give out the systematic error between the model and the observation by a Bayes rule.
Effects of Malaria Parasite Density on Blood Cell Parameters
Kotepui, Manas; Piwkham, Duangjai; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit
2015-01-01
Changes in blood cell parameters are already a well-known feature of malarial infections. To add to this information, the objective of this study was to investigate the varying effects that different levels of parasite density have on blood cell parameters. Patients diagnosed with malaria at Phobphra Hospital, Tak Province, Thailand between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2012 were recruited as subjects for data collection. Blood cell parameters of 2,024 malaria-infected patients were evaluated and statistically analyzed. Neutrophil and platelet counts were significantly higher, however, RBC count was significantly lower in patients with P. falciparum infection compared to those with P. vivax infection (p<0.0001). Leukocyte counts were also significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia. In terms of differential leukocyte count, neutrophil count was significantly higher in patients with high parasitemia compared to those with low and moderate parasitemia (p<0.0001). On the other hand, both lymphocyte and monocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with high parasitemia (p<0.0001). RBC count and Hb concentration, as well as platelet count were also significantly reduced (p<0.05) and (p<0.0001), respectively. To summarize, patients infected with different malaria parasites exhibited important distinctive hematological parameters, with neutrophil and eosinophil counts being the two hematological parameters most affected. In addition, patients infected with different malarial densities also exhibited important changes in leukocyte count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during the infection. These findings offer the opportunity to recognize and diagnose malaria related anemia, help support the treatment thereof, as well as relieve symptoms of severe malaria in endemic regions. PMID:25807235
Consistent parameter fixing in the quark-meson model with vacuum fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carignano, Stefano; Buballa, Michael; Elkamhawy, Wael
2016-08-01
We revisit the renormalization prescription for the quark-meson model in an extended mean-field approximation, where vacuum quark fluctuations are included. At a given cutoff scale the model parameters are fixed by fitting vacuum quantities, typically including the sigma-meson mass mσ and the pion decay constant fπ. In most publications the latter is identified with the expectation value of the sigma field, while for mσ the curvature mass is taken. When quark loops are included, this prescription is however inconsistent, and the correct identification involves the renormalized pion decay constant and the sigma pole mass. In the present article we investigate the influence of the parameter-fixing scheme on the phase structure of the model at finite temperature and chemical potential. Despite large differences between the model parameters in the two schemes, we find that in homogeneous matter the effect on the phase diagram is relatively small. For inhomogeneous phases, on the other hand, the choice of the proper renormalization prescription is crucial. In particular, we show that if renormalization effects on the pion decay constant are not considered, the model does not even present a well-defined renormalized limit when the cutoff is sent to infinity.
Interlocking order parameter fluctuations in structural transitions between adsorbed polymer phases.
Martins, Paulo H L; Bachmann, Michael
2016-01-21
By means of contact-density chain-growth simulations of a simple coarse-grained lattice model for a polymer grafted at a solid homogeneous substrate, we investigate the complementary behavior of the numbers of surface-monomer and monomer-monomer contacts under various solvent and thermal conditions. This pair of contact numbers represents an appropriate set of order parameters that enables the distinct discrimination of significantly different compact phases of polymer adsorption. Depending on the transition scenario, these order parameters can interlock in perfect cooperation. The analysis helps understand the transitions from compact filmlike adsorbed polymer conformations into layered morphologies and dissolved adsorbed structures, respectively, in more detail. PMID:26690091
Linear magnetoresistance in n-type silicon due to doping density fluctuations
Porter, Nicholas A.; Marrows, Christopher H.
2012-01-01
We report the observation of a large linear magnetoresistance in the ohmic regime in commonplace commercial n-type silicon wafer with a P dopant density of (1.4±0.1) ×1015 cm–3, and report measurements of it in the temperature range 30–200 K. It arises from the deformation of current paths, which causes a part of the Hall field to be detected at the voltage probes. In short, wide samples we found linear magnetoresistance as large as 4707% in an 8 tesla field at 35 K. Sample geometry effects like these are commonplace in commercial Hall sensors. However, we found that the effect persisted in long, thin samples where the macroscopic current flow should be uniform between the voltage probes: we observed a magnetoresistance of 445% under the same conditions as above. We interpret this result as arising due to spatial fluctuations in the donor density, in the spirit of the Herring model. PMID:22876340
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clukey, Steven J.
1988-01-01
The high speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. The data acquisition and data reduction process has been combined within DDAS. DDAS receives input from hot wires and anemometers, amplifies and filters the signals with computer controlled modules, and converts the analog signals to digital with real-time simultaneous digitization followed by digital recording on disk or tape. Automatic acquisition (either from a computer link to an existing wind tunnel acquisition system, or from data acquisition facilities within DDAS) collects necessary calibration and environment data. The generation of hot wire sensitivities is done in DDAS, as is the application of sensitivities to the hot wire data to generate turbulence quantities. The presentation of the raw and processed data, in terms of root mean square values of velocity, density and temperature, and the processing of the spectral data is accomplished on demand in near-real-time- with DDAS. A comprehensive description of the interface to the DDAS and of the internal mechanisms will be prosented. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAS will be provided.
Inversion methods for the measurements of MHD-like density fluctuations by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaquias, A.; Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelsky, I. S.
2015-09-01
We report here on the recent developments in the deconvolution of the path integral effects for the study of MHD pressure-like fluctuations measured by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic. In particular, we develop improved methods to account for and remove the path integral effect on the determination of the ionization generation factors, including the double ionization of the primary beam. We test the method using the HIBD simulation code which computes the real beam trajectories and attenuations due to electron impact ionization for any selected synthetic profiles of plasma current, plasma potential, electron temperature and density. Simulations have shown the numerical method to be highly effective in ISTTOK within an overall accuracy of a few percent (< 3%). The method here presented can effectively reduce the path integral effects and may serve as the basis to develop improved retrieving techniques for plasma devices working even in higher density ranges. The method is applied to retrieve the time evolution and spatial structure of m=1 and m=2 modes. The 2D MHD mode-like structure is reconstructed by means of a spatial projection of all 1D measurements obtained during one full rotation of the mode. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics
Possibility of determination of the asymptotic level-density parameter
Kudyaev, G.A.; Ostapenko, Y.B.; Svirin, M.I.; Smirenkin, G.N.
1988-02-01
We investigate the sensitivity of the fissility of nuclei to the parameters of the density of excited levels and conclude that the nuclei in the region of Pb are most favorable for an experimental estimate of the asymptotic parameter a-italic-tilde = ..cap alpha..A. The mean value ..cap alpha.. = 0.086 +- 0.009 MeV/sup -1/ is found from analysis of the fission of seven nuclei from /sup 201/Tl to /sup 213/At. This value is in agreement with the phenomenological description of the energy dependence a(U) (..cap alpha.. = 0.093 MeV/sup -1/) and with the theoretical prediction ..cap alpha.. = 0.09 MeV/sup -1/ obtained for a Woods-Saxon potential.
Construct order parameters from the reduced density matrix spectra
Gu, Shi-Jian; Yu, Wing Chi; Lin, Hai-Qing
2013-09-15
In this paper, we try to establish a connection between a quantum information concept, i.e., the mutual information, and the conventional order parameter in condensed matter physics. We show that non-vanishing mutual information between two subsystems separated by a long distance means the existence of long-range orders in the system. By analyzing the spectra of the reduced density matrices that are used to calculate the mutual information, we show how to derive the local order operators that identify various ordered phases in condensed matter physics. -- Highlights: •Discussed the relation between long-range order and the mutual information (MI). •Pointed out how to check the existence of long-range order from MI. •Proposed a scheme to derive the diagonal and off-diagonal order parameter. •Gave three examples to show the effectiveness of the scheme.
Direct Measurements of Upper Limits for Transient Density Fluctuations in the Zodiacal Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, B.
1997-12-01
Questions regarding the density of the local zodiacal clouds have recently become important in many areas. Several planned searches for extrasolar system planets require a better knowledge of the behavior of zodiacal clouds, the solar system zodiacal cloud has been suggested as a driving force for glaciations, and it is becoming clear that discussions regarding prebiotic chemistry must include the flux of interplanetary particles onto Earth. No certain upper limits can today be set for transient density variations in the local zodiacal cloud, nor for fluctuations in the particle-flux onto Earth. Some new results have, however, created a possibility to measure this in the geological record. An interdisciplinary project is described. The goal for the project is to set upper limits for the zodiacal dust-flux onto Earth during passages through IRAS dust-bands during the last 2.5 million years, and use these limits to calculate the maximum density of the bands. We estimate the predicted flux of zodiacal particles onto Earth through orbital modeling., where it is assumed that the source for the IRAS dust-bands are a few Hirayama asteroid families. The orbits of the asteroids and the produced dust are integrated to find the times when Earth revolved within a dust-band. This forms the basis for a geochemical analysis of oceanic sediments, lake sediments, ice-cores and loess-deposits, with the goal to find the signal from a passage through a dust-band. Apart from providing an excellent stratigraphic dating tool, the identification and characterization of such a signal would give important information about the behavior of the zodiacal cloud over shorter times (1-2 My). Some astronomical results are presented and compared with sedimentological observations.
White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Staebler, G. M.; Burrell, K. H.; DeBoo, J. C.; Prater, R.
2010-02-15
New measurements show that long-wavelength (k{sub t}hetarho{sub s}<0.5) electron temperature fluctuations can play an important role in determining electron thermal transport in low-confinement mode (L-mode) tokamak plasmas. In neutral beam-heated L-mode tokamak plasmas, electron thermal transport and the amplitude of long-wavelength electron temperature fluctuations both increase in cases where local electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to modify the plasma profiles. In contrast, the amplitude of simultaneously measured long-wavelength density fluctuations does not significantly increase. Linear stability analysis indicates that the ratio of the trapped electron mode (TEM) to ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode growth rates increases in the cases with ECH. The increased importance of the TEM drive relative to the ITG mode drive in the cases with ECH may be associated with the increases in electron thermal transport and electron temperature fluctuations.
Identification of craters on Moon using Crater Density Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vandana, Vandana
2016-07-01
Lunar craters are the most noticeable features on the face of the moon. They take up 40.96% of the lunar surface and, their accumulated area is approximately three times as much as the lunar surface area. There are many myths about the moon. Some says moon is made of cheese. The moon and the sun chase each other across the sky etc. but scientifically the moon are closest and are only natural satellite of earth. The orbit plane of the moon is tilted by 5° and orbit period around the earth is 27-3 days. There are two eclipse i.e. lunar eclipse and solar eclipse which always comes in pair. Moon surface has 3 parts i.e. highland, Maria, and crater. For crater diagnostic crater density parameter is one of the means for measuring distance can be easily identity the density between two craters. Crater size frequency distribution (CSFD) is being computed for lunar surface using TMC and MiniSAR image data and hence, also the age for the selected test sites of mars is also determined. The GIS-based program uses the density and orientation of individual craters within LCCs (as vector points) to identify potential source craters through a series of cluster identification and ejection modeling analyses. JMars software is also recommended and operated only the time when connected with server but work can be done in Arc GIS with the help of Arc Objects and Model Builder. The study plays a vital role to determine the lunar surface based on crater (shape, size and density) and exploring affected craters on the basis of height, weight and velocity. Keywords: Moon; Crater; MiniSAR.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.
2015-03-07
Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.
Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna
2016-01-01
Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052
Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna
2016-01-01
Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. I.; Sirazetdinov, V. S.
2007-02-01
In this paper we analyze some results of natural and numerical experiments on probability density of intensity fluctuations on an axis for 1,06 microns and 0,53 microns laser beams in comparison with theoretical dependences (lognormal, exponential and K-distribution). Beams were propagated in aviation engine exhaust at various angles between the jet and beam axes. It has been shown that for a beam with a wavelength of 0,53 microns experimental data can be approximated as exponential and K-distribution, while for radiation with a wavelength of 1,06 microns good conformity to K-distribution has been observed. Optimum conditions for image registration with CCD-cameras of laser beams distorted by turbulence have been chosen. For this purpose transfer characteristics of several same type samples of CCD-cameras have been studied at various irradiation modes and registration tunings. It has been shown that the dynamic range of the cameras is used to maximum capacity for image recording when gamma-correction is applied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. C.; Kuo, S. P.
1985-01-01
The physical mechanism of thermal filamentation instability of radio waves whose frequencies can be as low as in the VLF band and as high as in the SHF band are investigated. This instability can excite large-scale magnetic and plasma density fluctuations simultaneously in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Relevant experiments are reviewed in terms of this instability and other mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Grabowski, Paul E.; Burke, Kieron
2016-06-01
The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation approximations.
Density functional calculations of Hubbard parameter in actinide series
Puri, A.; Sen, K.D.
1993-05-01
The calculations of Hubbard parameter, U, which defines the polar state formation energy of the reaction 2(5f{sup n} 6d{sup 1} 7d{sup 2}) {yields} 5f{sup n-1} 6d{sup 2}7s{sup 2} + 5f{sup n+1} 7s{sup 2} for the actinide atoms, Th-No, have been carried out using the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) quasi-relativistic local spin density (LSD) functional due to Perdew and Zunger. Based on the available bandwidth calculations for the 5f metals and its monotonically decreasing trend with increasing nuclear charge it is predicted that the 5f state is iterent in Th-Np beyond which it becomes localized. These calculations agree with the conclusions drawn earlier by Johansson using the semiempirical data.
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2008-03-15
We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.
Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo
2014-02-01
Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of δ(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E. arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, Richard; Armstrong, J. W.; Bird, M. K.; Patzold, M.
1995-01-01
The first measurements of fractional electron density fluctuations delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e), where delta-n(sub e) is rms electron density fluctuation and n(sub e) is the mean electron density, have been carried out inside 40 R(sub 0) using 1991 Ulysses dual-frequency S- and X-band (13 and 3.6 cm) ranging (time delay) measurements. In the frequency band of approximately 6 x 10(exp -5) - 8 x 10(exp -4) Hz (periods of 20 min to 5 hr), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) varies from a high near 20% in the slow wind close to the neutral line to a low of 1% in the fast wind far from the neutral line. For spatial wavenumber K approximately = 1.4 x 10(exp -6)/km (period of 5 hr at 250 km/s), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) is essentially independent of heliocentric distance over 0.03-1.0 AU in the slow wind; it is a factor of 30 lower in the fast wind than in the slow wind inside 0.1 AU, but exhibits dramatic growth with heliocentric distance inside 0.3 AU. This latter result reinforces current views of the evolution of MHD turbulence and the association of Alfven waves with high speed streams based on in situ fields and particles measurements beyond 0.3 AU. That regions of enhanced density fluctuations near or above the neutral line coincide with regions of enhanced density confirms previous conclusions that they are the interplanetary manifestation of the heliospheric current sheet and extensions of coronal streamers. While the regions of enhanced density fluctuations lie within those of enhanced density, they have boundaries that are distinctly more abrupt, suggesting the separation of plasma of different nature and origin.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.
2003-01-01
Noise sources in high-speed jets were identified by directly correlating flow density fluctuation (cause) to far-field sound pressure fluctuation (effect). The experimental study was performed in a nozzle facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of NASA s initiative to reduce the noise emitted by commercial airplanes. Previous efforts to use this correlation method have failed because the tools for measuring jet turbulence were intrusive. In the present experiment, a molecular Rayleigh-scattering technique was used that depended on laser light scattering by gas molecules in air. The technique allowed accurate measurement of air density fluctuations from different points in the plume. The study was conducted in shock-free, unheated jets of Mach numbers 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8. The turbulent motion, as evident from density fluctuation spectra was remarkably similar in all three jets, whereas the noise sources were significantly different. The correlation study was conducted by keeping a microphone at a fixed location (at the peak noise emission angle of 30 to the jet axis and 50 nozzle diameters away) while moving the laser probe volume from point to point in the flow. The following figure shows maps of the nondimensional coherence value measured at different Strouhal frequencies ([frequency diameter]/jet speed) in the supersonic Mach 1.8 and subsonic Mach 0.95 jets. The higher the coherence, the stronger the source was.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, R.; Yang, F.-C.; Yip, K. W.; Kendall, W. B.
1976-01-01
It is demonstrated that phase-difference scintillations measured with a coherent dual-frequency radio system such as that on Mariner 10 can be used to study the structure of density fluctuations in the solar wind covering a wider range of scale sizes than has ever been possible before. The Mariner 10 observations at solar elongations of 11.5 and 12.6 deg show that the density spectrum in the frequency range from 0.0001 to 0.5 Hz, which corresponds to the spatial wavenumber range of 2 millionths to 0.001 inverse km if the solar wind velocity is assumed to be 350 km/s, is approximately power-law and close to Kolmogorov (spectral index of 11/3). The results are consistent with direct spacecraft observations near earth and provide strong evidence that the density fluctuations are produced by turbulence. The potential and benefits of future extensive measurements are also discussed.
Effects of pairing correlations on the inverse level density parameter of hot rotating nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thi Quynh Huong, Le; Quang Hung, Nguyen; Thi Quynh Trang, Le
2016-06-01
Angular momentum dependence of the inverse level density parameter K in the excitation-energy region of ∼ 30 – 40 MeV is studied within the finite-temperature Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (FTBCS) theory and the FTBCS theory that includes the effect due to quasiparticle-number fluctuations (FTBCS1). The two theories take into account the noncollective rotation of the nucleus at nonzero values of z-projection M of the total angular momentum. The comparison between the results obtained within the FTBCS and FTBCS1 as well as the case without pairing correlations and the experimental data for two medium-mass even-even nuclei 108Cd and 122Te shows that by including the pairing corrections the FTBCS and FTBCS1 reproduces quite well all the experimental data, whereas the non-pairing case always overestimates the data. Due to the effect of quasiparticle-number fluctuations, the FTBCS1 gaps at different M values do not collapse at critical temperature TC as in the FTBCS ones but monotonously decrease with increasing T and being finite even at high T. As the result, the values of K obtained within the FTBCS1 are always closer to the experimental data than those obtained within the FTBCS.
An edge density fluctuation diagnostic for DIII-D using lithium beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D. M.
1991-12-01
This report covers the research conducted under DOE grant FG03-90ER-081 during the period August 15, 1990 through November 15, 1991. Progress during the period March 15, 1990 through August 15, 1990 was covered in a previous report. Highlights during this period include the development of a compact neutral lithium accelerator capable of producing several mA at up to 30 kV, measurements of intrinsic beam fluctuation levels, and the design and partial completion of the diagnostic installation on the D3-D tokamak. We also had one journal article describing the system published in Reviews of Scientific Instruments, presented a poster on our recent progress at the APS Plasma Physics conference, and submitted an abstract to the 9th Topical Conference on Plasma Diagnostics. The overall objective of this project is to provide detailed information about the behavior of the electron density in the edge region of D3-D, and in particular to examine the local character of the associated degradation in confinement properties. Measurements should provide important data for testing theories of the L-H transition in tokamaks and should help in assessing the role of various instabilities in anomalous transport. The work on this project may be naturally organized according to the following six subareas: Ion source/beam system, neutralizer system, optical system, data acquisition, data analysis, and machine (D3-D) interface. Progress in each of these areas will be discussed briefly. We also briefly discuss our plans for future work on this program.
Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi
2015-06-26
We present a microscopic derivation of the nematic charge-density wave (CDW) formation in cuprate superconductors based on the three-orbital d-p Hubbard model by introducing the vertex correction (VC) into the charge susceptibility. The CDW instability at q=(Δ(FS),0), (0,Δ(FS)) appears when the spin fluctuations are strong, due to the strong charge-spin interference represented by the VC. Here, Δ(FS) is the wave number between the neighboring hot spots. The obtained spin-fluctuation-driven CDW is expressed as the "intra-unit-cell orbital order" accompanied by the charge transfer between the neighboring atomic orbitals, which is actually observed by the scanning tunneling microscope measurements. We predict that the cuprate CDW and the nematic orbital order in Fe-based superconductors are closely related spin-fluctuation-driven phenomena. PMID:26197139
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.
1992-01-01
Theory suggests that three distinct types of turbulence can occur in the low Mach number limit of polytropic flow: nearly incompressible flows dominated by vorticity, nearly pure acoustic turbulence dominated by compression, and flows characterized by near statistical equipartition of vorticity and compressions. Distinctions between these kinds of turbulence are investigated here by direct numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. Dynamical scalings of density fluctuations, examination of the ratio of transverse to longitudinal velocity fluctuations, and spectral decomposition of the fluctuations are employed to distinguish the nature of these low Mach number solutions. A strong dependence on the initial data is observed, as well as a tendency for enhanced effects of compressibility at later times and at higher wave numbers, as suggested by theories of nearly incompressible flows.
Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina
2016-01-01
Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883
Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina
2016-01-01
Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.
2015-01-28
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E
2015-01-28
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990
Karunaweera, Sadish
2015-01-01
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990
Three-dimensional structure of electron density fluctuations in the Hall thruster plasma: ExB mode
Tsikata, S.; Honore, C.; Gresillon, D. M.; Lemoine, N.
2010-11-15
Collective scattering measurements have been conducted on the plasma of a Hall thruster, in which the electron density fluctuations are fully characterized by the dynamic form factor. The dynamic form factor amplitude distribution has been measured depending on the k-vector spatial and frequency components at different locations. Fluctuations are seen as propagating waves. The largest amplitude mode propagates nearly along the cross-field direction but at a phase velocity that is much smaller than the ExB drift velocity. Refined directional analysis of this largest amplitude mode shows a thin angular emission diagram with a mean direction that is not strictly along the ExB direction but at small angles near it. The deviation is oriented toward the anode in the (E,ExB) plane and toward the exterior of the thruster channel in the (B,ExB) plane. The density fluctuation rate is on the order of 1%. These experimentally determined directional fluctuation characteristics are discussed with regard to the linear kinetic theory model and particle-in-cell simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burmistrov, I. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.
2016-05-01
We develop a theory of the local density of states (LDOS) of disordered superconductors, employing the nonlinear sigma-model formalism and the renormalization-group framework. The theory takes into account the interplay of disorder and interaction couplings in all channels, treating the systems with short-range and Coulomb interactions on equal footing. We explore two-dimensional systems that would be Anderson insulators in the absence of interaction and two- or three-dimensional systems that undergo an Anderson transition in the absence of interaction. We evaluate both the average tunneling density of states and its mesoscopic fluctuations which are related to the LDOS multifractality in normal disordered systems. The obtained average LDOS shows a pronounced depletion around the Fermi energy, both in the metallic phase (i.e., above the superconducting critical temperature Tc) and in the insulating phase near the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). The fluctuations of the LDOS are found to be particularly strong for the case of short-range interactions, especially, in the regime when Tc is enhanced by Anderson localization. On the other hand, the long-range Coulomb repulsion reduces the mesoscopic LDOS fluctuations. However, also in a model with Coulomb interaction, the fluctuations become strong when the systems approach the SIT.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clukey, Steven J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Stainback, P. Calvin
1988-01-01
The use of a high-speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) to measure simultaneously velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations is described. The DDAS is used to automate the acquisition of hot-wire calibration data. The data acquisition, data handling, and data reporting techiques used by DDAS are described. Sample data are used to compare results obtained with the DDAS with those obtained from the FM tape and post-test digitization method.
Influence of the fluid density on the statistics of power fluctuations in von Kármán swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opazo, A.; Sáez, A.; Bustamante, G.; Labbé, R.
2016-02-01
Here, we report experimental results on the fluctuations of injected power in confined turbulence. Specifically, we have studied a von Kármán swirling flow with constant external torque applied to the stirrers. Two experiments were performed at nearly equal Reynolds numbers, in geometrically similar experimental setups. Air was utilized in one of them and water in the other. With air, it was found that the probability density function of power fluctuations is strongly asymmetric, while with water, it is nearly Gaussian. This suggests that the outcome of a big change of the fluid density in the flow-stirrer interaction is not simply a change in the amplitude of stirrers' response. In the case of water, with a density roughly 830 times greater than air density, the coupling between the flow and the stirrers is stronger, so that they follow more closely the fluctuations of the average rotation of the nearby flow. When the fluid is air, the coupling is much weaker. The result is not just a smaller response of the stirrers to the torque exerted by the flow; the PDF of the injected power becomes strongly asymmetric and its spectrum acquires a broad region that scales as f-2. Thus, the asymmetry of the probability density functions of torque or angular speed could be related to the inability of the stirrers to respond to flow stresses. This happens, for instance, when the torque exerted by the flow is weak, due to small fluid density, or when the stirrers' moment of inertia is large. Moreover, a correlation analysis reveals that the features of the energy transfer dynamics with water are qualitatively and quantitatively different to what is observed with air as working fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jaewook; Ghim, Young-Chul; Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Lab Team
2014-10-01
A BES (beam emission spectroscopy) system and an MIR (Microwave Imaging Reflectometer) system installed in KSTAR measure 2D (radial and poloidal) density fluctuations at two different toroidal locations. This gives a possibility of measuring the parallel correlation length of ion-scale turbulence in KSTAR. Due to lack of measurement points in toroidal direction and shorter separation distance between the diagnostics compared to an expected parallel correlation length, it is necessary to confirm whether a conventional statistical method, i.e., using a cross-correlation function, is valid for measuring the parallel correlation length. For this reason, we generated synthetic 3D density fluctuation data following Gaussian random field in a toroidal coordinate system that mimic real density fluctuation data. We measure the correlation length of the synthetic data by fitting a Gaussian function to the cross-correlation function. We observe that there is disagreement between the measured and actual correlation lengths, and the degree of disagreement is a function of at least, correlation length, correlation time and advection velocity of synthetic data. We identify the cause of disagreement and propose an appropriate method to measure correct correlation length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.; Paradezhenko, G. V.
2016-08-01
To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiroz-Martinez, B.; Schmitt, F. G.; Dauvin, J.-C.
2012-01-01
We consider here the dynamics of two polychaete populations based on a 20 yr temporal benthic survey of two muddy fine sand communities in the Bay of Morlaix, Western English Channel. These populations display high temporal variability, which is analyzed here using scaling approaches. We find that population densities have heavy tailed probability density functions. We analyze the dynamics of relative species abundance in two different communities of polychaetes by estimating in a novel way a "mean square drift" coefficient which characterizes their fluctuations in relative abundance over time. We show the usefulness of using new tools to approach and model such highly variable population dynamics in marine ecosystems.
Effects of 2D and Finite Density Fluctuations on O-X Correlation Reflectometry
G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo
2001-07-05
The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1D and 2D reflectometer model in order to explore its feasibilities as a q-profile diagnostic. It was found that 2D effects and finite fluctuation levels both decrease the O-X correlation. At very low fluctuation levels, which are usually present in the plasma core, there is good possibility to determine the local magnetic field strength and use that as a constraint for the equilibrium reconstruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Osborne, T. H.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Davis, E. M.; Ernst, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.
2015-09-01
The I-mode regime, routinely observed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, is characterized by an edge energy transport barrier without an accompanying particle barrier and with broadband instabilities, known as weakly coherent modes (WCM), believed to regulate particle transport at the edge. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak exhibit I-mode characteristics in various physical quantities. These DIII-D plasmas evolve over long periods, lasting several energy confinement times, during which the edge electron temperature slowly evolves towards an H-mode-like profile, while maintaining a typical L-mode edge density profile. During these periods, referred to as I-mode phases, the radial electric field at the edge also gradually reaches values typically observed in H-mode. Density fluctuations measured with the phase contrast imaging diagnostic during I-mode phases exhibit three features typically observed in H-mode on DIII-D, although they develop progressively with time and without a sharp transition: the intensity of the fluctuations is reduced; the frequency spectrum is broadened and becomes non-monotonic; two dimensional space-time spectra appear to approach those in H-mode, showing phase velocities of density fluctuations at the edge increasing to about 10 km s-1. However, in DIII-D there is no clear evidence of the WCM. Preliminary linear gyro-kinetic simulations are performed in the pedestal region with the GS2 code and its recently upgraded model collision operator that conserves particles, energy and momentum. The increased bootstrap current and flow shear generated by the temperature pedestal are shown to decrease growth rates, thus possibly generating a feedback mechanism that progressively stabilizes fluctuations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muschietti, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D.
1985-01-01
The highly variable, yet low, level of Langmuir waves measured in situ by spacecraft when electron beams associated with type III solar bursts are passing by are addressed by a model based on the existence of large scale density fluctuations capable of sufficiently diffusing small-k beam-unstable Langmuir waves in phase space. The model is also informed by the presence of a significant isotropic nonthermal tail in the distribution function of the background electron population, which is capable of stabilizing larger k modes. The model is able to predict various levels of Langmuir waves, depending on the parameters; calculations indicate that, for realistic parameters, the most unstable small k modes are fully stabilized, while some oblique mode with higher k and lower growth rate may remain unstable.