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Sample records for density lipoprotein subclass

  1. Lipoprotein subclass analysis by immunospecific density 

    E-print Network

    Lester, Sandy Marie

    2009-05-15

    /dL ? High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower than 40mg/dL, but above 60mg/dL In addition to elevated LDL cholesterol, other known risk factors are [5]: ? Cigarette smoking ? Obesity ? Hypertension 4 ? Family history of heart disease ? Age...-cadmium-EDTA DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide EDTA ethylenediaminetetracetic acid HDL high density lipoprotein IDL intermediate density lipoprotein LCAT lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase LDL low density lipoprotein LPL lipoprotein lipase M...

  2. Physiological role and clinical relevance of high-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    von Eckardstein, A; Huang, Y; Assmann, G

    1994-12-01

    Low HDL cholesterol is an important predictor of cardiovascular risk. Considerable effort has been undertaken to improve the predictive value of HDL cholesterol by the quantification of HDL subclasses. Controversy still exists as to whether quantification of apolipoprotein A-I, selective precipitation of HDL2, or differential immunoassays of apolipoprotein A-I-containing particles improve the diagnostic value of HDL cholesterol. Some quantitatively minor subclasses of HDL, namely pre-beta-1-lipoprotein(AI) and gamma-lipoproteinE, contribute significantly to the release of cellular cholesterol into the plasma compartment, and possibly to the antiatherogenic role of HDL. These particles can only be separated from the bulk of HDL by laborious electrophoretic techniques that, although provide important insights into the physiology of reverse cholesterol transport, are not suitable for clinical laboratories. Thus, to date, clinicians are not recommended to extend the measurement of HDL cholesterol to include the determination of HDL subclasses. PMID:7712045

  3. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  4. Effects of Lipid-Lowering Drugs on High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses in Healthy Men—A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spenrath, Nadine; Montalto, Giuseppe; Krone, Wilhelm; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Context and Objective Investigating the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on HDL subclasses has shown ambiguous results. This study assessed the effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, and their combination on HDL subclass distribution. Design and Participants A single-center randomized parallel 3-group open-label study was performed in 72 healthy men free of cardiovascular disease with a baseline LDL-cholesterol of 111±30 mg/dl (2.9±0.8 mmol/l) and a baseline HDL-cholesterol of 64±15 mg/dl (1.7±0.4 mmol/l). They were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n?=?24), simvastatin (40 mg/day, n?=?24) or their combination (n?=?24) for 14 days. Blood was drawn before and after the treatment period. HDL subclasses were determined using polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the influence of treatment and covariates on changes in HDL subclass composition. Results Baseline HDL subclasses consisted of 33±10% large, 48±6% intermediate and 19±8% small HDL. After adjusting for baseline HDL subclass distribution, body mass index, LDL-C and the ratio triglycerides/HDL-C, there was a significant increase in large HDL by about 3.9 percentage points (P<0.05) and a decrease in intermediate HDL by about 3.5 percentage points (P<0.01) in both simvastatin-containing treatment arms in comparison to ezetimibe. The parameters obtained after additional adjustment for the decrease in LDL-C indicated that about one third to one half of these effects could be explained by the extent of LDL-C-lowering. Conclusions In healthy men, treatment with simvastatin leads to favorable effects on HDL subclass composition, which was not be observed with ezetimibe. Part of these differential effects may be due to the stronger LDL-C-lowering effects of simvastatin. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317993 PMID:24662777

  5. High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses and Noncardiovascular, Noncancer Chronic Inflammatory-Related Events Versus Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Daniel A; Otvos, James; Tracy, Russell P; Feingold, Kenneth R; Greenland, Philip; Gross, Myron D; Lima, Joao A C; Mackey, Rachel H; Neaton, James D; Sanchez, Otto A; Jacobs, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have properties beyond reverse cholesterol transport. We hypothesized that their protection extends to inflammation-related disease. The predictive value of HDL particle subclasses and inflammatory markers was studied for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation–related death and hospitalization, and for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results A multiethnic, multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 6475 men and women (aged 45 to 84 years) free of known CVD at baseline with median follow-up of 10.1 years. Fasting venous samples were analyzed for baseline lipid profile and lipoprotein particles. We focused on the HDL family of variables (small-, medium-, and large-diameter HDL particles and HDL cholesterol). Analyses identified the sum of small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles as important. Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were inversely associated with diagnostic code–based noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation–related death and hospitalization (n=1054) independent of covariates: relative risk per SD 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.91, P<0.0001). Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were also associated with adjudicated fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events (n=423): relative risk per SD 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02). Conclusions Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles are an independent predictor for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammation–related death and hospitalization and for coronary heart disease events in subjects initially free of overt CVD. These findings support the hypothesis that smaller HDL particles of diameter <9.4 nm have anti-inflammatory properties in the general population. PMID:26370448

  6. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, K.R.; Krauss, R.M.; Pang, M.; Doerrler, W.; Jensen, P.; Grunfeld, C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-06-01

    To better define the role of environmental factors on LDL phenotypic expression, the authors determined LDL patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infection characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and weight loss. Similar to previous studies, plasma triglyceride levels were increased, whereas plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in the AIDS subjects compared to those in age-matched controls. The percentage of AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype was increased 2.5-fold, demonstrating an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype in an acquired form of hypertriglyceridemia. For each LDL phenotype in AIDS, serum triglyceride levels were higher than the same phenotypic pattern in controls, with the most marked elevations in triglycerides found in AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype. In contrast to what was observed in controls, HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in all AIDS subjects and were unrelated to LDL pattern. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in controls with the LDL B phenotype than in those with the LDL A phenotype, but there was no difference in total and LDL cholesterol in AIDS subjects with LDL B compared to A. On multiple regression analysis in subjects with AIDS, plasma triglyceride levels, age, and HDL cholesterol all contribute to the occurrence of the LDL B phenotype, but elevations in plasma triglyceride levels are the strongest independent predictor. Body mass index was not a predictor of LDL B phenotype in AIDS. These results suggest that disturbances in triglyceride metabolism that are caused by AIDS lead to the appearance of the LDL subclass B phenotype and provide further evidence that environmental or disease states that perturb lipid metabolism can produce an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic mice results in reduced plasma levels of murine apolipoprotein A-I and the appearance of two new high density lipoprotein size subclasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.M.; Ishida, B.Y.; Clift, S.M.; Krauss, R.M. )

    1991-01-15

    In Western societies high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels correlate inversely with the risk for coronary heart disease. The primary protein component of both human and mouse HDL is apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), which comprises {gt}70% of HDL protein and 30% of HDL mass. Human HDLs include particles of several distinct size subpopulations, wheras HDLs from inbred C57BL/6 mice contain a single population of particles. To study the regulation of apoAI expression and its role in HDL assembly, we created transgenic C57BL/6 mice containing the human apoAI gene. Two independent lines of transgenic mice with approximately twice the normal plasma levels of total apoAI were studied. The level of mouse apoAI is reduced {gt}4-fold in both transgenic lines, comprising only 4% of total plasma apoAI levels in one transgenic line and 13% in the other. The authors demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for the decrease in mouse apoAI is posttranscriptional. Parallel to the replacement of mouse with human apoAI, the single HDL species normally present in the plasma of C57BL/6 is replaced by two HDL subclasses similar in size to human HDL{sub 2b} and HDL{sub 3a}. The changes in murine apolipoprotein levels and HDL subclass size are inherited by all transgenic offspring of the two founder animals. These results suggest a dominant role of apoAI in determining the HDL particle size distribution and a mechanism involving expression of human apoAI transgenes that alters the plasma levels of mouse apoAI.

  8. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. )

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  9. Involvement of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein in the proliferative effect of high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3) on the adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, K A; Bonnafous, M; Favre, G; Soula, G; Le Gaillard, F

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3; HDL3) bind to sites specific for apolipoprotein AI on the human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and that HDL3 binding promotes a mitogenic effect [Favre, Tazi, Le Gaillard, Bennis, Hachem and Soula (1993) J. Lipid Res. 34, 1093-1106]. In the present study, we have examined the cell proteins that showed modified phosphorylation after binding of HDL3 to specific sites, and the roles of Ca2+ and protein kinase C. Native HDL3 (but not tetranitromethane-modified HDL3) and Ca2+ ionophore A23187 strongly enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein (x 3.6) and, to a lower extent, the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins (x 2.2 and 2.6 respectively). The two effectors were equally able to stimulate cell growth. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by a 24 h incubation of cells with phorbol myristate acetate prevented the effects of HDL3 on the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins. However, the extent of phosphorylation of the 20 kDa protein was not affected. In contrast, activation of protein kinase C by a short incubation with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in inhibition of proliferation and an increase in 24 and 28 kDa (but not 20 kDa) protein phosphorylation. These results suggest that HDL3 putative receptors exert their proliferative effect on A549 cells through activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. This kinase activity is not modulated by phorbol ester and thus may be a calmodulin kinase or an isoenzyme of protein kinase C that is independent of phorbol ester. It allows a subsequent 20 kDa protein to be phosphorylated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7733897

  10. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: The Berkeley Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Williams, P.T.; Blanche, P.J.; Cavanaugh, A.; Holl, L.G.; Austin, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Data from the Berkeley Data Set was used to investigate familial correlations of HDL-subclasses. Analysis of the sibling intraclass correlation coefficient by HDL particle diameter showed that sibling HDL levels were significantly correlated for HDL{sub 2b}, HDL{sub 3a} and HDL{sub 3b} subclasses. The percentage of the offsprings` variance explained by their two parents. Our finding that parents and offspring-have the highest correlation for HDL{sub 2b} is consistent with published reports that show higher heritability estimates for HDL{sub 2} compared with HDL{sub 3}{minus} cholesterol.

  11. The Chemistry of Atherogenic High Density Lipoprotein 

    E-print Network

    Moore, D'Vesharronne J.

    2012-07-16

    TRL Bouyant triglyceride-rich lipoprotein C18 Carbon tail of eighteen atoms CE Capillary electrophoresis CETP Cholesterol ester transfer protein CM Chylomicrons CsCdY dicesium cadmium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid CAD Coronary artery disease CVD... density lipoprotein HSA Human serum albumin IDL Intermediate density lipoprotein LCAT Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase LDL Low density lipoprotein LP Lipoprotein Lp(a) Lipoprotein a LPL Lipoprotein lipase MALDI-MS Matrix-assisted laser...

  12. Fluorometric sedimentation equilibrium for lipoprotein sub-class analysis. 

    E-print Network

    Henriquez, Ronald Rene

    2009-05-15

    efforts of Richa Chandra in the triglyceride/cholesterol relationship project development and to thank her for her support as well. I greatly appreciate the collaborative efforts of Jeff Johnson on the gradient separations and stoichiometry projects... of Analysis????????????... 7 1.3.1 Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation??????... 7 1.3.2 Other Methods of Analysis??????????... 9 1.3.3 Quantitation of Cholesterol and Triglycerides???.. 14 1.4 Extrinsic Fluorophore Label????????????? 16 1.5 Statistical...

  13. Familial apolipoprotein Al and apolipoprotein CIII deficiency: subclass distribution, composition, and morphology of lipoproteins in a disorder associated with premature atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Nichols, A.V.; Krauss, R.M.; Norum, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    Lipoprotein classes isolated from the plasma of two patients with apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) and apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII) deficiency were characterized and compared with those of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. The plasma triglyceride values for patients 1 and 2 were 31 and 51 mg/dl, respectively, and their cholesterol values were 130 and 122 mg/dl, respectively; the patients, however, had no measurable high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Analytic ultracentrifugation showed that patients' S/sub f//sup 0/ 0-20 lipoproteins posses a single peak with S/sub f//sup 0/ rates of 7.4 and 7.6 for patients 1 and 2, respectively, which is similar to that of the controls. The concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) (S/sub f//sup 0/ 0-12) particles, although within normal range (331 and 343 mg/dl for patients 1 and 2, respectively), was 35% greater than that of controls. Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) (S/sub f//sup 0/ 20-400) were extremely low in the patients. HDL in the patients had a calculated mass of 15.4 and 11.8 mg/dl for patients 1 and 2, respectively. No HDL could be detected by analytic ultracentrifugation, but polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (gge) revealed that patients possessed two major HDL subclasses: (HDL/sub sb/)/sub gge/ at 11.0 nm and (HDL/sub 3b/)/sub gge/ at 7.8 nm. The major peak in the controls (HDL/sub 3a/)/sub gge/, was lacking in the patients.

  14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Background on Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals1. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol/L or 500-1000mg/dL). Homozygous FH patients are typically diagnosed in infancy, usually due to the presence of cholesterol deposits in the skin and tendons. The main complication of HMZ FH is supravalvular aortic stenosis, which is caused by cholesterol deposits on the aortic valve and in the ascending aorta. The average life expectancy of affected individuals is 23 to 25 years. In Ontario, it is estimated that there are 13 to 15 cases of HMZ FH. An Ontario clinical expert confirmed that 9 HMZ FH patients have been identified to date. Diagnosis There are 2 accepted clinical diagnostic criterion for the diagnosis of FH: the Simon Broome FH Register criteria from the United Kingdom and the Dutch Lipid Network criteria from the Netherlands. The criterion supplement cholesterol levels with clinical history, physical signs and family history. DNA-based-mutation-screening methods permit a definitive diagnosis of HTZ FH to be made. However, given that there are over 1000 identified mutations in the LDL receptor gene and that the detection rates of current techniques are low, genetic testing becomes problematic in countries with high genetic heterogeneity, such as Canada. Treatment The primary aim of treatment in both HTZ and HMZ FH is to reduce plasma LDL-C levels in order to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and CAD. The first line of treatment is dietary intervention, however it alone is rarely sufficient for the treatment of FH patients. Patients are frequently treated with lipid-lowering drugs such as resins, fibrates, niacin, statins and cholesterol absorption-inhibiting drugs (ezetimibe). Most HTZ FH patients require a combination of drugs to achieve or approach target cholesterol levels. A small number of HTZ FH patients are refractory to treatment or intolerant to lipid-lowering medication. According to clinical experts, the prevalence of refractory HTZ FH in Ontario is between 1 to 5%. Using the mean of 3%, it is estimated that there are approximately 765 refractory HTZ FH patients in Ontario, of which 115 are diagnosed

  15. Effect of heparin-induced lipolysis on the distribution of apolipoprotein e among lipoprotein subclasses. Studies with patients deficient in hepatic triglyceride lipase and lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, A; Gibson, J C; Paterniti, J R; Kakis, G; Little, A; Ginsberg, H N; Brown, W V

    1985-01-01

    In normal subjects, apolipoprotein E (apo E) is present on very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) (fraction I) and on particles of a size intermediate between VLDL and low density lipoproteins (LDL) (fraction II). The major portion of apo E is, however, on particles smaller than LDL but larger than the average high density lipoproteins (HDL) (fraction III). To investigate the possible role of the vascular lipases in determining this distribution of apo E among the plasma lipoproteins, we studied subjects with primary deficiency of either hepatic lipase or of lipoprotein lipase and compared them with normal subjects. Subjects with familial hepatic triglyceride lipase deficiency (n = 2) differ markedly from normal in that fraction II is the dominant apo E-containing group of lipoproteins. When lipolysis of VLDL was enhanced in these subjects upon release of lipoprotein lipase by intravenous heparin, a shift of the apo E from VLDL into fractions II and III was observed. In contrast, apolipoproteins CII and CIII (apo CII and CIII, respectively) did not accumulate in intermediate-sized particles but were shifted markedly from triglyceride rich lipoproteins to HDL after treatment with heparin. In subjects with primary lipoprotein lipase deficiency (n = 4), apo E was confined to fractions I and III. Release of hepatic triglyceride lipase by heparin injection in these subjects produced a shift of apo E from fraction I to III with no significant increase in fraction II. This movement of apo E from large VLDL and chylomicron-sized particles occurred with little hydrolysis of triglyceride and no significant shift of apo CII or CIII into HDL from triglyceride rich lipoproteins. When both lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase were released by intravenous heparin injection into normal subjects (n = 3), fraction I declined and the apo E content of fraction III increased by an equivalent amount. Either moderate or no change was noted in the intermediate sized particles (fraction II). These data strongly support the hypothesis that fraction II is the product of the action of lipoprotein lipase upon triglyceride rich lipoproteins and is highly dependent on hepatic triglyceride lipase for its further catabolism. In addition, the hydrolysis by hepatic triglyceride lipase of triglyceride rich lipoproteins in general results in a preferential loss of apo E and its transfer to a specific group of large HDL. PMID:3973025

  16. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

  17. Double Superhelix Model of High Density Lipoprotein*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiping; Gogonea, Valentin; Lee, Xavier; Wagner, Matthew A.; Li, Xin-Min; Huang, Ying; Undurti, Arundhati; May, Roland P.; Haertlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Gutsche, Irina; Zaccai, Giuseppe; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL), the carrier of so-called “good” cholesterol, serves as the major athero-protective lipoprotein and has emerged as a key therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. We applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation and selective isotopic deuteration to the study of nascent HDL to obtain the low resolution structure in solution of the overall time-averaged conformation of apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) versus the lipid (acyl chain) core of the particle. Remarkably, apoA-I is observed to possess an open helical shape that wraps around a central ellipsoidal lipid phase. Using the low resolution SANS shapes of the protein and lipid core as scaffolding, an all-atom computational model for the protein and lipid components of nascent HDL was developed by integrating complementary structural data from hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and previously published constraints from multiple biophysical techniques. Both SANS data and the new computational model, the double superhelix model, suggest an unexpected structural arrangement of protein and lipids of nascent HDL, an anti-parallel double superhelix wrapped around an ellipsoidal lipid phase. The protein and lipid organization in nascent HDL envisages a potential generalized mechanism for lipoprotein biogenesis and remodeling, biological processes critical to sterol and lipid transport, organismal energy metabolism, and innate immunity. PMID:19812036

  18. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  19. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  20. Excessive centrifugal fields damage high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Munroe, William H; Phillips, Martin L; Schumaker, Verne N

    2015-06-01

    HDL is typically isolated ultracentrifugally at 40,000 rpm or greater, however, such high centrifugal forces are responsible for altering the recovered HDL particle. We demonstrate that this damage to HDL begins at approximately 30,000 rpm and the magnitude of loss increases in a rotor speed-dependent manner. The HDL is affected by elevated ultracentrifugal fields resulting in a lower particle density due to the shedding of associated proteins. To circumvent the alteration of the recovered HDL, we utilize a KBr-containing density gradient and a lowered rotor speed of 15,000 rpm to separate the lipoproteins using a single 96 h centrifugation step. This recovers the HDL at two density ranges; the bulk of the material has a density of about 1.115 g/ml, while lessor amounts of material are recovered at >1.2 g/ml. Thus, demonstrating the isolation of intact HDL is possible utilizing lower centrifuge rotor speeds. PMID:25910941

  1. High-density lipoprotein mimetics: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, Dmitri; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-12-15

    The concept of lipoprotein mimetics was developed and extensively tested in the last three decades. Most lipoprotein mimetics were designed to recreate one or several functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the context of cardiovascular disease; however, the application of this approach is much broader. Lipoprotein mimetics should not just be seen as a set of compounds aimed at replenishing a deficiency or dysfunctionality of individual elements of lipoprotein metabolism but rather as a designer concept with remarkable flexibility and numerous applications in medicine and biology. In the present review, we discuss the fundamental design principles used to create lipoprotein mimetics, mechanisms of their action, medical indications and efficacy in animal models and human studies. PMID:26613945

  2. Negatively Cooperative Binding of High-Density Lipoprotein to the HDL Receptor SR-BI

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shangzhe

    Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, which also binds low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and mediates the cellular selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from lipoproteins. ...

  3. Structures of Discoidal High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Feifei; Jones, Martin K.; Chen, Jianguo; Patterson, James C.; Catte, Andrea; Jerome, W. Gray; Li, Ling; Segrest, Jere P.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of discoidal phospholipid (PL)-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) to spheroidal cholesteryl ester-rich HDL is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport. A detailed understanding of this process and the atheroprotective role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) requires knowledge of the structure and dynamics of these various particles. This study, combining computation with experimentation, illuminates structural features of apoA-I allowing it to incorporate varying amounts of PL. Molecular dynamics simulated annealing of PL-rich HDL models containing unesterified cholesterol results in double belt structures with the same general saddle-shaped conformation of both our previous molecular dynamics simulations at 310 K and the x-ray structure of lipid-free apoA-I. Conversion from a discoidal to a saddle-shaped particle involves loss of helicity and formation of loops in opposing antiparallel parts of the double belt. During surface expansion caused by the temperature-jump step, the curved palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer surfaces approach planarity. Relaxation back into saddle-shaped structures after cool down and equilibration further supports the saddle-shaped particle model. Our kinetic analyses of reconstituted particles demonstrate that PL-rich particles exist in discrete sizes corresponding to local energetic minima. Agreement of experimental and computational determinations of particle size/shape and apoA-I helicity provide additional support for the saddle-shaped particle model. Truncation experiments combined with simulations suggest that the N-terminal proline-rich domain of apoA-I influences the stability of PL-rich HDL particles. We propose that apoA-I incorporates increasing PL in the form of minimal surface bilayers through the incremental unwinding of an initially twisted saddle-shaped apoA-I double belt structure. PMID:19948731

  4. Differential density lipoprotein profiling for the characterization of Lipoprotein(a) 

    E-print Network

    Espinosa Garcia, Irma Leticia

    2006-10-30

    . 2 ? High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower than 60 mg/dl Other risk determinants in addition to elevated LDL-cholesterol include: ? Cigarette smoking ? Hypertension ? Low HDL cholesterol ? Family History of premature CHD ? Age (men...(a)concentrations in higher than 30 mg/dL are considered of high risk factor for CHD [4, 18]. Lp(a) concentration in serum remains relatively constant over a long 6 Fig. 2. Model of lipoprotein(a) [17] period of time and is not effectively influenced by lipid-lowering drugs...

  5. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.; Bao, Clare; Swaim, AnneMarie F.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC). Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis. PMID:26680360

  6. RESEARCH Open Access High-density lipoprotein proteome dynamics in

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    metabolism have been associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and it is anticipated that changes in the HDL proteome have implications for the multiple functions of HDL. Here, SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) was used to study the dynamic changes of HDL protein composition in a human experimental low

  7. High-density lipoproteins: Physiopathological aspects and clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, A.L.; Salvioli, G.; Vergani, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 papers. Some of the titles are: HDL System: A Short Review of Structure and Metabolism; Human Apolipoprtein Genes: Organization and Expression; Binding Sites for HDL and HDL Catabolism; Clinical Significance of HDL: and Solubilization of Cholesterol by High-Density Lipoproteins.

  8. Biosynthesis of high density lipoprotein by chicken liver: nature of nascent intracellular high density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, D; Redman, CM

    1983-01-01

    Young chickens were administered L-[(3)H]leucine and after 10 or 30 min the livers were removed and fractioned into rough (RER) and smooth (SER) endoplasmic reticulum fractions and into light, intermediate, and heavy golgo cell fractions. The labeled high density lipoprotein (HDL), contained within these intracellular organelles was isolated either by immunoprecipitation using rabbit antiserum to rooster HDL, or by ultracentrifugal glotation between densities 1.063 and 1.21 g/ml. The radioactive apoproteins of nascent HDL were analyzed by SDS PAGE and detected by fluorography. Analyses of radioactive apoproteins obtained by immunoprecipitation from the contents of the RER, the SER, and the three golgi complex fractions revealed only one apoprotein, A1. The C peptide present in serum HDL was not detected intracellularly. The radioactive apoprotein A1 which is present within the cisternae of the RER and the SER fractions failed to float, whereas apoprotein A1, present within the golgi apparatus, readily floated between densities 1.063 and 1.21 g/ml. The HDL particles, isolated by flotation from the golgi apparatus content, were further characterized by lipid and protein analyses and by electron microscopy. Golgi HDL particles have the same density as serum HDL. On a percentage basis, golgi HDL contains less protein and more phospholipids than does serum HDL. Morphologically, golgi HDL is different in appearance from serum HDL. It is more heterogeneous in size, with most of the particles ranging 8.3-25 nm in diameter. The spherical particles contain small membrane tails. Occasionally, a few disk-shaped bilayer structures are also found within the golgi apparatus. These studies show that the newly synthesized apoprotein A1, present within the RER and the SER cell fractions, is not fully complexed with lipid and that apoprotein A1 does not acquire sufficient lipid to float at the proper HDL density until it enters the golgi apparatus. The difference in chemical composition and the heterogeneous size of golgi HDL may be attributed to the different stages of HDL maturation. PMID:6403553

  9. Effects of human low and high density lipoproteins on the binding of rat intermediate density lipoproteins to rat liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brissette, L.; Nol, S.P.

    1986-05-25

    Upon incubation with rat liver membranes, radioiodinated rat intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) interacted with at least two binding sites having a low and a high affinity as demonstrated by the curvilinear Scatchard plots obtained from the specific binding data. The purpose of our work was to identify the nature of these binding sites. Human low density lipoproteins (LDL), contain apolipoprotein B only, and human high density lipoproteins (HDL3), containing neither apolipoprotein B nor E, were both capable of decreasing the specific binding of rat /sup 125/I-IDL. The Scatchard analysis clearly revealed that only the low affinity component was affected by the addition of these human lipoproteins. In fact, the low affinity binding component gradually decreased as the amount of human LDL or HDL3 increased in the binding assay. At a 200-fold excess of human LDL or HDL3, the low affinity binding was totally masked, and the Scatchard plot of the specific /sup 125/I-IDL binding became linear. Only the high affinity binding component was left, enabling a precise measurement of its binding parameters. In a series of competitive displacement experiments in which the binding assay contained a 200-fold excess of human LDL or HDL3, only unlabeled rat IDL effectively displaced the binding of rat /sup 125/I-IDL. We conclude that the low affinity binding of rat IDL to rat liver membranes is due to weak interactions with unspecified lipoprotein binding sites. The camouflage of these sites by human lipoproteins makes possible the study of IDL binding to the high affinity component which likely represents the combined effect of IDL binding to both the remnant and the LDL receptors.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  15. The genetic architecture of lipoprotein subclasses in Gullah-speaking African American families enriched for type 2 diabetes: The Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR)

    PubMed Central

    Divers, Jasmin; Sale, Michèle M.; Lu, Lingyi; Chen, Wei-Min; Lok, Kerry H.; Spruill, Ida J.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    We sought to partition the genetic and environmental influences on lipoprotein subclasses and identify genomic regions that may harbor genetic variants that influence serum lipoprotein levels in a sample of Gullah-speaking African-Americans. We genotyped 5,974 SNPs in 979 subjects from 418 pedigrees and used the variance component approach to compute heritability estimates, genetic and environmental correlations, and linkage analyses for selected lipoprotein subclasses. The highest heritability estimate was observed for large VLDL particle concentration (0.56 ± 0.14). Mean LDL particle size and small LDL particle concentration (?0.94) had the strongest genetic correlation estimate. The highest logarithm of odds (LOD) score detected (3.0) was on chromosome 6p24 for small LDL particle concentration. The strongest signal, obtained with the reduced sample of diabetic individuals only, was observed on chromosome 20p13 for small LDL particle concentration. The highest bivariate linkage signal (LOD 2.4) was observed on chromosome 6p24 for mean LDL particle size and small LDL particle concentration.jlr Our results suggest a significant genetic contribution to multiple lipoprotein subclasses studied in this sample and that novel loci on chromosomes 6, 10, 16, and 20 may harbor genes contributing to small, atherogenic LDL particle concentration and large, triglyceride-rich VLDL particle concentration. PMID:19783527

  16. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  17. Relative atherogenicity and predictive value of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established atherogenic factor for coronary heart disease, it does not completely represent the risk associated with atherogenic lipoproteins in the presence of high triglyceride (TG) levels. Constituent lipoproteins constituting non–hig...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density...lipoprotein immunological test system is a device that consists...lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids....

  19. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density...lipoprotein immunological test system is a device that consists...lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids....

  20. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density...lipoprotein immunological test system is a device that consists...lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids....

  1. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density...lipoprotein immunological test system is a device that consists...lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids....

  2. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density...lipoprotein immunological test system is a device that consists...lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids....

  3. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocytosing PLC-LDL. The uptake and degradation of {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL by human macrophages was inhibited >80% by the monoclonal antibody C7 (IgG2b) produced by hybridoma C7, which blocks the ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Similarly, methylation of {sup 125}I-LDL ({sup 125}I-MeLDL) prior to treatment with phospholipase C decreased its subsequent uptake and degradation by human macrophages by >90%. The uptake and degradation of phospholipase C-modified {sup 125}I-MeLDL by macrophages could be restored by incubation of the methylated lipoprotein with apoprotein E, a ligand recognized by the LDL receptor. These results indicate that macrophages internalize PLC-LDL by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis.

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein Processing and Premature Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) are a well-accepted risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the statin class of hypolipidemic drugs has emerged as an effective means of lowering LDL-C and reducing CVD risk. In contrast, the role of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in protection against atherosclerotic vascular disease is the subject of considerable controversy. Although the inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and CVD is widely acknowledged, reduction of CVD risk by interventions that increase HDL-C have not been uniformly successful. Several studies of large populations have shown that the first step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from the subendothelial space of the arterial wall via the plasma compartment to the liver for disposal, is impaired in patients with CVD. Here we review HDL function, the mechanisms by which HDL supports RCT, and the role of RCT in preventing CVD. PMID:26634027

  5. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  6. Reliability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B measurement.

    PubMed

    Contois, John H; Warnick, G Russell; Sniderman, Allan D

    2011-01-01

    There is little understanding of the reliability of laboratory measurements among clinicians. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) measurement is the cornerstone of cardiovascular risk assessment and prevention, but it is fraught with error. Therefore, we have reviewed issues related to accuracy and precision for the measurement of LDL-C and the related markers non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B. Despite the widespread belief that LDL-C is standardized and reproducible, available data suggest that results can vary significantly as the result of methods from different manufacturers. Similar problems with direct HDL-C assays raise concerns about the reliability of non-HDL-C measurement. The root cause of method-specific bias relates to the ambiguity in the definition of both LDL and HDL, and the heterogeneity of LDL and HDL particle size and composition. Apolipoprotein B appears to provide a more reliable alternative, but assays for it have not been as rigorously tested as direct LDL-C and HDL-C assays. PMID:21784371

  7. Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol/High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Ratio Predicts Plaque Vulnerability in Patients With Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Ki Hong; Kim, In Soo; Choi, Yun Ha; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun-Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The relationship between lipid profile and coronary plaque tissue characteristics in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tissue characteristics and lipid profile and predictors of unstable plaques (UPs) in patients with SAP by virtual histology intravascular ultrasonography (VH-IVUS). Subjects and Methods VH-IVUS was performed for target lesions in patients with SAP (61.7±9.2 years, 174 males, n=266) at the time of coronary angiography. UPs are characterized by thin-cap fibroatheroma, ruptured plaque, or remaining thrombus with VH-IVUS. Results The present study showed that 34 SAP patients had UPs (61.6±9.2 years, 24 males, 12.8%). The percentage of plaque area in the minimum luminal area in high low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio patients was significantly higher than in low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio patients (72.7±9.5% vs. 69.9±9.3%, p=0.035). An LDL-C/HDL-C ratio >2.0 was an independent predictor for UPs in SAP patients (odds ratio 5.252, 95% confidence interval 1.132-24.372, p=0.034). Conclusion An elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is a positive predictor for coronary plaque vulnerability in patients with SAP. PMID:22563337

  8. Association between low density lipoprotein and rheumatoid arthritis genetic factors with low density lipoprotein levels in rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid arthritis controls

    E-print Network

    Liao, Katherine P.

    Objectives: While genetic determinants of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are well characterised in the general population, they are understudied in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to determine ...

  9. Lipoproteins in lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase(LCAT)-deficiency. II. Further studies on the abnormal high-density-lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Utermann, G; Menzel, H J; Langer, K H; Dieker, P

    1975-01-01

    The lipoproteins from two sibs with familial lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase(LCAT)-deficiency were further characterized. Comparatively lipoproteins from patients with secondary LCAT-deficiency were studied. Both groups of patients had particles of unusual size and shape in the alpha1-(HD-2)-lipoprotein subfraction. The abnormal HDL-2 particles were disk-like in appearance with a major axis of about 180 A and a minor axis of about 40 A and tended to aggregate into long coinlike stacks. The abnormal HDL-2 particles contained the normal protein constituents of HDL Apo A-I, Apo A-II and Apo C but in addition a major polypeptide with a M.W. of 39000 not seen in significant amounts in normal high-density-lipoproteins. This polypeptide was found identical in size, isoelectric focusing and immunochemically with an arginine-rich normal polypeptide constituent of very-low-density-lipoproteins designated apoprotein E. Presence of this protein marker in the HDL allowed the specific immunological detection of the abnormal HDL-2 (LP-E) in plasma. Further minor biochemical abnormalities were observed in the lipoproteins of the patients with familial LCAT-deficiency. However, the main protein constituents of their HDL, the Apo A, Apo C and Apo E polypeptides, were found to be identical electrophoretically and by analytical isoelectric focusing with their normal counterparts. The data suggest that the basic genetic defect in the hereditary disease leads to a deficient activity of the LCAT-enzyme and that all abnormalities in the lipoprotein spectrum are secondary. PMID:168146

  10. Low density lipoprotein undergoes oxidative modification in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Palinski, W; Rosenfeld, M E; Ylä-Herttuala, S; Gurtner, G C; Socher, S S; Butler, S W; Parthasarathy, S; Carew, T E; Steinberg, D; Witztum, J L

    1989-01-01

    It has been proposed that low density lipoprotein (LDL) must undergo oxidative modification before it can give rise to foam cells, the key component of the fatty streak lesion of atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL probably generates a broad spectrum of conjugates between fragments of oxidized fatty acids and apolipoprotein B. We now present three mutually supportive lines of evidence for oxidation of LDL in vivo: (i) Antibodies against oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde-lysine, or 4-hydroxynonenal-lysine recognize materials in the atherosclerotic lesions of LDL receptor-deficient rabbits; (ii) LDL gently extracted from lesions of these rabbits is recognized by an antiserum against malondialdehyde-conjugated LDL; (iii) autoantibodies against malondialdehyde-LDL (titers from 512 to greater than 4096) can be demonstrated in rabbit and human sera. Images PMID:2465552

  11. Can phosphatidylserine enhance atheroprotective activities of high-density lipoprotein?

    PubMed

    Darabi, Maryam; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is well known to be protective against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therapeutic interventions to raise HDL-cholesterol levels do not translate into reduction in cardiovascular risk. Due to the compositional complexity of HDL particles, molecular determinants of their atheroprotective function still remain to be clarified. Recent structural and functional data identify phospholipid as a major bioactive component of HDL. Such a role has recently been specifically evidenced for phosphatidylserine (PS); indeed, HDL content of PS displayed positive correlations with all metrics of HDL functionality assessed. This review summarizes current knowledge about HDL-associated PS; possible mechanisms for its atheroprotective role are discussed and potential applications of PS to HDL-based therapies are highlighted. PMID:26141129

  12. Fitness, Heart Disease, and High-Density Lipoproteins: A Look at the Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCunney, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of fitness in preventing coronary heart disease is explored. Research on high-density lipoprotein, which has been found to be one of the most critical determinants of risk, is reviewed. The relationship between fitness, high-density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease is assessed, and clinical implications are spelled out. (MT)

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I helical structure and stability in discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles

    E-print Network

    Englander, S. Walter

    Apolipoprotein A-I helical structure and stability in discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL, June 4, 2012 (sent for review February 24, 2012) To understand high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure (9.6 nm) and small (7.8 nm) discoidal HDL particles were determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange

  14. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins and Antibodies against Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins as Potential Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Krzysztof; Nienartowicz, Miros?aw; Zar?bski, Pawe?; Fudalej, Kamila; Markocka-M?czka, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was evaluation of the diagnostic utility of serum oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), antibodies against oxLDLs (o-LAB), and CEA as risk markers of colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods. The serum levels of study factors were measured in 73 patients with CRC and in 35 healthy controls who were gender- and BMI-matched to the study group. Concentrations of oxLDL, o-LAB, and CEA were detected in ELISA tests. Serum lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose levels were also coestimated. Results. Age and o-LAB were significant factors of CRC presence, but results of logistic regression analysis showed that both were weak predictors of CRC risk. Concentration of o-LAB was significantly higher in colon cancer than in rectal cancer, especially when the cancer was located in the right section of colon. Serum CEA levels were significantly elevated in the advanced stage of disease, primary tumor progression, angiolymphatic invasion, and presence of distant metastasis. Conclusions. Obtained results have demonstrated that oxLDL and o-LAB were not satisfactory risk markers of CRC. Although significant relation between o-LAB level and CRC is observed, it may be rather the result of individual differences in the host immune responses against cancer. PMID:25918520

  15. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing oligonucleotides conjugated HDL NPs in regulating the expression and function of VEGFR2 in cultured endothelial cells. Finally, the efficacy of the conjugates in two animal models of angiogenesis is presented.

  16. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: high density lipoprotein binding to liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, C.A.; Lei, K.Y.; Marchello, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    In copper-deficient rats, the observed hyperlipoproteinemia was mainly due to the elevation in high density lipoproteins (HDL). This study was designed to determine whether an impairment in the binding of HDL to liver membrane is responsible for the hyperlipoproteinemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 treatments, namely copper (Cu) deficient and adequate (less than 1 and 8 mg Cu/kg of diet). After 8 weeks, plasma, heart and liver tissues were obtained. Reduction in liver Cu content and elevation in heart to body weight ratio and plasma cholesterol confirmed that rats fed the test diet were Cu-deficient. Plasma HDL isolated from both Cu-deficient and control rats were iodinated and bound to liver membranes prepared from rats of each treatment. Binding of /sup 125/I-HDL was competitively inhibited by unlabelled rat HDL from both treatments, but not by human LDL. Scatchard analysis of specific binding data showed that maximal /sup 125/I-HDL binding (per mg membrane protein) to membranes prepared from Cu-deficient rats was not lower than controls. Furthermore, the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from deficient rats specifically bound to liver membranes prepared from either treatment was not less than the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from control rats bound to the same membranes. The data suggest that the hyperlipoproteinemia in Cu-deficient rats may not have resulted from a decrease in the number of hepatic HDL binding sites.

  17. Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberta Gonçalves; Hayata, Andre L.; Borba, Eduardo F.; Azevedo, Pedro M.; Bonfá, Eloisa; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of dyslipoproteinemia in a homogeneous cohort of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. METHODS: Based on the National Cholesterol Education Program, fasting lipoprotein levels and risk levels for coronary artery disease were determined in 28 patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The exclusion criteria included diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, smoking, proteinuria, lipid-lowering drugs, and hormone/diuretic therapy. Disease activity, disease duration, and therapy with corticosteroids and/or chloroquine were defined at the time of lipid measurements. RESULTS: Dyslipoproteinemia was identified in 20 of the 28 (71%) patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The primary lipoprotein risk factor was decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (57%), followed by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18%), triglycerides (14%), and total cholesterol (7%). The male patients had decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the female patients (p<0.05). The incidence of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not seem to be affected by disease activity or therapy because the incidence was similar in patients with active or inactive disease, with or without corticosteroid use and with or without chloroquine use. In addition, the frequency of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was similar in patients with short (?5 years) vs. long (>5 years) disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and is primarily related to decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; therefore, early intervention is essential. PMID:22179157

  18. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL. PMID:25359080

  19. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-03-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of /sup 125/I)HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with (/sup 125/I)HDL/sub 3/ and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL/sub 3/ binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation.

  20. Bidirectional flux of cholesterol between cells and lipoproteins. Effects of phospholipid depletion of high density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.J.; Bamberger, M.J.; Latta, R.A.; Rapp, P.E.; Phillips, M.C.; Rothblat, G.H.

    1986-05-05

    The bidirectional surface transfer of free cholesterol (FC) between Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells and human high density lipoprotein (HDL) was studied. Cells and HDL were prelabeled with (4-/sup 14/C)FC and (7-/sup 3/H)FC, respectively. Influx and efflux of FC were measured simultaneously from the appearance of /sup 3/H counts in cells and /sup 14/C counts in medium. Results were analyzed by a computerized procedure which fitted sets of kinetic data to a model assuming that cell and HDL FC populations each formed a single homogeneous pool and that together the pools formed a closed system. This analysis yielded values for the first-order rate constants of FC influx and efflux (ki and ke), from which influx and efflux of FC mass (Fi and Fe) could be calculated. With normal HDL, the uptake and release of FC tracers conformed well to the above-described model; Fi and Fe were approximately equal, suggesting an exchange of FC between cells and HDL. HDL was depleted of phospholipid (PL) by treatment with either phospholipase A2 or heparin-releasable rat hepatic lipase, followed by incubation with bovine serum albumin. PL depletion of HDL had little or no effect on ki, but reduced ke, indicating that PL-deficient HDL is a relatively poor acceptor of cell cholesterol. The reduction in ke resulted in initial Fi greater than Fe and, thus, in net uptake of FC by the cells. This result explained previous results demonstrating net uptake of FC from PL-depleted HDL. In the presence of an inhibitor of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, the steady state distribution of FC mass between cells and HDL was accurately predicted by the ratio of rate constants for FC flux. This result provided additional validation for describing FC flux in terms of first-order rate constants and homogeneous cell and HDL FC pools.

  1. Effect of a Moderate Fat Diet With and Without Avocados on Lipoprotein Particle Number, Size and Subclasses in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Bordi, Peter L.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hill, Alison M.; Kris?Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Avocados are a nutrient?dense source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) that can be used to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) in a diet to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL?C). Well?controlled studies are lacking on the effect of avocado consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted with 45 overweight or obese participants with baseline LDL?C in the 25th to 90th percentile. Three cholesterol?lowering diets (6% to 7% SFA) were fed (5 weeks each): a lower?fat diet (LF: 24% fat); 2 moderate?fat diets (34% fat) provided similar foods and were matched for macronutrients and fatty acids: the avocado diet (AV) included one fresh Hass avocado (136 g) per day, and the moderate?fat diet (MF) mainly used high oleic acid oils to match the fatty acid content of one avocado. Compared with baseline, the reduction in LDL?C and non?high?density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the AV diet (?13.5 mg/dL, ?14.6 mg/dL) was greater (P<0.05) than the MF (?8.3 mg/dL, ?8.7 mg/dL) and LF (?7.4 mg/dL, ?4.8 mg/dL) diets. Furthermore, only the AV diet significantly decreased LDL particle number (LDL?P, ?80.1 nmol/L, P=0.0001), small dense LDL cholesterol (LDL3+4, ?4.1 mg/dL, P=0.04), and the ratio of LDL/HDL (?6.6%, P<0.0001) from baseline. Conclusions Inclusion of one avocado per day as part of a moderate?fat, cholesterol?lowering diet has additional LDL?C, LDL?P, and non?HDL?C lowering effects, especially for small, dense LDL. Our results demonstrate that avocados have beneficial effects on cardio?metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart?healthy fatty acid profile. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01235832. PMID:25567051

  2. Aging affects high-density lipoprotein composition and function?

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Michael; Trieb, Markus; Konya, Viktoria; Wadsack, Christian; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Most coronary deaths occur in patients older than 65 years. Age associated alterations in the composition and function of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) may contribute to cardiovascular mortality. The effect of advanced age on the composition and function of HDL is not well understood. HDL was isolated from healthy young and elderly subjects. HDL composition, cellular cholesterol efflux/uptake, anti-oxidant properties and paraoxonase activity were assessed. We observed a 3-fold increase of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, an increased content of complement C3 and proteins involved in endopeptidase/protease inhibition in HDL of elderly subjects, whereas levels of apolipoprotein E were significantly decreased. HDL from elderly subjects contained less cholesterol but increased sphingomyelin. Most importantly, HDL from elderly subjects showed defective antioxidant properties, lower paraoxonase 1 activity and was more rapidly taken up by macrophages, whereas cholesterol efflux capability was not altered. These findings suggest that aging alters HDL composition, resulting in functional impairment that may contribute to the onset/progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23792422

  3. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  4. Acrolein Impairs the Cholesterol Transport Functions of High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Alexandra C.; Holme, Rebecca L.; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. PMID:25849485

  5. High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Increasing Therapy: The Unmet Cardiovascular Need.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Morello, Alberto; Ciccarelli, Michele; Golino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive strategies are now available to reduce LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that drug therapy ultimately leads to a regression of the angiographic lesions but also results in a reduction in cardiovascular events. The dramatic failure of clinical trials evaluating the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CEPT) inhibitors, torcetrapib and dalcetrapib, has led to considerable doubt about the value of the current strategy to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. These clinical results, as well as animal studies, have revealed the complexity of HDL metabolism, assessing a more important role of functional quality compared to circulating quantity of HDL. As a result, HDL-based therapeutic interventions that maintain or enhance HDL functionality, such as improving its main property, the reverse cholesterol transport, require closer investigation. In this review, we will discuss HDL metabolism and function, clinical-trial data available for HDL-raising agents, and potential strategies for future HDL-based therapies. PMID:26535185

  6. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, A.; Hu, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed. PMID:26692765

  7. Itinerary of high density lipoproteins in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Perisa, Damir; Rohrer, Lucia; Kaech, Andres; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2016-02-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein component apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have multiple anti-atherogenic functions. Some of them are exerted within the vessel wall, so that HDL needs to pass the endothelial barrier. To elucidate their itinerary through endothelial cells (ECs), we labelled ApoA-I and HDL either fluorescently or with 1.4nm nanogold and investigated their cellular localization by using immunofluorescent microscopy (IFM) and electron microscopy (EM). HDL as well as ApoA-I is taken up by ECs into the same route of intracellular trafficking. Time kinetics and pulse chase experiments revealed that HDL is trafficked through different vesicles. HDL partially co-localized with LDL, albumin, and transferrin. HDL did not co-localize with clathrin and caveolin-1. Fluorescent HDL was recovered at small proportions in early endosomes and endosome to trans-golgi network vesicles but not at all in recycling endosomes, in late endosomes or lysosomes. EM identified HDL mainly in large filled vesicles which however upon IFM did not colocalize with markers of multivesicular bodies or autophagosomes. The uptake or cellular distribution of HDL was altered upon pharmacological interference with cytochalasine D, colchicine and dynasore. Blockage of fluid phase uptake with Amiloride or EIPA did not reduce the uptake of HDL. Neither did we observe any co-localization of HDL with dextran as the marker of fluid phase uptake. In conclusion, HDL and ApoA-I are internalized and trafficked by endothelial cells through a non-classical endocytic route. PMID:26577406

  8. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to atherosclerosis and that it has the potential to remove cholesterol from macrophages in the body.

  9. Effect of proteolysis of low-density serum lipoproteins on their interaction with macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Karmanskii, I.M.; Kovaleva, G.G.; Viktorova, L.N.; Shpikiter, V.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously postulated, on the basis of changes observed in the structural stability of low-density lipoproteins during treatment with pepsin or aortic cathepsin, that enzymatic modifications may lead to potentiation of the atherogenic properties of the lipoproteins. They also reported that treatment of lipoproteins with trypsin causes an increase in their binding with aortic glycosaminoglycans and to increased degradation by fibroblasts of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia. Limited proteolysis of lipoproteins with pepsin facilitated their binding with fibronectin. In this paper the authors investigate the uptake and degradation of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages after their limited hydrolysis by pepsin, an analog of tissue cathepsin D. The lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of healthy blood donors by ultracentrifugation. Iodination of the proteins with I 125 was carried out by the iodine monochloride method. Uptake and retention of the labelled lipoprotein were measured with a gamma counter. The increased uptake of the proteins, partially hydrolized by pepsin, was accompanied by their more intense degradation by macrophages.

  10. Association of the Endotoxin Antagonist E5564 with High-Density Lipoproteins In Vitro: Dependence on Low-Density and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Wasan, Kishor M.; Sivak, Olena; Cote, Richard A.; MacInnes, Aaron I.; Boulanger, Kathy D.; Lynn, Melvyn; Christ, William J.; Hawkins, Lynn D.; Rossignol, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distribution profile of the novel endotoxin antagonist E5564 in plasma obtained from fasted human subjects with various lipid concentrations. Radiolabeled E5564 at 1 ?M was incubated in fasted plasma from seven human subjects with various total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations for 0.5 to 6 h at 37°C. Following these incubations, plasma samples were separated into their lipoprotein and lipoprotein-deficient fractions by ultracentrifugation and were assayed for E5564 radioactivity. TC, TG, and protein concentrations in each fraction were determined by enzymatic assays. Lipoprotein surface charge within control and phosphatidylinositol-treated plasma and E5564’s influence on cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfer activity were also determined. We observed that the majority of E5564 was recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. We further observed that incubation in plasma with increased levels of TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) lipid (TC and TG) concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of E5564 recovered in the TRL fraction. In further experiments, E5564 was preincubated in human TRL. Then, these mixtures were incubated in hypolipidemic human plasma for 0.5 and 6 h at 37°C. Preincubation of E5564 in purified TRL prior to incubation in human plasma resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of drug recovered in the HDL fraction and an increase in the percentage of drug recovered in the TRL and low-density lipoprotein fractions. These findings suggest that the majority of the drug binds to HDLs. Preincubation of E5564 in TRL prior to incubation in normolipidemic plasma significantly decreased the percentage of drug recovered in the HDL fraction. Modifications to the lipoprotein negative charge did not alter the E5564 concentration in the HDL fraction. In addition, E5564 does not influence CETP-mediated transfer activity. Information from these studies could be used to help identify the possible components of lipoproteins which influence the interaction of E5564 with specific lipoprotein particles. PMID:12936976

  11. Plasma lipoprotein and apolipoprotein distribution as a function of density in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    Babin, P J

    1987-01-01

    I have previously described [Babin (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4290-4296] the apolipoprotein composition of the major classes of trout plasma lipoproteins. The present work describes the use of an isopycnic density gradient centrifugation procedure and sequential flotation ultracentrifugation to show: (1) the presence of intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) in the plasma, between 1.015 and 1.040 g/ml; (2) the existence of a single type of Mr 240,000 apoB-like in the low density lipoproteins (LDL, 1.040 less than p less than 1.085 g/ml); (3) the presence of apoA-I-like (Mr 25,000) in the densest LDL; (4) the adequacy of 1.085 g/ml as a cutoff between the LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL); (5) the accumulation of Mr 55,000 and 76,000 apolipoproteins and apoA-like apolipoproteins in the 1.21 g/ml infranatant. The fractionation of trout lipoprotein spectrum thus furnishes the distribution of the different lipoprotein classes and leads to the description of the constituent apolipoproteins, which account for about 36% of circulating plasma proteins in this species. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3689318

  12. Impaired trafficking of the very low density lipoprotein receptor caused by missense mutations associated with dysequilibrium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedath, Praseetha; Loregger, Anke; John, Anne; Bleijlevens, Boris; Al-Blooshi, Ali S; Al-Hosani, Ahmed H; Al-Nuaimi, Ahmed M; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Zelcer, Noam; Ali, Bassam R

    2014-12-01

    Dysequilibrium syndrome (DES, OMIM 224050) is a genetically heterogeneous condition that combines autosomal recessive non-progressive cerebellar ataxia with mental retardation. The subclass dysequilibrium syndrome type 1 (CAMRQ1) has been attributed to mutations in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). This receptor is involved in the Reelin signaling pathway that guides neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Three missense mutations (c.1459G>T; p.D487Y, c.1561G>C; p.D521H and c.2117G>T; p.C706F) have been previously identified in VLDLR gene in patients with DES. However, the functional implications of those mutations are not known and therefore we undertook detailed functional analysis to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying their pathogenicity. The mutations have been generated by site-directed mutagenesis and then expressed in cultured cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis have been employed to examine the subcellular localization and functional activities of the mutated proteins relative to wild type. Our results indicate that the three missense mutations lead to defective intracellular trafficking and ER retention of the mutant VLDLR protein. This trafficking impairment prevents the mutants from reaching the plasma membrane and binding exogenous Reelin, the initiating event in Reelin signaling. Collectively, our results provide evidence that ER quality control is involved in the functional inactivation and underlying pathogenicity of these DES-associated mutations in the VLDLR. PMID:25173816

  13. Isolation and partial characterization of high-density lipoprotein HDL1 from rat plasma by gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, L T; Walker, L F; DuBien, L H; Getz, G S

    1979-01-01

    The lipoproteins isolated from rat plasma by flotation in the density range 1.019-1.063 g/ml were further characterized. Using rate zonal ultracentrifugation, we isolated two lipoproteins in almost equal proportions from this density range. Similar isolations may be accomplished with density gradients in a swinging-bucket rotor. On isopycnic-density-gradient ultracentrifugation one component banded at rho = 1.031 g/ml and the other at rho = 1.054 g/ml. More that 98% of the apoprotein of the lighter component was B protein, and hence this particle is LD (low-density) lipoprotein. Of the apoproteins of the rho = 1.054 g/ml particles, designated lipoprotein HDL1, over 60% was arginine-rich peptide, and the remainder was A-I, A-IV and C peptides. The molecular weight of these lipoproteins determined by agarose column chromatography was 2.36 x 10(6) for LD lipoprotein and 1.30 x 10(6) for lipoprotein HDL1. On electron microscopy the radius of LD lipoprotein was 14.0 nm and that of lipoprotein HDL1 was 10.0 nm, in contrast with molecular radii of 10.4 nm and 8.4 nm respectively determined from the gel-permeation-chromatography data. The lipid and phospholipid composition of both particles was determined. Lipoprotein HDL1 was notable for both the concentration of its esterified cholesterol, which was similar to that of LD lipoprotein, and the low triacylglycerol content, resembling that of HD lipoprotein. The possible origin of lipoprotein HDL1 is discussed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:230819

  14. Low-dose dexamethasone administration for three weeks favorably affects plasma HDL concentration and composition but does not affect very low density lipoprotein kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Magkos, Faidon; Patterson, Bruce W.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Kampelman, Janine; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Objective Subclinical hypercortisolemia often occurs in subjects with features of the metabolic syndrome, and it has been suggested that it may be, at least in part, responsible for the development of these metabolic abnormalities. However, the metabolic effects of glucocorticoid administration to mimic subclinical glucocorticoid excess have not been evaluated. Methods We used stable isotope-labeled tracer methods in conjunction with magnetic resonance techniques to measure the effect of glucocorticoid excess within the physiological range (~0.7 mg dexamethasone/day for 3 weeks) on glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) rates of appearance (Ra) into plasma, intrahepatic triglyceride (TG) content, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) kinetics and plasma lipoprotein subclass concentrations and particle sizes in 9 overweight and obese individuals. Results Dexamethasone treatment led to a very small but significant increase in body weight (from 87.4±7.1 to 88.6±7.2 kg; P=0.003) and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (from 45.9±2.8 to 55.1±4.6 mg/dl; P=0.037) and HDL particle (from 33.7±2.2 to 41.4±4.2 nmol/l; P=0.023) concentrations in plasma but had no effect on intrahepatic TG content, glucose and FFA Ra in plasma, hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rates and mean residence times in the circulation, plasma TG and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and plasma lipoprotein particle sizes. Conclusion(s) Subclinical hypercortisolemia does not have significant adverse metabolic consequences. PMID:22619349

  15. Surface Density-Induced Pleating of a Lipid Monolayer Drives Nascent High-Density Lipoprotein Assembly.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Catte, Andrea; Manchekar, Medha; Datta, Geeta; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Robin; Li, Ling; Patterson, James C; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Oram, Jack F; Ren, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is coupled to the transmembrane protein, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which transports phospholipid (PL) from the inner to the outer membrane monolayer. Using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we show that increased outer lipid monolayer surface density, driven by excess PL or membrane insertion of amphipathic helices, results in pleating of the outer monolayer to form membrane-attached discoidal bilayers. Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I accelerates and stabilizes the pleats. In the absence of apoA-I, pleats collapse to form vesicles. These results mimic cells overexpressing ABCA1 that, in the absence of apoA-I, form and release vesicles. We conclude that the basic driving force for nascent discoidal HDL assembly is a PL pump-induced surface density increase that produces lipid monolayer pleating. We then argue that ABCA1 forms an extracellular reservoir containing an isolated pressurized lipid monolayer decoupled from the transbilayer density buffering of cholesterol. PMID:26095027

  16. Low density lipoprotein binding and uptake by human and rat islet beta cells.

    PubMed

    Grupping, A Y; Cnop, M; Van Schravendijk, C F; Hannaert, J C; Van Berkel, T J; Pipeleers, D G

    1997-10-01

    Abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism are common in diabetes. It is unknown whether variations in form or concentration of lipoproteins influence the function of pancreatic beta cells. This study investigates whether low density lipoproteins (LDL) exhibit specific interactions with islet beta cells. Radioactively labeled LDL (125I-LDL) and fluorescently labeled LDL (DiI-LDL) were used as tracers. Rat islet cells express high affinity LDL binding sites (K(d) = 9 nM), which are also recognized by very low density lipoproteins and which are down-regulated by LDL. Binding of LDL appears restricted to the beta cells, as it was not detected on islet endocrine non-beta cells. At 37 C, LDL is taken up and lysosomally degraded by islet beta cells but not by islet non-beta cells. Human islet cells were also found to present LDL binding, uptake, and degradation. Compared with rat islet cells, human islet cells exhibit 10-fold less binding sites (2.10(7) vs. 2.10(8) per 10(3) cells) with a 2-fold lower K(d) value (5 nM) and an equal sensitivity to LDL-induced down-regulation. In conclusion, human and rat islet beta cells express LDL receptors that can internalize the lipoprotein. This pathway should be examined for its potential role in (dys)regulating pancreatic beta cell functions. PMID:9322913

  17. Stimulated arachidonate metabolism during foam cell transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Yokode, M; Kita, T; Kikawa, Y; Ogorochi, T; Narumiya, S; Kawai, C

    1988-01-01

    Changes in arachidonate metabolism were examined in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with various types of lipoproteins. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incorporated by macrophages and stimulated macrophage prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 syntheses, respectively, 10.8- and 10.7-fold higher than by the control. Production of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, was also stimulated. No stimulation was found with native LDL, which was minimally incorporated by the cells. Acetylated LDL and beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), though incorporated more efficiently than oxidized LDL, also had no stimulatory effect. When oxidized LDL was separated into the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex and free lipid peroxides, most of the stimulatory activity was found in the former fraction, indicating that stimulation of arachidonate metabolism in the cell is associated with uptake of the lipoprotein-lipid peroxide complex. These results suggest that peroxidative modification of LDL could contribute to the progression of atheroma by stimulating arachidonate metabolism during incorporation into macrophages. Images PMID:3125226

  18. Interconversion of high density lipoproteins during incubation of human plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.V.; Gong, E.L.; Blanche, P.J.

    1981-05-15

    Incubation (6h,37/sup 0/) of untreated human plasma resulted in marked reductions in concentrations of two major subpopulations (mean sizes: approx.84 angstroms and approx.79 angstroms) of the HDL/sub 3/ subclass. These reductions were accompanied by the appearance of large species with mean particle size (95.2 angstroms) in the range of the HDL/sub 2a/ subpopulations. In the presence of mercaptoethanol (14 mM), incubation resulted in further reduction of the two HDL/sub 3/ subpopulations but now with formation of both larger (95.4 angstroms) and smaller (77.2 and 75.2 angstroms) species. Inhibitors of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase showed varying effectivenss in modifying the extent and character of the interconversion. With paraoxon (2 mM) the interconversion was much reduced and was associated with the formation predominantly of smaller particles (74.6 angstroms); with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (1.4 mM) the interconversion resembled that produced with mecaptoethanol but to a considerably lesser degree. Incubation of HDL, ultracentrifugally isolated from nonincubated plasma containing paraoxon, resulted in negligible interconversion, suggesting that other plasma components participate in the process.

  19. Genome-wide association studies identified novel loci for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its postprandial lipemic response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to low-density lipoprotein alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) t...

  20. High Density Lipoprotein-mediated Cholesterol Uptake and Targeting to Lipid Droplets in Intact L-cell Fibroblasts

    E-print Network

    So, Peter

    High Density Lipoprotein-mediated Cholesterol Uptake and Targeting to Lipid Droplets in Intact L, dehydroergosterol and NBD-cho- lesterol, were used to examine high density lipoprotein- mediated cholesterol uptake, of these sterols differed >100-fold, suggesting significant differences in uptake pathways. NBD-cholesterol uptake

  1. Fasting during Ramadan induces a marked increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Adlouni, A; Ghalim, N; Benslimane, A; Lecerf, J M; Saile, R

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time in a Moroccan population that fasting during Ramadan, the ninth lunar month of the Muslims' year, affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in a group of 32 healthy adult male volunteers. This investigation was conducted to study the changes in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and body weight during Ramadan. The results showed a significant decrease (7.9%, p < 0.001) in serum total cholesterol concentration during Ramadan as compared with the prefasting period. Also, we obtained a significant decrease of serum triglyceride concentration (30%, p < 0.001) during Ramadan fasting as compared to the period before Ramadan. The reduction of both serum triglycerides and total cholesterol was maintained 1 month after Ramadan. By the end of Ramadan, serum HDL cholesterol had markedly increased (14.3%, p < 0.001) and remained elevated 1 month after Ramadan in contrast to LDL cholesterol which showed a significant decrease (11.7%, p < 0.0001) also maintained 1 month after Ramadan. Mean body weight declined by 2.6% (p < 0.01) on day 29 of Ramadan, whereas during Ramadan, the diet pattern used by our subjects showed an increase of total energy intake due to carbohydrates (+ 1.4% of total energy), proteins (+ 0.4% of total energy) but not fat (-0.7% of total energy) compared to a usual diet used throughout the rest of the year. Moreover, the fat diet is high in monounsaturated (p < 0.05) and polyunsaturated fatty acid in contrast to saturated fatty acid which significantly (p < 0.05) decreased during Ramadan. These findings suggest that feeding behavior that occurs during Ramadan beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:9363296

  2. BENEFITS OF REDUCING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATIONS TO <100 MG/DL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is an independent risk factor for premature coronary heart disease (CHD), with a value of $160 mg/dL designated as high-risk by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panels I and II. Goals of therapy for all patients...

  3. Fine Mapping of Five Loci Associated with Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Detects Variants That Double

    E-print Network

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    , SORT1, LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9) in 5 loci associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL Project (totaling 3,277 SNPs) in 5,524 volunteers. We found that in one locus (PCSK9) the GWAS signal could be explained by a previously described low-frequency variant and that in three loci (PCSK9, APOE

  4. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  5. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  6. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  7. Computed high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein correlate with plaque locations in human coronary arteries

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    coronary arteries Ufuk Olgac a,1 , Joseph Knight a , Dimos Poulikakos a , Stefan C. Saur b , Hatem Alkadhi of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in arterial walls is an initiator of atherosclerotic plaque formation distribution and sites of subsequent plaque formation in coronary arteries of patients with coronary artery

  8. Expression of Scavenger Receptor-BI and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor and Differential Use of

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    receptor (VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI) soon after decreased within 3 h of hCG, whereas LDLR and SR-BI increased at 3 and 12 h, respectively. Granulosa cells as a progesterone substrate and that as these are depleted, new cho- lesterol esters are obtained through an LDLR

  9. Boca-dependent maturation of b-propeller/EGF modules in low-density lipoprotein receptor

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family require the chaperone called Boca in Drosophila or its, but is not required for other LDLR domains. Protein interaction data suggest that as LDLRs are translated into the ER-propeller/EGF modules are found not only throughout the LDLR family but also in the precursor to the mammalian EGF

  10. Sensors and Actuators B 114 (2006) 788798 Differentiation of oxidized low density lipoproteins by nanosensors

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    2006-01-01

    sensors [11], boron-doped silicon nanowire-based FETs have also been capable of detecting calcium ion (Ca2Sensors and Actuators B 114 (2006) 788­798 Differentiation of oxidized low density lipoproteins to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), leading to the development of CAD. We tested whether indium oxide (In2O3) nanowires

  11. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  12. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    E-print Network

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu, Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug Deliverynano-LDL (nLDL) particle was developed and tested to determine its utility as a drug deliverynano-LDLs described here are taken up by LDLR and can serve as a drug delivery

  13. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I Protein as an Independent Predictor of High-Density Lipoprotein

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    is associated with elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Objective: Our objective was to determine the relationship between SR-BI protein and HDL-C levels in humans. Design: This was a prospective blots, and SR-BI activity was measured by cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake of each donor's radiolabeled HDL

  14. Knowledge-Driven Analysis Identifies a GeneGene Interaction Affecting High-Density Lipoprotein

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected Pc = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene­gene interaction reported here is twice

  15. In vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into high and low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Terpstra, A.H.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Herbert, P.N. )

    1989-11-01

    We have developed and validated a method for in vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Radiolabeled cholesteryl esters dissolved in absolute ethanol were mixed with LDL or HDL in the presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) as a source of core lipid transfer activity. The efficiency of incorporation was dependent on: (a) the core lipid transfer activity and quantity of LPDS, (b) the mass of added radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, (c) the length of incubation, and (d) the amount of acceptor lipoprotein cholesterol. The tracer incorporation was documented by repeat density gradient ultracentrifugation, agarose gel electrophoresis, and precipitation with heparin-MnCl2. The radiolabeling conditions did not affect the following properties of the lipoproteins: (1) chemical composition, (2) electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels, (3) hydrated density, (4) distribution of apoproteins on SDS gels, (5) plasma clearance rates, and (6) immunoprecipitability of HDL apoproteins A-I and A-II. Rat HDL containing radiolabeled cholesteryl esters incorporated in vitro had plasma disappearance rates identical to HDL radiolabeled in vivo.

  16. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently

    E-print Network

    Kobilka, Brian

    A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein Matthew R. Whorton*, Michael P. Bokoch , Søren G. F. Rasmussen , Bo Huang , Richard protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses

  17. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity in plasma measured by using solid-phase-bound high-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, D.L.; Frohlich, J.; Cullis, P.; Pritchard, P.H.

    1987-03-01

    We studied the ability of lipid-transfer factors in plasma to promote transfer, to endogenous lipoproteins, of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) covalently bound to Sepharose 4B beads. After incubation for 2 h at 37 degrees C, 12 to 14% of the (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester had been transferred to the lipoproteins of the plasma, in the proportions 57% to HDL and 43% to low- and very-low-density lipoproteins. This process was a function of the amount of plasma present and was stimulated by addition of partly purified lipid-transfer protein. Transfer also depended on the concentration of donor HDL but was independent of the amount of acceptor lipoprotein. This simple evaluation of cholesteryl ester transfer does not require removal of lipoproteins from the plasma before incubation.

  18. Marked increase in plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol after prolonged fasting during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Maislos, M; Khamaysi, N; Assali, A; Abou-Rabiah, Y; Zvili, I; Shany, S

    1993-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of the Ramadan fasting on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in normal individuals. Twenty-four healthy subjects were studied before the end of the Ramadan month (Ram) and for 1 mo thereafter. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) did not change. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was 30% higher (P < 0.005) at the end of Ram; apolipoprotein A-I also increased (P < 0.0001). Both the ratios of TC to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C (P < 0.001) decreased at Ram. There was a striking nonpharmacologic improvement in plasma HDL-C and ratios of TC to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C, which were most probably induced by eating one large evening meal a day. Further studies to determine the mechanism of this observation are underway. PMID:8480679

  19. Intact human ceruloplasmin oxidatively modifies low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenwald, E; Chisolm, G M; Fox, P L

    1994-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin is a plasma protein that carries most of the copper found in the blood. Although its elevation after inflammation and trauma has led to its classification as an acute phase protein, its physiological role is uncertain. A frequently reported activity of ceruloplasmin is its ability to suppress oxidation of lipids. In light of the intense recent interest in the oxidation of plasma LDL, we investigated the effects of ceruloplasmin on the oxidation of this lipoprotein. In contrast to our expectations, highly purified, undegraded human ceruloplasmin enhanced rather than suppressed copper ion-mediated oxidation of LDL. Ceruloplasmin increased the oxidative modification of LDL as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances by at least 25-fold in 20 h, and increased electrophoretic mobility, conjugated dienes, and total lipid peroxides. In contrast, ceruloplasmin that was degraded to a complex containing 115- and 19-kD fragments inhibited cupric ion oxidation of LDL, as did commercial preparations, which were also degraded. However, the antioxidant capability of degraded ceruloplasmin in this system was similar to that of other proteins, including albumin. The copper in ceruloplasmin responsible for oxidant activity was not removed by ultrafiltration, indicating a tight association. Treatment of ceruloplasmin with Chelex-100 removed one of seven copper atoms per molecule and completely blocked oxidant activity. Restoration of the copper to ceruloplasmin also restored oxidant activity. These data indicate that ceruloplasmin, depending on the integrity of its structure and its bound copper, can exert a potent oxidant rather than antioxidant action on LDL. Our results invite speculation that ceruloplasmin may be in part responsible for oxidation of LDL in blood or in the arterial wall and may thus have a physiological role that is quite distinct from what is commonly believed. Images PMID:8163654

  20. Low density lipoprotein uptake by an endothelial-smooth muscle cell bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.J.; Miguel, R.; Graham, D. )

    1991-03-01

    To study the interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the means by which such interaction may affect lipid permeability of the arterial wall, cell bilayers were established by use of a transwell culture system. After confluent growth of both cell types had been achieved, iodine 125 bound to low-density lipoprotein (10 ng protein/ml) was added to the media of the upper well. After a 3-hour incubation period, the iodine 125-bound low-density lipoprotein content of the upper and lower media demonstrated an impedance to lipoprotein movement across the endothelial cell monolayer as compared to the bare porous polycarbonate filter of the transwell (p less than 10(-6)). The presence of smooth muscle cells in the bottom well significantly enhanced the permeability of the endothelial cell layer (p less than 10(-60)). This effect remained unchanged over a 9-day time course. Membrane binding and cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein by endothelial cells was not altered by smooth muscle cells, indicating that this change in permeability could not be easily attributed to changes in receptor-mediated transport or transcytosis. Membrane binding (p less than 0.02) and cellular uptake (p less than 10(-6)) of low-density lipoprotein by smooth muscle cells in the bilayer, when adjusted for counts available in the smooth muscle cell media, were both reduced in the early incubation period as compared to isolated smooth muscle cells. The disproportionate reduction in uptake as compared to binding would suggest that this was not entirely a receptor-dependent process.

  1. Metabolism of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in human high-density lipoprotein: a mathematical approach for analysis of their specific activity decay curves

    SciTech Connect

    Atmeh, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    The differential rate equations describing the compartmental model of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were integrated by means of Laplace transforms and an exponential equation was obtained for each of the three compartments. These equations were used to fit the observed plasma decay data and give estimates for the rate constants of the system by means of a written computer program. Furthermore, these estimates were used to calculate the exponential constants of the integrated equations. Consequently, the amount of label in any of the intravascular, extravascular, and urine compartments can be calculated as a fraction of the original dose of label at any time point. This method was tested using data for the (AI)HDL subclass because it contains only apolipoprotein A-I as the major apolipoprotein and does not contain apolipoprotein A-II. The calculated plasma and urine radioactivity data were compared with the experimentally obtained data from two normolipoproteinemic subjects and found to be in good agreement. The significance of this method is its application to the analysis of the decay data of the individual apolipoproteins of (AI + AII) HDL subclass where the urinary radioactivity data resulting from the individual apolipoprotein breakdown on the native particle cannot be measured experimentally at present. Such data are essential for the detailed calculation of the kinetic parameters of these apolipoproteins.

  2. Assembly and secretion of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, G F

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to water-soluble fuels such as glucose or ketone bodies, the use of lipids as an energy source for tissues has required the development of complex structures for their transport through the aqueous plasma. In the case of endogenously synthesized triacylglycerol this is achieved by the assembly and secretion of hepatic VLDL which provides the necessary stability in an aqueous medium. An essential component of this assembly process is apo B. Dietary changes which require an increase in hepatic VLDL secretion appear to be accompanied by increases in the availability of functional apo B. Interesting questions relate to: (a) the intracellular site(s) of triacylglycerol association with apo B, and (b) the mechanism(s) by which the availability of functional apo B at this site responds to metabolic and hormonal signals which reflect dietary status and, thus, the need to secrete triacylglycerol. As regards the latter, although in some cases changes in apo B synthesis occur in response to VLDL secretion hepatic apo B mRNA levels appear to be quite stable in vitro. Intracellular switching of apo B between the secretory and degradative pathways may be important in controlling VLDL assembly and post-translational modifications of the apoprotein may also play a role by influencing its ability to bind to triacylglycerol. Transport is not the only problem associated with the utilization of a concentrated energy source such as triacylglycerol and the complex problems of waste product disposal and recycling have to be dealt with. In the case of triacylglycerol, potentially toxic waste products include atherogenic remnants and LDL. The overall problem, then, in the long-term, involves the development of a 'safe' means of utilizing triacylglycerol and this requirement accounts for much of the complexity of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. In this area, the rat could teach the human a few tricks. One of these appears to be the utilization of hepatic apo B48 rather than apo B100 for VLDL assembly in response to increases in the extrahepatic utilization of hepatically synthesized triacylglycerol. Under these conditions, the remnants of hepatic triacylglycerol utilization by peripheral tissues are cleared from the plasma much more readily via a process which seems to involve the cycling of more triacylglycerol back to the liver than that which occurs in humans. The means by which this is achieved, though, are obscure and may involve a chylomicron remnant receptor, the nature of which, itself, remains controversial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2188646

  3. Food intake and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels changes during ramadan fasting in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamine, Faiza; Bouguerra, Radhia; Jabrane, Jelidi; Marrakchi, Zinet; Ben Rayana, Mohamed Chiheb; Ben Slama, Claude; Gaigi, Sadok

    2006-10-01

    During the holy month of Ramadan, it is obligatory for all adult healthy Muslims to abstain from food, drink and smoking each day from dawn to sunset. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and the change of food consumption in healthy subjects. Thirty young healthy and normal weighted adults (9 males and 21 females) were evaluated during three periods: 3 weeks before Ramadan (T0); the 4th week of Ramadan (T1) and 3 weeks after the end of Ramadan (T2). Main Clinical and biological parameters investigated were: body weight, blood glucose, plasma triglycerides (TG), plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and. low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) Body weight, and blood glucose were unchanged. There was a significant increase of the mean daily caloric intake, the lipids intake particularly mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.001) and cholesterol intake (p < 0.001) during Ramadan with a decrease of the meal frequency. There was also a significant increase of plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. The most striking finding was a significant increase in the HDL-Cholesterol during Ramadan +20% (p < 0.02). This increase was lost after Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan affects beneficially serum lipoprotein metabolism in young adult healthy subjects with an increase of HDL-cholesterol. PMID:17193859

  4. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J. (Berkeley, CA); Orr, Joseph (San Pablo, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separate LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described.

  5. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.

    1999-07-20

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.

  6. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease: assessing the data from Framingham to the Veterans Affairs High--Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, W E

    2000-12-21

    The Framingham Heart Study found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was the most potent lipid predictor of coronary artery disease risk in men and women >49 years of age. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS), in which subjects were randomized to treatment with lovastatin or placebo, also reported a striking benefit of treatment, particularly in patients with HDL-C < or =35 mg/dL at baseline. Treatment with lovastatin was associated with a remarkable 45% reduction in events for this group. The Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT) randomized subjects to gemfibrozil or placebo. A high proportion of enrolled subjects with low HDL-C also had characteristics of the dysmetabolic syndrome. HDL-C likewise increased by 6% on treatment, total cholesterol was reduced by 4% and triglycerides by 31%. There was no change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. These changes in lipid were associated with a cumulative 22% reduction in the trial primary endpoint of all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Additionally, significant reductions in secondary endpoints including death from coronary artery disease, nonfatal MI, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and carotid endarterectomy were associated with the increase in HDL-C. In VA-HIT, for every 1% increase in HDL-C, there was a 3% reduction in death or MI, a therapeutic benefit that eclipses the benefit associated with LDL-C reduction. PMID:11374850

  7. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-04-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Permeation of Low Density Lipoprotein Particles through Human Carotid Artery Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ghosn, Mohamad G.; Leba, Michael; Vijayananda, Astha; Rezaee, Panteha; Morrisett, Joel D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the diffusion of small molecules and large lipid transporting lipoproteins across arterial tissues could be useful in elucidating the mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to determine the effect of temperature on the rate of diffusion of glucose and low density lipoproteins (LDL) in human carotid endarterectomy tissue in vitro. The permeability rate for glucose was calculated to be (3.51 ± 0.27) ×10?5 cm/sec (n=13) at 20°C, and (3.70 ± 0.44) ×10?5 cm/sec (n=5) at 37°C; for LDL the rate was (2.42 ± 0.33) ×10?5 cm/sec (n=5) at 20°C and (4.77 ± 0.48) ×10?5 cm/sec (n=7) at 37°C, where n is the number of samples. These results demonstrate that temperature does not significantly influence permeation of small molecules (e.g. glucose), however, raising the temperature does significantly increase the permeation of LDL. These results provide new information about the capacity of an atherogenic lipoprotein to traverse the intimal layer of the artery. These results also demonstrate the potential of OCT for elucidating the dynamics of lipoprotein perfusion across the arterial wall. Sample OCT Signal Slope graph recorded during a glucose diffusion experiment at 37°C Ghosn et. al.: Using OCT to quantify effect of temperature on permeation through arterial tissues PMID:19777469

  9. Functionalizing low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for in vivo near-infrared optical imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Ian R.; Chen, Juan; Li, Hui; Cao, Weiguo; Zheng, Gang

    2007-07-01

    Low density lipoproteins (LDL) have long been recognized as a potential delivery system for exogenous agents. Imaging agents or drugs can be attached to LDL through surface loading, protein loading or core loading methods. The LDL delivery system has received considerable attention particularly among cancer biologists as it was observed that numerous cancers over-express the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In this paper we investigate the utility of LDL to transport optical imaging contrast agents for caner detection. The method of loading fluorophores into the core of LDL is attractive as it behaves like an activatable contrast agent. Surface and protein labeled methods also prove to be effective strategies for tracing LDL nanoparticle activity. The strengths and limitations of the LDL carrier system are discussed and novel approaches for imaging cancer with LDL nanoparticles are highlighted.

  10. Scavenger receptor for malondialdehyde-modified high density lipoprotein on rat sinusoidal liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Horiuchi, S.; Takata, K.; Morino, Y.

    1986-05-29

    The presence of a membrane-associated receptor which mediates endocytic uptake of malondialydehyde-modified high density lipoprotein (MDA-HDL) on sinusoidal liver cells is reported. Binding of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL to the cells was followed by internalization and degradation in lysosomes. The binding and lysomal degradation of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL were effectively inhibited by unlabeled MDA-HDL and acetyl-HDL. However, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin or low density lipoprotein modified either by acetylation or malondialdehyde, ligands known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal liver cells, did not affect the binding of (/sup 175/I)MDA-HDL to the cells. These results indicate that a receptor for MDA-HDL is described as a distinct member among the scavenger receptors for chemically modified proteins.

  11. [Interaction of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) with macrophages and their triboluminescence in hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Voziian, P A; Orel, V E; Barabo?, V A; Korniets, G V; Kholodova, Iu D

    1991-01-01

    Accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in peritoneal mice macrophages in the course of their interaction with lipoproteins of very low density (VLDL) is shown to grow considerably under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. A decrease of triboluminescence intensity characterizing the surface charge has been revealed at hypercholesterolemia both in VLDL and in the blood plasma. It is supposed that the triboluminescence method may be used for testing of the atherosclerotic process development. PMID:1949230

  12. A multiexon deletion in the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel`shtam, M.Yu.; Lipovetskii, B.M.; Shvartsman, A.L.; Gaitskhoki, V.S.

    1995-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a widespread human disease. FH is caused by a disturbance in the catabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which results from mutations in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR). The majority of mutations in the LDLR locus is represented by large-scale reorganizations in the above gene. In this study, we describe a novel 5 kb deletion, which eliminates exons 4 to 6 in the LDLR gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Structure of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, F C; van het Schip, A D; Arnberg, A C; Wieringa, B; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-09-25

    We describe two cloned genomic DNA fragments, both bearing the entire apo very low density lipoprotein II gene. Electron microscopy and restriction enzyme mapping showed that this gene is split into at least four coding sequences by three or more intervening sequences. A very short exon at the 5'-end of the gene is separated by a 1.5-kilobase intron from the second exon, which codes for the AUG initiation codon of the mRNA. PMID:6270096

  14. Splicing pathways of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II (pre)messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Noteborn, M; Arnberg, A; de Jonge, M; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1986-01-01

    The precursor-mRNA transcribed from the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene was identified. This gene which is under full estrogen control and only expressed in the liver, possesses three introns. Splicing intermediates were characterized by hybridization with intron-specific probes, and by electron microscopy of R-loops. The introns appear to be excised in a non-obligatory order, but at different rates. PMID:3632793

  15. Low-density lipoprotein, its susceptibility to oxidation and the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and carboxyl ester lipase lipases in atherosclerotic plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    ?urawski, Jakub; Zuchowski, Bartosz; Kubacki, Tomasz; Murawa, Dawid; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    An increased level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a very well established risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Unoxidized LDL is an inert transport vehicle of cholesterol and other lipids in the body and is thought to be atherogenic. Recently it has been appreciated that oxidized products of LDL are responsible for plaque formation properties previously attributed to the intact particle. The goal of this article is to review the recent understanding of the LDL oxidation pathway. The role of oxidized products and key enzymes (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and carboxyl ester lipase) are also extensively discussed in the context of clinical conditions. PMID:23515030

  16. Low-density lipoprotein, its susceptibility to oxidation and the role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and carboxyl ester lipase lipases in atherosclerotic plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Pawe?; Zurawski, Jakub; Zuchowski, Bartosz; Kubacki, Tomasz; Murawa, Dawid; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-02-21

    An increased level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a very well established risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Unoxidized LDL is an inert transport vehicle of cholesterol and other lipids in the body and is thought to be atherogenic. Recently it has been appreciated that oxidized products of LDL are responsible for plaque formation properties previously attributed to the intact particle. The goal of this article is to review the recent understanding of the LDL oxidation pathway. The role of oxidized products and key enzymes (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and carboxyl ester lipase) are also extensively discussed in the context of clinical conditions. PMID:23515030

  17. VALUE OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) SUBPOPULATIONS IN PREDICTING RECURRENT CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS IN THE VETERANS AFFAIRS HDL INTERVENTION TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis whether determination of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations provides more power to predict recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, and stroke) than traditional risk factors in the Veterans Affairs ...

  18. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 On This ... to source, however, is appreciated. National Center for Health Statistics Charles J. Rothwell, M.S., Acting Director Jennifer ...

  19. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Bishnu H; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Michos, Erin D

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. PMID:24748800

  20. Unique Features of High-Density Lipoproteins in the Japanese: In Population and in Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:25849946

  1. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  2. Cross-linking of apoproteins in high density lipoprotein by dimethylsuberimidate inhibits specific lipoprotein binding to membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, G.K.; Mahlberg, F.H.; Johnson, W.J.

    1988-03-01

    Apoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) bind to various cells and cell membrane preparations with properties typical of ligand-receptor interactions. This specific binding can be inhibited by treatment of HDL with tetranitromethane (TNM). During treatment of HDL with TNM, in addition to the expected nitration of tyrosine residues, cross-linking of lipids to apoproteins and of apoproteins to each other occurs. We have recently shown that cross-linking of phospholipids to apoproteins is not responsible for the inhibition of binding. To determine the role of cross-linking of apoproteins to each other in the inhibition, we used the bifunctional reagent dimethylsuberimidate (DMS) to cross-link the apoproteins in HDL3. Over 80% of apoproteins in DMS-HDL3 were cross-linked, as analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DMS-HDL3 was similar to control HDL3 in its lipid composition. Gel filtration chromatography did not reveal any significant difference in size between DMS-HDL3 and control HDL3. As determined by competitive binding with 125I-labeled HDL3, DMS-HDL3 was almost completely unable to bind specifically to rat liver plasma membranes and human skin fibroblasts. It is concluded from these results that TNM inhibits the specific binding of HDL3 to membranes by a mechanism that involves cross-linking of apoproteins to each other in HDL3 particles. This observation implies that the specific binding of HDL3 to cells may depend on the native quaternary structure of apoproteins in the HDL particle. Because of its reduced ability to bind to the specific binding sites, DMS-HDL3 may be useful for studies related to the functional aspects of HDL binding sites.

  3. Factors affecting low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to pravastatin in the West Of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS).

    PubMed

    Streja, Leanne; Packard, Chris J; Shepherd, James; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Statins are regarded as efficacious in general but there is a wide variation in individual response. We sought demographic and lifestyle factors that influenced the response to pravastatin 40 mg/day in moderately hypercholesterolemic men in the West Of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS). Changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol after 6 months of treatment were examined in 1,604 highly compliant subjects. LDL cholesterol decreased by a mean of 30.4%. The magnitude of the change was influenced, albeit to a small extent, by baseline plasma triglyceride levels and alcohol intake and age; subjects with low plasma triglyceride levels, older subjects, and subjects with low alcohol intake had the greatest reductions. The mean response in HDL cholesterol in the group was an 8.3% increase (0.09 mmol/L). The percent increase in HDL cholesterol was affected by baseline HDL level, plasma triglyceride levels, decrease in plasma triglyceride levels during the administration of pravastatin, and body mass index. The absolute increase in HDL cholesterol was influenced by the decrease in plasma triglyceride levels, body mass index, and alcohol intake. All of these associations were weak (r <0.2) although highly significant. In conclusion, plasma lipid phenotype, obesity, and alcohol consumption appear to influence the response of LDL and HDL cholesterol to statin treatment. The absolute increment in HDL cholesterol is relatively constant across a range of baseline values, hence the percent change is largely a function of the starting value. PMID:12356386

  4. Usefulness of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoying; Yang, Xueli; Li, Ying; Cao, Jie; Li, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Jichun; Shen, Chong; Yu, Ling; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    The predictive effect of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese general population has not been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to examine the relation between non-HDL-C and CVD and compare the predictive effect of non-HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for CVD in Chinese population. The baseline examination of 27,020 participants aged 35 to 74 years from the China Cardiovascular Health Study and the China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology was conducted in 1998 to 2001. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 2007 to 2008 with a response rate of 79.8%. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD. Compared with those with non-HDL-C level of <130 mg/dl, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of CVD were 1.30 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.62) and 1.93 (95% CI 1.50 to 2.47) in participants with non-HDL-C levels of 160 to 189.9 and ?190 mg/dl, respectively. An increase of 30 mg/dl in non-HDL-C level would correspond to 15%, 24%, and 12% increase in risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, respectively. Using likelihood ratio tests, non-HDL-C appeared to be a similar predictor for CVD incidence as LDL-C (chi-square for non-HDL-C, 18.02, p <0.001; chi-square for LDL-C, 18.90, p <0.001). In conclusion, higher non-HDL-C level is associated with the increased CVD incidence and has a similar effect as LDL-C on predicting CVD risk in Chinese. PMID:26250998

  5. Impaired intermediate-density lipoprotein triglyceride hydrolysis in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Murano, S; Shirai, K; Saito, Y; Yoshida, S; Ohta, Y; Tsuchida, H; Yamamoto, S; Asano, G; Chen, C H; Albers, J J

    1987-12-01

    A new lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)-deficient family was found in Japan. In the proband, both LCAT activity and LCAT mass were deficient. The patient's parents, child, and sister, diagnosed as heterozygotes, had half-normal LCAT activity and LCAT mass. In the patient, an increase of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL, 1.006 less than d less than 1.019) fraction was observed. In postheparin plasma, both lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase activities were low. Hydrolysis of [14C] triolein by human hepatic triglyceride lipase in patient IDL was decreased compared to that in IDL from normal postprandial serum. Preincubation of these IDL with normal plasma in the absence of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) increased the rate of hydrolysis, in the presence of DTNB, this increment was not observed. These results suggest that one cause of IDL increase in the LCAT-deficient patient might be the difficulty of hydrolysis of these lipoprotein particles by hepatic triglyceride lipase. PMID:3432999

  6. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...

  7. Plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol correlates inversely with testosterone in young adult male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Bankole, Olurakinyo Lanre; Oduwole, Olayiwola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are indications that oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDLC) may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In most developing countries, the interplay between the different lipid fractions and cigarette smoking has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on the alterations in plasma lipid fractions and their associations with the gonadal hormone, testosterone (T). Methods One hundred and sixty male participants, consisting of eighty smokers and eighty apparently healthy non-smokers were recruited. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard procedures. Results Significant increases were obtained in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDLC) and Ox-LDLC/TT ratio (p<0.001) in smokers compared with the non-smokers. Plasma high density cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.001) was significantly reduced in smokers compared with the non-smokers. The plasma mean T result was not significantly different from the non-smokers, but inversely correlated with Ox-LDLC and significantly correlated with the lipids and lipoproteins. Significantly high plasma TC, TG and LDLC (p<0.001) and low HDLC (p<0.001) were also obtained in smokers when co-founding factors such as duration and number of cigarette smoked per day were applied. Conclusion This study showed an inverse correlation between Ox-LDLC and testosterone as well as strong association between the number of tobacco and cigarettes usage per day. These changes in part, could be major causes of premature CVD and decreased fertility in young adults. PMID:25848456

  8. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; Giles, Francis J.; Gordon, Leo I.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    Summary High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a diverse group of natural nanoparticles that are most well-known for their role in cholesterol transport. However, HDLs have diverse functions that provide significant opportunities for cancer therapy. Presented is a focused review of the ways that synthetic versions of HDL have been used as targeted therapies for cancer, and as vehicles for the delivery of diverse therapeutic cargo to cancer cells. As such, synthetic HDLs are likely to play a central role in the development of next generation cancer therapies. PMID:25487833

  9. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-06-14

    This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

  10. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles.

  11. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin on High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Functionality, Lipoprotein Metabolism, and Mediators of Vascular Inflammation in Statin-Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rahul; Liu, Yifen; Kwok, See; Hama, Salam; France, Michael; Eatough, Ruth; Pemberton, Phil; Schofield, Jonathan; Siahmansur, Tarza J; Malik, Rayaz; Ammori, Basil A; Issa, Basil; Younis, Naveed; Donn, Rachelle; Stevens, Adam; Durrington, Paul; Soran, Handrean

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the influence of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRP) versus placebo on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant function, cholesterol efflux, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, and mediators of vascular inflammation associated with 15% increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Study patients had persistent dyslipidemia despite receiving high-dose statin treatment. Methods and Results In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we compared the effect of ERN/LRP with placebo in 27 statin-treated dyslipidemic patients who had not achieved National Cholesterol Education Program-ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We measured fasting lipid profile, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, small dense LDL apoB (sdLDL-apoB), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), glycated apoB (glyc-apoB), lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lysophosphatidyl choline (lyso-PC), macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP1), serum amyloid A (SAA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). We also examined the capacity of HDL to protect LDL from in vitro oxidation and the percentage cholesterol efflux mediated by apoB depleted serum. ERN/LRP was associated with an 18% increase in HDL-C levels compared to placebo (1.55 versus 1.31 mmol/L, P<0.0001). There were significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, total serum apoB, lipoprotein (a), CETP activity, oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, lyso-PC, MCP1, and SAA, but no significant changes in glyc-apoB or sdLDL-apoB concentration. There was a modest increase in cholesterol efflux function of HDL (19.5%, P=0.045), but no change in the antioxidant capacity of HDL in vitro or PON1 activity. Conclusions ERN/LRP reduces LDL-associated mediators of vascular inflammation, but has varied effects on HDL functionality and LDL quality, which may counter its HDL-C-raising effect. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01054508. PMID:26374297

  12. Uptake of chemically modified low density lipoproteins in vivo is mediated by specific endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Acetoacetylated (AcAc) and acetylated (Ac) low density lipoproteins (LDL) are rapidly cleared from the plasma (t1/2 approximately equal to 1 min). Because macrophages, Kupffer cells, and to a lesser extent, endothelial cells metabolize these modified lipoproteins in vitro, it was of interest to determine whether endothelial cells or macrophages could be responsible for the in vivo uptake of these lipoproteins. As previously reported, the liver is the predominant site of the uptake of AcAc LDL; however, we have found that the spleen, bone marrow, adrenal, and ovary also participate in this rapid clearance. A histological examination of tissue sections, undertaken after the administration of AcAc LDL or Ac LDL (labeled with either 125I or a fluorescent probe) to rats, dogs, or guinea pigs, was used to identify the specific cells binding and internalizing these lipoproteins in vivo. With both techniques, the sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and adrenal were labeled. Less labeling was noted in the ovarian endothelia. Uptake of AcAc LDL by endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. These data suggest uptake through coated pits. Uptake of AcAc LDL was not observed in the endothelia of arteries (including the coronaries and aorta), veins, or capillaries of the heart, testes, kidney, brain, adipose tissue, and duodenum. Kupffer cells accounted for a maximum of 14% of the 125I-labeled AcAc LDL taken up by the liver. Isolated sinusoidal endothelial cells from the rat liver displayed saturable, high affinity binding of AcAc LDL (Kd = 2.5 X 10(- 9) M at 4 degrees C), and were shown to degrade AcAc LDL 10 times more effectively than aortic endothelial cells. These data indicate that specific sinusoidal endothelial cells, not the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, are primarily responsible for the removal of these modified lipoproteins from the circulation in vivo. PMID:3965468

  13. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis.

  14. Lower Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with Severe Dengue Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Hope H.; Gordon, Aubree; Nuñez, Andrea; Perez, Maria Angeles; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI) in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO) 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of dengue pathophysiology and should be explored as part of a prognostic biomarker panel for severe dengue. PMID:26334914

  15. Genetic risk scores associated with baseline lipoprotein subfraction concentrations do not associate with their responses to fenofibrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipoprotein subclass concentrations are modifiable markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Fenofibrate is known to show beneficial effects on lipoprotein subclasses, but little is known about the role of genetics in mediating the responses of lipoprotein subclasses to fenofibrate. A recent genomewid...

  16. The effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on atherogenic ?1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Ura, Shuichi; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimada, Sayaka; Akao, Masaharu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi; Shimatsu, Akira; Takahashi, Yuko; Hasegawa, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Although cardiovascular risks decrease after quitting smoking, body weight often increases in the early period after smoking cessation. We have previously reported that the serum level of the ?1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein complex (AT-LDL)-an oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein that accelerates atherosclerosis-is high in current smokers, and that the level rapidly decreases after smoking cessation. However, the effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on this cardiovascular marker are unknown. In 183 outpatients (134 males, 49 females) who had successfully quit smoking, serum AT-LDL levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all persons who had successfully quit smoking, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased 12 weeks after the first examination (p < 0.01). Among patients with a BMI increase smaller than the median, a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in serum AT-LDL values was found, but no significant changes in serum AT-LDL values were found in patients with a BMI increase greater than the median. The findings suggest that the decrease in serum AT-LDL levels after quitting smoking is influenced by weight gain after smoking cessation. PMID:25086816

  17. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of ?-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. PMID:25045281

  18. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-10-05

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from (/sup 14/C)acetate, cholesterol esterification from (/sup 14/C)oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from /sup 125/I-labeled (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell.

  19. Passage of Low-density Lipoproteins Through Bruch’s Membrane and Choroid

    PubMed Central

    Cankova, Zdravka; Huang, Jiahn-Dar; Kruth, Howard S.; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are thought to transport cholesterol, vitamins and carotenoids to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for ultimate use by the photoreceptors. However, to reach the RPE, these lipoprotein particles must cross Bruch’s membrane. We examined the reflection coefficient of Bruch’s membrane (BrM) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Bruch’s membrane and choroid were removed from 47 bovine eyes. Specimens were placed in a Ussing chamber and perfused with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with (31 specimens) or without (16 specimens) fluorescent low-density lipoproteins (DiI-LDL). The hydraulic conductivity of the tissue was determined for both calf and cow eyes. In the perfusions with DiI-LDL, the fluorescence intensity emitted by DiI-LDL in the efflux was measured and the reflection coefficient of BrM/choroid preparations to DiI-LDL determined. Leakage tests were done to confirm tissue integrity. Several specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine tissue integrity before and after perfusion. Leak testing confirmed that BrM was intact both before and after perfusion. The average hydraulic conductivity of BrM/choroid perfusion of calf eyes with PBS alone was 1.42 ± 0.55 ×10?9 m/s/Pa (mean ± SD, n = 11). The average hydraulic conductivity of the cow eyes was 4.94 ± 1.48 ×10?10 m/s/Pa (n = 5), nearly a 3-fold decrease with age. While the flow rate remained constant during the PBS perfusions, it decreased as a function of time during perfusion with DiI-LDLs. Our major finding was of fluorescence in the effluent collected in all perfusions with DiI-LDLs, demonstrating passage of LDL through the tissue. The average reflection coefficient of calf BrM/choroid preparations to DiI-LDL was 0.58 ± 0.25 (n = 23); a similar distribution of reflection coefficients was seen in tissue from cow eyes (0.51 ± 0.33, n = 8). Our data suggested that the DiI-LDL was modestly hindered and/or captured by the tissue. This might explain the progressive decrease of hydraulic conductivity with continued perfusion of DiI-LDL. PMID:22063729

  20. Role of high density lipoproteins in the biodistribution of two radioiodinated probes in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pohland, R.C.; Counsell, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Two radioiodinated probes, /sup 125/I-cholesteryl oleate (/sup 125/I-CO), a derivative of a natural constituent of lipoproteins, and 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)-2,2-dichlorethane (/sup 125/I-DDD), an analog of the adrenolytic drug o,p'-DDD (mitotane), were selected to study the role of lipoproteins in drug disposition and to examine the ability of these vehicles to direct foreign molecules to specific tissues. In vivo and in vitro techniques were utilized to associate these probes with rat high density lipoproteins (HDL). Tissue distribution studies indicated that prior incorporation of /sup 125/I-CO into rat HDL increased the uptake of /sup 125/I-CO by rat adrenal, which was dramatically enhanced when this preparation was administered to animals made hypolipidemic with 4-aminopyrazolo(3,4-d)-pyrimidine (4-APP). Acetylation of HDL labeled with /sup 125/I-CO provided evidence that the observed uptake into the adrenal was via a receptor-mediated process. In contrast with these results, prior association of /sup 125/I-DDD with rat HDL failed to alter the ability of this compound to accumulate in adrenal tissue of normal or hypolipidemic animals. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was utilized to examine the stability of the association of /sup 125/I-CO and /sup 125/I-DDD with rat HDL. These results suggested that /sup 125/I-CO was associated with the lipophilic core of HDL, whereas /sup 125/I-DDD appeared to be partially associated with the surface components of HDL. Saturation of surface components with stable o,p'-DDD offered data to suggest that this binding to apoproteins may disrupt the normal receptor-mediated uptake process.

  1. Tissue sites of degradation of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-IV in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Van 't Hooft, F.M.; Van Tol, A.

    1986-05-01

    The in vivo metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL), labeled by incorporation of /sup 125/I-apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, was studied in the rat and compared with the metabolism of HDL labeled with 131I-apo A-I. The /sup 125/I-apo A-IV labeled HDL was obtained by adding small amounts of radioiodinated apo A-IV to rat serum, followed by separation of the different lipoprotein fractions by chromatography on 6% agarose columns in order to avoid stripping of apolipoproteins by ultracentrifugation. Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, the /sup 125/I-apo A-IV remained an integral component of HDL and was not exchanged to other lipoproteins, including the free apo A-IV fraction. The serum half-life, measured at between 8 and 28 hours after intravenous injection of labeled HDL, was 8.5 +/- 0.5 hours for HDL apo A-IV and 10.2 +/- 0.7 hours for HDL apo A-I. The tissue sites of catabolism of HDL apo A-IV and HDL apo A-I were analyzed in the leupeptin-model. Only the kidneys and liver showed a significant leupeptin-dependent accumulation of radioactivity. At 4 hours after injection of 125I-apo A-IV/131I-apo A-I labeled HDL, 3.5% +/- 1.0% and 8.4% +/- 2.0% of HDL apo A-IV and 4.6% +/- 1.3% and 2.6% +/- 0.6% of the HDL apo A-I were accumulated in a leupeptin-dependent process in the kidneys and liver, respectively. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the renal localization of apo A-IV was intracellular and confined to the epithelial cells of the proximal tubuli.

  2. A step towards quantitative lipoprotein density profiling analysis: applied Rayleigh scattering 

    E-print Network

    Nowlin, Michael

    2009-05-15

    Ultracentrifugation and imaging techniques of human blood serum are precise and information-rich methods for obtaining information about an individual’s lipoprotein particle content. The information derived from lipoprotein ...

  3. The Complex Fate in Plasma of Gadolinium Incorporated into High-Density Lipoproteins Used for Magnetic Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Barazza, Alessandra; Blachford, Courtney; Even-Or, Orli; Joaquin, Victor A.; Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported enhancing the imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in mice using reconstituted high density lipoproteins (HDL) as nanocarriers for the MRI contrast agent gadolinium (Gd). This study focuses on the underlying mechanisms of Gd delivery to atherosclerotic plaques. HDL, LDL, and VLDL particles containing Gd chelated to phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DTPA-DMPE) and a lipidic fluorophore were used to demonstrate the transfer of Gd-phospholipids among plasma lipoproteins in vitro and in vivo. To determine the basis of this transfer, the roles of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lipoprotein lipase (LpL) in mediating the migration of Gd-DTPA-DMPE among lipoproteins were investigated. The results indicated that neither was an important factor, suggesting that spontaneous transfer of Gd-DTPA-DMPE was the most probable mechanism. Finally, two independent mouse models were used to quantify the relative contributions of HDL and LDL reconstituted with Gd-DTPA-DMPE to plaque imaging enhancement by MR. Both sets of results suggested that Gd-DTPA-DMPE originally associated with LDL was about twice as effective as that injected in the form of Gd-HDL, and that some of Gd-HDL’s effectiveness in vivo is indirect through transfer of the imaging agent to LDL. In conclusion, the fate of Gd-DTPA-DMPE associated with a particular type of lipoprotein is complex, and includes its transfer to other lipoprotein species that are then cleared from the plasma into tissues. PMID:23617731

  4. [Cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins: critical review of the methods of analysis and personal data].

    PubMed

    Orso Giacone, G

    1982-01-01

    It is widely known that atherosclerosis through its complication, i.e. heart and brain infarction, is at the present the main cause of death. The atherosclerotic process has been shown in correlation with hyperlipemia especially as far as the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol level is concerned. A preminent role in removing cholesterol from tissues and arterial walls then in preventing atherosclerosis is played by a specific class of plasma lipoproteins, the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Since the HDL-colesterol level seems to have an inverse correlation with the atherosclerotic disease it is of primary importance to define a reliable and reproducible technique to measure it. One of the aims of this paper was to examine the different methods now available for such a determination. This analysis has underlined the discrepancy among the reference values reported in the literature. However, all the authors agree that only the simultaneous measurement of total and HDL-colesterol levels is of prognostic value. Personal studies are here reported on the relationship between total and HDL-colesterol levels and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The two mentioned laboratory analyses have been performed on blood samples from 250 between male and female human subjects of different age. The obtained results show that the highest HDL-colesterol concentrations determined by a lipoprotein precipitation procedure with dextran sulphate, are typical in the first ten years of life both in male and in female, while the lowest levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol have been evintiated during the fifth decade of life, when the total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular complications rich the highest values. In a following set of investigations, the already examined blood parameters together with the risk factor values have been examined in two groups of subjects, the first one represented by adult healthy persons the second one by patients of similar age from a cardiovascular division. The mean levels of total colesterol have been shown similar in both the experimental groups, while plasma HDL-cholesterol is significantly higher in the healthy group. This discrepancy is the cause of definitively higher risk factors in the hospitalized patients. In conclusion, the reported data furtherly stress that the total cholesterol values do not give "per se" any indication of atherogenic risk. They are useful only when examined together with the HDL-cholesterol levels. From that the opportunity to always include the determination of plasma HDL-cholesterol screening lipemic profiles. PMID:7137764

  5. Rat monoclonal antibodies to rabbit and human serum low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, E; Hutchings, A; Galfre, G; Bowyer, D E

    1988-01-01

    A total of 16 hybrid myeloma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (McAb) to rabbit or human serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were derived from the fusion of spleen cells from LOU or DA rats immunized with rabbit or human LDL and the rat myeloma lines Y3 Ag1.2.3 or YB2/0. Anti-(rabbit LDL) McAb showed limited reactivity with LDL from human, rhesus-monkey, rat and mouse serum. Six out of seven anti-(human LDL) McAb reacted with rhesus-monkey LDL, and only one showed partial cross-reaction with rabbit LDL. Binding-competition experiments indicated that the epitopes recognized by the anti-(rabbit LDL) IgG could be grouped into two major clusters: McAb in the first cluster reacted either with apo-(lipoprotein B-100) (apoB-100) and apo-(lipoprotein B-74) (apoB-74) or with apoB-100 but not with apo-(lipoprotein B-48) (apoB-48), the lower-Mr form of apoB of intestinal origin; the McAb in the second cluster all reacted with apoB-48 in addition to apoB-100 or apoB-100 and apoB-74. The six anti-(human LDL) IgG bound to separate epitopes on LDL. Further data on the epitope specificity of these McAb were obtained by antibody blotting after partial proteolysis of apoB-100 with trypsin or staphylococcal V8 proteinase, and the data confirmed the results obtained with the binding-competition experiments. One McAb to rabbit LDL inhibited the binding of LDL to the fibroblast LDL receptor (50% inhibition at a McAb/LDL molar ratio of 10). A similar result was produced by two other McAb at higher concentrations of antibody. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2458711

  6. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein species, differing in surface charge, size and lipid and protein compositions. While HDL cholesterol (C) mass is a strong, graded and coherent biomarker of cardiovascular risk, genetic and clinical trial data suggest that the simple measurement of HDL-C may not be causal in preventing atherosclerosis nor reflect HDL functionality. Indeed, the measurement of HDL-C may be a biomarker of cardiovascular health. To assess the issue of HDL function as a potential therapeutic target, robust and simple analytical methods are required. The complex pleiotropic effects of HDL make the development of a single measurement challenging. Development of laboratory assays that accurately HDL function must be developed validated and brought to high-throughput for clinical purposes. This review discusses the limitations of current laboratory technologies for methods that separate and quantify HDL and potential application to predict CVD, with an emphasis on emergent approaches as potential biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26674734

  7. High relaxivity gadolinium modified high density lipoproteins as MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Cormode, David P.; Barazza, Alessandra; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Chen, Wei; Giovenzana, Giovanni B.; Fisher, Edward A.; Aime, Silvio; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing desire to produce high relaxivity, Gd-based MRI contrast agents. These may allow for lower doses to be used, which is especially important in view of the current safety concerns surrounding Gd in patients. Here we report the synthesis of a high relaxivity MRI contrast agent, by incorporating Gd-chelating lipids that coordinate two water molecules into high density lipoprotein (q=2 HDL). We compared the properties of q=2 HDL with those of an analogous HDL particle labeled with Gd-chelating lipids that coordinate only one water molecule (q=1 HDL). We found that the q=2 HDL possessed an elevated r1 of 41 mM?1s?1 compared to 9 mM?1s?1 for q=1 HDL at 20 MHz, but the q=2 HDL exhibited high R2* values at high fields, precluding imaging above 128 MHz. While carrying out this investigation we observed that enlarged, disrupted particles were formed when the synthesis was carried out above the lipid critical micelle concentration (CMC), indicating the importance of synthesis below the CMC when modifying lipoproteins in this manner. The high relaxivity of q=2 HDL means it will be an efficacious contrast agent for future MR imaging studies. PMID:19361222

  8. High density lipoprotein-based contrast agents for multimodal imaging of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Skajaa, Torjus; Cormode, David P.; Falk, Erling; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoproteins, natural nanoparticles, have a well-recognized biological role and are highly suitable as a platform for delivering imaging agents. The ease with which both the exterior and interior of the particles can be modified permits the creation of multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging as well as the delivery of therapeutics. Importantly, their endogenous nature may make them biocompatible, biodegradable and allows them to avoid the recognition of the reticuloendothelial system. In particular, high density lipoproteins (HDL) are of interest, because of their small size they can easily cross the endothelium and penetrate the underlying tissue. We summarize here the progress in establishing HDL as a vector for delivering a variety of diagnostically active materials to vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in mouse models of atherosclerosis. By loading various types of image-enhancing compounds into either the core or surface of HDL, they can be visualized by different imaging modalities (MRI, CT, optical). By re-routing of HDL away from plaque macrophages, imaging of biological processes in diseases besides atherosclerosis may also be achieved. PMID:19815819

  9. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein species, differing in surface charge, size and lipid and protein compositions. While HDL cholesterol (C) mass is a strong, graded and coherent biomarker of cardiovascular risk, genetic and clinical trial data suggest that the simple measurement of HDL-C may not be causal in preventing atherosclerosis nor reflect HDL functionality. Indeed, the measurement of HDL-C may be a biomarker of cardiovascular health. To assess the issue of HDL function as a potential therapeutic target, robust and simple analytical methods are required. The complex pleiotropic effects of HDL make the development of a single measurement challenging. Development of laboratory assays that accurately HDL function must be developed validated and brought to high-throughput for clinical purposes. This review discusses the limitations of current laboratory technologies for methods that separate and quantify HDL and potential application to predict CVD, with an emphasis on emergent approaches as potential biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26674734

  10. High-density lipoprotein associated with secondary vitellogenesis in the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, G; Chayoth, R; Abdu, U; Khalaila, I; Sagi, A

    2000-11-01

    The high-density lipoproteins LPI and LPII were isolated from the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by gradient ultracentrifugation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both lipoproteins contained a carotenoid moiety. LPI is comprised of a single polypeptide with an approximate molecular mass of 96 kDa. LPII was composed of two similar native components, LPIIa and LPIIb, both having polypeptides of 80 and 177 kDa. Both under natural conditions and after endocrine manipulations, LPI was present in males and in females, regardless of the female reproductive stage. LPII was present only in secondary-vitellogenic females, but not during the winter reproductive arrest period. LPII was also absent from young females that had received androgenic gland implants. LPII also appeared in the hemolymph of intersex individuals from which the androgenic gland had been removed. It is therefore suggested that LPII serves as a marker indicating the onset of secondary vitellogenesis in C. quad'iariicarintus females. PMID:11126772

  11. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein: An Innovative Target for Proteomics and Lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Ramos, Eduardo; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Rojas, Joselyn; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is regarded as an important protective factor against cardiovascular disease, with abundant evidence of an inverse relationship between its serum levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as various antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, observations of hereditary syndromes featuring scant HDL-C concentration in absence of premature atherosclerotic disease suggest HDL-C levels may not be the best predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, the beneficial effects of HDL may not depend solely on their concentration, but also on their quality. Distinct subfractions of this lipoprotein appear to be constituted by specific protein-lipid conglomerates necessary for different physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. However, in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment, diverse components of the HDL proteome and lipid core suffer alterations, which propel a shift towards a dysfunctional state, where HDL-C becomes proatherogenic, prooxidant, and proinflammatory. This heterogeneity highlights the need for further specialized molecular studies in this aspect, in order to achieve a better understanding of this dysfunctional state; with an emphasis on the potential role for proteomics and lipidomics as valuable methods in the search of novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634153

  12. Gold Nanocrystal Labeling Allows Low Density Lipoprotein Imaging From The Subcellular To Macroscopic Level

    PubMed Central

    Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL with a range of diagnostically active nanocrystals or hydrophobic agents. We performed focused experiments on LDL labeled with gold nanocrystals (Au-LDL). The labeling procedure had minimal effect on LDL size, morphology or composition. Biological function was found to be maintained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Tumor bearing mice were injected intravenously with LDL, DiR-LDL, Au-LDL or a gold-loaded nanoemulsion. LDL accumulation in the tumors was detected with whole body imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT), spectral CT and fluorescence imaging. Cellular localization was studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence techniques. In conclusion, this LDL labeling procedure should permit the study of lipoprotein biointeractions in unprecedented detail. PMID:24127782

  13. Effect of chronic renal failure on high-density lipoprotein kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Fuh, M.M.; Lee, C.M.; Jeng, C.Y.; Shen, D.C.; Shieh, S.M.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentration and high density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were determined in control subjects and patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Results demonstrated that plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in patients with CRF, associated with a significant increase in plasma VLDL-cholesterol (P less than 0.002) and a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. The rate of removal of {sup 125}I-apoAI/HDL from plasma was slower (P less than 0.001) in the patients with CRF, resulting in an increase in the residence time of {sup 125}I-apoAI/HDL (P less than 0.001) and a decrease in the fractional catabolic rate (P less than 0.001). Since plasma apoAI concentration was lower in patients with CRF, total apoAI/HDL synthetic rate was also significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased. These data provide support for the view that low plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients with CRF are related to decreases in the synthetic rate of apoAI/HDL.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of paraoxonase activity: elucidating the role of high-density lipoprotein in disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-01-01

    PON1 is a key component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and is at least partially responsible for HDL's antioxidant/atheroprotective properties. PON1 is also associated with numerous human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. In addition, PON1 metabolizes a broad variety of substrates, including toxic organophosphorous compounds, statin adducts, glucocorticoids, the likely atherogenic l-homocysteine thiolactone and the quorum-sensing factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous cardiovascular and antidiabetic pharmacologic agents, dietary macronutrients, lifestyle factors and antioxidant supplements affect PON1 expression and enzyme activity levels. Owing to the importance of PON1 to HDL function and its individual association with diverse human diseases, pharmacogenomic interactions between PON1 and the various factors that alter its expression and activity may represent an important therapeutic target for future investigation. PMID:24024900

  15. Hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoprotein receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Da-wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are positively correlated with the risk of atherosclerosis. High plasma LDL concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolemia lead to build-up of LDL in the inner walls of the arteries, which becomes oxidized and promotes the formation of foam cells, consequently initiating atherosclerosis. Plasma LDL is mainly cleared through the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Mutations in the LDLR cause familiar hypercholesterolemia and increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The expression of LDLR is regulated at the transcriptional level via the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and at the posttranslational levels mainly through proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the studies of PCSK9. PMID:26445568

  16. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Lydia A

    2008-12-01

    Strong epidemiologic and experimental data suggest that increasing dietary fiber may help to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent studies have highlighted the role of dietary fiber, particularly water-soluble varieties, in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several types of soluble fiber, including psyllium, beta-glucan, pectin, and guar gum, have been shown to decrease LDL-C in well-controlled intervention studies, whereas the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol. These studies, along with recent analyses of ongoing prospective cohort studies, have provided new insights into the probable protective role of dietary fiber in the development of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18937894

  17. A disposable electrochemical sensor based on protein G for High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) detection.

    PubMed

    Chammem, H; Hafaid, I; Bohli, N; Garcia, A; Meilhac, O; Abdelghani, A; Mora, L

    2015-11-01

    In this work, two biosensors were developed for the detection of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) particles, which are biomarkers inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk and which represent therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis. The electrochemical properties of the grafted antibody on interdigitated gold electrode were achieved by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The used deposition method was based on oriented antibody Anti-ApoA1 with an intermediate thin layer of protein G. The developed biosensor was able to detect both native plasma HDL and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles respectively with the detection limit of 50ng/mL and 1ng/mL, respectively. Dynamic contact angle and atomic force microscopy were used. The developed biosensors are able to differentiate the HDL particles according to their differences in size and interactions with the immobilized antibody. PMID:26452849

  18. High systemic levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: fuel to the flames in inflammatory osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plays a role in the pathology of OA. Specifically, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which has been shown to play an essential role during development of atherosclerosis, could be involved in processes such as synovial inflammation, cartilage destruction and bone deformations. OxLDL can activate synovial cells such as macrophages, endothelial cells and synovial fibroblasts, resulting in release of growth factors, MMP and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this review article, we discuss the role of LDL and oxLDL in OA joint pathology and share our viewpoint of possible mechanisms by which these proteins could influence the development and progression of OA. The proposed theory could provide insight into the aetiopathology of OA and give rise to new potential treatments. PMID:26231344

  19. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant biflavonoids from Garcinia madruno.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison; Londoño, Julián; Bastida, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7''-O-(6''''-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new compound identified on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation induced with Cu²?, was studied by means of a TBARS assay. The antioxidant potential of a biflavonoid fraction (BF) was also evaluated and correlated with its biflavonoid content. The flavanone-(3?8'')-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly more potent than quercetin, with a CE?? of 12.36 ?g/mL. Lipid peroxidation, was also significantly reduced in the presence of the BF (EC?? = 11.85 ?g/mL). These results suggest that the BF is an excellent antioxidant. PMID:23698056

  20. Native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins enhance superoxide production from diabetic rat glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Tan, M S; Guh, J Y; Tsai, J H; Lai, Y L

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in mediating diabetic complications, and patients with diabetic nephropathy frequently show increased levels of circulating and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In the present study, we measured the superoxide production of glomeruli isolated from poorly controlled diabetic (streptozotocin) rats sacrificed 1 week and 1, and 3 months after the induction of diabetes. The animals were stimulated with native and oxidized LDL isolated from normal humans with normolipidemia. The superoxide ion was measured by using a spectrophotometer. The results demonstrated that the poorly controlled diabetic rat glomeruli showed a significantly higher production of superoxide than normal glomeruli under basal conditions, and this production increased further with the progression of diabetes. Stimulation with either LDL or oxidized LDL enhanced superoxide production by diabetic glomeruli, with oxidized LDL being more potent than LDL. Our results suggest that oxidized LDL may play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through enhanced generation of oxygen free radicals. PMID:10765116

  1. High density lipoprotein cholesterol: an evolving target of therapy in the management of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Navin K; Ashen, Dominique; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of John Gofman in the 1950s, our understanding of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its relationship to coronary heart disease (CHD) has grown substantially. Numerous clinical trials since the Framingham Study in 1977 have demonstrated an inverse relationship between HDL-C and one’s risk of developing CHD. Over the past two decades, preclinical research has gained further insight into the nature of HDL-C metabolism, specifically regarding the ability of HDL-C to promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Recent attempts to harness HDL’s ability to enhance RCT have revealed the complexity of HDL-C metabolism. This review provides a detailed update on HDL-C as an evolving therapeutic target in the management of cardiovascular disease. PMID:18629371

  2. High-Density Lipoprotein – A Hero, a Mirage, or a Witness?

    PubMed Central

    Sviridov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Negative relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a firmly established medical fact, but attempts to reproduce protective properties of HDL by pharmacologically elevating HDL levels were mostly unsuccessful. This conundrum presents a fundamental question: were the approaches used to raise HDL flawed or the protective effects of HDL are an epiphenomenon? Recent attempts to elevate plasma HDL were universally based on reducing HDL catabolism by blocking reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Here, we argue that this mode of HDL elevation may be mechanistically different to natural mechanisms and thus be counterproductive. We further argue that independently of whether HDL is a driving force or a surrogate measure of the rate of RCT, approaches aimed at increasing HDL supply, rather than reducing its catabolism, would be most beneficial for speeding up RCT and improving protection against CVD.

  3. Roles of antibody against oxygenized low density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Daxin; He, Shenghu

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune inflammatory disease. Atherosclerosis and relevant disease are threatening human life and health. Oxygenized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a molecular basis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and able to induce inflammation, stimulate immune system and interfere with lipid metabolism in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Antibody against oxLDL has been an important molecule in the immune related pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In available studies on atherosclerosis, antibody against oxLDL has been a focus, but how oxLDL acts to affect the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, whether oxLDL is protective or detrimental, and whether oxLDL acts in different ways at different stages of atherosclerosis are still unclear. This paper focuses on the role of antibody against oxLDL in the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, and summarizes the advances in this field, aiming to provide new clue and new methods for the therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:26550105

  4. The nucleotide sequence of the very low density lipoprotein II mRNA from chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, B; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an almost complete, double-stranded cDNA of chicken Very Low Density Lipoprotein II mRNA, carried in recombinant plasmid pVLDLII 3.33 (Wieringa et al., 1979, 7: 2147-2163) is presented. A stretch of 318 nucleotides codes for the pre-VLDLII polypeptide, which consists of a 24 amino acids signal and a 82 amino acids secreted protein. The coding stretch is flanked by 57 nucleotides in the 5'-leader sequence of the mRNA, and 258 nucleotides in the 3'-non-coding region. Hypothetical self-complementary structures of parts of the mRNA are presented. Images PMID:7012793

  5. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed Central

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. Images PMID:6856469

  6. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-05-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. PMID:6856469

  7. Turnover products of the apo very low density lipoprotein II messenger RNA from chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Bakker, O; Arnberg, A C; Noteborn, M H; Winter, A J; Ab, G

    1988-11-11

    The mature apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apo VLDLII) mRNA appears in chicken liver within a few hours after estrogen administration. Apart from this mRNA species, shorter RNA molecules hybridizing to apo VLDLII sequences have been detected in rooster liver upon estrogen stimulation. These molecules are present in the non-polyadenylated fraction of the total cellular- and polysomal RNA. Northern blotting and electron microscopy of R-loops were employed to show that these shorter RNA molecules are truncated at their 3'-end. The 3'-termini were further characterized by nuclease S1 analyses, and are located predominantly in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. Using a secondary structure model (Shelness and Williams, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 8637-8646, 1985), we show that the 3' termini map mainly in unpaired regions of the structure. PMID:3194196

  8. Turnover products of the apo very low density lipoprotein II messenger RNA from chicken liver.

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, O; Arnberg, A C; Noteborn, M H; Winter, A J; Ab, G

    1988-01-01

    The mature apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apo VLDLII) mRNA appears in chicken liver within a few hours after estrogen administration. Apart from this mRNA species, shorter RNA molecules hybridizing to apo VLDLII sequences have been detected in rooster liver upon estrogen stimulation. These molecules are present in the non-polyadenylated fraction of the total cellular- and polysomal RNA. Northern blotting and electron microscopy of R-loops were employed to show that these shorter RNA molecules are truncated at their 3'-end. The 3'-termini were further characterized by nuclease S1 analyses, and are located predominantly in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. Using a secondary structure model (Shelness and Williams, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 8637-8646, 1985), we show that the 3' termini map mainly in unpaired regions of the structure. Images PMID:3194196

  9. Paradoxical Elevation of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Association with Lacunar-Type Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Gui-Lin; Tan, Yan; Fang, Min; Yang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Yan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels and the risk of lacunar infarction (LI) in a retrospective cohort study in China. Material/Methods We recruited 229 patients with obsolete brain infarctions single side (SOBI), 218 with obsolete brain infarctions bilateral sides (BOBI), 193 with both acute stroke and obsolete lacunar infarctions single side (AI&SOBI), 113 with both acute stroke and obsolete lacunar infarctions bilateral sides (AI&BOBI), and 203 without any infarctions (Control). Results 1) The plasma levels of HDLC in group BOBI, AI&SOBI, and AI&BOBI were higher than in the control group, and lower in group SOBI than in the control group (p<0.01). 2) The plasma levels of HDLC in group AI&SOBI were significantly higher than in group SOBI (p<0.01). 3) The plasma levels of HLDL were similar between group AI&SOBI and AI&BOBI. 4) There were significant relationships between HDLC and acute lacunar stroke, even after adjusting for these factors such as age, sex, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of diabetes (p=0.001). 4) Compared with the controls, the calculation of odds ratios indicated relative risk estimates of higher HDLC for acute lacunar stroke with obsolete lacunar infarction. Conclusions Elevated HDLC may be an independent predictor of recurrent stroke with obsolete lacunar infarctions single side in Chinese people, justifying clinical trials for secondary prevention of stroke by generally increasing HLDL level. According to the difference between single and bilateral side multiple silent lacunar infarcts, it is inferred that HDLC may increase the risk of atherothrombotic infarction but reduce the risk of cardioembolic infarction in the general Chinese population. PMID:26120926

  10. Metabolic fate of sphingomyelin of high-density lipoprotein in rat plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bentejac, M.; Bugaut, M.; Delachambre, M.C.; Lecerf, J. )

    1990-10-01

    The metabolic fate of high density lipoprotein (HDL) sphingomyelin in plasma was studied in rats over a 24-hr period after injection of HDL containing sphingomyelin which was {sup 14}C-labeled in the stearic (18:0) or lignoceric acid (24:0) moiety and {sup 3}H-labeled in the choline methyl groups. Decay of label in plasma followed three phases. The first two phases were similar for both isotopes and both types of sphingomyelin (t1/2 approximately 10 and 110 min). However, during the third phase (from 10 hr after injection), {sup 3}H label disappeared more slowly than {sup 14}C label from 18:0 sphingomyelin, whereas the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio remained relatively constant when 24:0 sphingomyelin was used. Intact, doubly-labeled 18:0 sphingomyelin disappeared from HDL rapidly (t1/2 = 38 min) by tissue uptake and by transfer to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL contained up to 12% of the sphingomyelin 1 hr after injection. This is the first demonstration of a transfer in vivo of sphingomyelin from HDL to VLDL. A similarly rapid transfer was also observed in vitro. Some nontritiated, ({sup 14}C)18:0 or ({sup 14}C)24:0 sphingomyelin was redistributed more slowly into HDL. Doubly-labeled phosphatidylcholine appeared in VLDL and HDL within 1 hr after injection and reached 1.8 and 2.1% of the injected {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H in VLDL at 1 hr, and 4.8 and 6.9% in HDL at 3 hr, respectively.

  11. Flow-cytometric determination of high-density-lipoprotein binding sites on human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, G.; Wulf, G.; Bruening, T.A.; Assmann, G.

    1987-12-01

    In this method, leukocytes were isolated from 6 mL of EDTA-blood by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC)-conjugated high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The receptor-bound conjugate particles were determined by fluorescent flow cytometry and compared with /sup 125/I-labeled HDL binding data for the same cells. Human granulocytes express the highest number of HDL binding sites (9.4 x 10(4)/cell), followed by monocytes (7.3 x 10(4)/cell) and lymphocytes (4.0 x 10(4)/cell). Compared with conventional analysis of binding of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL in tissue-culture dishes, the present determination revealed significantly lower values for nonspecific binding. In competition studies, the conjugate competes for the same binding sites as /sup 125/I-labeled HDL. With the use of tetranitromethane-treated HDL3, which fails to compete for the HDL receptor sites while nonspecific binding is not affected, we could clearly distinguish between 37 degrees C surface binding and specific 37 degrees C uptake of RITC-HDL3, confirming that the HDL receptor leads bound HDL particles into an intracellular pathway rather than acting as a docking type of receptor. Patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia showed a significantly higher number of HDL binding sites in the granulocyte population but normal in lymphocytes and monocytes, indicating increased uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, HDL binding was increased in all three cell types, indicating increased cholesterol uptake and increased cholesterol synthesis. The present method allows rapid determination of HDL binding sites in leukocytes from patients with various forms of hyper- and dyslipoproteinemias.

  12. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich nascent rat hepatic high density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, K.E.; Marsh, J.B. )

    1989-07-01

    Nascent high density lipoprotein (HDL) and nascent very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were isolated from rat livers that had been perfused with (3H)glycerol to label the triglyceride. When injected into intact rats, the labeled HDL-triglyceride disappeared as rapidly as the VLDL-triglyceride, with only 10% of the injected label remaining in the plasma after 30 min. The protein moiety of nascent HDL was labeled with (35S)methionine in a similar fashion and the labeled nascent HDL was separated into nonretained (NR) and retained (R) fractions by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. When injected into rats, 55% of the injected label in nascent fraction NR and 72% of that in nascent fraction R was recovered from plasma at 30 min, compared to only 10% of the triglyceride label from unfractionated nascent HDL, indicating dissociation of triglyceride and apolipoprotein clearance. The plasma decay curves for both triglyceride and protein were biexponential. By 5 min, 15% of the 35S label remaining in plasma represented apoE and apoC that had been transferred from nascent HDL fractions NR and R to the d less than 1.063 g/ml fraction of plasma. Plasma HDL was labeled in vivo with (35S)methionine, separated into fractions NR and R, and the clearance of the two plasma HDL fractions was compared with that of the corresponding nascent HDL fractions. Except for a faster rate of removal of the nascent HDL fractions during the first 5 min, the serum decay curves were very similar.

  13. Apolipoprotein B100 quality control and the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein secretion

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Eric; Lake, Elizabeth; McLeod, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the main protein component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is necessary for the assembly and secretion of these triglyceride (TG)-rich particles. Following release from the liver, VLDL is converted to low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the plasma and increased production of VLDL can therefore play a detrimental role in cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence has helped to establish VLDL assembly as a target for the treatment of dyslipidemias. Multiple factors are involved in the folding of the apoB protein and the formation of a secretion-competent VLDL particle. Failed VLDL assembly can initiate quality control mechanisms in the hepatocyte that target apoB for degradation. ApoB is a substrate for endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) by the ubiquitin proteasome system and for autophagy. Efficient targeting and disposal of apoB is a regulated process that modulates VLDL secretion and partitioning of TG. Emerging evidence suggests that significant overlap exists between these degradative pathways. For example, the insulin-mediated targeting of apoB to autophagy and postprandial activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) may employ the same cellular machinery and regulatory cues. Changes in the quality control mechanisms for apoB impact hepatic physiology and pathology states, including insulin resistance and fatty liver. Insulin signaling, lipid metabolism and the hepatic UPR may impact VLDL production, particularly during the postprandial state. In this review we summarize our current understanding of VLDL assembly, apoB degradation, quality control mechanisms and the role of these processes in liver physiology and in pathologic states. PMID:25013401

  14. Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus, low density lipoproteins, response to pravastatin and coronary heart disease: results from PROSPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caucasian carriers of the T allele at R46L in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) locus have been reported to have 15% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) levels and 47% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Our objective was to examine two PCSK9 single nucle...

  15. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  16. efficiently activates its G protein A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    efficiently activates its G protein A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle Brian Kobilka, and Roger K. Sunahara Matthew R. Whorton, Michael P. Bokoch, Søren G. F, see: Reprints www.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;A monomeric G

  17. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (?1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  18. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I epitopes in high density lipoproteins and in serum

    SciTech Connect

    Marcel, Y.L.; Jewer, D.; Vezina, C.; Milthorp, P.; Weech, P.K.

    1987-07-01

    The expression and immunoreactivity of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I epitopes in high density lipoproteins (HDL) and serum has been investigated using two series of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) which have been described elsewhere. Series 1 Mabs, identified as 3D4, 6B8, and 5G6, were obtained by immunization and screening with apoA-I, and series 2 Mabs, identified as 2F1, 4H1, 3G10, 4F7, and 5F6, were obtained by immunization and screening with HDL. These Mabs were characterized with respect to their binding to HDL particles in solution. In series 2 Mabs, 2F1, 3G10, and 4F7, which react with apoA-I CNBr-fragments 1 and 2, could precipitate 100% of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL, while 4H1 and 5F6, which react with CNBr fragments 1 and 3, precipitated 90 and 60% of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL, respectively. Therefore, three distinct epitopes mapped to CNBr fragments 1 and 2 have been identified which are expressed on all HDL particles, indicating that several antigenic do mains exist on apoA-I which have the same conformation on all apoA-I-containing lipoproteins. The Mabs reacting at these sites have significantly higher affinity constants for /sup 125/I-labeled HDL than those that failed to precipitate 100% of HDL. This suggests that the high affinity Mabs react with apoA-I epitopes that are both expressed on all lipoproteins and located in thermo-dynamically stable regions of the molecules. All Mabs from series 1 precipitated 35% or less of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL prepared from freshly collected serum, but the proportion of HDL particles expressing the epitopes for these Mabs doubled or more upon serum storage at 4 degrees C. The time course of the alteration of apoA-I antigen in vitro was measured in three normolipemic donors.

  19. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Study Makes High-Density Lipoprotein a Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Yuh; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Shih-Yi

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipid and protein complex that consists of apolipoproteins and lower level HDL-associated enzymes. HDL dysfunction is a factor in atherosclerosis and decreases patient survival. Mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics provides a high throughput approach for analyzing the composition and modifications of complex HDL proteins in diseases. HDL can be separated according to size, surface charge, electronegativity, or apoprotein composition. MS-based proteomics on subfractionated HDL then allows investigation of lipoprotein roles in diseases. Herein, we review recent developments in MS-based quantitative proteomic techniques, HDL proteomics and lipoprotein modifications in diseases, and HDL subfractionation studies. We also discuss future directions and perspectives in MS-based proteomics on HDL. PMID:26090384

  20. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  1. Total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and risk of mortality: evidence of a threshold effect.

    PubMed Central

    Goldbourt, U; Holtzman, E; Neufeld, H N

    1985-01-01

    The association of serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol values with 15 year mortality was examined in a cohort of 10 059 Israeli male civil servants and municipal employees aged 40 and above. In 618 of 1664 deaths in the cohort (37%) coronary heart disease was documented as the cause of death. Risk of mortality was analysed by quintiles. Neither total mortality nor coronary heart disease mortality rose with serum cholesterol concentrations up to 5.6 mmol/1 (216 mg/100 ml), representing 60% of the sample. Rates rose appreciably only in the highest quintile (cholesterol concentration greater than 6.2 mmol/1; greater than 241 mg/100 ml). High density lipoprotein cholesterol was similarly, although inversely, associated with total mortality when expressed as a percentage of total cholesterol. The inverse association of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with coronary heart disease mortality was, in contrast, continuous. These data support the hypothesis that over most of the range of cholesterol values coronary mortality risk and total mortality risk are nearly independent of total cholesterol and most probably independent of low density lipoprotein cholesterol values. In multivariate analysis a low concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol appeared to be more predictive of mortality than a high concentration of total cholesterol. The latter was very weakly related to mortality from all causes after multivariate adjustment. It is concluded that the findings of this and other major epidemiological studies support the notion of a "threshold effect." Success in reducing mortality through the pharmacological reduction of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic patients does not warrant a similar approach in people with average or slightly above average values. These findings appear to provide support for a "high risk strategy" in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:3921172

  2. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  3. Chloroquine increases low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma in systemic lupus patients.

    PubMed

    Sachet, J C; Borba, E F; Bonfá, E; Vinagre, C G C; Silva, V M; Maranhão, R C

    2007-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) pathway in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients taking chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) was evaluated through the kinetic behavior of a radioactive cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that resembles the LDL lipidic structure. LDE was labeled with (14)C-cholesteryl ester ((14)C-CE), then IV injected in inactive female SLE patients: 10 taking CDP (CDP), 10 without therapy (NO THERAPY); and 10 normal subjects (CONTROL). Groups were age-matched and followed rigorous selection criteria of conditions that interfere in the lipid profile. Blood samples were collected in pre-established intervals after infusion for radioactivity measurement. Fasting lipoproteins were determined in the beginning of kinetic studies. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of (14)C-CE was significantly different in the three groups (P = 0.03). In fact, a greater FCR of (14)C-CE was observed in CDP compared to NO THERAPY (0.076 +/- 0.037 versus 0.046 +/- 0.021 h(-1); P < 0.05) and to CONTROL (0.0516 +/- 0.0125 h(-1); P < 0.05). Accordingly, a significant lower total and LDL cholesterol were observed in CDP (156 +/- 16 and 88 +/- 16 mg/dl) compared to NO THERAPY (174 +/- 15 and 108 +/- 17 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and to CONTROL (200 +/- 24 and 118 +/- 23 mg/dl; P < 0.05). In contrast, no difference in (FCR) of (14)C-CE of NO THERAPY and CONTROL groups was observed. This is the first in vivo demonstration that LDE removal by LDL receptor from plasma is increased in SLE patients taking CDP with a consequent beneficial decrease in LDL-c levels. PMID:17439934

  4. The interaction between human low density lipoproteins and bovine aortic endothelial cells. Measurements of membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Badea, M G; Sima, A; Jinga, V V; Hörer, O

    1989-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture have been incubated with human low density lipoproteins (LDL) characterized in their cholesterol content. The incubation was done at different time intervals up to 72 h and various LDL concentrations. It began after endothelial cells had been starved for 24 h in lipoprotein deficient serum. The transfer of some LDL-components to endothelial cells plasmalemma was monitored by measurements of membrane fluidity. Namely, the fluorescent probe trimethylamonio-diphenyl hexatriene was inserted in the cell membrane and fluorescence anisotropy was determined; a higher fluorescence anisotropy means a higher rigidity of the plasmalemma. The results show that the rigidity of the endothelial cell plasmalemma increased progressively with the time of incubation (+11% to +19.5% after 24 h and 72 h, respectively for the concentration of 200 micrograms. LDL-cholesterol/dish) and with the greater amount of cholesterol in LDL (+10.9%) for 200 micrograms LDL-cholesterol/dish to +15% for 800 micrograms LDL-cholesterol/dish after 24 h incubation). In order to see if the LDL material transfer proceeded by receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL and/or directly through aqueous solution a lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, was used at the concentration of 20 microM for preventing the lysosomal hydrolase activity. In the presence of this inhibitor the fluorescence anisotropy in treated endothelial cells increased by a lesser amount, suggesting an approx. 30% participation of intracellular route. Therefore, the transfer of material (probably cholesterol) from LDL to endothelial plasmalemma could take place both by receptor-mediated endocytosis and directly through the aqueous solution. PMID:2510195

  5. Chain dynamics of selectively deuterated fatty acids in high-density lipoproteins studied by deuterium NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, Y.I.; Gorrissen, H.; Wassall, S.R.; Cushley, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Deuterium order parameters have been determined for approximately 5 mol% selectively deuterated palmitic acid incorporated into the outer monolayer of high-density lipoproteins (HDL/sub 3/). The values are SCD = 0.38 for (2,2-/sup 2/H/sub 2/)palmitic acid, 0.38 for (4,4-/sup 2/H/sub 2/)palmitic acid, 0.37 for (5,5,6,6-/sup 2/H/sub 4/)palmitic acid, 0.23 for (11,11,12,12-/sup 2/H/sub 4/)palmitic acid, and 0.05 for (16,16,16-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)palmitic acid. Comparison of the acyl chain order parameters in HDL/sub 3/ with acyl chain order parameters determined recently for approximately 5 mol% deuterated palmitic acid in sonicated unilamellar vesicles, composed of the same ratio of phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin (85/15 w/w) found in HDL/sub 3/, shows that acyl chain order in the HDL/sub 3/ monolayer is approximately 3-5 times higher than in the vesicle bilayer. The acyl chain order in the lipoprotein monolayer is approximately 1.5-2 times higher than in the bilayer of phosphatidylcholine multilamellar dispersions. Deuterium longitudinal relaxation times have been measured for deuterated palmitic acid in HDL/sub 3/, and the values T/sub 1/ approximately 16 ms for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and 170 ms for C/sub 2/H/sub 3/ groups are a factor of more than 2 times smaller than found in phospholipid bilayers.

  6. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: in vitro binding of high-density lipoprotein subfractions to liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine whether the elevated plasma and HDL cholesterol levels observed in copper-deficient rats could be explained by the interaction of /sup 125/I-HDL subfractions with liver membrane preparations in vitro. Rats from all studies were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, copper-deficient and adequate (0.7 mg and 8.0 mg Cukg diet, respectively). Total binding data and computer derived estimates (K/sub d/ and B/sub max/) were used to compare differences between treatments. Binding data from all experiments conformed to a one-site model. In all cases, binding was saturable and EDTA and pronase insensitive. Treatment differences were observed in Study I (/sup 125/I-apo E-free HDL binding to crude liver membranes). Significantly lower total binding and B/sub max/ were observed when lipoproteins and membranes from copper-deficient animals were used in the assay. Competition experiments from Studies II and III demonstrate that the different HDL subfractions competed effectively with one another for binding sites, indicating that apo E is not a determinant in binding of rat /sup 125/I-HDL subfractions to purified liver plasma membranes

  7. [A history and review of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and their contribution to the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of high density lipoprotein].

    PubMed

    Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. PMID:24094503

  8. Compositional or charge density modification of the endothelial glycocalyx accelerates flow-dependent concentration polarization of low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyan; Fan, Yubo; Sun, Anqiang; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-01

    We hypothesized that diminished endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) at atherosclerotic lesion-prone sites accelerates flow-dependent concentration polarization of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) at the luminal surface, and in turn contributes to vulnerability of these sites to atherosclerosis. A parallel plate flow chamber was applied to expose cultured endothelial monolayers to three different levels of shear stress (3, 12, 20 dyn/cm(2)). Heparinase III (Hep.III) was employed to degrade heparan sulfate proteoglycans selectively and 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid-buffered physiological salt solutions (MOPS-PSS) were used at either normal ionic strength (Normal-MOPS), low ionic strength (LO-MOPS) or high ionic strength (HI-MOPS) to modify the effective charge density of the endothelial GCX. Water filtration velocity (V(w)) across the endothelial monolayer, the luminal concentration of LDLs (C(w)) and the uptake of LDLs by endothelial cells were measured and compared among the following five groups of cells: (1) Control; (2) Hep.III treatment; (3) LO-MOPS; (4) Normal-MOPS; and (5) HI-MOPS. The results obtained substantiated the aforementioned hypothesis and demonstrated that compositional or charge density modification of the endothelial GCX facilitated water filtration across the endothelium, enhanced the accumulation of LDLs on the luminal surface and increased the uptake of LDLs by endothelial cells, therefore contributing to atherogenesis. PMID:21659384

  9. Possible role of the Golgi apparatus in the assembly of very low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, M.J.; Lane, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Transit of newly synthesized triacyl(3H)-glycerol through organelles of the secretory system leading to assembly into nascent very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) or to cytoplasmic storage was investigated in chick hepatocytes. Cells in monolayer culture were pulse-labeled with (2-3H)glycerol, and after different periods of chase with unlabeled glycerol, the movement of triacyl(3H)glycerol through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and the incorporation into nascent VLDL and cytoplasmic triacylglycerol-rich vesicles (TGRVs) were determined. Initially, newly synthesized triacyl(3H)glycerol is tightly associated with the ER. Movement from the ER of triacyl(3H)glycerol destined for cytoplasmic storage (as TGRVs) is extremely rapid and virtually complete within 8 min of chase. After 8 min of chase, triacyl(3H)glycerol lost from organelles of the secretory system was accounted for entirely as triacyl(3H)glycerol secreted as VLDL. Comparison of the rates of movement of triacyl(3H)glycerol, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein II, and apolipoprotein A-I through the ER and Golgi and of their secretion in nascent VLDL suggests that assembly of triacyglycerol with apolipoproteins occurs in the Golgi. Experiments with permeabilized hepatocytes supplemented with cytosol show that newly synthesized triacyl(3H)glycerol and (3H)phospholipid moves from the ER through the full-density range of Golgi elements and is dependent upon supplementary ATP.

  10. Fluorescent low density lipoprotein for observation of dynamics of individual receptor complexes on cultured human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The visible wavelength excited fluorophore 3,3'- dioctadecylindocarbocyanine iodide (Dil[3]) was incorporated into human low density lipoprotein (LDL) to form the highly fluorescent LDL derivative dil(3)-LDL. Dil(3)-LDL binds to normal human fibroblasts and to human fibroblasts defective in LDL receptor internalization but does not bind to LDL receptor-negative human fibroblasts at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C. It is internalized rapidly at 37 degrees C by normal fibroblasts and depresses the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in a manner similar to that of LDL. It is prevented from binding to the LDL receptor by an excess of unlabeled LDL or by heparin sulfate. Identical distributions of dil(3)- LDL are observed on cells by either indirect immunofluorescence with fluorescein-labeled antibody or directly by dil(3) fluorescence. Upwards of 45 molecules of dil(3) are incorporated per molecule of LDL without affecting binding to the receptor. This labeling renders individual molecules visible by their fluorescence and enables the derivative to be used in dynamic studies of LDL-receptor motion on living fibroblasts by standard fluorescence techniques at low LDL receptor density. Observations with this derivative indicate that the LDL-receptor complex is immobilized on the surface of human fibroblasts but, when free of this linkage, undergoes a Brownian motion consistent with theory. PMID:6270157

  11. The mechanism of oxidation-induced low-density lipoprotein aggregation: an analogy to colloidal aggregation and beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Lin, B

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease initiated by lipoprotein aggregation and deposition in artery walls. In this study, the de novo low-density lipoprotein aggregation process was examined. Nine major intermediates were identified in two stages of the aggregation process. In the aggregation stage, low-density lipoprotein molecules aggregate and form nucleation units. The nucleation units chain together and form linear aggregates. The linear aggregates branch and interact with one another, forming fractals. In the fusion stage, spatially adjacent nucleation units in the fractal fuse into curved membrane surfaces, which, in turn, fuse into multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles. Alternatively, some adjacent nucleation units in the fractals assemble in a straight line and form rods. Subsequently, the rods flatten out into rough and then into smooth ribbons. Occasionally, tubular membrane vesicles are formed from the fractals. The aggregation stage seems to be analogous to colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. The fusion stage seems to be characteristic of the lipid-rich lipoproteins and is beyond colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:11566810

  12. Mechanisms responsible for hepatic very low density lipoprotein-apoB100 overproduction in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overproduction of hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)1 particles is a major abnormality of lipoprotein dysregulation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to examine the mechanisms linking systemic/hepatic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and apolipoprotein (apo) B100-containing...

  13. Clinical significance of preoperative serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Que, Yi; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Liting; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yongming; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    The prognostic value of lipid profile remains unclear in soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of the present study was to validate the prognostic value of preoperative plasma lipid profile (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], cholesterol, and triglycerides) levels on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients undergoing extensive and radical surgical resection.The preoperative plasma lipid profile levels of 234 STS patients, who were operated on between 2000 with 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were calculated for DFS and OS.In univariate analysis, a decreased HDL-C level was significantly associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.405; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.445-8.021, P?=?0.005) and remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 5.615; 95% CI, 1.243-25.378, P?=?0.025). Patients with HDL-C?

  14. Effect of improving glycemic control on low-density lipoprotein particle size in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wägner, Ana María; Jorba, Oscar; Rigla, Mercedes; Bonet, Rosa; de Leiva, Alberto; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Pérez, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The current study sought to assess the effect of improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes on the components of diabetic dyslipidemia, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size. A total of 33 type 2 diabetic patients (48.5% women, age 59.6 +/- 11.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.9 +/- 4.9, diabetes duration 6 [0 to 40] years, 40.7% on insulin) were seen at the hospital because of poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)] 10.33% +/- 1.89%). Triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc, Friedewald/ ultracentrifugation), high-density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDLc, direct method), apolipoproteins AI (apoAI) and B (apoB) (immunoturbidimetry), and LDL size (gradient gel electrophoresis) were measured at baseline and after improvement in glycemic control (decrease >/= 1 percentage point in HbA(1c) and final HbA(1c)

  15. Determining a new formula for calculating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: data mining approach

    PubMed Central

    Dansethakul, Prabhop; Thapanathamchai, Lalin; Saichanma, Sarawut; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Pidetcha, Phannee

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a risk factor of coronary heart diseases. The estimation of LDL-C (LDL-Cal) level was performed using Friedewald's equation for triglyceride (TG) level less than 400 mg/dL. Therefore, the aim of this study is to generate a new formula for LDL-Cal and validate the correlation coefficient between LDL-Cal and LDL-C directly measured (LDL-Direct). A data set of 1786 individuals receiving annual medical check-ups from the Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Thailand in 2008 was used in this study. Lipid profiles including total cholesterol (TC), TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C were determined using Roche/Hitachi modular system analyzer. The estimated LDL-C was obtained using Friedewald's equation and the homogenous enzymatic method. The level of TG was divided into 6 groups (TG<200, <300, <400, <500, <600 and < 1000 mg/dL) for constructing the LDL-Cal formula. The pace regression model was used to construct the candidate formula for the LDL-Cal and determine the correlation coefficient (r) with the LDL-Direct. The candidate LDL-Cal formula was generated for 6 groups of TG levels that displayed well correlation between LDL-Cal and LDL-Direct. Interestingly, The TG level was less than 1000 mg/dL, the regression model was able to generate the equation as shown as strong r of 0.9769 with LDL-Direct. Furthermore, external data set (n = 666) with TG measurement (36-1480 mg/dL) was used to validate new formula which displayed high r of 0.971 between LDL-Cal and LDL-direct. This study explored a new formula for LDL-Cal which exhibited higher r of 0.9769 and far beyond the limitation of TG more than 1000 mg/dL and potential used for estimating LDL-C in routine clinical laboratories.

  16. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ?3 and diabetes, a body mass index ?25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ?90 cm, and a visceral fat area ?100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  17. Rosuvastatin Alters the Proteome of High Density Lipoproteins: Generation of alpha-1-antitrypsin Enriched Particles with Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Scott M; McKenzie, Benjamin; Kemeh, Georgina; Sampson, Maureen; Perl, Shira; Young, Neal S; Fessler, Michael B; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-12-01

    Statins lower plasma cholesterol by as much as 50%, thus reducing future cardiovascular events. However, the physiological effects of statins are diverse and not all are related to low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We performed a small clinical pilot study to assess the impact of statins on lipoprotein-associated proteins in healthy individuals (n = 10) with normal LDL-C (<130 mg/dL), who were treated with rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) for 28 days. Proteomic analysis of size-exclusion chromatography isolated LDL, large high density lipoprotein (HDL-L), and small HDL (HDL-S) fractions and spectral counting was used to compare relative protein detection before and after statin therapy. Significant protein changes were found in each lipoprotein pool and included both increases and decreases in several proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, complement regulation and acute phase response. The most dramatic effect of the rosuvastatin treatment was an increase in ?-1-antirypsin (A1AT) spectral counts associated with HDL-L particles. Quantitative measurement by ELISA confirmed an average 5.7-fold increase in HDL-L associated A1AT. Molecular modeling predictions indicated that the hydrophobic reactive center loop of A1AT, the functional domain responsible for its protease inhibitor activity, is likely involved in lipid binding and association with HDL was found to protect A1AT against oxidative inactivation. Cell culture experiments, using J774 macrophages, demonstrated that the association of A1AT with HDL enhances its antiprotease activity, preventing elastase induced production of tumor necrosis factor ?. In conclusion, we show that statins can significantly alter the protein composition of both LDL and HDL and our studies reveal a novel functional relationship between A1AT and HDL. The up-regulation of A1AT on HDL enhances its anti-inflammatory functionality, which may contribute to the non-lipid lowering beneficial effects of statins. PMID:26483418

  18. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein-Containing Circulating Immune Complexes as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis and Type 1 Diabetes Macrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Chistiakov, Dimitry A.

    2014-01-01

    In atherosclerosis; blood low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are subjected to multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications that increase their atherogenicity and induce immunogenicity. Modified LDL are capable of inducing vascular inflammation through activation of innate immunity; thus, contributing to the progression of atherogenesis. The immunogenicity of modified LDL results in induction of self-antibodies specific to a certain type of modified LDL. The antibodies react with modified LDL forming circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes exhibit prominent immunomodulatory properties that influence atherosclerotic inflammation. Compared to freely circulating modified LDL; modified LDL associated with the immune complexes have a more robust atherogenic and proinflammatory potential. Various lipid components of the immune complexes may serve not only as diagnostic but also as essential predictive markers of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that LDL-containing immune complexes can also serve as biomarker for macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25050779

  19. Effects of Myeloperoxidase-Induced Oxidation on Antiatherogenic Functions of High-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Takahiro; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Yano, Kouji; Usami, Yoko; Miyazaki, Akari; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis; these effects include reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant ability, and anti-inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions generates tyrosyl radicals in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules, inducing the formation of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers through the tyrosine-tyrosine bond in HDL. Functional characterization of HDL oxidized by MPO could provide useful information about the significance of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers measurement. We investigated the effects of MPO-induced oxidation on the antiatherogenic functions of HDL as described above. The antioxidant ability of HDL, estimated as the effect on LDL oxidation induced by copper sulfate, was not significantly affected after MPO oxidation. HDL reduced THP-1 monocyte migration by suppressing the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MPO-oxidized HDL also showed inhibition of THP-1 chemotaxis, but the extent of inhibition was significantly attenuated compared to intact HDL. MPO treatment did not affect the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from [3H]-cholesterol-laden macrophages derived from THP-1 cells. The principal effect of MPO oxidation on the antiatherogenic potential of HDL would be the reduction of anti-inflammatory ability, suggesting that measurement of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers might be useful to estimate anti-inflammatory ability of HDL. PMID:26257958

  20. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induced inflammatory process during atherogenesis with aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, Anis; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Douziech, Nadine; Guérard, Karl-Philippe; Fülöp, Tamàs

    2005-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease developing through decades with two life-threatening complications: myocardial infarction and stroke. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) produced by oxidative modifications of LDL in the subendothelial space have been demonstrated to be critically involved in atherogenesis through their intensive pro-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was shown that oxLDL have an apoptosis-inducing effect in T cells depending on time and degree of oxidation. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptotic-inducing effects of oxLDL on T lymphocytes. T cells of young and elderly subjects were incubated for various periods of time with LDL oxidized to various degrees. The proliferation, the apoptosis, the MAPK ERK1/2 activation and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members were measured upon different LDL treatments. Thus, more the LDL are oxidized more they induce apoptosis and this effect is highly accentuated with aging. The oxLDL decrease the activation of the surviving molecule ERK1/2 and modulate the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 towards a pro-apoptotic profile, which is also accentuated with aging. These results partly explain why atherosclerosis is increasing with aging concomitantly to its complications.

  1. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  2. A Statin-Loaded Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticle Inhibits Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show this effect is mediated through inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions where they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally we demonstrate that a three-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a one-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation. PMID:24445279

  3. How Do PCSK9 Inhibitors Stack Up to Statins for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Marj P

    2015-11-01

    Despite advances in the approach toward treating hypercholesterolemia and widespread access to statin medications, not all people are able to reach target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Some of the reasons include the inability to tolerate statin therapy, LDL-C levels that remain high even in the presence of statin therapy, and a familial disorder that is characterized by extremely high levels of LDL-C. A new therapeutic class, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, represents a novel and promising approach to reducing LDL-C levels using a mechanism at the LDL receptor level. The recent approval of the first 2 PCSK9 inhibitors and the anticipated approval of the third agent in this class within approximately 1 year may provide clinicians powerful new weapons to lower LDL-C levels in patients who are not satisfactorily managed with statins. However, the results of long-term studies of the ability of these new medications to influence cardiovascular outcomes will not be known for several years. PMID:26702335

  4. How Do PCSK9 Inhibitors Stack Up to Statins for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Marj P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the approach toward treating hypercholesterolemia and widespread access to statin medications, not all people are able to reach target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Some of the reasons include the inability to tolerate statin therapy, LDL-C levels that remain high even in the presence of statin therapy, and a familial disorder that is characterized by extremely high levels of LDL-C. A new therapeutic class, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, represents a novel and promising approach to reducing LDL-C levels using a mechanism at the LDL receptor level. The recent approval of the first 2 PCSK9 inhibitors and the anticipated approval of the third agent in this class within approximately 1 year may provide clinicians powerful new weapons to lower LDL-C levels in patients who are not satisfactorily managed with statins. However, the results of long-term studies of the ability of these new medications to influence cardiovascular outcomes will not be known for several years. PMID:26702335

  5. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanoparticles as Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Foit, Linda; Angeloni, Nicholas L.; Giles, Francis J.; Gordon, Leo I.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are diverse natural nanoparticles that carry cholesterol and are best known for the role that they play in cardiovascular disease. However, due to their unique targeting capabilities, diverse molecular cargo, and natural functions beyond cholesterol transport, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that HDLs are critical to cancer development and progression. Accordingly, this chapter highlights ongoing research focused on the connections between HDL and cancer in order to design new drugs and targeted drug delivery vehicles. Research is focused on synthesizing biomimetic HDL-like nanoparticles (NP) that can be loaded with diverse therapeutic cargo (e.g. chemotherapies, nucleic acids, proteins) and specifically targeted to cancer cells. Beyond drug delivery, new data is emerging that HDL-like NPs may be therapeutically active in certain tumor types, for example B cell lymphoma. Overall, HDL-like NPs are becoming increasingly appreciated as targeted, biocompatible, and efficient therapies for cancer, and may soon become indispensable agents in the cancer therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25895867

  6. Very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride kinetics in acute and chronic carbohydrate-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, T.; Mamo, J.; Poapst, M.; Steiner, G.

    1988-09-01

    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) kinetics were examined in rats maintained on either chow and water (control) or chow and a 10% carbohydrate drinking solution (fructose or glucose). The hexose solutions were available for an acute (16 h) or chronic (14 day) period. The acute fructose (AF), acute glucose (AG), and chronic fructose (CF) groups were hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) compared with control. Plasma TG concentration in chronic glucose (CG)-fed rats was similar to control. VLDL-TG was endogenously radiolabeled in donor rats with (2-3H)-glycerol. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was then determined by monitoring the clearance of plasma (3H)VLDL-TG in recipient animals. Donors and recipients were treated in an identical manner. AF and CF groups had an FCR significantly lower than rats given glucose for comparable periods. Both fructose groups and the AG group also had a lower FCR than control. In contrast, FCR in the CG group was significantly higher than controls. TG production rate (TGPR) in both AF and CF fed rats did not significantly differ from controls, suggesting that the HTG observed in these animals was solely from a catabolic defect. AG- and CG-treated glucose animals both had TGPR significantly higher than controls. Therefore, overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to the HTG associated with this carbohydrate.

  7. Tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel using low density lipoprotein-mimetic solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Youngwook; Bae, Ki Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Lee, Jung Hee; Park, Keunchil

    2015-04-01

    Water-insoluble anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, present severe clinical side effects when administered to patients, primarily associated with the toxicity of reagents used to solubilize the drugs. In efforts to develop alternative formulations of water-insoluble anticancer drugs suitable for intravenous administration, we developed biocompatible anticancer therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), mimicking the structure and composition of natural particles, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel. These therapeutic nanoparticles contained water-insoluble paclitaxel in the core with tumor-targeting ligand covalently conjugated on the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified surface (targeted PtSLNs). In preclinical human cancer xenograft mouse model studies, the paclitaxel-containing tumor-targeting SLNs exhibited pronounced in vivo stability and enhanced biocompatibility. Furthermore, these SLNs had superior antitumor activity to in-class nanoparticular therapeutics in clinical use (Taxol and Genexol-PM) and yielded long-term complete responses. The in vivo targeted antitumor activities of the SLN formulations in a mouse tumor model suggest that LDL-mimetic SLN formulations can be utilized as a biocompatible, tumor-targeting platform for the delivery of various anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25686010

  8. The role of lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in vascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel James; Seese, Rachel; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Ajjan, Ramzi

    2014-11-01

    The lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a vascular scavenger receptor that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic disease, which remains the main cause of mortality in the Western population. Recent evidence indicates that targeting LOX-1 represents a credible strategy for the management vascular disease and the current review explores the role of this molecule in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis. LOX-1-mediated pro-atherogenic effects can be inhibited by anti-LOX-1 monoclonal antibodies and procyanidins, whereas downregulation of LOX-1 expression has been achieved by antisense oligonucleotides and a specific pyrrole-imidazole polyamide. Furthermore, LOX-1 can be utilised for plaque imaging using monoclonal antibodies and even the selective delivery of anti-atherosclerotic agents employing immunoliposome techniques. Also, plasma levels of the circulating soluble form of LOX-1 levels are elevated in atherosclerosis and therefore may constitute an additional diagnostic biomarker of vascular pathology. PMID:25216847

  9. Macrophage uptake of low-density lipoprotein modified by 4-hydroxynonenal. An ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, H.F.; Cole, T.B. )

    1991-02-01

    We have documented the ultrastructural characteristics of the uptake and processing by mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an intermediate of lipid peroxidation. This was performed as part of a larger biochemical study assessing the role of LDL oxidation in lipid loading of macrophages during atherogenesis. Gold-labeled LDL that was modified with HNE leading to particle aggregation represented the morphologic probe used. When incubated with MPM, the probe became associated with short segments of cell membrane, probably derived from blebs or from lysed cells. At 37 degrees C there was a time-dependent increase in uptake by MPM, and at 4 hours the increase paralleled the degradation by MPM of 125I-labeled HNE-LDL-cAu. Clathrin-coated pits on the cell surface were consistently associated with probe. Uptake of probe appeared to occur via phagocytosis, because pseudopods frequently surrounded probe, and cytochalasin D quantitatively prevented probe uptake. A time-dependent increase was found in the number of gold particles per unit area within vacuoles, some of which were secondary lysosomes, based on acid phosphatase-positive staining. Thus, HNE-induced aggregation of LDL during oxidation, binding of aggregates to clathrin-coated pits on MPM, and subsequent phagocytosis may represent one of the ways lipid-laden foam cells are formed in vivo.

  10. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  11. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; g?n jú hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  12. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30?min after injection, reached the peak in 3?hours, and became undetectable in 12?hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6?hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR?/?) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR?/? mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  13. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30?min after injection, reached the peak in 3?hours, and became undetectable in 12?hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6?hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR(-/-) mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  14. A rare polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) gene that affects mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Sun, X-M; Soutar, A K

    2007-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is usually caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDLR) that impair clearance of LDL from the circulation. The increased risk of premature coronary heart disease associated with FH can be reduced by dietary advice and treatment with lipid-lowering drug therapy, but it is important to identify affected individuals at an early stage. Several programmes for genetic diagnosis of FH that rely on identifying nucleotide substitutions in genomic DNA have been initiated, but the validity of these is dependent on distinguishing between a silent nucleotide variant and a mutation that affects LDL-receptor function. Here we describe a single nucleotide substitution in the coding region of exon 9 of LDLR that is an apparently silent polymorphism: CGG (Arg406) to AGG (Arg). Analysis of mRNA from the patient's cells showed that the mutation introduces a new splice site that is used to the exclusion of the natural splice site and causes a deletion of 31 bp from the mRNA, predicted to introduce premature termination four codons after R406. This finding emphasizes the caution needed in genetic diagnosis of FH based on genomic DNA sequence alone. PMID:17335829

  15. Sphingomyelin in High-Density Lipoproteins: Structural Role and Biological Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Lou-Bonafonte, Jose M.; Martínez-Gracia, María V.; Osada, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are an inverse risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and sphingomyelin (SM) is the second most abundant phospholipid component and the major sphingolipid in HDL. Considering the marked presence of SM, the present review has focused on the current knowledge about this phospholipid by addressing its variable distribution among HDL lipoparticles, how they acquire this phospholipid, and the important role that SM plays in regulating their fluidity and cholesterol efflux from different cells. In addition, plasma enzymes involved in HDL metabolism such as lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase or phospholipid transfer protein are inhibited by HDL SM content. Likewise, HDL SM levels are influenced by dietary maneuvers (source of protein or fat), drugs (statins or diuretics) and modified in diseases such as diabetes, renal failure or Niemann–Pick disease. Furthermore, increased levels of HDL SM have been shown to be an inverse risk factor for coronary heart disease. The complexity of SM species, described using new lipidomic methodologies, and their distribution in different HDL particles under many experimental conditions are promising avenues for further research in the future. PMID:23571495

  16. Effect of low density lipoprotein on the quality of cryopreserved dog semen.

    PubMed

    Varela Junior, A S; Corcini, C D; Ulguim, R R; Alvarenga, M V F; Bianchi, I; Corrêa, M N; Lucia, T; Deschamps, J C

    2009-10-01

    Egg yolk is included in extenders for semen cryopreservation due to its protective effect against cold shock, which is attributed to the presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL). This study evaluates how semen quality is affected by using LDL as a replacement for egg yolk in extenders for cooled and frozen dog semen. In Experiment 1, semen was extended in TRIS-glucose at 5 degrees C, in four treatments: 20% egg yolk (T1); 6% (T2); 8% (T3); and 10% LDL (T4). Sperm motility and membrane integrity after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and the 50% conservation rate of motile spermatozoa (50 M) were evaluated. The 50 M was less for T1 than for the other treatments (P<0.01), but T2-T4 did not differ (P>0.05). In Experiment 2, glycerol at 10% was included in the freezing extender, in treatments similar to those from Experiment 1. Sperm motility and membrane integrity did not differ for T2, T3 and T4 at any period in Experiment 1 and after thawing in Experiment 2 (P>0.05), but were greater for all LDL treatments than for T1 (P<0.01), in both experiments. Thus, LDL can replace egg yolk in the composition of the TRIS-glucose extender for cooled or frozen dog semen. PMID:19100690

  17. Correlation between high density lipoprotein and monocyte subpopulations among stable coronary atherosclerotic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hai; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xue-Jun; Liang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Jia-Chao

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous molecular particle whose function is unclear in atherosclerosis at present. Studies show that small HDL functional imbalance may exist in Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CAD) patients. Monocyte is considered to play an important role in atherosclerosis, in accordance with the expression of superficial CD14 and CD16, it can be divided into three subpopulations. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between HDL and monocyte subpopulations among CAD patients. We report 90 cases of stable CAD patients and define the monocyte subpopulations as classical monocyte (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocyte (CD14+CD16+; IM), and non-classical monocyte (CD14+CD16++; NCM); HDL group is measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the small HDL in blood serum has a correlation with proinflammatory NCM in circulation but a negative correction with CM and no relationship with diabetes, saccharify hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history and taking dose of statins drugs and severity of disease. In conclusion, this study primarily confirms that micromolecule HDL level correlates with the increase of non-classical monocyte subpopulations and decrease of classical monocyte quantity. Thus demonstrates the proinflammatory correlation between micromolecule HDL and internal immunity in the development of stable atherosclerosis.

  18. Novel fluorescently labeled peptide compounds for detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at high specificity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Oe, Keitaro; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    The probes for specific detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques are expected to be useful for the identification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for atherosclerosis. In this study, to develop a fluorescent peptide probe for specific detection of ox-LDL, we investigated the interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptides with ox-LDL using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two heptapeptides (KWYKDGD and KP6) coupled through the ?-amino group of K at the N-terminus to FITC in the presence/absence of 6-amino-n-caproic acid (AC) linker to FITC--(FITC-AC)KP6 and (FITC)KP6--both bound with high specificity to ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, a tetrapeptide (YKDG) labeled with FITC at the N-terminus and a pentapeptide (YKDGK) coupled through the ?-amino group of K at the C-terminus to FITC did not bind selectively to ox-LDL. Furthermore, (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 bound with high specificity to the protein in mouse plasma (probably ox-LDL fraction). These findings strongly suggest that (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 may be effective novel fluorescent probes for specific detection of ox-LDL. PMID:24717143

  19. High Density Lipoproteins for the Systemic Delivery of short interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful mechanism for gene silencing with the potential to greatly impact the development of new therapies for many human diseases. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may be the ideal molecules for therapeutic RNAi. However, therapeutic siRNAs face significant challenges that must be overcome prior to widespread clinical use. Many efforts have been made to overcome the hurdles associated with systemic administration of siRNA; however, current approaches are still limited. As such, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies for siRNA delivery that have the potential to impact a broad spectrum of systemic diseases. Areas covered This review focuses on the promise of siRNA therapies and highlights current siRNA delivery methods. With an eye toward new strategies, this review first introduces high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their natural functions, and then transitions into how HDLs may provide significant opportunities as next generation siRNA delivery vehicles. Importantly, this review describes how synthetic HDLs leverage the natural ability of HDL to stabilize and deliver siRNAs. Expert Opinion HDLs are natural nanoparticles that are critical to understanding the systemic delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, like siRNA. Methods to synthesize biomimetic HDLs are being explored and data demonstrate that this type of delivery vehicle may be highly beneficial for targeted and efficacious systemic delivery of siRNAs. PMID:24313310

  20. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-11-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  1. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential. PMID:26578342

  2. Ferritin protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Juckett, M. B.; Balla, J.; Balla, G.; Jessurun, J.; Jacob, H. S.; Vercellotti, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL), if it becomes oxidized, develops several unique properties including the capacity to provoke endothelial cytotoxicity via metal-catalyzed free radical-mediated mechanisms. As were previously have shown that iron-catalyzed oxidant injury to endothelial cells can be attenuated by the addition of exogenous iron chelators such as the lazaroids and deferoxamine, we have examined whether the endogenous iron chelator, ferritin, might provide protection from oxidized LDL. LDL oxidized by iron-containing hemin and H2O2 is toxic to endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Endothelial cell ferritin content is increased by pretreatment of cells with iron compounds or by the direct addition of exogenous apoferritin; ferritin-loaded cells are markedly resistant to the toxicity caused by oxidized LDL. Iron inactivation by ferritin depends on its ferroxidase activity. When a recombinant human ferritin heavy chain mutant, 222, which is devoid of ferroxidase activity, is added to endothelial cells, unlike the excellent protection afforded by the wild-type recombinant heavy chain, endothelial cells are not protected from oxidized LDL. To assess the in vivo relevance of our observation, we examined human coronary arteries of cardiac explants taken from patients with end-stage atherosclerosis. Large amounts of immunoreactive ferritin are focally detected in atherosclerotic lesions, specifically in the myofibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelium without a notable increase in Prussian blue-detectable iron. These findings suggest that ferritin may modulate vascular cell injury in vivo. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7677189

  3. Alpinia zerumbet potentially elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Jing; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Er; Yu, Tung-Hsi; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-06-25

    In folkloric plant medicines, Alpinia zerumbet (AZ) has been popularly recognized as an exellent hepatoprotector. To search for a good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating herbal preparation, we examined AZ for its antioxidant and hypolipidaemic bioactivities, especially its HDL-C elevating activity. AZ seeds contain 0.51% essential oils (SO), which are comprised of monoterpenoids, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, acid, and esters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were recoverable in pentane eluent, whilst the oxygenated monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids remained in ether eluent. The high contents of rutin, quercetin, and polyphenolics in ethanolic extract of AZ seeds exhibit moderate antilipoperoxidative but potent DPPH free radical scavenging bioactivities. Conclusively, both seed powder (SP) and SO are effective hypolipidaemics with amazingly potent HDL-C elevating capabilities. On the basis of hepatoprotectivity, SP is a more feasible hypolipidemic agent as well as a promising HDL-C elevating plant medicine. PMID:18522401

  4. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2) ?=?0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8?ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3?ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p <0.05) compared with lowpolyphenolic content olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection. PMID:25425119

  5. Roles of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 in tumors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Peipei; Liao, Zhichao; Ren, Zhiwu; Zhao, Jun; Song, Fengju; Wang, Guowen; Chen, Kexin; Yang, Jilong

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1, also known as CD91), a multifunctional endocytic and cell signaling receptor, is widely expressed on the surface of multiple cell types such as hepatocytes, fibroblasts, neurons, astrocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and malignant cells. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that LRP1 is critically involved in many processes that drive tumorigenesis and tumor progression. For example, LRP1 not only promotes tumor cell migration and invasion by regulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression and functions but also inhibits cell apoptosis by regulating the insulin receptor, the serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway, and the expression of Caspase-3. LRP1-mediated phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and c-jun N-terminal kinase are also involved in tumor cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, LRP1 has been shown to be down-regulated by microRNA-205 and methylation of LRP1 CpG islands. Furthermore, a novel fusion gene, LRP1-SNRNP25, promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration. Only by understanding the mechanisms of these effects can we develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cancers mediated by LRP1. PMID:26738504

  6. Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Li, Dan; Li, Jian; An, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) consists of heterogeneous particles with a variety of structures and functions. Its role in atherosclerosis has been gradually recognized. Studies have shown dysfunction of small HDL in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes play an important role in atherosclerosis, which can be divided into 3 subgroups based on the expression of surface markers CD14 and CD16. This study aimed to investigate the association between HDL and monocyte subsets in CAD patients. Material/Methods A total of 90 patients with stable CAD were selected in this study. Monocytes were divided into classical monocytes (CM, CD14++CD16?), intermediate monocytes (IM, CD14++CD16+), and non-classical monocytes (NCM, CD14+CD16++). HDL components in serum were determined by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (detected by Quantimetrix HDL Lipoprint system, referring to HDL subfractions analysis: A new laboratory diagnostic assay for patients with cardiovascular diseases and dyslipoproteinemia). Results Serum level of small HDL was positively correlated with circulating proinflammatory NCM (r=0.30; p=0.004), negatively correlated with CM, and not correlated with IM. We also found that disease severity was not associated with diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history, or statin dosage. Conclusions Our study confirmed that small HDL level is associated with an increase in NCM and a decrease in CM, suggesting the proinflammatory relationship between small HDL and intrinsic immune function during the progression of stable CAD. PMID:26474031

  7. Anti-psoriatic therapy recovers high-density lipoprotein composition and function

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Michael; Wolf, Peter; Inzinger, Martin; Trieb, Markus; Curcic, Sanja; Pasterk, Lisa; Weger, Wolfgang; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Psoriasis affects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, generating dysfunctional HDL particles. However, data regarding the impact of anti-psoriatic therapy on HDL composition and function are not available. HDL was isolated from 15 psoriatic patients at baseline and after effective topical and/or systemic anti-psoriatic therapy and from 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. HDL from psoriatic patients showed a significantly impaired capability to mobilize cholesterol from macrophages (6.4 vs. 8.0% [3H]-cholesterol efflux, p<0.001), low paraoxonase (350 vs. 217 ?M/min/mg protein, p=0.011) and increased Lp-PLA2 activities (19.9 vs. 12.1 nM/min/mg protein, p=0.028). Of particular interest, the anti-psoriatic therapy significantly improved (i) serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity and decreased total serum lipolytic activity but did not affect serum levels of HDL-cholesterol. Most importantly, these changes were associated with a significantly improved HDL-cholesterol efflux capability. Our results provide evidence that effective anti-psoriatic therapy recovers HDL composition and function, independent of serum HDL-cholesterol levels and support to the emerging concept that HDL function may be a better marker of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:23985995

  8. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L; Varughese, Kottayil I

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential. PMID:26578342

  9. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  10. Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Demonstrates a Hepatocyte Phenotype in the Dog, but Is Nonspecific.

    PubMed

    Gow, Adam G; Muirhead, Rhona; Hay, David C; Argyle, David J

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake is one of a number of tests used to demonstrate hepatocyte-like function after stem cell differentiation. Use of two compounds, LDL and acetylated LDL (AcLDL), has been described despite each having different mechanisms of uptake. Three primary hepatocyte cultures and three sets of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) cultures, derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow, were harvested from dogs. Those cells were compared to commercially available human and mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs. LDL receptor expression was demonstrated by gene expression and immunofluorescence in all primary hepatocyte cultures, undifferentiated canine bone marrow MSCs and canine adipose MSCs. Undifferentiated human and mouse bone marrow MSCs also expressed the LDL receptor. In vitro, canine hepatocytes took up labeled LDL, but not AcLDL. All undifferentiated MSCs took up LDL, but not AcLDL. In conclusion, LDL and not AcLDL is a test of canine hepatocyte-like phenotype, but this is not tissue or species specific and, therefore, is not informative assay when testing proof of MSC to hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:26423241

  11. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy. PMID:19942609

  12. Metabolism of low-density lipoprotein free cholesterol by human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.E.; Miida, Takashi; Fielding, C.J. )

    1991-09-03

    The metabolism of cholesterol derived from ({sup 3}H) cholesterol-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined in human blood plasma. LDL-derived free cholesterol first appeared in large {alpha}-migrating HDL (HDL{sub 2}) and was then transferred to small {alpha}-HDL (HDL{sub 3}) for esterification. The major part of such esters was retained within HDL of increasing size in the course of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity; the balance was recovered in LDL. Transfer of preformed cholesteryl esters within HDL contributed little to the labeled cholesteryl ester accumulating HDL{sub 2}. When cholesterol for esterification was derived instead from cell membranes, a significantly smaller proportion of this cholesteryl ester was subsequently recovered in LDL. These data suggest compartmentation of cholesteryl esters within plasma that have been formed from cell membrane or LDL free cholesterol, and the role for HDL{sub 2} as a relatively unreactive sink for LCAT-derived cholesteryl esters.

  13. Interaction of human plasma high density lipoprotein HDL/sub 2/ with synthetic saturated phosphatidylcholines

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, E.L.; Nichols, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of human plasma high density lipoprotein HDL/sub 2/ (d 1.063 to 1.125 g/ml) with sonicated dispersions of synthetic saturated phosphatidylcholines, dipalmitoyl- (diC/sub 16/PC), dimyristoyl-(diC/sub 14/PC), didodecanoyl-(diC/sub 12/PC), didecanoyl-(diC/sub 10/PC), and dioctanoyl-(diC/sub 8/PC) L-alpha phosphatidylcholine, was investigated. Incubation (4.5 hr, 37 C) of HDL/sub 2/ with diC/sub 14/PC, diC/sub 12/PC, diC/sub 10/PC and diC/sub 8/PC followed by gradient gel electrophoresis or preparative ultracentrifugation resulted in a redistribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). The extent of redistribution depended on the molar ratio of the phospholipid to HDL/sub 2/ in the incubation mixture. Redistributed apoA-I occurred as lipid-free apoA-I and/or as complexes of apoA-I with phosphatidylcholine. Increasing the length of time of ultracentrifugation of the interaction mixtures did not increase the extent of redistribution. No redistribution of apoA-I was detected following incubation and gradient gel electrophoresis or preparative ultracentrifugation of mixtures of HDL/sub 2/ with dispersions of diC/sub 16/PC.

  14. Radiation inactivation of binding sites for high density lipoproteins in human fibroblast membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.M.; Kunitake, S.T.; Kane, J.P.; Kempner, E.S.

    1988-01-25

    Radiation inactivation and target analysis were used to determine the molecular mass of the binding sites for high density lipoproteins (HDL) on membranes prepared from human fibroblasts. These membrane binding sites shared characteristics with the previously described HDL binding sites on whole fibroblasts in tissue culture. They exhibited the same affinity for HDL, the same ligand specificity, and the same sensitivity to proteolytic agents. They were also up-regulated by cholesterol loading of the cells. Kinetics of HDL dissociation from membrane binding sites could not be described by a single exponential function, indicating that HDL probably bind to multiple classes of sites on fibroblast membranes. After exposure to ionizing radiation, these sites decreased in number as an apparent single exponential function of radiation dose, corresponding to an average molecular mass of 16,000 +/- 1000 Da, which is smaller than any known cell-surface receptor protein. These data indicate that HDL binding sites on fibroblast membranes are not classical receptors in that they are kinetically heterogeneous and small in molecular mass.

  15. High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, Koji . E-mail: mkoji@kms.ac.jp; Imachi, Hitomi; Cao, Wenming; Yu, Xiao; Li, Junhua; Yoshida, Kazuya; Ahmed, Rania A.M.; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Ishida, Toshihiko; Wong, Norman C.W.

    2006-05-26

    The entry of cholesterol contained within high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into adrenocortical cells is mediated by a human homologue of SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII Analogous-1 (CLA-1) and thus augmenting their growth. To address the role of CLA-1, we created a mutant mCLA that lacked the C-terminal tail. HDL CE selective uptake by cells carrying the mCLA-1 receptor was fully active and equivalent to those transfected with full-length CLA-1 (fCLA-1). Expression of mCLA inhibited the proliferation of an adrenocortical cell line and the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine into the cells. This effect was sensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Our transcriptional studies revealed that the inhibitory action of mCLA required the transcriptional factor AP-1 and the effect of HDL on AP-1 activation was also abrogated by wortmannin. These findings raise the possibility that the inhibitors of the effects of HDL may be of therapeutic value for adrenocortical tumor.

  16. In vitro oxidative footprinting provides insight into apolipoprotein B-100 structure in low density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Cai, Yang; Tarr, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major cholesterol carrier in human blood. Oxidations of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100, LDL protein) could be pro-atherogenic and play critical roles in early stages of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The structure of apo B-100 is still poorly understood, partially due to its size (550 KDa, 4563 amino acids). To gain an insight into LDL structure, we mapped the regions of apo B-100 in human LDL which were prone to oxidation using peroxynitrite and hypochlorite as probes. In this study, LDL was incubated with various concentrations of peroxynitrite and sodium hypochlorite in bicarbonate buffer. The LDL protein apo B-100 was delipidated, denatured, alkylated and subjected to tryptic digestion. Tryptic peptides were analyzed employing liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Database search was performed against the apo B-100 database (P04114) using “SEQUEST” algorithm to identify peroxynitrite and hypochlorite mediated oxidations markers nitrotyrosine, nitrotryptophan, hydroxy-tryptophan and 3-chlorotyrosine. Several site specific oxidations were identified in apo B-100 after treatment of intact LDL particles with the oxidants. We hypothesize that these regions could be accessible to oxidant and critical for early events in atherosclerotic plaque deposition. PMID:25176030

  17. A Systems Genetic Analysis of High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism and Network Preservation across Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Langfelder, Peter; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Paul, Eric; Davis, Richard; Schadt, Eric E.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Horvath, Steve; Mehrabian, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    We report a systems genetics analysis of high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels in an F2 intercross between inbred strains CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J. We previously showed that there are dramatic differences in HDL metabolism in a cross between these strains, and we now report co-expression network analysis of HDL that integrates global expression data from liver and adipose with relevant metabolic traits. Using data from a total of 293 F2 intercross mice, we constructed weighted gene co-expression networks and identified modules (subnetworks) associated with HDL and clinical traits. These were examined for genes implicated in HDL levels based on large human genome-wide associations studies (GWAS) and examined with respect to conservation between tissue and sexes in a total of 9 data sets. We identify genes that are consistently ranked high by association with HDL across the 9 data sets. We focus in particular on two genes, Wfdc2 and Hdac3, that are located in close proximity to HDL QTL peaks where causal testing indicates that they may affect HDL. Our results provide a rich resource for studies of complex metabolic interactions involving HDL. PMID:21807117

  18. Polymorphisms in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Introno, Alessia; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna M; Capurso, Cristiano; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Sabrina A; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The +1073 C/T polymorphism of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (OLR1) gene has been reported to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, whereas for the +1071 T/A polymorphism no association was found. We genotyped 169 sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients and 264 sex- and age-matched nondemented controls from Southern Italy for OLR1 +1073 C/T and +1071 T/A polymorphisms and for apolipoprotein E and LBP-1c/CP2/LSF. We also performed haplotype analysis. For the +1073 C/T polymorphism, the C allele and the CC genotype have been associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease without apolipoprotein E or CP2 interaction. The two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium, with the haplotype T-C at significant increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in the whole sample and in elderly persons 70 years or older. In our population, the +1073 C/T OLR1 polymorphism exhibited a significant association with Alzheimer's disease, further supporting the role of OLR1 as a candidate risk gene for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15860461

  19. Candidate genetic analysis of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and severity of coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suet Nee; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Todd, Josh; Lombardi, Raffaella; Willerson, James T; Gotto, Antonio M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Marian, AJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasma level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), a heritable trait, is an important determinant of susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Non-synonymous and regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in HDL-C synthesis and metabolism are likely to influence plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods We genotyped 784 unrelated Caucasian individuals from two sets of populations (Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study- LCAS, N = 333 and TexGen, N = 451) for 94 SNPs in 42 candidate genes by 5' nuclease assays. We tested the distribution of the phenotypes by the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. We used Box-Cox regression to analyze associations of the non-normally distributed phenotypes (plasma HDL-C and apo A-I levels) with the genotypes. We included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cigarette smoking as covariates. We calculated the q values as indicators of the false positive discovery rate (FDR). Results Plasma HDL-C levels were associated with sex (higher in females), BMI (inversely), smoking (lower in smokers), DM (lower in those with DM) and SNPs in APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL and LIPC (each q ?0.01). Likewise, plasma apo A-I levels, available in the LCAS subset, were associated with SNPs in CETP, APOA5, and APOC2 as well as with BMI, sex and age (all q values ?0.03). The APOA5 variant S19W was also associated with minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, a quantitative index of severity of coronary atherosclerosis (q = 0.018); mean number of coronary artery occlusions (p = 0.034) at the baseline and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as indicated by the loss of MLD. Conclusion Putatively functional variants of APOA2, APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL, LIPC and SOAT2 are independent genetic determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. The non-synonymous S19W SNP in APOA5 is also an independent determinant of plasma apo A-I level, severity of coronary atherosclerosis and its progression. PMID:19878569

  20. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Zhong, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2011-06-01

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  1. The very low density lipoprotein receptor-associated pontocerebellar hypoplasia and dysmorphic features in three Turkish patients.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Gleeson, Joseph G; Celep, Figen; Kul, Sibel

    2013-03-01

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia consists of a rare heterogeneous group of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by hypoplasia and atrophy of the cerebellar cortex, dentate and pontine nuclei, and inferior olives. The very low density lipoprotein receptor protein is an integral part of the reelin signaling pathway, which guides neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Mutations in this receptor cause nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and cerebellar hypoplasia. In this report, we present 3 patients from 2 different families displaying very low density lipoprotein receptor-associated pontocerebellar hypoplasia, cortical dysplasia, mental retardation, and bipedal gait. One of the siblings has also displayed dysmorphic features, as we previously reported before the identification of the genetic defect in this family. PMID:22532556

  2. Retroendocytosis of high density lipoproteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Kambouris, A.M.; Roach, P.D.; Calvert, G.D.; Nestel, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    When human HepG2 hepatoma cells were pulsed with 125I-labeled high density lipoproteins (HDL) and chased in fresh medium, up to 65% of the radioactivity released was precipitable with trichloroacetic acid. Cell-internalized 125I-HDL contributed to the release of acid-precipitable material; when cells were treated with trypsin before the chase to remove 125I-HDL bound to the outer cell membrane, 50% of the released material was still acid-precipitable. Characterization of the radioactive material resecreted by trypsinized cells revealed the presence of particles that were similar in size and density to mature HDL and contained intact apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II. The release of internalized label occurred at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Monensin, which inhibits endosomal recycling of receptors, decreased the binding of 125I-HDL to cells by 75%, inhibited the release of internalized radioactivity as acid-precipitable material by 80%, and increased the release of acid-soluble material by 90%. In contrast, the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine increased the association of 125I-HDL to cells by 25%, inhibited the release of precipitable material by 10%, and inhibited the release of acid-soluble radioactivity by 80%. Pre-incubation with cholesterol caused a 50% increase in the specific binding, internalization, and resecretion of HDL label. Cholesterol affected the release of acid-precipitable label much more (+90%) than that of acid-soluble material (+20%). Taken together, these findings suggest that HepG2 cells can bind, internalize, and resecrete HDL by a retroendocytotic process. Furthermore, the results with cholesterol and monensin indicate that a regulated, recycling, receptor-like molecule is involved in the binding and intracellular routing of HDL.

  3. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714; Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ? SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ? SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ? SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-?B signaling. ? HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ? The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  4. Tissue specific regulation of the high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor Class B, Type I (SR-BI) by the scaffold protein PDZK1

    E-print Network

    Fenske, Sara Anne

    2008-01-01

    PDZK1 is a four PDZ-domain containing cytoplasmic adaptor protein that binds the Cterminus of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor SR-BI. Abolishing PDZK1 expression in PDZK1 knockout (KO) mice leads to a ...

  5. High Performance Lipoprotein Profiling for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Larner, Craig

    2012-10-19

    width half maximum HDL High density lipoprotein HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol HMG-CoA 3-hydroxy-3-methylclutaryl-coenzyme A HPLDP High performance lipoprotein density profiling hs-CRP High sensitivity c-reactive protein HT Hypertension... IDL Intermediate density lipoprotein ITP Isotachophoresis L-CAT Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase LDA Linear discriminant analysis viii LDL Low density lipoprotein LDL-C Low density lipoprotein cholesterol Lp(a) Lipoprotein (a) MALDI...

  6. Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Children with Diabetes: Proposed Treatment Recommendations Based on Glycemic Control, Body Mass Index, Age, Sex, and Generally Accepted Cut Points.

    PubMed

    Schwab, K Otfried; Doerfer, Jürgen; Hungele, Andreas; Scheuing, Nicole; Krebs, Andreas; Dost, Axel; Rohrer, Tilman R; Hofer, Sabine; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-12-01

    Percentile-based non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed by glycemic control, weight, age, and sex of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 26?358). Ten percent of all children and 25% of overweight adolescent girls require both immediate lipid-lowering medication and lifestyle changes to achieve non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <120 mg/dL and cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:26427965

  7. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Yang, Zhang; Halim, Adnan; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Madsen, Thomas Daugbjerg; Seidah, Nabil G.; Bennett, Eric Paul; Levery, Steven B.; Clausen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is crucial for cholesterol homeostasis and deficiency in LDLR functions cause hypercholesterolemia. LDLR is a type I transmembrane protein that requires O-glycosylation for stable expression at the cell surface. It has previously been suggested that LDLR O-glycosylation is found N-terminal to the juxtamembrane region. Recently we identified O-glycosylation sites in the linker regions between the characteristic LDLR class A repeats in several LDLR-related receptors using the “SimpleCell” O-glycoproteome shotgun strategy. Herein, we have systematically characterized O-glycosylation sites on recombinant LDLR shed from HEK293 SimpleCells and CHO wild-type cells. We find that the short linker regions between LDLR class A repeats contain an evolutionarily conserved O-glycosylation site at position ?1 of the first cysteine residue of most repeats, which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc transferases. Probing into which isoform(s) contributed to glycosylation of the linker regions of the LDLR class A repeats by in vitro enzyme assays suggested a major role of GalNAc-T11. This was supported by expression of LDLR in HEK293 cells, where knock-out of the GalNAc-T11 isoform resulted in the loss of glycosylation of three of four linker regions. PMID:24798328

  8. Lipoxygenase treatment render low-density lipoprotein susceptible to Cu2+-catalysed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lass, A; Belkner, J; Esterbauer, H; Kühn, H

    1996-03-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in foam-cell formation at all stages of atherosclerosis. Since transition metals and mammalian 15-lipoxygenases are capable of oxidizing LDL to its atherogenic form, a concerted action of these two catalysts in atherogenesis has been suggested. Cu2+-catalysed LDL oxidation is characterized by a kinetic lag period in which the lipophilic antioxidants are decomposed and by a complex mixture of unspecific oxidation products. We investigated the kinetics of the 15-lipoxygenase-catalysed oxygenation of LDL and found that the enzyme is capable of oxidizing LDL in the presence of the endogenous lipophilic antioxidants. In contrast with the Cu2+-catalysed reaction, no kinetic lag phase was detected. The pattern of products formed during short-term incubations was highly specific, with cholesterol-esterified (13S)-hydroperoxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadinoic acid being the major product. However, after long-term incubations the product pattern was less specific. Preincubation with 15-lipoxygenase rendered human LDL more susceptible to Cu2+-catalysed oxidation as indicated by a dramatic shortening of the lag period. Addition of Cu2+ to lipoxygenase-treated LDL led to a steep decline in its antioxidant content and to a greatly reduced lag period. Interestingly, if normalized to a comparable hydroperoxide content, autoxidation and addition of exogenous hydroperoxy fatty acids both failed to overcome the lag period. The local peroxide concentrations in various LDL subcompartments will be discussed as a possible reason for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:8670073

  9. Molecular hydrogen stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Guohua; Zong, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Yu, Yang; Yao, Shutong; Jiao, Peng; Tian, Hua; Zhai, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Tian, Shuyan; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wu, Yun; Sun, Xuejun; Qin, Shucun

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen (H2) attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. We aimed to examine the effects of H2 on atherosclerotic plaque stability. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed an atherogenic diet were dosed daily with H2 and/or simvastatin. In vitro studies were carried out in an oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL)-stimulated macrophage-derived foam cell model treated with or without H2. H2 or simvastatin significantly enhanced plaque stability by increasing levels of collagen, as well as reducing macrophage and lipid levels in plaques. The decreased numbers of dendritic cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells in plaques further supported the stabilizing effect of H2 or simvastatin. Moreover, H2 treatment decreased serum ox-LDL level and apoptosis in plaques with concomitant inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the aorta. In vitro, like the ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid, H2 inhibited ox-LDL- or tunicamycin (an ERS inducer)-induced ERS response and cell apoptosis. In addition, like the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine, H2 inhibited ox-LDL- or Cu(2+) (an ROS inducer)-induced reduction in cell viability and increase in cellular ROS. Also, H2 increased Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor-2, an important factor in antioxidant signaling) activation and Nrf2 small interfering RNA abolished the protective effect of H2 on ox-LDL-induced cellular ROS production. The inhibitory effects of H2 on the apoptosis of macrophage-derived foam cells, which take effect by suppressing the activation of the ERS pathway and by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, might lead to an improvement in atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:26117323

  10. Small high-density lipoprotein is associated with monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Pongratz, Thomas; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Goliasch, Georg; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are heterogeneous in structure and function and the role of HDL subfractions in atherogenesis is not well understood. It has been suggested that small HDL may be dysfunctional in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes are considered to play a key role in atherosclerotic diseases. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three subtypes according to their surface expression of CD14 and CD16. Our aim was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with HDL subfractions in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods: We included 90 patients with angiographically stable CAD. Monocyte subsets were defined as classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+; IM) and non-classical monocytes (CD14+CD16++; NCM). HDL subfractions were measured by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Results: Serum levels of small HDL correlated with circulating pro-inflammatory NCM and showed an inverse relationship to circulating CM independently from other lipid parameters, risk factors, inflammatory parameters or statin treatment regime, respectively. IM were not associated with small HDL. In particular, patients with small HDL levels in the highest tertile showed dramatically increased levels of NCM (14.7 ± 7% vs. 10.7 ± 5% and 10.8 ± 5%; p = 0.006) and a decreased proportion of CM (79.3 ± 7% vs. 83.7 ± 6% and 83.9 ± 6%; p = 0.004) compared to patients in the two lower tertiles. In contrast, intermediate HDL, large HDL and total HDL were not associated with monocyte subset distribution. Conclusion: Small HDL levels are associated with pro-inflammatory NCM and inversely correlated with CM. This may suggest that small HDL could have dysfunctional anti-inflammatory properties in patients with established CAD. PMID:25463093

  11. Low-Density-Lipoprotein Particle Size Predicts a Poor Outcome in Patients with Atherothrombotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Chang, Yoonkyung; Youn, Minjung; Shin, Min-Jeong; Jo, Inho; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size is considered to be one of the more important cardiovascular risk factors, and small LDL particles are known to have atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with stroke severity and functional outcome in patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Methods Between January 2009 and May 2011, 248 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction who were admitted to our hospital within 7 days after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. LDL particle size was measured using the nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis assay. Stroke severity was assessed by applying the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission. Functional outcome was investigated at 3 months after the index stroke using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and poor functional outcome was defined as an mRS score of ?3. Results The LDL particle size in the 248 patients was 25.9±0.9 nm (mean±SD). LDL particle size was inversely correlated with the degree of cerebral artery stenosis (p=0.010). Multinomial multivariate logistic analysis revealed that after adjustment for age, sex, and variables with p<0.1 in univariate analysis, LDL particle size was independently and inversely associated with stroke severity (NIHSS score ?5; reference, NIHSS score 0-2; odds ratio=0.38, p=0.028) and poor functional outcome (odds ratio=0.44, p=0.038). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that small LDL particles are independently correlated with stroke outcomes. LDL particle size is thus a potential biomarker for the prognosis of atherothrombotic stroke. PMID:25628741

  12. Dysregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor contributes to podocyte injuries in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Liu, Jing; Wu, Yu; Hu, Ze Bo; Liu, Liang; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2015-06-15

    Dyslipidemia plays crucial roles in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study investigated the effects of high glucose on lipid accumulation in podocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. Male db/m and db/db mice were fed a normal chow diet for 8 wk. Immortalised mouse podocytes were treated with or without high glucose for 24 h. The changes to the morphology and ultramicrostructures of the kidneys in mice were examined using pathological staining and electron microscopy. Intracellular lipid accumulation was evaluated by Oil Red O staining and a free cholesterol quantitative assay. The expressions of the molecules involved in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) pathway and podocyte injury were examined using immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot. There were increased levels of plasma lipid, serum creatinine, and proteinuria in db/db mice compared with db/m mice. Moreover, there was significant mesangial matrix expansion, basement membrane thickening, podocyte foot process effacement, and phenotypic alteration in the db/db group. Additionally, lipid accumulation in the kidneys of db/db mice was increased due to increased protein expressions of LDLr, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein, and SREBP-2. These effects were further confirmed by in vitro studies. Interestingly, the treatment with LDLr siRNA inhibited lipid accumulation in podocytes and decreased the protein expression of molecules associated with phenotypic alteration in podocytes. High glucose disrupted LDLr feedback regulation in podocytes, which may cause intracellular lipid accumulation and alteration of podocyte phenotype, thereby accelerating DN progression. PMID:25921580

  13. Automated detection and tracking of individual and clustered cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, R N; Webb, W W

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a technique to detect, recognize, and track each individual low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) molecule and small receptor clusters on the surface of human skin fibroblasts. Molecular recognition and high precision (30 nm) simultaneous automatic tracking of all of the individual receptors in the cell surface population utilize quantitative time-lapse low light level digital video fluorescence microscopy analyzed by purpose-designed algorithms executed on an image processing work station. The LDL-Rs are labeled with the biologically active, fluorescent LDL derivative dil-LDL. Individual LDL-Rs and unresolved small clusters are identified by measuring the fluorescence power radiated by the sub-resolution fluorescent spots in the image; identification of single particles is ascertained by four independent techniques. An automated tracking routine was developed to track simultaneously, and without user intervention, a multitude of fluorescent particles through a sequence of hundreds of time-lapse image frames. The limitations on tracking precision were found to depend on the signal-to-noise ratio of the tracked particle image and mechanical drift of the microscope system. We describe the methods involved in (i) time-lapse acquisition of the low-light level images, (ii) simultaneous automated tracking of the fluorescent diffraction limited punctate images, (iii) localizing particles with high precision and limitations, and (iv) detecting and identifying single and clustered LDL-Rs. These methods are generally applicable and provide a powerful tool to visualize and measure dynamics and interactions of individual integral membrane proteins on living cell surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8061186

  14. Assessment of the Validity of the Double Superhelix Model for Reconstituted High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin K.; Zhang, Lei; Catte, Andrea; Li, Ling; Oda, Michael N.; Ren, Gang; Segrest, Jere P.

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, the standard model for high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles reconstituted from apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and phospholipid (apoA-I/HDL) has been a discoidal particle ?100 ? in diameter and the thickness of a phospholipid bilayer. Recently, Wu et al. (Wu, Z., Gogonea, V., Lee, X., Wagner, M. A., Li, X. M., Huang, Y., Undurti, A., May, R. P., Haertlein, M., Moulin, M., Gutsche, I., Zaccai, G., Didonato, J. A., and Hazen, S. L. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 36605–36619) used small angle neutron scattering to develop a new model they termed double superhelix (DSH) apoA-I that is dramatically different from the standard model. Their model possesses an open helical shape that wraps around a prolate ellipsoidal type I hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase. Here, we used three independent approaches, molecular dynamics, EM tomography, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy (FRET) to assess the validity of the DSH model. (i) By using molecular dynamics, two different approaches, all-atom simulated annealing and coarse-grained simulation, show that initial ellipsoidal DSH particles rapidly collapse to discoidal bilayer structures. These results suggest that, compatible with current knowledge of lipid phase diagrams, apoA-I cannot stabilize hexagonal I phase particles of phospholipid. (ii) By using EM, two different approaches, negative stain and cryo-EM tomography, show that reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles are discoidal in shape. (iii) By using FRET, reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles show a 28–34-? intermolecular separation between terminal domain residues 40 and 240, a distance that is incompatible with the dimensions of the DSH model. Therefore, we suggest that, although novel, the DSH model is energetically unfavorable and not likely to be correct. Rather, we conclude that all evidence supports the likelihood that reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles, in general, are discoidal in shape. PMID:20974855

  15. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Ordovás, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not been evaluated for obesity in people. We examined whether dietary fats (eg., saturated, polyunsaturated) modulated the association of LRP1 variants with anthropometric traits. We studied a population-based sample of Puerto Ricans (n=920, aged 45–74 y) living in the Boston area. In multivariable linear regression models, we dichotomized saturated fat intake and found significant interaction terms between total saturated fatty acids and LRP1 rs1799986 genotype for BMI (P=0.006) and hip (P=0.002). High intake of saturated fat was associated with higher BMI (P=0.001), waist (P=0.008) and hip (P=0.003) in minor allele carriers (CT+TT) compared to CC participants. Further analysis of dichotomized individual saturated fatty acids revealed that interactions were strongest for two individual longer chain fatty acids. High intake of palmitic acid (C16:0; P=0.0007) and high stearic acid intake (C18:0; P=0.005) were associated with higher BMI in T carriers. Interactions were not detected for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Gene-diet interactions at the LRP1 locus support the hypothesis that susceptibility to weight gain based on saturated fatty acids is modified by genotype and possibly by chain length. These results may facilitate the development of a panel of genetic candidates for use in optimizing dietary recommendations for obesity management. PMID:23404896

  16. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: implications for diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E; Via, Laura E; Swanson, Basil I; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We have also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of 'monomeric' LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. This phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host-pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics. PMID:23507184

  17. Regulation of reconstituted high density lipoprotein structure and remodeling by apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Rye, Kerry-Anne; Bright, Richard; Psaltis, Maria; Barter, Philip J

    2006-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) enters the plasma as a component of discoidal HDL and is subsequently incorporated into spherical HDL, most of which contain apoE as the sole apolipoprotein. This study investigates the regulation, origins, and structure of spherical, apoE-containing HDLs and their remodeling by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). When the ability of discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) containing apoE2 [(E2)rHDL], apoE3 [(E3)rHDL], or apoE4 [(E4)rHDL] as the sole apolipoprotein to act as substrates for LCAT were compared with that of discoidal rHDL containing apoA-I [(A-I)rHDL], the rate of cholesterol esterification was (A-I)rHDL > (E2)rHDL approximately (E3)rHDL > (E4)rHDL. LCAT also had a higher affinity for discoidal (A-I)rHDL than for the apoE-containing rHDL. When the discoidal rHDLs were incubated with LCAT and LDL, the resulting spherical (E2)rHDL, (E3)rHDL, and (E4)rHDL were larger than, and structurally distinct from, spherical (A-I)rHDL. Incubation of the apoE-containing spherical rHDL with CETP and Intralipid(R) generated large fusion products without the dissociation of apoE, whereas the spherical (A-I)rHDLs were remodeled into small particles with the formation of lipid-poor apoA-I. In conclusion, i) apoE activates LCAT less efficiently than apoA-I; ii) apoE-containing spherical rHDLs are structurally distinct from spherical (A-I)rHDL; and iii) the CETP-mediated remodeling of apoE-containing spherical rHDL differs from that of spherical (A-I)rHDL. PMID:16452453

  18. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

  19. Use of monoclonal antibodies to investigate the immunochemical heterogeneity of human plasma high density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krul, E.S.; Keller, J.; Melton, M.; Schonfeld, G.

    1986-03-01

    Immunoaffinity chromatography of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on columns prepared with seven different anti-apoAI monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to investigate the nature of HDL particle heterogeneity. Using subsaturating amounts of /sup 125/I-HDL, the MAbs coupled to the affinity columns could be divided into 2 groups: Group A, those MAbs that retained approx.75% of the total radioactive counts applied and Group B, those MAbs that retained approx.40% of the counts. The percent of total counts retained correlated (r/sup 2/ = 0.93) with the AI/AII molar ratios of the retained HDL fractions. The HDL particles retained by Group A had high AI/AII ratios, whereas the particles retained by Group B had AI/AII ratios similar to the starting HDL population. These results are consistent with the concept that HDL consists of two types of particles, namely Lp(AI without AII) and Lp(AI with AII). Group A MAbs preferentially bind Lp(AI without AII) but may bind some Lp(AI with AII). These MAbs are directed towards the COOH terminal half of apoAI. Group B MAbs recognize an epitope on apoAI that is expressed on HDL particles also containing apoAII. The specificities of some of these MAbs are towards the NH/sub 2/ terminal half of apoAI is similar on HDL particles containing or not containing apoAII. Heterogeneity of apoAI epitope expression on HDL would appear to be due to interactions with the apoAII molecule that probably occur towards the NH/sub 2/ end of apoAI.

  20. Relation between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease in asymptomatic men

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Troxler, R.G.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.; Clark, D.

    1981-11-01

    The well established inverse relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and the risk of coronary artery disease was tested in a cross-sectional group of 572 asymptomatic aircrew members who were being screened for risk of coronary artery disease. A battery of tests was performed, including determinations of fasting serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides and performance of a maximal symptom-limited exercise tolerance test. Of the 572 patients, 132 also had an abnormal S-T segment response to exercise testing or were otherwise believed to have an increased risk of organic heart disease and subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 16 men and minimal or subcritical coronary disease in 14; coronary angiograms were normal in the remaining 102 men. The remaining 440 men, who were believed to have a 1 percent chance of having coronary artery disease by sequential testing of risk factors and treadmill testing, had a mean cholesterol level of 213 mg/100 ml, a mean HDL cholesterol of 51 mg/100 ml and a mean cholesterol/HDL ratio of 4.4. The mean values of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly in men with normal angiographic finding and those with subcritical coronary disease. However, 14 of 16 men with coronary artery disease had a cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more whereas only 4 men with normal coronary arteries had a ratio of 6.0 or more. Of the classical coronary risk factors evaluated, the cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more had the highest odds ratio (172:1). It appears that determination of HDL cholesterol level helps to identify asymptomatic persons with a greater risk of having coronary artery disease.

  1. High density lipoprotein from patients with valvular heart disease uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Jun; Yuan, Hai-Yun; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Fu, Li; Lin, Ze-Bang; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Shen-Ming; Zhou, Li; Xu, Ying-Qi; Wang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Ou, Jing-Song

    2014-09-01

    Normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) protects vascular function; however these protective effects of HDL may absent in valvular heart disease (VHD). Because vascular function plays an important role in maintaining the circulation post-cardiac surgery and some patients are difficult to stabilize, we hypothesized that a deleterious vascular effect of HDL may contribute to vascular dysfunction in VHD patients following surgery. HDL was isolated from age-match 28 healthy subjects and 84 patients with VHD and during cardiac surgery. HDL pro-inflammation index was measured and the effects of HDL on vasodilation, protein interaction, generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide were determined. Patients with VHD received either simvastatin (20mg/d) or routine medications, and endothelial effects of HDL were characterized. HDL inflammation index significantly increased in VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery. HDL from VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, inhibited both Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), NO production and increased eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation. Simvastatin therapy partially reduced HDL inflammation index, improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate eNOS and Akt phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with HSP90, NO production, reduced eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Our data demonstrated that HDL from VHD patients and cardiac surgery contributed to endothelial dysfunction through uncoupling of eNOS. This deleterious effect can be reversed by simvastatin, which improves the vasoprotective effects of HDL. Targeting HDL may be a therapeutic strategy for maintaining vascular function and improving the outcomes post-cardiac surgery. PMID:24887036

  2. High-density lipoproteins in the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. Part I. Epidemiological and family studies.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M

    1978-10-21

    It has recently been proposed that the concentration of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma bears a negative relationship to the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease. The biological and environmental factors affecting plasma HDL levels and the evidence pertaining to the proposed 'negative risk potential' of this lipoprotein are reviewed. HDL concentrations are low at birth, but rise rapidly in early infancy to adult or above-normal adult levels. This trend is influenced by biological factors such as sex and ethnicity and by a host of environmental variables. Despite methodological inadequacies in some studies, the epidemiological evidence consistently reflects an inverse relationship between the level of HDL in the plasma and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Investigations on families suffering from genetic dyslipoproteinaemias, characterized by reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) relative to HDL, suggest that the LDL:HDL ratio is itself an important determinant of atherosclerotic heart disease. The practical application of this information is limited by the lack of reliable reference ranges in various population groups and the absence of quantitative data regarding the 'negative risk potential' of any given concentration of plasma HDL in the presence of other positive and negative risk factors. PMID:217108

  3. Reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol in severe hypertriglyceridemic ApoCIII transgenic mice via lowered hepatic ApoAI synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingchun; Qi, Rong; Liu, George

    2015-07-10

    Clinical and epidemiological investigations confirm that patients with loss-of-function mutations (R19X, etc.) in Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) showed beneficial lipid profile including decreased plasma triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. However, whether HDL level would be reduced in hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) induced by high ApoCIII expression has not been demonstrated yet. Here we showed, ApoCIII transgenic mice (ApoCIIItg) displayed severe HTG and had significantly lower HDL level. Analysis of apolipoproteins in lipoprotein fractions by SDS-PAGE revealed marked decrease of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) in HDL in transgenic mice compared with the wild type mice (WT) as controls. Further examination demonstrated that hepatic but not intestinal ApoAI mRNA was significantly reduced. Therefore, the decreased ApoAI synthesis might be accounted for the lower plasma HDL level in ApoCIII transgenic mice. PMID:25969427

  4. Homozygous deletion of the very low density lipoprotein receptor gene causes autosomal recessive cerebellar hypoplasia with cerebral gyral simplification.

    PubMed

    Boycott, Kym M; Flavelle, Shauna; Bureau, Alexandre; Glass, Hannah C; Fujiwara, T Mary; Wirrell, Elaine; Davey, Krista; Chudley, Albert E; Scott, James N; McLeod, D Ross; Parboosingh, Jillian S

    2005-09-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome of nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation is associated with inferior cerebellar hypoplasia and mild cerebral gyral simplification in the Hutterite population. An identity-by-descent mapping approach using eight patients from three interrelated Hutterite families localized the gene for this syndrome to chromosome region 9p24. Haplotype analysis identified familial and ancestral recombination events and refined the minimal region to a 2-Mb interval between markers D9S129 and D9S1871. A 199-kb homozygous deletion encompassing the entire very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene was present in all affected individuals. VLDLR is part of the reelin signaling pathway, which guides neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. To our knowledge, this syndrome represents the first human lipoprotein receptor malformation syndrome and the second human disease associated with a reelin pathway defect. PMID:16080122

  5. Isolation of very low density lipoprotein phospholipids enriched in ethanolamine phospholipids from rats injected with Triton WR 1339.

    PubMed

    Agren, Jyrki J; Kurvinen, Juha-Pekka; Kuksis, Arnis

    2005-05-01

    Phospholipids carried by very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) are hydrolysed in circulation by lipoprotein and hepatic lipases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. We have previously demonstrated [J.J. Agren, A. Ravandi, A. Kuksis, G. Steiner, Structural and compositional changes in very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerols during basal lipolysis, Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 6223-6232] that the infusion of Triton WR 1339 (TWR), which inhibits these lipases, leads in 2 h to five-fold increase in VLDL triacylglycerol concentration along with major differences in the composition of their molecular species. The present study demonstrates that the accumulation of triacylglycerols is accompanied by major changes in the content of the VLDL phospholipids, of which the most significant is the enrichment of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). This finding coincides with the enrichment in PtdEtn demonstrated in the VLDL of a hepatocytic Golgi fraction but it had not been demonstrated that the Golgi VLDL, along with its unusual phospholipid composition, can be directly transferred to plasma. Aside from providing an easy access to nascent plasma VLDL, the TWR infusion demonstrates that lipoprotein and hepatic lipases are also responsible for the degradation of plasma VLDL PtdEtn, as independently demonstrated for plasma phosphatidylcholine. Our results indicate also, with the exception of lysophosphatidylcholine, that preferential basal hydrolysis no dot lead to major differences in molecular species composition between circulating and newly secreted VLDL phospholipids. The comparison of the molecular species composition of VLDL and liver phospholipids suggests a selective secretion of PtdEtn and sphingomyelin molecular species during VLDL secretion. PMID:15866481

  6. Three-dimensional structure of a cysteine-rich repeat from the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, N L; Scanlon, M J; Djordjevic, J T; Kroon, P A; Smith, R

    1995-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor plays a central role in mammalian cholesterol metabolism, clearing lipoproteins which bear apolipoproteins E and B-100 from plasma. Mutations in this molecule are associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition which leads to an elevated plasma cholesterol concentration and accelerated atherosclerosis. The N-terminal segment of the LDL receptor contains a heptad of cysteine-rich repeats that bind the lipoproteins. Similar repeats are present in related receptors, including the very low-density lipoprotein receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor, and in proteins which are functionally unrelated, such as the C9 component of complement. The first repeat of the human LDL receptor has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, and the cleaved and purified receptor module has been shown to fold to a single, fully oxidized form that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody IgG-C7 in the presence of calcium ions. The three-dimensional structure of this module has been determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and shown to consist of a beta-hairpin structure, followed by a series of beta turns. Many of the side chains of the acidic residues, including the highly conserved Ser-Asp-Glu triad, are clustered on one face of the module. To our knowledge, this structure has not previously been described in any other protein and may represent a structural paradigm both for the other modules in the LDL receptor and for the homologous domains of several other proteins. Calcium ions had only minor effects on the CD spectrum and no effect on the 1H NMR spectrum of the repeat, suggesting that they induce no significant conformational change. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 6 PMID:7603991

  7. Loci of catabolism of beta-very low density lipoprotein in vivo delineated with a residualizing label, SVI-dilactitol tyramine

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, A.; Thorpe, S.R.; Lange, L.G.; Sobel, B.E.; Schonfeld, G.

    1985-11-25

    beta-Very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) may be a major atherogenic lipoprotein, and knowledge of the sites of its catabolism should facilitate elucidation of mechanisms important in the regulation of its plasma concentrations. In this study, catabolic sites of beta-VLDL have been delineated in normolipidemic rabbits with a novel, radioiodinated, residualizing label, SVI-dilactitol tyramine ( SVI-DLT). Comparative studies of beta-VLDL and low density lipoprotein catabolism were performed with SVI-DLT conjugated to each lipoprotein and with lipoproteins iodine-labeled conventionally. Conjugation did not alter size distributions or charge characteristics of lipoprotein particles. The overall processing (binding and degradation) of lipoproteins by cultured rabbit skin fibroblasts was not influenced by SVI-DLT derivatization, suggesting that attachment of the label did not influence cell receptor-lipoprotein interactions. Furthermore, although degradation products of SVI-lipoproteins leaked out of the cells and into the medium, the degradation products of SVI-DLT lipoproteins were retained by the cells. The principal catabolic site of beta-VLDL in normolipidemic rabbits was found to be the liver with 54 +/- 4% of injected SVI retained in this organ 24 h after injection of SVI-DLT-beta-VLDL. When catabolism was normalized to tissue weight, the liver and adrenals were found to be approximately equally active in the metabolism of beta-VLDL. In agreement with results of other studies with residualizing labels, the principal organ of catabolism of SVI-DLT-LDL in vivo was the liver. The adrenals were the most highly catabolizing organ when results were normalized for tissue weight.

  8. Plasma Nitration of High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Kidney Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Bakillah, Ahmed; Tedla, Fasika; Ayoub, Isabelle; John, Devon; Norin, Allen J.; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Brown, Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Background. Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. Methods. Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation. Patients were excluded if they have history of diabetes, treatment with lipid-lowering medications or HIV protease inhibitors, prednisone dose > 15?mg/day, nephrotic range proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5?mg/dL, or active inflammatory disease. Sera from 18 transplanted patients were analyzed. Four subjects were excluded due to insufficient data. Twelve and eight patients had creatinine < 1.5?mg/dL at 3 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Results. Nitrated apoA-I was significantly reduced at 12 months after transplantation (p = 0.039). The decrease in apoA-I nitration was associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (p = 0.047). In contrast to apoA-I, nitrated apoB was not affected after kidney transplantation. Conclusions. Patients with well-functioning grafts had significant reduction in nitrated apoA-I 12 months after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed in a large cohort to determine if nitrated apoA-I can be used as a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk stratification in chronic kidney disease. PMID:26648662

  9. The low density lipoprotein receptor is not required for normal catabolism of Lp(a) in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rader, D J; Mann, W A; Cain, W; Kraft, H G; Usher, D; Zech, L A; Hoeg, J M; Davignon, J; Lupien, P; Grossman, M

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein which is similar in structure to low density lipoproteins (LDL). The role of the LDL receptor in the catabolism of Lp(a) has been controversial. We therefore investigated the in vivo catabolism of Lp(a) and LDL in five unrelated patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who have little or no LDL receptor activity. Purified 125I-Lp(a) and 131I-LDL were simultaneously injected into the homozygous FH patients, their heterozygous FH parents when available, and control subjects. The disappearance of plasma radioactivity was followed over time. As expected, the fractional catabolic rates (FCR) of 131I-LDL were markedly decreased in the homozygous FH patients (mean LDL FCR 0.190 d-1) and somewhat decreased in the heterozygous FH parents (mean LDL FCR 0.294 d-1) compared with controls (mean LDL FCR 0.401 d-1). In contrast, the catabolism of 125I-Lp(a) was not significantly different in the homozygous FH patients (mean FCR 0.251 d-1), heterozygous FH parents (mean FCR 0.254 d-1), and control subjects (mean FCR 0.287 d-1). In summary, absence of a functional LDL receptor does not result in delayed catabolism of Lp(a), indicating that the LDL receptor is not a physiologically important route of Lp(a) catabolism in humans. Images PMID:7883987

  10. Dietary Squalene Increases High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Paraoxonase 1 and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Barranquero, Cristina; Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Navarro, María A.; Surra, Joaquín C.; Osada, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Squalene, the main hydrocarbon in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oil, is involved in cholesterol synthesis and it has been reported to own antiatherosclerotic and antiesteatosic effects. However, the squalene's role on lipid plasma parameters and the influence of genotype on this effect need to be addressed. Experimental Approaches Three male mouse models (wild-type, Apoa1- and Apoe- deficient) were fed chow semisynthetic diets enriched in squalene to provide a dose of 1 g/kg during 11 weeks. After this period, their plasma parameters and lipoprotein profiles were analyzed. Key Results Squalene administration at a dose of 1 g/kg showed decreased reactive oxygen species in lipoprotein fractions independently of the animal background and caused an specific increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, accompanied by an increase in phosphatidylcholine and paraoxonase 1 and no changes in apolipoproteins A1 and A4 in wild-type mice. In these mice, the cholesterol increase was due to its esterified form and associated with an increased hepatic expression of Lcat. These effects were not observed in absence of apolipoprotein A1. The increases in HDL- paraoxonase 1 were translated into decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels depending on the presence of Apolipoprotein A1. Conclusions and Implications Dietary squalene promotes changes in HDL- cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases reactive oxygen species in lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde levels, providing new benefits of its intake that might contribute to explain the properties of virgin olive oil, although the phenotype related to apolipoproteins A1 and E may be particularly relevant. PMID:25117703

  11. Increased Free Cholesterol in Plasma Low and Very Low Density Lipoproteins in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Its Role in the Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Christopher J.; Reaven, Gerald M.; Liu, George; Fielding, Phoebe E.

    1984-04-01

    Recombination of low and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) from normal subjects with plasma from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus significantly increased the reduced rate of transfer of cholesteryl ester to these lipoproteins, which is characteristic of diabetic plasma, whereas diabetic VLDL and LDL reduced cholesteryl ester transfer rates in normal plasma. VLDL and LDL from diabetic plasma had an increased ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid compared to normal, and unlike normal VLDL and LDL spontaneously lost free cholesterol to high density lipoprotein. These data suggest that the block to cholesteryl ester transfer to these lipoproteins in non-insulin-dependent diabetes is mediated by their increased free cholesterol content and may be related to the increased risk of these patients for developing atherosclerosis.

  12. High-density lipoproteins induce a rapid and transient release of Ca2+ in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Akerman, K E; Slotte, J P

    1991-10-01

    Several different cell types showed increased rates of proliferation and cholesterol mobilization in response to treatment with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This would suggest that one main function of HDL is the activation of signal pathways in cells. In the current study we have used the fluorescent indicator fura-2 to monitor the level of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in human skin fibroblasts. Exposure of subconfluent as well as confluent fibroblasts to HDL3 (20-60 micrograms/ml) resulted in a rapid and transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Sequential additions of HDL3 resulted in diminished rises in [Ca2+]i. The transient rise in [Ca2+]i was observed with HDL prepared from plasma either by conventional ultracentrifugation or by precipitation with dextran sulphate. Chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA prior to the addition of HDL3 did not prevent the HDL3-induced rise in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that the mobilized Ca2+ was derived mainly from intracellular stores. Covalent modification of the apoproteins of HDL3 with dimethyl suberimidate or tetranitromethane did not inhibit the HDL3-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. This indicates that the binding of HDL3 to cell surface receptors may not be necessary for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Moreover, the Ca(2+)-releasing effect of HDL3 was not inhibited by the presence of albumin (1%, w/v) in the extracellular medium, suggesting that non-esterified fatty acids were not the cause of the increased [Ca2+]i. The exposure of fibroblasts to lysophosphatidic acid, a potent mitogen and Ca(2+)-releasing agent, before addition of HDL3 completely inhibited the HDL3-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate blocked the HDL3-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. The results of this study imply that exposure of cells to HDL generates an intracellular signal which is induced by a component of the lipid fraction. PMID:1930148

  13. Relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies and obesity in different glycemic situations

    PubMed Central

    Babakr, Abdullatif Taha; Elsheikh, Osman Mohamed; Almarzouki, Abdullah A; Assiri, Adel Mohamed; Abdalla, Badr Eldin Elsonni; Zaki, Hani Yousif; Fatani, Samir H; NourEldin, EssamEldin Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are controversially discussed to be either pathogenic or protective. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements correlated with increased levels of these antibodies are also controversial, especially in conditions of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate levels of oxLDL antibodies and their correlation with obesity in different glycemic situations. Methods Two hundred and seventy-four adult males were classified into three subgroups: group 1 (n=125), comprising a control group of nondiabetic subjects; group 2 (n=77), comprising subjects with impaired glucose tolerance; and group 3 (n=72), comprising patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index was calculated, and measurement of oxLDL and oxLDL antibodies was performed. Results Higher mean concentrations of oxLDL were found in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (143.5±21.9 U/L and 108.7±23.7 U/L, respectively). The mean value for the control group was 73.5±27.5 U/L (P<0.001). Higher mean concentrations of anti-oxLDL antibodies were observed in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (55.7±17.8 U/L and 40.4±17.6 U/L, respectively). The mean value for the control group was 20.4±10 U/L (P<0.001). Levels of anti-oxLDL antibodies were found to be positively and significantly correlated with body mass index in the control group (r=0.46), impaired glucose tolerance (r=0.51), type 2 diabetes mellitus group (r=0.46), and in the whole study population (r=0.44; P<0.001). Conclusion Anti-oxLDL antibody levels were increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance and were positively correlated with obesity and body mass index. PMID:25368528

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles To Treat Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Marina Giacoma

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs), natural nanoparticles that function as vehicles for cholesterol transport, have enhanced uptake by several human cancers. This uptake is mediated, in part, by the high affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B-1 (SR-B1). More specifically, studies show that the rate of cellular proliferation of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphocytes, is directly proportional to the amount of HDL-cholesterol available. Thus, targeting of HDL-cholesterol uptake by these cells could be an effective therapeutic approach that may have lower toxicity to healthy cells compared to conventional therapies. Biomimetic HDL can be synthesized using a gold nanoparticle template (HDL-AuNPs), which provides control over size, shape, and surface chemistry. Like their natural counterparts, HDL-AuNPs sequester cholesterol. However, since the gold nanoparticle replaces the cholesterol core of natural HDL, HDL-AuNPs inherently deliver less cholesterol. We show that HDL-AuNPs are able to induce dose dependent apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines and reduce tumor volume following systemic administration to mice bearing B cell lymphoma tumors. Furthermore, HDL-AuNPs are neither toxic to healthy human lymphocytes (SR-B1-), nor to hepatocytes and macrophages (SR-B1+), which are cells naturally encountered by HDLs. Manipulation of cholesterol flux and targeting of SR-B1 are responsible for the efficacy of HDL-AuNPs against B cell lymphoma. HDL-AuNPs could be used to treat B cell lymphomas and other diseases that involve pathologic accumulation of cholesterol. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) core HDLs (HDL-TiO 2 NPs) have been synthesized for high resolution cellular localization studies and for future use as a therapeutic and imaging agent. In initial studies, HDL-TiO(2 NPs display maximum uptake in B cell lymphoma cell lines. X-ray fluorescence microscopy studies show interaction between HDL-TiO2 NPs and cells 10 minutes after treatment and internalization after 1 hour. HDL-TiO2 NPs induce apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines. These results suggest that HDL-TiO2 NPs may be used as therapeutics for lymphoma and other cancers by inducing apoptosis through manipulation of cellular cholesterol flux.

  15. Different responses to oxidized low-density lipoproteins in human polarized macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake by macrophages plays an important role in foam cell formation. It has been suggested the presence of heterogeneous subsets of macrophage, such as M1 and M2, in human atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate which types of macrophages contribute to atherogenesis, we performed cDNA microarray analysis to determine oxLDL-induced transcriptional alterations of each subset of macrophages. Results Human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized toward the M1 or M2 subset, followed by treatment with oxLDL. Then gene expression levels during oxLDL treatment in each subset of macrophages were evaluated by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In terms of high-ranking upregulated genes and functional ontologies, the alterations during oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages were similar to those in nonpolarized macrophages (M0). Molecular network analysis showed that most of the molecules in the oxLDL-induced highest scoring molecular network of M1 macrophages were directly or indirectly related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed commonly upregulated genes in all subset of macrophages, some of which contained antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoter regions. A cluster of genes that were specifically upregulated in M1 macrophages included those encoding molecules related to nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-?B) signaling pathway. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-8 after oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages was markedly lower than those in M0 and M1 cells. HMOX1 gene expression levels were almost the same in all 3 subsets of macrophages even after oxLDL treatment. Conclusions The present study demonstrated transcriptional alterations in polarized macrophages during oxLDL treatment. The data suggested that oxLDL uptake may affect TGF-?1- and NF-?B-mediated functions of M1 macrophages, but not those of M0 or M2 macrophages. It is likely that M1 macrophages characteristically respond to oxLDL. PMID:21199582

  16. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Straka, Robert; Kammerer, Candace M.; Lee, Joseph H.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Christensen, Kaare; Newman, Anne B.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights into biological regulation of HDL metabolism in healthy-longevous subjects. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan on HDL using a mixed model approach to account for family structure using kinship coefficients. A total of 4114 subjects of European descent (480 families) were genotyped at ~2.3 million SNPs and ~38 million SNPs were imputed using the 1000 Genome Cosmopolitan reference panel in MACH. We identified novel variants near-NLRP1 (17p13) associated with an increase of HDL levels at genome-wide significant level (p < 5.0E-08). Additionally, several CETP (16q21) and ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1 (11q23.3) variants associated with HDL were found, replicating those previously reported in the literature. A possible regulatory variant upstream of NLRP1 that is associated with HDL in these elderly Long Life Family Study (LLFS) subjects may also contribute to their longevity and health. Our NLRP1 intergenic SNPs show a potential regulatory function in Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE); however, it is not clear whether they regulate NLRP1 or other more remote gene. NLRP1 plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis, and its inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses. Nlrp1a (a mouse ortholog of human NLRP1) interacts with SREBP-1a (17p11) which has a fundamental role in lipid concentration and composition, and is involved in innate immune response in macrophages. The NLRP1 region is conserved in mammals, but also has evolved adaptively showing signals of positive selection in European populations that might confer an advantage. NLRP1 intergenic SNPs have also been associated with immunity/inflammasome disorders which highlights the biological importance of this chromosomal region. PMID:24917880

  17. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51–1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n?=?3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P?

  18. Interaction of HDL subclasses with phospholipid

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.A.; Blanche, P.J.; Forte, T.M.; Nichols, A.V.

    1980-06-29

    As a model system for possible interaction of HDL with surface components released during catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, phospholipid uptake by human HDL subclasses, HDL/sub 3/ (1.125 to 1.200 g/ml) and HDL/sub 2b/ (1.063 to 1.100 g/m), during in vitro incubation (37/sup 0/C for 4.5 hours) with increasing amounts of sonicated dispersions of human lipoprotein phosphatidylcholine (HL-PC) are investigated. Possible changes in HDL size and transfer of apolipoproteins are also investigated. In summary, the HDL subclasses, HDL/sub 3/, and HDL/sub 2b/, show a capacity for direct uptake of HL-PC. Using HDL compositional data of Anderson, we estimate a maximal uptake of about 32 phospholipid molecules per HDL/sub 3/ and 47 per HDL/sub 2b/. Under the conditions used, the size increase associated with HL-PC uptake by HDL/sub 3/ was not sufficient in shift it into the HDL/sub 2a/ size range (9.7 to 10.7 nm).

  19. In vivo metabolism of apolipoproteins A-IV and A-I associated with high density lipoprotein in normolipidemic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Malmendier, C.L.; Lontie, J.F.; Lagrost, L.; Delcroix, C.; Dubois, D.Y.; Gambert, P. )

    1991-05-01

    The kinetics of apolipoprotein A-IV associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) of plasma from fasting human subjects was followed for 15 days in five healthy normolipidemic volunteers. Purified apoA-IV and apoA-I were radioiodinated, respectively, with 125I and 131I, incubated in vitro with normal HDL, isolated at density 1.250 g/ml, and finally reinjected intravenously as HDL-125I-labeled apoA-IV and HDL-131I-labeled apoA-I. Blood samples were withdrawn at regular intervals for 15 days, and 24-h urine samples were collected. More than 93% (93.5 {plus minus} 0.9%) of apoA-IV was recovered in apoA-I-containing lipoprotein particles after affinity chromatography on an anti-apoA-I column and 69.7 {plus minus} 4.8% was bound to apoA-II in apoA-I:A-II particles separated on an anti-apoA-II column. 125I-labeled apoA-IV showed a much faster decay than 131I-labeled apoA-I for the first 5 days and thereafter the curves became parallel. Urinary/plasma ratios (U/P) for the 125I-labeled parallel. Urinary/plasma ratios (U/P) for the 125I-labeled apoA-IV were much higher than those for 131I-labeled apoA-I for the first days, but the U/P curves became parallel for the last 7 days, suggesting heterogeneity of apoA-IV metabolism. A heterogeneous multicompartmental model was constructed to describe the metabolism of lipoprotein particles containing apoA-IV and apoA-I and to calculate the kinetic parameters, fitting simultaneously all plasma and urine data for both tracers.

  20. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K J; Vallabhajosula, S; Rahman, I U; Donnelly, T M; Parker, T S; Weinrauch, M; Goldsmith, S J

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused 111In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t1/2) for clearance of 111In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits (means +/- SEM; n = 4). By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue stores. Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was greater than 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative gamma camera imaging, hepatic trapping of 111In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance, acquiring 22.0% +/- 1.7% (WHHL) and 16.8% +/- 1.0% (normal of total 111In. Aortic uptake of 111In was less than 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, our results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:3422421

  1. Endothelial NOS-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)- terminal kinase by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Levonen, A. L.; Moellering, D.; Ramachandran, A.; Patel, R. P.; Jo, H.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to activate a number of signal transduction pathways in endothelial cells. Among these are the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), also known as stress-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinase) determine cell survival in response to environmental stress. Interestingly, JNK signaling involves redox-sensitive mechanisms and is activated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both NADPH oxidases, nitric oxide synthases (NOS), peroxides, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The role of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the activation of JNK in response to oxLDL has not been examined. Herein, we show that on exposure of endothelial cells to oxLDL, both ERK and JNK are activated through independent signal transduction pathways. A key role of eNOS activation through a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent mechanism leading to phosphorylation of eNOS is demonstrated for oxLDL-dependent activation of JNK. Moreover, we show that activation of ERK by oxLDL is critical in protection against the cytotoxicity of oxLDL.

  2. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  3. The effect of high-density-lipoprotein on thrombus formation on and endothelial cell attachement to biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, Menno L W; Aldenhoff, Yvette B J; Koole, Leo H

    2006-05-01

    Cardiovascular implants such as vascular grafts fail frequently because they lack genuine blood-compatibility. The blood-contacting surface should simultaneously prevent thrombus formation and promote formation of a confluent endothelial cell layer, to achieve sustained haemostasis. Contact activation and endothelialization are known to be determined by the plasma proteins which adsorb onto virtually all synthetic surfaces almost immediately upon contact with blood. A common approach in blood-compatibility research is, therefore, to use hydrophilic biomaterials, which are sometimes claimed to be "protein-repellent". We report here that, for synthetic polymeric surfaces, hydrophilicity is by no means synonymous to protein-repellency. We discovered that significant amounts of proteins, especially high-density lipoprotein, adsorb to hydrophilic surfaces. Pre-incubation of hydrophilic synthetic surfaces with high-density lipoprotein provides a blood-biomaterial interface, which inhibits thrombin generation and subsequent thrombus formation, and also accommodates overgrowth with a confluent endothelial layer. This approach may open the way to truly functional small-caliber arterial prostheses, and may also be relevant to cardiovascular tissue engineering in which de novo vascular tissues are cultured on or within a biomaterial scaffold. PMID:16427694

  4. Oxidized high-density lipoprotein accelerates atherosclerosis progression by inducing the imbalance between treg and teff in LDLR knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ru, Ding; Zhiqing, He; Lin, Zhu; Feng, Wu; Feng, Zhang; Jiayou, Zhang; Yusheng, Ren; Min, Fan; Chun, Liang; Zonggui, Wu

    2015-05-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction has been widely reported in clinic, and oxidation of HDL (ox-HDL) was shown to be one of the most common modifications in vivo and participate in the progression of atherosclerosis. But the behind mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, we firstly analyzed and found strong relationship between serum ox-HDL levels and risk factors of coronary artery diseases in clinic, then the effects of ox-HDL in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in LDLR knockout mice were investigated by infusion of ox-HDL dissolved in chitosan hydrogel before the formation of lesions in vivo. Several new evidence were shown: (i) the serum levels of ox-HDL peaked early before the formation of lesions in LDLR mice fed with high fat diet similar to oxidative low density lipoprotein, (ii) the formation of atherosclerotic lesions could be accelerated by infusion of ox-HDL, (iii) the pro-atherosclerotic effects of ox-HDL were accompanied by imbalanced levels of effector and regulatory T cells and relative gene expressions, which implied that imbalance of teff and treg might contribute to the pro-atherosclerosis effects of ox-HDL. PMID:25912129

  5. Morphological evidence that high density lipoproteins are not internalized by steroid-producing cells during in situ organ perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, E.; Chen, Y.D.; Spicher, M.; Azhar, S.

    1984-10-01

    Although it is clear that high density lipoproteins (HDL) can support steroidogenesis in several rat cell systems, questions still arise as to how HDL are processed by cells. In particular, it is not yet clear whether HDL are internalized by a pathway similar to that used for low density lipoproteins. This issue was examined in the present study using the luteinized ovaries of hormone-primed immature rats in an in situ perfusion system. Ovaries were perfused for 2-120 min with /sup 125/I-labeled human or rat HDL and processed for autoradiographic studies at the light and electron microscopic level, or homogenized and used for isolation of subcellular membranes. The results show that the luteal cells of this tissue bind both human and rat HDL with great specificity. Moreover, the intact HDL particle does not appear to be internalized by the luteal cell during the period of perfusion: i.e., the protein moiety of the labeled HDL remains associated with the plasma membrane at all times. Evidence from the autoradiographs suggest, however, that with time, an increasing proportion of the plasma membrane-bound protein is associated with inverted microvilli, which are embedded within the cytoplasm and make close contact with structures of the interior of the cell. We speculate that HDL-cholesterol may be transferred at such sites.

  6. Neutrophil extracellular trap-derived enzymes oxidize high-density lipoprotein: an additional proatherogenic mechanism in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chongren; Knight, Jason S.; Mathew, Anna; Padilla, Robin L.; Gillespie, Brenda W; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Liu, Xiaodan; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Thompson, Paul R.; Heinecke, Jay W.; Saran, Rajiv; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oxidative stress and oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) are implicated as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Yet, how HDL is oxidized and rendered dysfunctional in SLE remains unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are elevated in lupus, possess oxidant-generating enzymes including myeloperoxidase (MPO), NADPH oxidase (NOX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that NETs mediate HDL oxidation, impairing cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). Methods Control and lupus plasma MPO levels and CEC activity were examined; 3-chlorotyrosine (MPO-specific) and 3-nitrotyrosine (derived from reactive nitrogen species) were quantified in human HDL. Multivariable linear models estimated and tested differences between groups. HDL was exposed to NETs from control and lupus neutrophils in the presence or absence of MPO, NOX, NOS inhibitors and chloroquine. Murine HDL oxidation was quantified after NET inhibition in vivo. Results SLE subjects displayed higher MPO levels and diminished CEC. SLE HDL had higher 3-nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine content, with site-specific oxidation signatures on apoA1. Experiments with human and murine NETs confirmed that chlorination is mediated by MPO and NOX, and nitration by NOS and NOX. Lupus mice treated with the NET-inhibitor Cl-amidine displayed significantly decreased oxHDL. Chloroquine inhibited NET formation in vitro. Conclusion Active NOS, NOX and MPO within NETs significantly modify HDL, rendering the lipoprotein proatherogenic. As NET formation is enhanced in SLE, these findings support a novel role for NET-derived lipoprotein oxidation in SLE-associated CVD and identify additional proatherogenic roles of neutrophils and putative protective roles of antimalarials in autoimmunity. PMID:24838349

  7. Prospective cross-over comparisons of three low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis methods in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Schaumann, D; Welch-Wichary, M; Voss, A; Schmidt, H; Olbricht, C J

    1996-11-01

    We prospectively compared effectiveness, selectivity and biocompatibility of three LDL-apheresis methods, immunoadsorption (IMAL), dextran sulphate adsorption (DSAL) and heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP). Seven patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia were treated twice with each method in random sequence. Reduction in atherogenic lipoproteins was without significant difference: LDL -60% to -75%, VLDL -20% to -30%, triglycerides -20% to -42%. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was reduced by IMAL only (-27%, P < 0.05); DSAL and HELP did not decrease HDL. Total plasma protein reduction was 13-15% with each method, indicating unselectivity. Albumin was significantly decreased by IMAL (-15%, P < 0.05) but not by the other methods. DSAL and HELP reduced fibrinogen (-40%, -58%, P < 0.0001) and other clotting factors. IMAL had almost no effect on coagulation. The white blood cell count did not change. C3 and C4 complement were decreased (-20% to -46%) by all methods. C5a complement did not increase in systemic blood, but was increased in the extracorporeal circulation of IMAL (+200%) and HELP (+150%). Plasma PMN elastase rose in all methods (+200%) indicating neutrophile degranulation. In conclusion, in this short-term study of a small patient population, effectiveness of the three LDL-apheresis methods was similar, but selectivity and biocompatibility were different. The therapeutic relevance of these differences for long-term treatment remains to be elucidated. PMID:8957211

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Polyethylene Oxide and Polypropylene Oxide Triblock Copolymers on Aggregation and Fusion of Atherogenic Low Density Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Panova, I G; Spiridonov, V V; Kaplan, I B; Trubinov, S S; Elizova, N V; Melnichenko, A A; Orekhov, A N; Yaroslavov, A A

    2015-08-01

    Triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (so-called pluronics) were shown to influence the aggregation and fusion of atherogenic low density lipoproteins (atLDL) and be able to inhibit these processes. The character of the influence and the degree of the stabilizing effect depended on the structure, relative hydrophobicity, and concentration of the copolymer. Pluronics L61, P85, and L64 characterized by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value from 3 to 16 had the greatest ability to suppress the aggregation of atLDL. Pluronic L81 with the higher hydrophobicity (HLB = 2) partially inhibited atLDL aggregation at low concentrations but stimulated it at high concentrations. The influence of pluronics did not have a direct connection with their ability for micelle formation, but it was realized through individual macromolecules. We suppose that effects of pluronics could be due to their interaction with the lipid component of LDL and to a possible influence of these copolymers on the structure and hydrophilic-lipophilic characteristics of lipoproteins. PMID:26547074

  9. High-density lipoprotein deficiency in genetically modified mice deeply affects skin morphology: A structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Arnaboldi, Francesca; Busnelli, Marco; Cornaghi, Laura; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia; Dellera, Federica; Ganzetti, Giulia Sara; Sirtori, Cesare Riccardo; Donetti, Elena; Chiesa, Giulia

    2015-10-15

    Cutaneous lipids, endogenously synthetized and transported by lipoproteins, play a pivotal role in maintaining skin barrier. An impairment of extracutaneous lipid trafficking leads to the development of xanthomas, mostly arising in hyperlipidemic patients, but also in subjects with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate, in a genetically modified mouse model, lacking two protein components of HDL particles, apolipoprotein(apo)E and apoA-I, the effect of HDL deficiency on skin morphology. Control mice (C57BL/6), apoE deficient mice (EKO), apoA-I deficient mice (A-IKO) and apoA-I/apoE double knockout mice (A-IKO/EKO) were maintained on a low-fat/low-cholesterol diet up to 30 weeks of age. At sacrifice, skin biopsies were processed for light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Whereas the skin of EKO, A-IKO, and C57BL/6 mice was comparable, LM analysis in A-IKO/EKO mice showed an increase in dermal thickness and the presence of foam cells and T lymphocytes in reticular dermis. TEM analysis revealed the accumulation of cholesterol clefts in the papillary dermis and of cholesterol crystals within foam cells. In conclusion, A-IKO/EKO mice represent an experimental model for investigating the cutaneous phenotype of human HDL deficiency, thus mimicking a condition in which human xanthomatous lesions can develop. PMID:26241937

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? promotes very low-density lipoprotein-derived fatty acid catabolism in the macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kihwa; Mehl, Isaac R.; Nofsinger, Russell; Alaynick, William A.; Chong, Ling-Wa; Rosenfeld, John M.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, recent advances have identified triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [e.g., very LDL (VLDL)] as independent risk predictors for this disease. We have previously demonstrated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, but not PPAR?, is the major nuclear VLDL sensor in the macrophage, which is a crucial component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Here, we show that, in addition to ?-oxidation and energy dissipation, activation of PPAR? by VLDL particles induces key genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and lipid mobilization mediated by a recently identified TG lipase, transport secretion protein 2 (also named desnutrin, iPLA2?, and adipose triglyceride lipase), resulting in increased fatty acid catabolism. Unexpectedly, deletion of PPAR? results in derepression of target gene expression, a phenotype similar to that of ligand activation, suggesting that unliganded PPAR? suppresses fatty acid utilization through active repression, which is reversed upon ligand binding. This unique transcriptional mechanism assures a tight control of the homeostasis of VLDL-derived fatty acid and provides a therapeutic target for other lipid-related disorders, including dyslipidemia and diabetes, in addition to coronary artery disease. PMID:16467150

  11. Piperine Induces Hepatic Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression through Proteolytic Activation of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Ayasa; Miyata, Shingo; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Because the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) uptakes plasma lipoproteins and lowers plasma LDL cholesterol, the activation of LDLR is a promising drug target for atherosclerosis. In the present study, we identified the naturally occurring alkaloid piperine, as an inducer of LDLR gene expression by screening the effectors of human LDLR promoter. The treatment of HepG2 cells with piperine increased LDLR expression at mRNA and protein levels and stimulated LDL uptake. Subsequent luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the mutation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-binding element abolished the piperine-mediated induction of LDLR promoter activity. Further, piperine treatments increased mRNA levels of several SREBP targets and mature forms of SREBPs. However, the piperine-mediated induction of the mature forms of SREBPs was not observed in SRD–15 cells, which lack insulin-induced gene–1 (Insig–1) and Insig–2. Finally, the knockdown of SREBPs completely abolished the piperine-meditated induction of LDLR gene expression in HepG2 cells, indicating that piperine stimulates the proteolytic activation of SREBP and subsequent induction of LDLR expression and activity. PMID:26431033

  12. Proliferative and cytotoxic effects of mildly oxidized low-density lipoproteins on vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Augé, N; Pieraggi, M T; Thiers, J C; Nègre-Salvayre, A; Salvayre, R

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the proliferative effect of LDLs on cultured bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells and compared it with their effect on bovine aortic endothelial cells. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Non-toxic doses of mildly oxidized LDLs elicit a proliferative effect on smooth-muscle cells significantly higher than that of native LDLs or lipoprotein-depleted serum. The proliferative effect is dependent on time (relatively slow), dose (high doses are cytotoxic) and the level of LDL oxidation. (2) The proliferative effect on smooth-muscle cells is counterbalanced at high concentrations of mildly oxidized LDLs (or at high oxidation levels) by their cytotoxic effect. (3) The same dose of mildly oxidized LDLs exhibits no proliferative effect on endothelial cells but rather a cytotoxic one. Endothelial cells may therefore be intrinsically more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of mildly oxidized LDLs than are smooth-muscle cells. (4) The proliferative effect of native LDLs on smooth-muscle cells results (at least in part) from cell-induced LDL oxidation during cell culture as suggested by (i) the progressive LDL oxidation over the 3 days of contact between LDLs and smooth-muscle cells and (ii) the concomitant inhibition of LDL oxidation and proliferative effect by butylated hydroxytoluene. The hypothetical mechanisms and potential involvement in atherogenesis are discussed. Images Figure 2 PMID:7639678

  13. Hyperlipoproteinemia enhances susceptibility to acute disseminated Candida albicans infection in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Netea, M G; Demacker, P N; de Bont, N; Boerman, O C; Stalenhoef, A F; van der Meer, J W; Kullberg, B J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the use of lipoproteins as an adjuvant treatment of lethal gram-negative infections. However, other important microorganisms for the etiology of sepsis, such as Candida species, grow better in lipid-rich environments. We investigated the effect of hyperlipoproteinemia on systemic candidiasis in low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice, in which the loss of the receptor results in a seven- to ninefold-higher plasma LDL level than that in their wild-type littermates (C57BL/6J). LDLR-/- mice died earlier, and the outgrowth of Candida albicans in the kidneys and livers of LDLR-/- mice was significantly higher compared with that of controls. After infection, circulating cytokine concentrations were significantly higher in LDLR-/- mice. In vitro, C. albicans grew better in plasma samples of LDLR-/- mice than in control plasma samples and peritoneal macrophages of LDLR-/- mice challenged with heat-killed C. albicans produced more cytokines than did those of controls. This latter phenomenon was probably due to increased binding of yeast cells to macrophages of LDLR-/- mice. These data suggest that hyperlipoproteinemia is deleterious in systemic candidiasis. PMID:9199434

  14. Functional expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is controlled by receptor-associated protein in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Willnow, T E; Armstrong, S A; Hammer, R E; Herz, J

    1995-01-01

    The 39-kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) associates with the multifunctional low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) and thereby prevents the binding of all known ligands, including alpha 2-macroglobulin and chylomicron remnants. RAP is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, raising the possibility that it functions as a chaperone or escort protein in the biosynthesis or intracellular transport of LRP. Here we have used gene targeting to show that RAP promotes the expression of functional LRP in vivo. The amount of mature, processed LRP is reduced in liver and brain of RAP-deficient mice. As a result, hepatic clearance of alpha 2-macroglobulin is impaired and remnant lipoproteins accumulate in the plasma of RAP-deficient mice that also lack functional LDL receptors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAP stabilizes LRP within the secretory pathway. They also suggest a further mechanism by which the activity of an endocytic receptor may be modulated in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7538675

  15. Multi-dimensional co-separation analysis reveals protein-protein interactions defining plasma lipoprotein subspecies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Scott M; Deng, Jingyuan; Tomann, Alex B; Shah, Amy S; Lu, L Jason; Davidson, W Sean

    2013-11-01

    The distribution of circulating lipoprotein particles affects the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Lipoproteins are historically defined by their density, with low-density lipoproteins positively and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) negatively associated with CVD risk in large populations. However, these broad definitions tend to obscure the remarkable heterogeneity within each class. Evidence indicates that each class is composed of physically (size, density, charge) and compositionally (protein and lipid) distinct subclasses exhibiting unique functionalities and differing effects on disease. HDLs in particular contain upward of 85 proteins of widely varying function that are differentially distributed across a broad range of particle diameters. We hypothesized that the plasma lipoproteins, particularly HDL, represent a continuum of phospholipid platforms that facilitate specific protein-protein interactions. To test this idea, we separated normal human plasma using three techniques that exploit different lipoprotein physicochemical properties (gel filtration chromatography, ionic exchange chromatography, and preparative isoelectric focusing). We then tracked the co-separation of 76 lipid-associated proteins via mass spectrometry and applied a summed correlation analysis to identify protein pairs that may co-reside on individual lipoproteins. The analysis produced 2701 pairing scores, with the top hits representing previously known protein-protein interactions as well as numerous unknown pairings. A network analysis revealed clusters of proteins with related functions, particularly lipid transport and complement regulation. The specific co-separation of protein pairs or clusters suggests the existence of stable lipoprotein subspecies that may carry out distinct functions. Further characterization of the composition and function of these subspecies may point to better targeted therapeutics aimed at CVD or other diseases. PMID:23882025

  16. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    PubMed

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro. PMID:2123379

  17. In vivo evidence for reduced binding of low density lipoproteins to receptors as a cause of primary moderate hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, G L; Grundy, S M

    1986-01-01

    The causes of primary moderate hypercholesterolemia are not understood, but some patients have reduced fractional clearance rates (FCRs) for low density lipoproteins (LDL). This could be due to either decreased activity of LDL receptors or to a defect in structure (or composition) of LDL that reduces its affinity for receptors. To distinguish between these causes, simultaneous turnover rates of autologous and normal homologous LDL were determined in 15 patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolemia. In 10, turnover rates of both types of LDL were indistinguishable, which indicated that autologous LDL was cleared as efficiently as normal homologous LDL. In five others, FCRs for autologous LDL were significantly lower than for homologous LDL. Two of the latter five were treated with mevinolin, and although FCRs for both types of LDL rose during treatment, differences in FCRs between the two types of LDL persisted. In these five patients, autologous LDL appeared to be a poor ligand for LDL receptors. PMID:3771801

  18. Cytotoxic effect of a lipophilic alkylating agent after incorporation into low density lipoprotein or emulsions: studies in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Masquelier, Michèle; Lundberg, Bo; Peterson, Curt; Vitols, Sigurd

    2006-02-01

    The use of low density lipoprotein (LDL) as drug carrier in acute myeloblastic leukemia chemotherapy is attractive due to high LDL uptake by leukemic cells. Lipid-based formulations, such as liposomes or microemulsions are promising alternatives. In the current study, we incorporated N-trifluoroacetyl-adriamycin-14-valerate (AD32), a lipophilic derivative of daunorubicin (DNR), and WB4291, a lipophilic alkylating agent, into LDL or lipid microemulsions and evaluated their cytotoxic activities towards leukemic cell lines using as references DNR and melphalan. The incorporation of AD32 into LDL or emulsion resulted in complexes with poor cytotoxicity. WB4291-LDL and WB4291-emulsion exerted, on the other hand, promising cytotoxic effects towards parental and resistant K562 and HL60 cell lines. PMID:16085310

  19. Mechanobiology of low-density lipoprotein transport within an arterial wall--impact of hyperthermia and coupling effects.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperthermia, coupling attributes and property variations on Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport within a multi-layered wall while accounting for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) is analyzed in this work. To understand the potential impact of the hyperthermia process, thermo-induced attributes are incorporated, accounting for the plasma flow, mass transfer, as well as the elastic wall structure. The coupling effect of osmotic pressure, Soret and Dufour diffusion is discussed and their influence on LDL transport is examined, demonstrating that only the Soret effect needs to be accounted for. The effect of thermal expansion on changing the behavior of flow, mass transport, and elastic structure is illustrated and analyzed while incorporating the variations in the effective LDL diffusivity and consumption rate, as well as other dominating parameters. It is shown that hyperthermia results in an enhancement in LDL transport by increasing the concentration levels within the arterial wall. PMID:24183548

  20. Non-leaky vesiculation of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) induced by plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL): Detection by HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, U.; Rueckert, D.S.; Schubert, R.; Jaroni, H.W.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1989-05-15

    Interaction of large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles (LUV, 75nm) and plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) resulted in a non-leaky vesiculation of LUV. This vesiculation was detected by a HPLC-system consisting of a combination of three TSK-gel columns (6000PW, 5000PW, 3000SW). With increasing incubation time liposomal (/sup 14/C)PC, entrapped (/sup 3/H)inulin, and apoprotein of HDL origin decreased. The decrease was accompanied by a formation of new particles, consisting of liposomal PC and apoprotein. These particles also enclosed (3H)inulin, reflecting a hydrophilic inner space. The formation of the particles reached a maximum after one day of incubation. Retention time was 21 minutes for LUV, 28 minutes for the new particles, and 36 minutes for HDL. In vesicles with membranes consisting of phosphatidylcholine and 30% cholesterol no interactions were observed.

  1. A biosensor of high-density lipoprotein of human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Kai-Han; Chu, Wei-Lin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Wu, Li-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor for the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on a polar-polar interaction between orientation of LC directors and HDL in human serum. The concentration of polar HDL in human serum affects the orientations of LC directors at the interface between LCPCF and the human serum. In addition, the surface free energy of LCPCF changes with the applied voltage due to the electrically tunable orientations of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains of LCPCF. As a result, the droplet motion of human serum on LCPCF under applied voltages can sense the concentration of HDL in human serum.

  2. Effect of structure and composition of reconstituted high density lipoproteins on phosphatidylcholine transfer by human plasma phospholipid transfer protein

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Discoidal-reconstructed high density lipoproteins (rHDL) were used to study the effect of HDL substrates on phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer by human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) by changing the composition and size of rHDL. Sonicated egg-PC:cholesterol vesicles containing radiolabeled dipalmitoyl-PC ({sup 14}C-DPPC) were used as donors and varied rHDL, consisting of apolipoprotein, phospholipid and cholesterol, were used as acceptors. PLTP, purified about 3,400-fold, was used in the experiments. Activity was measured by the percent {sup 14}C-DPPC transferred from vesicles into rHDL. There was no selectivity in facilitated {sup 14}C-DPPC transfer at 5:1, of HDL; however, apolipoprotein (apo) AI-containing rHDL was more stable than apo AII and apo C-containing rHDL in the incubation system. Therefore, apo AI was used in subsequent experiments.

  3. Differential estrogen responsiveness of the vitellogenin and apo very low density lipoprotein II genes in the rooster liver.

    PubMed

    Noteborn, M H; Bakker, O; de Jonge, M A; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1986-01-01

    The primary transcript of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL-II) gene is formed almost immediately after a first estrogen administration, contrary to the appearance of the vitellogenin primary transcript which has a lag of at least 4 h. However, after a second estrogen administration the vitellogenin gene transcription shows no detectable lag (memory effect). After estrogen withdrawal, the primary transcripts of both genes rapidly decline to undetectably low levels. In the presence of estrogen, the half-lives of the mRNAs of apoVLDL-II and vitellogenin are 15 and at least 70 h, respectively, whereas in the absence of hormone they are only 3.5 and 5.5 h, respectively. Thus estrogen not only controls the transcription of both genes, but also the turnover of their mRNAs. In short, there appears to be a quantitative difference in the response of both genes. PMID:3634868

  4. Recyclable heparin and chitosan conjugated magnetic nanocomposites for selective removal of low-density lipoprotein from plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghua; Hou, Yanhua; Chen, Xiuyong; Ding, Xingwei; Liu, Yun; Shen, Xinkun; Cai, Kaiyong

    2014-04-01

    A new fabrication protocol is described to obtain heparin and chitosan conjugated magnetic nanocomposite as a blood purification material for removal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from blood plasma. The adsorbent could be easily separated with an external magnet for recyclable use since it had a magnetic core. The LDL level of plasma decreased by 67.3 % after hemoperfusion for 2 h. Moreover, the adsorbent could be recycled simply washing with NaCl solution. After eight cycles, the removal efficiency of the adsorbent was still above 50 %. The recyclable magnetic adsorbent had good blood compatibility due to the conjugation of heparin to the chitosan-coated magnetic nanocomposites. The fabricated magnetic adsorbent could be applied for LDL apheresis without side effects. PMID:24394982

  5. Protective Effects of Let-7a and Let-7b on Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Endothelial Cell Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Mei-hua; Zhang, Yi-wen; Lou, Xiao-ya; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. The activation of LOX-1 by oxLDL stimulates the apoptosis and dysfunction of endothelial cells, and contributes to atherogenesis. However, the regulatory factors for LOX-1 are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expressions at a post-transcriptional level. The let-7 family is the second microRNA been discovered, which plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7a and let-7b were predicted to target LOX-1 3?-UTR and be highly expressed in endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that LOX-1 was a target of let-7a and let-7b. They inhibited the expression of LOX-1 by targeting the positions of 310-316 in LOX-1 3?-UTR. Over-expression of let-7a and let-7b inhibited the oxLDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, NO deficiency, ROS over-production, LOX-1 upregulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) downregulation. Moreover, we found that oxLDL treatment induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, NF-?B nuclear translocation, I?B degradation and PKB dephosphorylation. Let-7a or let-7b over-expression attenuated these alterations significantly. The present study may provide a new insight into the protective properties of let-7a and let-7b in preventing the endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:25247304

  6. A Splice Region Variant in LDLR Lowers Non-high Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Protects against Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Helgadottir, Anna; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Magnusdottir, Audur; Oddsson, Asmundur; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Rafnar, Thorunn; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Daneshpour, Maryam S.; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Olafsson, Isleifur; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Sulem, Patrick; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Holm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Through high coverage whole-genome sequencing and imputation of the identified variants into a large fraction of the Icelandic population, we found four independent signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) that associate with levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Two signals are novel with respect to association with non-HDL-C and are represented by non-coding low frequency variants (between 2–4% frequency), the splice region variant rs72658867-A in intron 14 and rs17248748-T in intron one. These two novel associations were replicated in three additional populations. Both variants lower non-HDL-C levels (rs72658867-A, non-HDL-C effect = -0.44 mmol/l, Padj = 1.1 × 10?80 and rs17248748-T, non-HDL-C effect = -0.13 mmol/l, Padj = 1.3 × 10?12) and confer protection against CAD (rs72658867-A, OR = 0.76 and Padj = 2.7 × 10?8 and rs17248748-T, OR = 0.92 and Padj = 0.022). The LDLR splice region variant, rs72658867-A, located at position +5 in intron 14 (NM_000527:c.2140+5G>A), causes retention of intron 14 during transcription and is expected to produce a truncated LDL receptor lacking domains essential for function of the receptor. About half of the transcripts generated from chromosomes carrying rs72658867-A are characterized by this retention of the intron. The same variant also increases LDLR mRNA expression, however, the wild type transcripts do not exceed levels in non-carriers. This demonstrates that sequence variants that disrupt the LDL receptor can lower non-HDL-C and protect against CAD. PMID:26327206

  7. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates ?1-antitrypsin internalization in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xueyuan; Liu, Zhu; Shapiro, Leland; Yang, Jun; Burton, Gregory F

    2015-12-01

    In ?1-antitrypsin-deficient HIV patients, an accelerated decline of CD4(+) T cell numbers is observed, suggesting that ?1-antitrypsin is a potential endogenous HIV inhibitor. In infected T lymphocytes, ?1-antitrypsin potently blocks NF-?B activation and HIV-1 replication by directly interacting with I?B? in the cytosol, thereby altering its ubiquitination pattern. However, the mechanism of ?1-antitrypsin entry into the cytosol, where I?B? locates, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of ?1-antitrypsin internalization in CD4(+) T cells. Thus, primary CD4(+) T cells were infected with HIV-1 and then incubated with ?1-antitrypsin to detect its internalization. We found that CD4(+) T cells internalized ?1-antitrypsin through a clathrin-dependent endocytosis process. Next, intracellular ?1-antitrypsin exerted the inhibitory effect on NF-?B activation and HIV-1 replication. On primary CD4(+) T cells, ?1-antitrypsin interacted with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 to initiate the internalization. Inside CD4(+) T lymphocytes, ?1-antitrypsin was transported from the endosome to the lysosome and then released into the cytosol, where it is possible for ?1-antitrypsin to directly interact with I?B?. These results together suggest that ?1-antitrypsin internalization is a clathrin-dependent and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated endocytosis process. Internalized ?1-antitrypsin is transported through the endosome-lysosome-cytosol routine to interact with cytosolic I?B? and block NF-?B activation and HIV-1 replication. PMID:26206901

  8. Influence of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Lindenstrøm, E.; Boysen, G.; Nyboe, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the influence of plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides on risk of cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN--The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective observational survey with two cardiovascular examinations at five year intervals. Non-fasting plasma lipids were measured in participants once at each examination, along with other variables. The Cox regression model was used to establish the effect of the factors recorded on cerebrovascular events of mostly, but not exclusively, ischaemic origin. SUBJECTS--19,698 women and men at least 20 years old, randomly selected after age stratification from an area of central Copenhagen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Initial cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack recorded from hospital records and death certificates from 1976 through 1988. RESULTS--660 non-haemorrhagic and 33 haemorrhagic events were recorded. Total cholesterol was positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events, but only for levels > 8 mmol/l, corresponding to the upper 5% of the distribution in the study population. For lower plasma cholesterol values the relative risk remained nearly constant. Plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly, positively associated with risk of non-haemorrhagic events. The relative risk corresponding to an increase of 1 mmol/l was 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16). There was a negative, log linear association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-haemorrhagic events (0.53 (0.34 to 0.83)). There was no indication that the effects of plasma lipids were different in women and men. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of the association between plasma cholesterol and risk of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease was not log linear, and the increased risk was confined to the upper 5% of the cholesterol distribution. Further studies should concentrate on the association between plasma cholesterol and verified haemorrhagic stroke. PMID:8044059

  9. Hepatic metabolism of colloidal gold-low-density lipoprotein complexes in the rat: evidence for bulk excretion of lysosomal contents into bile

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, G.; Hamilton, R.L.; Havel, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Rats were treated with 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol to induce high levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors in hepatocytes. When these rats were given intravenous injections of low-density lipoprotein-colloidal gold complexes, most of the gold (labeled with /sup 195/Au) appeared to be taken up by Kupffer cells, as were complexes of colloidal gold with albumin or polyvinylpyrrolidone. However, when these rats were also administered gadolinium chloride, which blocks Kupffer cell activity, most of the low-density lipoprotein-gold (but not gold complexed with albumin or polyvinylpyrrolidone) was taken up into hepatocytes by receptor-mediated endocytosis and concentrated in peribiliary lysosomes, as determined by electron microscopy. Colloidal gold taken up as a complex with low-density lipoprotein was excreted into the feces via the common bile duct at a maximal rate of about 5% daily, 4 to 12 days after injection. Thereafter, the rate of gold excretion fell off until reaching a plateau after 3 weeks. At this late time, most of the colloidal gold was shown by electron microscopy to be in Kupffer cells, whereas earlier (6 days after injection) it was contained mainly in older hepatocytic lysosomes, identified by lipofuscin granules. It is concluded that, in rats, hepatocytic lysosomes empty most of their contents into bile every week or two, apparently by exocytosis.

  10. KIF6, LPA, TAS2R50, and VAMP8 genetic variation, low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin, and heart disease risk reduction in the elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the KIF6 (kinesin like protein 6, rs20455 or 719Arg), LPA (lipoprotein(a), rs3798220), TAS2R50 (taste receptor type 2, member 50, rs1376251) and VAMP8 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 8, rs1010) have previously been associated with low density lipoprotei...

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha impairs hepatic insulin signaling and stumlates the overproduction of hepatic apolipoprotein B100-containing very low density lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms underlying hepatic overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB) 100-containing very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a were investigated. In the present study, we examined the potential role of TNF-a in insulin signaling and lipopro...

  12. Correction of Apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Lipid Efflux and High Density Lipoprotein Particle Formation in Human Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Fibroblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired cell cholesterol trafficking in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease results in the first known instance of impaired regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a lipid transporter mediating the rate-limiting step in high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, as a cause of lo...

  13. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  14. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  15. Functionally Defective High-Density Lipoprotein and Paraoxonase: A Couple for Endothelial Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The endothelium is the primary target for biochemical or mechanical injuries caused by the putative risk factors of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction represents the ultimate link between atherosclerotic risk factors that promote atherosclerosis. HDL-C is thought to exert at least some parts of its antiatherogenic facilities via stimulating endothelial NO production, nearby inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. HDL-C is capable of opposing LDL's inductive effects and avoiding the ox-LDL's inhibition of eNOS. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme esterase which appears to contribute to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL-C. “Healthy HDL,” namely the particle that contains the active Paraoxonase 1, has the power to suppress the formation of oxidized lipids. “Dysfunctional HDL,” on the contrary, has reduced Paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity and not only fails in its mission but also potentially leads to greater formation of oxidized lipids/lipoproteins to cause endothelial dysfunction. The association of HDL-C PON1 and endothelial dysfunction depends largely on the molecules with exact damaging effect on NO synthase coupling. Loss of nitric oxide bioavailability has a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction preceding the appearance of atherosclerosis. Analyses of HDL-C and Paraoxonase1 would be more important in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis in the very near future. PMID:24222847

  16. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Herrington, David M.; Reboussin, David M.; Sherman, Michelle; Horvath, Katalin; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Asztalos, Bela F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women. Methods Study participants were 256 women who completed the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis (ERA) trial, a placebo-controlled, randomized trial that examined the effects of 3.2 years of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or CEE (0.625 mg/day) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) on post-menopausal women with established coronary atherosclerosis. Quantitative coronary angiography and plasma RLP-C and HDL subpopulations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Results Relative to placebo, both CEE and CEE+MPA caused a significant reduction in plasma RLP-C concentrations and a significant increase in ?1 and ?2 HDL subpopulations. However, in the HT-treated subjects, faster progression of coronary atherosclerosis was observed in women who experienced the greatest reductions in RLP-C and in pre?1 HDL subpopulations. Conclusions Our data suggest that individual variability in RLP-C and HDL subpopulation response to HT is a predictor of CHD progression. Lipoprotein response to HT may be an indirect marker of susceptibility to other harmful effect of HT in postmenopausal women with established CHD or an indication of formation of dysfunctional lipoproteins. PMID:19155011

  17. Mechanism of the hepatic lipase induced accumulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, M.; Lund-Katz, S.; Phillips, M.C.; Rothblat, G.H.

    1985-07-02

    Hepatic lipase can enhance the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to cells by a process which does not involve apoprotein catabolism. The incorporation of HDL-free (unesterified) cholesterol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester by cells has been compared to establish the mechanism of this delivery process. Human HDL was reconstituted with /sup 3/H-free cholesterol and (/sup 14/C)sphingomyelin, treated with hepatic lipase in the presence of albumin to remove the products of lipolysis, reisolated, and then incubated with cultured rat hepatoma cells. Relative to control HDL, modification of HDL with hepatic lipase stimulated both the amount of HDL-free cholesterol taken up by the cell and the esterification of HDL-free cholesterol but did not affect the delivery of sphingomyelin. Experiments utilizing HDL reconstituted with /sup 14/C-free cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl oleoyl ether suggest that hepatic lipase enhances the incorporation of HDL-esterified cholesterol. However, the amount of free cholesterol delivered as a result of treatment with hepatic lipase was 4-fold that of esterified cholesterol. On the basis of HDL composition, the cellular incorporation of free cholesterol was about 10 times that which would occur by the uptake and degradation of intact particles. The preferential incorporation of HDL-free cholesterol did not require the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine. To correlate the events observed at the cellular level with alterations in lipoprotein structure, high-resolution, proton-decoupled /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (90.55 MHz) was performed on HDL3 in which the cholesterol molecules were replaced with (4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol by particle reconstitution.

  18. Effect of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 in blood plasma. Kinetic studies in normal and Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, N; Shames, D M; Havel, R J

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in particles containing apo E (B,E particles) or lacking apo E (B particles) were studied in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits deficient in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and compared with those of normal rabbits after injection of radioiodinated very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), and LDL. In both groups results of kinetic modeling were consistent with the hypothesis that all apo B enters the plasma in VLDL, mainly as B,E particles, followed by delipidation and partial conversion to IDL and LDL, with concomitant conversion of some B,E particles to B particles. In WHHL rabbits, production of VLDL apo B was reduced by 40%, but LDL production was increased threefold. Defective removal of B,E and B particles in all three lipoprotein classes, coupled with preserved processes of delipidation, can account for the observed increases in the concentration of apo B (threefold in VLDL, fivefold in IDL, and twenty-twofold in LDL) in WHHL rabbits. PMID:3611356

  19. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from low and high density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Shireman, R.B.; Williams, D.; Remsen, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    The plasma distribution and cellular uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ was studied in vitro using cultured human fibroblasts. Incubation of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ (cholecalciferol) with plasma followed by sequential ultracentrifugal fractionation of the lipoproteins indicated that 2-4% of the radioactivity associated with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 12% with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and approximately 60% with the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The remaining radioactivity, 25%, was associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. By comparison, an average of 86% of the radioactivity from (/sup 3/H) 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from plasma, LDL, or HDL was studied in cultured human cells; uptake by normal fibroblasts was greatest from LDL and least from plasma. The cellular association of vitamin D/sub 3/ was time, concentration, and temperature dependent. At a concentration of 50 ..mu..g LDL/ml of medium, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from LDL at 37/sup 0/C was rapid and reached a maximum at approximately 4 hr; it was slower from HDL but continued to increase slowly up to 24 hr. The significance of these in vitro findings is uncertain since much of the vitamin D/sub 3/ absorbed from the intestine reportedly associates with chylomicrons and is rapidly taken up by the liver.

  20. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins reconstituted with (TH)cholesteryl ester and ( UC)cholesterol in the rat, with special reference to the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.E.; Bamberger, M.; Rothblat, G.H.; Strauss, J.F. III

    1985-08-01

    In order to study the metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-carried sterol in the rat, human HDL was reconstituted with ( UC)cholesterol and (TH)cholesteryl ester. After iv injection into immature PMSG-human CG primed rats pretreated with 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidine and aminoglutethimide, there was time-dependent accumulation of TH and UC in various organs which reached a maximum by 15-90 min. On a milligram wet weight basis, uptake of TH and UC was greatest in the adrenals, next in ovaries, followed by the liver, with little uptake by kidneys and spleen. On an organ basis, accumulation was greatest by the liver. Coadministration of excess unlabeled HDL, but not human low density lipoprotein, reduced accumulation of radioactivity by the ovaries and adrenals by 60%, indicating a specific and saturable uptake process. Granulosa cells cultured in lipoprotein-deficient medium with reconstituted HDL formed TH- and UC-labeled 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Over a 24-h period, utilization of both ( UC)cholesterol and (TH)cholesteryl ester was linear, but rates of utilization of the two sterol moieties were not parallel. Lysosomotropic agents had no effect on utilization of either free or esterified cholesterol for steroidogenesis but reduced degradation of SVI-labeled low density lipoprotein apoprotein. These findings lend further support to the concept of a distinct HDL pathway in steroidogenic cells of the rat.

  1. Relationship of High?Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Periprocedural Myocardial Injury Following Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Low?Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Below 70 mg/dL

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao?Lin; Guo, Yuan?Lin; Zhu, Cheng?Gang; Xu, Rui?Xia; Qing, Ping; Wu, Na?Qiong; Jiang, Li?Xin; Xu, Bo; Gao, Run?Lin; Li, Jian?Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent data showed inconsistent association of high?density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL?C) with cardiovascular risk in patients with different levels of low?density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL?C) or intensive statin therapy. This study sought to determine the relationship of HDL?C with periprocedural myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) across a range of LDL?C levels, especially in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. Methods and Results We enrolled 2529 consecutive patients with normal preprocedural cardiac troponin I (cTnI) who underwent elective PCI. The association between preprocedural HDL?C and periprocedural myocardial injury was evaluated across LDL?C levels, especially in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. The HDL?C level was not predictive of periprocedural myocardial injury across the entire study cohort. However, among patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL, a 1 mg/dL increase in HDL?C was associated with a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 1×upper limit of normal (ULN) (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.004), a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 3×ULN odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.022), and a 3% reduced risk for postprocedural cTnI above 5×ULN (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; P=0.017). The relation between plasma HDL?C level and risk of postprocedural cTnI elevation above 1×ULN, 3×ULN, and 5×ULN was modified by LDL?C level (all P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions Higher HDL?C levels were associated with reduced risk of periprocedural myocardial injury only in patients with LDL?C <70 mg/dL. PMID:25572484

  2. Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance Index: A Lipoprotein Particle–Derived Measure of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shalaurova, Irina; Connelly, Margery A.; Garvey, W. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations are characteristically altered in patients with insulin resistance (IR) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the ability of an IR score, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived lipoprotein information, to detect IR in otherwise healthy individuals. Methods: Lipoprotein subclass and size information were evaluated for strength of association with IR, as measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). To increase the likelihood of identifying subjects with IR, six lipoprotein measures were combined into a single algorithm. The resulting assay [Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance Index (LP-IR)] was developed using HOMA-IR in 4972 nondiabetic subjects from MESA and verified independently using glucose disposal rates (GDRs) measured during hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps in 56 insulin-sensitive, 46 insulin-resistant, and 46 untreated subjects with T2DM. Results: LP-IR exhibited stronger associations with HOMA-IR (r=0.51) and GDR (r=?0.53) than each of the individual lipoprotein parameters as well as the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TGs/HDL-C) ratio (r=0.41 and ?0.44, respectively). In MESA, associations between the LP-IR score and HOMA-IR were strong in men (r=0.51), women (r=0.52), European Americans (r=0.58), African Americans (r=0.48), Chinese Americans (r=0.49), and Hispanic Americans (r=0.45). When LP-IR was categorized by HOMA-IR and either body mass index (BMI) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG), subgroups were revealed whose LP-IR scores were high (?50), despite having normal BMIs (<24?kg/m2) or FPG (<100?mg/dL). Conclusions: LP-IR scores had strong associations with multiple measures, HOMA-IR, and GDR, the former being more reflective of hepatic and the latter of peripheral insulin sensitivity, and may represent a simple means to identify individuals with IR. PMID:24959989

  3. Evidence for the presence of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbit and man.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Palinski, W; Rosenfeld, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Carew, T E; Butler, S; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1989-01-01

    Three lines of evidence are presented that low density lipoproteins gently extracted from human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions (lesion LDL) greatly resembles LDL that has been oxidatively modified in vitro. First, lesion LDL showed many of the physical and chemical properties of oxidized LDL, properties that differ from those of plasma LDL: higher electrophoretic mobility, a higher density, higher free cholesterol content, and a higher proportion of sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in the phospholipid fraction. A number of lower molecular weight fragments of apo B were found in lesion LDL, similar to in vitro oxidized LDL. Second, both the intact apo B and some of the apo B fragments of lesion LDL reacted in Western blots with antisera that recognize malondialdehyde-conjugated lysine and 4-hydroxynonenal lysine adducts, both of which are found in oxidized LDL; plasma LDL and LDL from normal human intima showed no such reactivity. Third, lesion LDL shared biological properties with oxidized LDL: compared with plasma LDL, lesion LDL produced much greater stimulation of cholesterol esterification and was degraded more rapidly by macrophages. Degradation of radiolabeled lesion LDL was competitively inhibited by unlabeled lesion LDL, by LDL oxidized with copper, by polyinosinic acid and by malondialdehyde-LDL, but not by native LDL, indicating uptake by the scavenger receptor(s). Finally, lesion LDL (but not normal intimal LDL or plasma LDL) was chemotactic for monocytes, as is oxidized LDL. These studies provide strong evidence that atherosclerotic lesions, both in man and in rabbit, contain oxidatively modified LDL. Images PMID:2794046

  4. Endocytosis of Low-Density Lipoprotein by Human Pancreatic ? Cells and Uptake in Lipid-Storing Vesicles, Which Increase with Age

    PubMed Central

    Cnop, Miriam; Grupping, Annick; Hoorens, Anne; Bouwens, Luc; Pipeleers-Marichal, Myriam; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Studies with I125-labeled low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) have shown the presence of high-affinity LDL receptors on insulin-producing ? cells but not on neighboring ? cells. By using gold-labeled lipoproteins, we demonstrate receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDLs and very low-density lipoproteins in rat and human ? cells. Specific for human ? cells is the fusion of LDL-containing endocytotic vesicles with lipid-storing vesicles (LSVs; diameter, 0.6–3.6 ?m), which are absent in rodent ? cells. LSVs also occur in human pancreatic ? and duct cells, but these sequester little gold-labeled LDL. In humans <25 years old, LSVs occupy 1% of the cytoplasmic surface area in ?, ?, and duct cells. In humans >50 years old, LSV surface area in ? cells (11 ± 2% of cytoplasmic surface area) is fourfold higher than in ? and duct cells and 10-fold higher than in ? cells at younger ages (P < 0.001); the mean LSV diameter in these ? cells (1.8 ± 0.04 ?m) is larger than at younger ages (1.1 ± 0.2 ?m; P < 0.005). Oil red O staining on pancreatic sections confirms that neutral lipids accumulate in ? cells of older donors. We conclude that human ? cells can incorporate LDL and very low-density lipoprotein material in LSVs. The marked increase in the LSV area of aging human ? cells raises the question whether it is caused by prolonged exposure to high lipoprotein levels such as occurs in Western populations and whether it is causally related to the higher risk for type 2 diabetes with aging. PMID:10623672

  5. Assessment of the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate and its receptors in high-density lipoprotein-induced stimulation of astroglial cell function.

    PubMed Central

    Malchinkhuu, Enkhzol; Sato, Koichi; Muraki, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Koichi; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that lipoproteins in the central nervous system are involved in the regulation of several neural functions independent of cholesterol metabolism as well as those related to lipid metabolism. We recently demonstrated that lipoproteins are carriers for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). This raised the possibility that S1P mediates the neural cell functions induced by lipoproteins. In the current study, we examined the effects of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on astroglial cell functions, focusing especially on the role of the lipoprotein-associated S1P. In rat type I astrocytes or C6 glioma cells, similar to S1P, HDL stimulated DNA synthesis and mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor-2, a potent neurotrophic factor, which was associated with the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The data from fractionation studies of HDL indicated that S1P may be a major component for the activation of ERK. In C6 glioma cells, HDL also induced phospholipase C-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Desensitization of the C6 glioma cells with S1P abolished these HDL-induced actions. Furthermore, overexpression of S1P receptors in C6 glioma cells led to a significant enhancement of HDL-induced ERK activation and Ca(2+) mobilization. Thus, at least some HDL-induced actions may be mediated by cell-surface S1P receptors in astroglial cells. These results imply that S1P might partially mediate lipoprotein-induced cholesterol metabolism-independent neural cell functions in the central nervous system. PMID:12470300

  6. C-reactive protein is associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and obesity in type 2 diabetic Sudanese

    PubMed Central

    Dongway, Angelo C; Faggad, Areeg S; Zaki, Hani Y; Abdalla, Badreldin E

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is emerging in Sudan and is associated with obesity. Deregulated lipid metabolism and inflammatory states are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is a leading cause of diabetic death. This study aimed to investigate C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic adult Sudanese compared with nondiabetics, and to test their associations with other characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study including 70 diabetics and 40 nondiabetics was conducted. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and demographic and medical data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Blood specimens were collected and biochemical parameters were analyzed applying standard methods. Results CRP and triglycerides were significantly higher in the diabetic group (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively). Differences in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were not statistically significant between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In the diabetic group, correlation analysis revealed that the CRP level had a significant positive correlation with LDL-C (r=0.255, P=0.034) and body mass index (r=0.29, P=0.016). Body mass index showed a significant positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.386, P=0.001). Within the lipid parameters, a number of significant correlations were observed. Elevated levels of CRP, LDL-C, and triglycerides were markedly more prevalent in the diabetic group of patients. Diabetics showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with nondiabetics (odds ratio 5.56, P=0.001). Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity among diabetics, together with elevated levels of triglycerides and CRP, suggest coexistence of dyslipidemia and inflammation in diabetes. Our findings emphasize that diabetics were 5.6 times more likely to have high CRP levels than nondiabetics; as CRP is a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, it can be recognized that diabetics are at more risk of cardiovascular disease than nondiabetics. Considering evaluation of CRP together with the lipid profile in prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in Sudanese diabetics should be further tested in large-scale studies. PMID:26379442

  7. Low-density lipoprotein particle size and coronary artery disease in a childhood-onset type 1 diabetes population.

    PubMed

    Erbey, J R; Robbins, D; Forrest, K Y; Orchard, T J

    1999-04-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol has been widely recognized as a strong predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, studies have examined the influence of LDL particle size (an integral part of the insulin resistance syndrome) on the development of CAD in the general population. This report examines the correlates of LDL particle size and its association with CAD in a type 1 diabetes population. We evaluated the interrelationships between LDL particle size and the presence of CAD in a cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetic subjects using the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study. LDL particle size was measured in 337 subjects (mean age, 35.6 years; mean diabetes duration, 27.2 years) who underwent the 8-year follow-up examination. LDL particle size was determined by vertical polyacrylamide gel (2% to 16%) electrophoresis. Subjects with the small dense LDL particle phenotype (<235.5 angstroms) [corrected] had a longer diabetes duration, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, fibrinogen, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and hemoglobin A1 (HbA1), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with subjects with the large LDL particle phenotype (>257 angstroms) [corrected]. Males were also more likely to have an increased body mass index (BMI) and CAD, while females were more likely to have hypertension and a family history of type 2 diabetes (a potential marker of insulin resistance and CAD risk). The odds ratio ([OR] 95% confidence, interval [CI]) using logistic regression analysis for LDL particle size in association with CAD was 0.79 (0.60 to 1.04). Multivariate modeling indicated that the duration of type 1 diabetes, depressive symptomatology, and triglycerides were independently associated with the presence of CAD. We conclude that although small dense LDL particle size is associated with CAD in our type 1 diabetes population, its borderline association can largely be explained by the triglyceride concentration. However, as in the general population, LDL particle size is associated with many elements of the insulin resistance syndrome, including a family history of type 2 diabetes, and is likely an important element in the contribution of insulin resistance to the development of CAD in type 1 diabetes. PMID:10206450

  8. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653 ; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595 ). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol. The best indicator for HDL and LDL might differ according to the type of cholesterol and the gender. In women, but not men, age was the variable that strongly predicted HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings provide new information for the development of better initial screening tools for HDL and LDL cholesterol. PMID:25148675

  9. Imatinib mesylate stimulates low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated ERK phosphorylation in insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Fred, Rikard G; Boddeti, Santosh Kumar; Lundberg, Marcus; Welsh, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is an endocytic and multi-functional type I cell surface membrane protein, which is known to be phosphorylated by the activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, which inhibits PDGFR and c-Abl, and which has previously been reported to counteract ?-cell death and diabetes, has been suggested to reduce atherosclerosis by inhibiting PDGFR-induced LRP1 phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to study LRP1 function in ?-cells and to what extent imatinib modulates LRP1 activity. LRP1 and c-Abl gene knockdown was performed by RNAi using rat INS-1 832/13 and human EndoC1-?H1 cells. LRP1 was also antagonized by treatment with the antagonist low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1 (LRPAP1). We have used PDGF-BB, a PDGFR agonist, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an LRP1 agonist, to stimulate the activities of PDGFR and LRP1 respectively. Knockdown or inhibition of LRP1 resulted in increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or cytokine-induced cell death, and glucose-induced insulin release was lowered in LRP1-silenced cells. These results indicate that LRP1 function is necessary for ?-cell function and that LRP1 is adversely affected by challenges to ?-cell health. PDGF-BB, or the combination of PDGF-BB+ApoE, induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt and LRP1. LRP1 silencing blocked this event. Imatinib blocked phosphorylation of LRP1 by PDGFR activation but induced phosphorylation of ERK. LRP1 silencing blocked imatinib-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Sunitinib also blocked LRP1 phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB and induced phosphorylation of ERK, but this latter event was not affected by LRP1 knockdown. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the imatinib target c-Abl resulted in an increased ERK phosphorylation at basal conditions, with no further increase in response to imatinib. Imatinib-induced cell survival of tunicamycin-treated cells was partially mediated by ERK activation. We have concluded that imatinib promotes LRP1-dependent ERK activation, possibly via inhibition of c-Abl, and that this could contribute to the pro-survival effects of imatinib on ?-cells. PMID:24865476

  10. Low Serum High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration is an Independent Predictor for Enhanced Inflammation and Endothelial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nor Hanis; Sakri, Farah; Mokhsin, Atiqah; Rahman, Thuhairah; Mohd Nasir, Nadzimah; Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Md Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Mohd Ismail, Aletza; Ismail, Zaliha; Nawawi, Hapizah

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress have been established as key events in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) is protective against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but its association with inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress is not well established. Objectives (1) To compare the concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress in subjects with low HDL-c compared to normal HDL-c; (2) To examine the association and correlation between HDL-c and these biomarkers and (3) To determine whether HDL-c is an independent predictor of these biomarkers. Methods 422 subjects (mean age±SD = 43.2±11.9years) of whom 207 had low HDL-c concentrations (HDL-c <1.0mmol/L and <1.3mmol/L for males and females respectively) and 215 normal controls (HDL-c ?1.0 and ?1.3mmol/L for males and females respectively) were recruited in this study. The groups were matched for age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Fasting blood samples were collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6)], endothelial activation [soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin)] and oxidative stress [F2-Isoprostanes, oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA)]. Results Subjects with low HDL-c had greater concentrations of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress biomarkers compared to controls. There were negative correlations between HDL-c concentration and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6, p = 0.02), endothelial activation (sVCAM-1 and E-selectin, p = 0.029 and 0.002, respectively), and oxidative stress (MDA and F2-isoprostane, p = 0.036 and <0.0001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed HDL-c as an independent predictor of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and sVCAM-1 (p<0.03) after correcting for various confounding factors. Conclusion Low serum HDL-c concentration is strongly correlated with enhanced status of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress. It is also an independent predictor for enhanced inflammation and endothelial activation, which are pivotal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications. PMID:25614985

  11. High-density lipoprotein contribute to G0-G1/S transition in Swiss NIH/3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Angius, Fabrizio; Spolitu, Stefano; Uda, Sabrina; Deligia, Stefania; Frau, Alessandra; Banni, Sebastiano; Collu, Maria; Accossu, Simonetta; Madeddu, Clelia; Serpe, Roberto; Batetta, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs) play a crucial role in removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Although their concentration is lower during conditions of high cell growth rate (cancer and infections), their involvement during cell proliferation is not known. To this aim, we investigated the replicative cycles in synchronised Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in different experimental conditions: i) contact-inhibited fibroblasts re-entering cell cycle after dilution; ii) scratch-wound assay; iii) serum-deprived cells induced to re-enter G1 by FCS, HDL or PDGF. Analyses were performed during each cell cycle up to quiescence. Cholesterol synthesis increased remarkably during the replicative cycles, decreasing only after cells reached confluence. In contrast, cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis and content were high at 24?h after dilution and then decreased steeply in the successive cycles. Flow cytometry analysis of DiO-HDL, as well as radiolabeled HDL pulse, demonstrated a significant uptake of CE-HDL in 24?h. DiI-HDL uptake, lipid droplets (LDs) and SR-BI immunostaining and expression followed the same trend. Addition of HDL or PDGF partially restore the proliferation rate and significantly increase SR-BI and pAKT expression in serum-deprived cells. In conclusion, cell transition from G0 to G1/S requires CE-HDL uptake, leading to CE-HDL/SR-BI pathway activation and CEs increase into LDs. PMID:26640042

  12. Oxidised low density lipoprotein causes human macrophage cell death through oxidant generation and inhibition of key catabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Katouah, Hanadi; Chen, Alpha; Othman, Izani; Gieseg, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to be a significant contributor to the death of macrophage cells observed in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Using human-derived U937 cells we have examined the effect of cytotoxic oxLDL on oxidative stress and cellular catabolism. Within 3h of the addition of oxLDL, there was a rapid, concentration dependent rise in cellular reactive oxygen species followed by the loss of cellular GSH, and the enzyme activity of both glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aconitase. The loss of these catabolic enzymes was accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP and lower lactate generation. Addition of the macrophage antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin inhibited the ROS generation, glutathione loss and catabolic inactivation. NOX was shown to be activated by oxLDL addition while apocynin inhibited the loss of GSH and cell viability. The data suggests that oxLDL triggers an excess of ROS production through NOX activation, and catabolic failure through thiol oxidation resulting in cell death. PMID:26255116

  13. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiu-Long; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to oxLDL. The results indicated that treatment of MBMECs with oxLDL decreased the cell viability, and oxidative stress was involved in oxLDL-induce MBMECs dysfunction with increasing intracellular ROS and MDA formation as well as decreasing NO release and eNOS mRNA expression. In addition, SHH signaling components, such as SHH, Smo and Gli1, mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased after incubation with increasing concentrations of oxLDL. Treatment with oxLDL alone or SHH loss-of-function significantly increased the permeability of MBMECs, and overexpression of SHH attenuated oxLDL-induced elevation of permeability in MBMECs. Furthermore, SHH gain-of-function could reverse oxLDL-induced apoptosis through inhibition caspase3 and caspase8 levels in MBMECs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the suppression of SHH in MBMECs might contribute to the oxLDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. However, the overexpression of SHH could reverse oxLDL-induced endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro. PMID:26722472

  14. Capsaicin protects endothelial cells and macrophage against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced injury by direct antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Lin, Chin-Yin; Lee, Yi-Hsun; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2015-02-25

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, leukocyte activation, and the production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Capsaicin, a biologically active compound of the red pepper and chili pepper, has several anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hypolipidemic biological effects. However, its protective effects on foam cell formation and endothelial injury induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of capsaicin, and determined the mechanism by which capsaicin rescues human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from oxLDL-mediated dysfunction. The anti-oxidative activity of capsaicin was defined by Apo B fragmentation and conjugated diene production of the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Capsaicin repressed ROS generation, as well as subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c expression, chromosome condensation, and caspase-3 activation induced by oxLDL in HUVECs. Capsaicin also protected foam cell formation in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggest that capsaicin may prevent oxLDL-induced cellular dysfunction and protect RAW 264.7 cells from LDL oxidation. PMID:25603234

  15. The accelerated atherogenesis of venous grafts might be attributed to aggravated concentration polarization of low density lipoproteins: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenmin; Sun, Anqiang; Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Ping; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2013-09-27

    We hypothesize that after implantation the much elevated water filtration rate of venous grafts may cause aggravated concentration polarization of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), in turn lead to the accelerated atherogenesis of the grafts. To verify the hypothesis, we numerically simulated the transport of LDLs in various models of arterial bypasses with different grafts (veins or arteries) and geometrical configurations. The results showed that the venous grafts might endure abnormally high lipid infiltration/accumulation within the vessel wall due to severely elevated luminal surface LDL concentration. When compared to the conventional bypass models, the S-type bypass had the lowest luminal surface LDL concentration along its host artery floor, but the highest degree of risk to develop atherosclerotic lesions in its venous graft. Among the three conventional bypass models, the one with 30° anastomosis had the lowest risk to develop atherosclerosis in the venous graft. In conclusion, when compared with the bypass models with arterial grafts, the venous bypass models had rather high levels of LDL concentration polarization (cw) in the vein grafts, especially at the early stages of implantation. This might result in high infiltration/accumulation of LDLs within the walls of the venous grafts, leading to a fast genesis/development of atherosclerosis there. PMID:23972425

  16. Paraoxonase-3 is depleted from the high-density lipoproteins of autoimmune disease patients with subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marsillach, Judit; Becker, Jessica O; Vaisar, Tomas; Hahn, Bevra H; Brunzell, John D; Furlong, Clement E; de Boer, Ian H; McMahon, Maureen A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

    2015-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune diseases have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In disease, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles lose their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and become dysfunctional. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that alterations in the HDL proteomic profile are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and HDL dysfunction in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes. Targeted proteomics was used to quantify the relative abundance of 18 proteins in HDL from SLE patients with and without atherosclerotic plaque detectable by carotid ultrasound. Changes in the proteomic profile were compared against the in vitro ability of HDL to protect against lipid oxidation. The same proteins were quantified in HDL from patients with type 1 diabetes with or without coronary artery calcification as determined by computed tomography. In each population, paraoxonase-3 (PON3), a potent antioxidant protein, was depleted from the HDL of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. PON3 expression in HDL was positively correlated with HDL antioxidant function. These results suggest that PON3 may be an important protein in preventing atherosclerosis and highlight the importance of antioxidant proteins in the prevention of atherosclerosis in vivo. PMID:25723336

  17. Detection of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor on nitrocellulose paper with colloidal gold-LDL conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, P.D.; Zollinger, M.; Nol, S.P.

    1987-12-01

    Gold-low density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugates were used to detect the LDL receptor on nitrocellulose paper. Solubilized rat liver membrane proteins were subjected to electrophoresis and electroblotted onto nitrocellulose paper. The receptor was then detected as a red band (within 10 min) by overlaying with the LDL conjugates. The coloration was prevented by unlabeled LDL, EDTA, and suramin but not by unlabeled HDL3. In the dot blot assay, detection with the colloidal gold-LDL conjugates was as sensitive as both the autoradiographic method with /sup 125/I-labeled LDL and the biotinylated LDL method; the estimated limit of detection by scanning densitometry was 1.6 femtomoles of receptor protein. When the coloration obtained with the colloidal gold-LDL conjugates was intensified by photochemical silver staining, down to 200 attomoles of the LDL receptor could be detected. In this assay, the EDTA-sensitive binding of colloidal gold-LDL to solubilized hepatic membrane proteins was 12 times higher for rats treated with 17 alpha-EE than for normal rats. The use of colloidal gold-LDL conjugates is therefore a very easy, safe, inexpensive, fast and sensitive method for the detection of the LDL receptor on nitrocellulose paper. Furthermore, with silver staining and scanning densitometry, the colloidal gold-LDL conjugates could be used in a dot blot assay to quantify tissue and cell LDL receptors down to attomolar levels.

  18. Nonstatin Low-Density Lipoprotein-Lowering Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction-Statement From ATVB Council.

    PubMed

    Hegele, Robert A; Gidding, Samuel S; Ginsberg, Henry N; McPherson, Ruth; Raal, Frederick J; Rader, Daniel J; Robinson, Jennifer G; Welty, Francine K

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol using statin drugs is foundational therapy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Here, we consider the place of nonstatin therapies that also reduce LDL cholesterol in prevention of CVD. Among conventional nonstatins, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials showed that bile acid sequestrants, niacin, and fibrates given as monotherapy each reduce CVD end points. From trials in which patients' LDL cholesterol was already well controlled on a statin, adding ezetimibe incrementally reduced CVD end points, whereas adding a fibrate or niacin showed no incremental benefit. Among emerging nonstatins, monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 added to a statin and given for ?78 weeks showed preliminary evidence of reductions in CVD outcomes. Although these promising early findings contributed to the recent approval of these agents in Europe and in North America, much larger and longer duration outcomes studies are ongoing for definitive proof of CVD benefits. Other nonstatin agents recently approved in the United States include lomitapide and mipomersen, which both act via distinctive LDL receptor independent mechanisms to substantially reduce LDL cholesterol in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. We also address some unanswered questions, including measuring alternative biochemical variables to LDL cholesterol, evidence for treating children with monitoring of subclinical atherosclerosis, and potential risks of extremely low LDL cholesterol. As evidence for benefit in CVD prevention accumulates, we anticipate that clinical practice will shift toward more assertive LDL-lowering treatment, using both statins and nonstatins initiated earlier in appropriately selected patients. PMID:26376908

  19. Relation Between Monocyte to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio With Presence and Severity of Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Harun; Gok, Murat; Kiziltunc, Emrullah; Cetin, Mustafa; Cicekcioglu, Hulya; Cetin, Zehra Guven; Karayigit, Orhan; Ornek, Ender

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate an easily available inflammatory and oxidative stress marker and monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) in patients with coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The study population included 405 patients of which 135 patients had isolated CAE, 135 patients had obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), and 135 patients had normal coronary angiograms (NCAs). The severity of isolated CAE was determined according to the Markis classification. The MHR was significantly greater in patients with isolated CAE than those with obstructive CAD and NCAs: 14.8 (11.6 to 19.8), 11.4 (9.6 to 13.5), 9.8 (7.5 to 11.9), respectively. Linear regression analyses showed that MHR and C-reactive protein were significantly related with the severity of isolated CAE. In conclusion, the MHR is significantly greater in patients with CAE compared to controls with obstructive CAD and NCAs, and MHR is associated with the severity of CAE. PMID:26434515

  20. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction improves the low density lipoprotein receptor gene expression in HepG{sub 2} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongping; Li Xiaoyu; Sun, Ping; Tang Yibo; Chen Xiuying; Chen Qi; Fan Leming . E-mail: lmfan@njmu.edu.cn; Zang Bin; Shao Lizheng; Li Xiaorong

    2006-05-05

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction had been employed in gene delivery and promised great potential. Liver has unique features that make it attractive for gene therapy. However, it poses formidable obstacles to hepatocyte-specific gene delivery. This study was designed to test the efficiency of therapeutic gene transfer and expression mediated by ultrasound/microbubble strategy in HepG{sub 2} cell line. Air-filled albumin microbubbles were prepared and mixed with plasmid DNA encoding low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and green fluorescent protein. The mixture of the DNA and microbubbles was administer to cultured HepG{sub 2} cells under variable ultrasound conditions. Transfection rate of the transferred gene and cell viability were assessed by FACS analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, Western blot analysis and Trypan blue staining. The result demonstrated that microbubbles with ultrasound irradiation can significantly elevate exogenous LDLR gene expression and the expressed LDLRs were functional and active to uptake their ligands. We conclude that ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction has the potential to promote safe and efficient LDLR gene transfer into hepatocytes. With further refinement, it may represent an effective nonviral avenue of gene therapy for liver-involved genetic diseases.

  1. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Is Present in Astrocytes Surrounding Cerebral Infarcts and Stimulates Astrocyte Interleukin-6 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Shie, Feng-Shiun; Neely, M. Diana; Maezawa, Izumi; Wu, Hope; Olson, Sandy J.; Jürgens, Günther; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Ischemic injury to brain is associated with both disruption of the blood-brain barrier and increased oxidative stress. Given the neurotoxicity associated with exposure to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that oxLDL may be present in parenchymal cells of cerebrum after infarction and that oxLDL may influence the pathophysiology of cerebral infarction. Our results showed that the subacute phase of cerebral infarction in patients was characterized by the appearance of oxLDL epitopes in astrocytes, but not neurons or microglia, in the perinecrotic zone. We further demonstrated that minimally oxLDL was most effectively internalized by primary cultures of rat astrocytes, and that exposure to minimal oxLDL stimulated astrocyte interleukin-6 secretion but did not alter nitric oxide production. These results demonstrate for the first time that oxLDL is present in brain parenchyma of patients with ischemic infarction and suggest a potential mechanism by which oxLDL may activate innate immunity and thereby indirectly influence neuronal survival. PMID:15039206

  2. Idebenone protects against oxidized low density lipoprotein induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells via GSK3?/?-catenin signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Liu, Junling; Ren, Ming; Ji, Kunqian; Li, Ling; Zhang, Bin; Gong, Yaoqin; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-09-25

    The early stages of the atherosclerotic process are initiated by accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and damage to the structure or function of the endothelium. Antioxidant supplementation may be a plausible strategy to prevent atherosclerotic disease by quenching excessive reactive oxidative species. In the present study, we demonstrated that idebenone at suitable concentrations significantly prevented oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms of idebenone included inhibition of oxidative damage, suppression of the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL. Moreover, idebenone pretreatment inhibited oxLDL-mediated HUVECs damage by attenuating lipid peroxidation and promoting SOD activity. Finally, pro-incubation with idebenone inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxLDL through the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway and GSK3?/?-catenin signalling pathways. In summary, idebenone is a promising agent in the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. PMID:26284974

  3. Diphenyl diselenide protects endothelial cells against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury: Involvement of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Straliotto, Marcos Raniel; de Oliveira, Jade; Amoêdo, Nívea Dias; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Galina, Antônio; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; de Bem, Andreza Fabro

    2014-10-01

    Elevated levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are considered to be one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity. The early stages of atherosclerosis are initiated by the accumulation of oxLDL and the induction of toxic effects on endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate how diphenyl diselenide (DD), an organoselenium compound, protect vascular endothelial cells against the toxic effects of oxLDL in vitro. Our data showed that the treatment of bovine endothelial aortic cells (BAEC) with DD (0.1-1 ?M) for 24 h protected from oxLDL-induced reactive species (RS) production and reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, DD (1 ?M) per se improved the maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity and prevented oxLDL-induced mitochondrial damage. In addition, DD could prevent apoptosis induced by oxLDL in BAEC. Results from this study may provide insight into a possible molecular mechanism underlying DD suppression of oxLDL-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25038571

  4. A Retained Secretory Signal Peptide Mediates High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Assembly and Function of Haptoglobin-related Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, John M.; Nishanova, Tuiumkan; Pena, Savannah Rose; Hess, Matthew; Scelsi, Chris L.; Widener, Justin; Hajduk, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a component of a minor subspecies of high density lipoproteins (HDL) that function in innate immunity. Here we show that assembly of Hpr into HDL is mediated by its retained N-terminal signal peptide, an unusual feature for a secreted protein and the major difference between Hpr and the soluble acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). The 18-amino acid signal peptide is necessary for binding to HDL and interacts directly with the hydrocarbon region of lipids. Utilizing model liposomes, we show that the rate of assembly and steady-state distribution of Hpr in lipid particles is mediated by the physical property of lipid fluidity. Dye release assays reveal that Hpr interacts more rapidly with fluid liposomes. Conversely, steady-state binding assays indicate that more rigid lipid compositions stabilize Hpr association. Lipid association also plays a role in facilitating hemoglobin binding by Hpr. Our data may offer an explanation for the distinct distribution of Hpr among HDL subspecies. Rather than protein-protein interactions mediating localization, direct interaction with phospholipids and sensitivity to lipid fluidity may be sufficient for localization of Hpr and may represent a mechanism of HDL subspeciation. PMID:25037218

  5. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and amyloid-? clearance in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides in the brain trigger the development of progressive neurodegeneration and dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Perturbation in A? clearance, rather than A? production, is likely the cause of sporadic, late-onset AD, which accounts for the majority of AD cases. Since cellular uptake and subsequent degradation constitute a major A? clearance pathway, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of A? has been intensely investigated. Among A? receptors, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is one of the most studied receptors. LRP1 is a large endocytic receptor for more than 40 ligands, including apolipoprotein E, ?2-macroglobulin and A?. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that LRP1 is critically involved in brain A? clearance. LRP1 is highly expressed in a variety of cell types in the brain including neurons, vascular cells and glial cells, where LRP1 functions to maintain brain homeostasis and control A? metabolism. LRP1-mediated endocytosis regulates cellular A? uptake by binding to A? either directly or indirectly through its co-receptors or ligands. Furthermore, LRP1 regulates several signaling pathways, which also likely influences A? endocytic pathways. In this review, we discuss how LRP1 regulates the brain A? clearance and how this unique endocytic receptor participates in AD pathogenesis. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying LRP1-mediated A? clearance should enable the rational design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:24904407

  6. A Biocompatible Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nano-System as a Probe for Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hongxiu; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Hongwang; Ma, Dedong

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is critical and is expected to contribute significantly to the success of cancer therapy and improvement of patient survival rates. Material/Methods A biocompatible, reconstituted, high-density lipoprotein (rHDL)-based nano-system containing calcium carbonate and near-infrared fluorescence dye (NIRF), methylene blue (MB), was fabricated and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and morphology observation. The safety profile was confirmed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) challenge assay, hemolysis test, MTT assay, and in vivo long-term toxicity assay. The tumor targetability was assessed by cellular uptake, competitive inhibition experiments, and in vivo imaging assay. Results The self-assembled rHDL/MB/CCPs exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, neutral surface charges, high bovine serum albumin stability, low hemolytic activity, and negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. The results obtained from confocal scanning laser microscopy and flow cytometry indicated that SR-BI coating exerted tumor-targeting function, which induced high and specific cellular uptake of rHDL/MB/CCPs. In vivo investigation in an A549 tumor xenografts-bearing mouse model revealed that rHDL/MB/CCPs possessed strong tumor targetability. Conclusions rHDL/MB/CCPs could be a safe tumor-targeting probe for cancer detection. PMID:26365043

  7. The Biphasic Effects of Oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein on the Vasculogenic Function of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng-Yen; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Jong-Shiua; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Nakagami, Hironori; Morishita, Ryuichi; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Huang, Chun-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are stress-resistant and responsible for reparative functions in the cardiovascular system. Oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) plays a critical role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. However, it is largely unknown what the impacts of oxLDL are on late-outgrowth EPCs. This study aimed to investigate the concentration-related effects of oxLDL on EPC functions and related angiogenesis, in vitro and in vivo. In this study, early and late-outgrowth EPCs were generated from circulating human mononuclear cells. oxLDL may regulate EPC vasculogenic function via the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1). Lower concentrations (5 ?g/mL) of oxLDL can potentiate EPC tube formation in vitro and in vivo by activating eNOS mechanisms, which are mediated by p38 MAPK- and SAPK/JNK-related pathways. Higher concentrations of oxLDL (10-50 ?g/mL) impaired EPC function via the activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase pathways and consequent inhibition of eNOS activity, which could be reversed by anti-oxidants (diphenylene iodonium and apocynin) and gp91phox siRNA. In conclusion, oxLDL has concentration-dependent biphasic effects on human late-outgrowth EPC tube formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26017136

  8. Mechanism and Role of High Density Lipoprotein-induced Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takao; Tomura, Hideaki; Sato, Koichi; Ito, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Isao; Im, Doon-Soon; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Mogi, Chihiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Murakami, Masami; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2010-01-01

    The upstream signaling pathway leading to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the role of AMPK in HDL-induced antiatherogenic actions were investigated. Experiments using genetic and pharmacological tools showed that HDL-induced activation of AMPK is dependent on both sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors and scavenger receptor class B type I through calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase and, for scavenger receptor class B type I system, additionally serine-threonine kinase LKB1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. HDL-induced activation of Akt and endothelial NO synthase, stimulation of migration, and inhibition of monocyte adhesion and adhesion molecule expression were dependent on AMPK activation. The inhibitory role of AMPK in the adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion on endothelium of mouse aorta was confirmed in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, stimulation of ERK and proliferation were hardly affected by AMPK knockdown but completely inhibited by an N17Ras, whereas the dominant-negative Ras was ineffective for AMPK activation. In conclusion, dual HDL receptor systems differentially regulate AMPK activity through calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase and/or LKB1. Several HDL-induced antiatherogenic actions are regulated by AMPK, but proliferation-related actions are regulated by Ras rather than AMPK. PMID:20018878

  9. A1M/?1-microglobulin is proteolytically activated by myeloperoxidase, binds its heme group and inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Cederlund, Martin; Deronic, Adnan; Pallon, Jan; Sørensen, Ole E.; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    ?1-microglobulin (A1M) is a 26 kDa plasma and tissue protein with reductase activity and radical- and heme-binding anti-oxidative functions. In addition, exposure of A1M to hemoglobin has been shown to induce proteolytic elimination of a C-terminal tetrapeptide yielding a heme-degrading form, truncated A1M (t-A1M). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme-containing enzyme that catalyzes the production of free radicals and hypochlorite, is released by neutrophils during the inflammatory response to bacterial infections. MPO-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL)-oxidation in blood has been suggested as a causative factor in atherosclerosis. In this study we have hypothesized that A1M interacts with MPO in a similar mode as with hemoglobin, and is a regulator of its activity. The results show that A1M is proteolytically cleaved, with formation of t-A1M, after exposure to MPO, and that t-A1M contains iron and heme-degradation products. The reaction is dependent of pH, time and concentration of substrates and a pH-value around 7 is shown to be optimal for cleavage. Furthermore, A1M inhibits MPO- and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of LDL. The results suggest that A1M may have a role as an inhibitor of the damaging effects of the neutrophil respiratory burst on bystander tissue components. PMID:25698971

  10. Mutations in the very low-density lipoprotein receptor VLDLR cause cerebellar hypoplasia and quadrupedal locomotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Tayfun; Akarsu, Nurten; Uz, Elif; Caglayan, Safak; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Onat, Onur Emre; Tan, Meliha; Tan, Uner

    2008-03-18

    Quadrupedal gait in humans, also known as Unertan syndrome, is a rare phenotype associated with dysarthric speech, mental retardation, and varying degrees of cerebrocerebellar hypoplasia. Four large consanguineous kindreds from Turkey manifest this phenotype. In two families (A and D), shared homozygosity among affected relatives mapped the trait to a 1.3-Mb region of chromosome 9p24. This genomic region includes the VLDLR gene, which encodes the very low-density lipoprotein receptor, a component of the reelin signaling pathway involved in neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Sequence analysis of VLDLR revealed nonsense mutation R257X in family A and single-nucleotide deletion c2339delT in family D. Both these mutations are predicted to lead to truncated proteins lacking transmembrane and signaling domains. In two other families (B and C), the phenotype is not linked to chromosome 9p. Our data indicate that mutations in VLDLR impair cerebrocerebellar function, conferring in these families a dramatic influence on gait, and that hereditary disorders associated with quadrupedal gait in humans are genetically heterogeneous. PMID:18326629

  11. Measurement of /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein uptake in selected tissues of the squirrel monkey by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Schnitzer, J.J.; Yarmush, M.L.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.

    1988-09-01

    A recently developed technique of absolute quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of /sup 125/I-labeled proteins in biologic specimens was used to measure /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein (/sup 125/I-LDL) concentration levels in various tissues of the squirrel monkey after 30 minutes of in vivo LDL circulation. Liver and adrenal cortex exhibited high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations, presumably because of binding to specific cell surface receptors and/or internalization in vascular beds with high permeability to LDL. High tissue concentrations of LDL were associated with the zona fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex and the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testis; significantly lower levels of /sup 125/I-LDL were observed in the adrenal medulla, the zona glomerulosa, and germinal centers of the testis. Contrary to previous reports, low /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in lymph nodes. In addition, multiple arterial intramural focal areas of high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were identified in arteries supplying the adrenal gland, lymph node, small bowel, and liver.

  12. High-density lipoprotein contribute to G0-G1/S transition in Swiss NIH/3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Angius, Fabrizio; Spolitu, Stefano; Uda, Sabrina; Deligia, Stefania; Frau, Alessandra; Banni, Sebastiano; Collu, Maria; Accossu, Simonetta; Madeddu, Clelia; Serpe, Roberto; Batetta, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs) play a crucial role in removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Although their concentration is lower during conditions of high cell growth rate (cancer and infections), their involvement during cell proliferation is not known. To this aim, we investigated the replicative cycles in synchronised Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in different experimental conditions: i) contact-inhibited fibroblasts re-entering cell cycle after dilution; ii) scratch-wound assay; iii) serum-deprived cells induced to re-enter G1 by FCS, HDL or PDGF. Analyses were performed during each cell cycle up to quiescence. Cholesterol synthesis increased remarkably during the replicative cycles, decreasing only after cells reached confluence. In contrast, cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis and content were high at 24?h after dilution and then decreased steeply in the successive cycles. Flow cytometry analysis of DiO-HDL, as well as radiolabeled HDL pulse, demonstrated a significant uptake of CE-HDL in 24?h. DiI-HDL uptake, lipid droplets (LDs) and SR-BI immunostaining and expression followed the same trend. Addition of HDL or PDGF partially restore the proliferation rate and significantly increase SR-BI and pAKT expression in serum-deprived cells. In conclusion, cell transition from G0 to G1/S requires CE-HDL uptake, leading to CE-HDL/SR-BI pathway activation and CEs increase into LDs. PMID:26640042

  13. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a physiological A? homeostatic mechanism with multiple therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is the main cell surface receptor involved in brain and systemic clearance of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) toxin amyloid-beta (A?). In plasma, a soluble form of LRP1 (sLRP1) is the major transport protein for peripheral A?. LRP1 in brain endothelium and mural cells mediates A? efflux from brain by providing a transport mechanism for A across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). sLRP1 maintains a plasma ‘sink’ activity for A? through binding of peripheral A? which in turn inhibits re-entry of free plasma A? into the brain. LRP1 in the liver mediates systemic clearance of A?. In AD, LRP1 expression at the BBB is reduced and A? binding to circulating sLRP1 is compromised by oxidation. Cell surface LRP1 and circulating sLRP1 represent druggable targets which can be therapeutically modified to restore the physiological mechanisms of brain A? homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how increasing LRP1 expression at the BBB and liver with lifestyle changes, statins, plant-based active principles and/or gene therapy on one hand, and how replacing dysfunctional plasma sLRP1 on the other regulate A? clearance from brain ultimately controlling the onset and/or progression of AD. PMID:22820095

  14. High-pressure induced physicochemical and functional modifications of low-density lipoproteins from hen egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Speroni, F; Puppo, M C; Chapleau, N; de Lamballerie, M; Castellani, O; Añón, M C; Anton, M

    2005-07-13

    High-pressure treatment represents a potential method to stabilize microbiologically agricultural raw materials that are sensitive to heat treatments. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), the main contributors to the exceptional emulsifying properties of yolk, are particularly sensitive to heat treatment. In this study, high-pressure treatments have been performed on LDL, and their impact on LDL physicochemical and emulsifying properties has been assessed. LDL dispersions at two pH levels (pH 3 and 8) were treated at different pressure levels: 200, 400, and 600 MPa at 20 degrees C. LDL dispersion characteristics (solubility, aggregation, and protein denaturation) and LDL emulsifying properties (o/w 30:70 emulsions: droplet size, flocculation, and protein adsorption) of nontreated and high-pressure treated dispersions were compared. Solubility is not altered by high-pressure treatment whatever the pH, whereas aggregation and protein denaturation are drastically enhanced, in particular at pH 8. The effects of these modifications on LDL emulsifying properties are mainly a diminution of the flocculation (depletion and bridging) at this same pH. Finally, it seems that high-pressure treatment combined with an alkaline pH decreases droplet flocculation of LDL dispersions. PMID:15998139

  15. Smooth muscle cell surface tissue factor pathway activation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein requires cellular lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Penn, M S; Cui, M Z; Winokur, A L; Bethea, J; Hamilton, T A; DiCorleto, P E; Chisolm, G M

    2000-11-01

    Tissue factor, which is expressed in vascular lesions, increases thrombin production, blood coagulation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. We demonstrate that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induces surface tissue factor pathway activity (ie, activity of the tissue factor:factor VIIa complex) on human and rat smooth muscle cells. Tissue factor messenger RNA (mRNA) was induced by oxidized LDL or native LDL; however, native LDL did not markedly increase tissue factor activity. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL mediated the activation of the tissue factor pathway via an oxidant-dependent mechanism, because antioxidants blocked the enhanced tissue factor pathway activity by oxidized LDL, but not the increased mRNA or protein induction. We separated total lipid extracts of oxidized LDL using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This yielded 2 major peaks that induced tissue factor activity. Of the known oxysterols contained in the first peak, 7alpha- or 7beta-hydroxy or 7-ketocholesterol had no effect on tissue factor pathway activity; however, 7beta-hydroperoxycholesterol increased tissue factor pathway activity without induction of tissue factor mRNA. Tertiary butyl hydroperoxide also increased tissue factor pathway activity, suggesting that lipid hydroperoxides, some of which exist in atherosclerotic lesions, activate the tissue factor pathway. We speculate that thrombin production could be elevated via a mechanism involving peroxidation of cellular lipids, contributing to arterial thrombosis after plaque rupture. Our data suggest a mechanism by which antioxidants may offer a clinical benefit in acute coronary syndrome and restenosis. PMID:11049984

  16. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Suppresses Expression of Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype EP3 in Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuxia; Liu, Yanmin; Li, Qi; Liu, Gefei; Song, Xuhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingbi; Liang, Bin; Huang, Dongyang

    2014-01-01

    EP3, one of four prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, is significantly lower in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal arteries and is localized predominantly in macrophages of the plaque shoulder region. However, mechanisms behind this EP3 expression pattern are still unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanism of EP3 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) treatment. We found that oxLDL decreased EP3 expression, in a dose-dependent manner, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oxLDL inhibited nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-dependent transcription of the EP3 gene by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?). Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed decreased binding of NF-?B to the EP3 promoter with oxLDL and PPAR-? agonist treatment. Our results show that oxLDL suppresses EP3 expression by activation of PPAR-? and subsequent inhibition of NF-?B in macrophages. These results suggest that down-regulation of EP3 expression by oxLDL is associated with impairment of EP3-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, and that EP3 receptor activity may exert a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis. PMID:25333975

  17. Effect of the antiestrogen ethamoxytriphetol (MER-25) on placental low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, M.C.; Babischkin, J.S.; Pepe, G.J.; Albrecht, E.D.

    1988-05-01

    The present study determined if the decline in placental progesterone (P4) production that results from administration of the antiestrogen ethamoxytriphetol (MER-25) to pregnant baboons results from a change in placental low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and/or degradation. Pregnant baboons (Papio anubis) were untreated (n = 10) or received MER-25 (25 mg/kg BW, orally; n = 10) daily on days 140-170 of gestation (term, 184 days). Placentas were removed by cesarean section on day 170 of gestation, and villous tissue was dispersed with 0.1% collagenase at 37 C for 40 min. Placental cells (10(6)) were incubated in medium 199 (pH 7.2) for 12 h at 37 C with increasing amounts (5-100 micrograms) of (125I)LDL, with or without a 100-fold excess of unlabeled baboon LDL. Mean (+/- SE) peripheral serum P4 concentrations on days 140-170 of gestation were 51% lower (P less than 0.01) in MER-25-treated (5.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) than in untreated (11.6 +/- 0.5 ng/ml) baboons. The uptake of LDL was 56% lower (P less than 0.01) in placental cells from antiestrogen-treated (6.3 +/- 1.6 ng/micrograms cell protein) than in those from untreated (14.4 +/- 1.9 ng/micrograms cell protein) baboons. The dissociation constants for placental LDL uptake, as assessed by Scatchard analysis, however, were similar in untreated (0.80 microgram/ml) and MER-25-treated (0.76 microgram/ml) animals. The amount of (125I)LDL concomitantly degraded by cells from baboons that received MER-25 was 54% of that degraded by cells from untreated controls. The relative decline in LDL degradation by cells of antiestrogen-treated baboons was proportionate to the decline in overall LDL uptake. The results indicate, therefore, that antiestrogen treatment decreased the amount of placental LDL uptake, but did not change the affinity for the lipoprotein.

  18. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis. PMID:26237273

  19. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 binding to endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor family by a peptide isolated from a phage display library.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jan K; Malmendal, Anders; Schiøtt, Birgit; Skeldal, Sune; Pedersen, Katrine E; Celik, Leyla; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Andreasen, Peter A; Wind, Troels

    2006-11-01

    The functions of the serpin PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) are based on molecular interactions with its target proteases uPA and tPA (urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator respectively), with vitronectin and with endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein family. Understanding the significance of these interactions would be facilitated by the ability to block them individually. Using phage display, we have identified the disulfide-constrained peptide motif CFGWC with affinity for natural human PAI-1. The three-dimensional structure of a peptide containing this motif (DVPCFGWCQDA) was determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A binding site in the so-called flexible joint region of PAI-1 was suggested by molecular modelling and validated through binding studies with various competitors and site-directed mutagenesis of PAI-1. The peptide with an N-terminal biotin inhibited the binding of the uPA-PAI-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1A (LRP-1A) and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) in vitro and inhibited endocytosis of the uPA-PAI-1 complex in U937 cells. We conclude that the isolated peptide represents a novel approach to pharmacological interference with the functions of PAI-1 based on inhibition of one specific molecular interaction. PMID:16813566

  20. Effects of Triton WR 1339 and heparin on the transfer of surface lipids from triglyceride-rich emulsions to high density lipoproteins in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maranhao, R.C.; Roland, I.A.; Hirata, M.H. )

    1990-11-01

    The influence of lipolytic mechanisms on the transfer of phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol from artificial emulsions, serving as chylomicron models to other plasma lipoproteins, mainly high density lipoproteins (HDL) were tested in vivo. The emulsions labeled with radioactive lipids were injected into the bloodstream of rats (controls) and the results were compared with those obtained from rats that had previously been treated with Triton WR 1339 or heparin. Plasma clearance and the distribution of cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol in the different plasma lipoprotein fractions were then determined. Whereas virtually no cholesteryl esters were found in d greater than 1.006 g/mL density fraction of the three experimental groups, 2.8 +/- 1.3% of the injected phospholipids were in the 1.063-1.210 g/L density fraction of the Triton treated rats, and 12.6 +/- 5.4% of the heparin treated rats, as compared to 10.1 +/- 1.7% in controls. This indicates that lipolysis directly influences phospholipid transfer to HDL. In contrast, free-cholesterol transfer to HDL, besides being less pronounced than phospholipid transfer, was enhanced by Triton and diminished by heparin, indicating that lipolytic mechanisms were not important determinants in this process.

  1. Single-Particle Tracking of Human Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    de Messieres, Michel; Ng, Abby; Duarte, Cornelio J; Remaley, Alan T; Lee, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), play a critical role in heart disease. Lipoproteins vary in size and shape as well as in their apolipoprotein content. Here, we developed a new experimental framework to study freely diffusing lipoproteins from human blood, allowing analysis of even the smallest HDL with a radius of 5 nm. In an easily constructed confinement chamber, individual HDL, LDL, and VLDL particles labeled with three distinct fluorophores were simultaneously tracked by wide-field fluorescence microscopy and their sizes were determined by their motion. This technique enables studies of individual lipoproteins in solution and allows characterization of the heterogeneous properties of lipoproteins which affect their biological function but are difficult to discern in bulk studies. PMID:26643517

  2. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  3. Understanding Lipoproteins as Transporters of Cholesterol and Other Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.

    2004-01-01

    A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…

  4. Inhibition of the Lytic Action of Cell-bound Terminal Complement Components by Human High Density Lipoproteins and Apoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Stephen I.; Packman, Charles H.; Leddy, John P.

    1983-01-01

    Human serum lipoproteins are known to participate in or modify several immunologically relevant responses, including the inhibition of target cell lysis initiated by fluid-phase C5b-7 (reactive lysis). We now report that human high density lipoproteins (HDL) can inhibit the complement (C) lytic mechanism after C5b-7, C5b-8, and even C5b-9 have been bound to the target membrane. This inhibitory activity of serum or plasma copurifies in hydrophobic chromatography with antigenically detected apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL apoprotein, and with HDL in CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Although HDL is more active than its apoproteins in fluid-phase inhibition of C5b-7-initiated reactive lysis, the HDL apoproteins are more effective after C5b-7, C5b-8, or C5b-9 have become bound to human or sheep erythrocytes (E). Highly purified HDL apoproteins, apoA-I and apoA-II, both have greater inhibitory activity than whole HDL on a protein weight basis, and some evidence has been obtained that apoA-I dissociating spontaneously from HDL may be the principal inhibitory moiety in physiological situations. HDL lipids themselves are inactive. The HDL-related inhibitors are ineffective when incubated with EC5b-7 and removed before C8 and C9 are added, and only minimally effective on cell-bound C5b-8 sites before C9 is added. They exert their most prominent inhibitory activity after C9 has been bound to EC5b-8 at low temperature, but before the final temperature-dependent, Zn++-inhibitable membrane damage steps have occurred. Therefore, HDL or its apoproteins do not act to repair already established transmembrane channels, but might interfere either with insertion of C9 into the lipid bilayer or with polymerization of C9 at C5b-8 sites. This heat-stable inhibitory activity can be demonstrated to modify lysis of erythrocytes in whole serum, i.e., it does not depend upon artificial interruption of the complement membrane attack sequence at any of the above-mentioned stages. Contributions of the target membrane itself to the mechanism of inhibition are suggested by the observations that, in contrast to sheep or normal human E, lysis of guinea pig E or human E from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is inhibited poorly. This is the first description of a naturally occurring plasma inhibitor acting on the terminal, membrane-associated events in complement lysis. Although further study is required to assess the physiologic or immunopathologic significance of this new function of HDL, the HDL apoproteins or their relevant fragments should be useful experimentally as molecular probes of the lytic mechanism. Images PMID:6403580

  5. A pilot study identifying statin nonadherence with visit-to-visit variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Mann, Devin M; Glazer, Nicole L; Winter, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Adams, William G; Kressin, Nancy R; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon; Cabral, Howard

    2013-05-15

    Nonadherence to cardiovascular medications such as statins is a common, important problem. Clinicians currently rely on intuition to identify medication nonadherence. The visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol might represent an opportunity to identify statin nonadherence with greater accuracy. We examined the clinical and pharmacy data from 782 members of the Boston Medical Center Health Plan, seen at either the Boston Medical Center or its affiliated community health centers, who were taking statins and had ?3 LDL cholesterol measurements from 2008 to 2011. The LDL cholesterol VVV (defined by the within-patient SD) was categorized into quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression models were generated with statin nonadherence (defined by the standard 80% pharmacy refill-based medication possession ratio threshold) as the dependent variable. The proportion of statin nonadherence increased across the quintiles of LDL cholesterol VVV (64.3%, 71.2%, 89.2%, 92.3%, 91.7%). Higher quintiles of LDL cholesterol VVV had a strong positive association with statin nonadherence, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 7.1) in the highest versus lowest quintile of LDL cholesterol VVV. The age- and gender-adjusted model had poor discrimination (C-statistic 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.67), but the final adjusted model (age, gender, race, mean LDL cholesterol) demonstrated good discrimination (C-statistic 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.79) between the adherent and nonadherent patients. In conclusion, the VVV of LDL cholesterol demonstrated a strong association with statin nonadherence in a clinic setting. Furthermore, a VVV of LDL cholesterol-based model had good discrimination characteristics for statin nonadherence. Research is needed to validate and generalize these findings to other populations and biomarkers. PMID:23433758

  6. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  7. A novel peroxisome proliferator response element modulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription in response to PPAR? activation.

    PubMed

    Shende, Vikram R; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-12-15

    The hepatic expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at -768 to -752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPAR? activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPAR? agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin (RSV)-mediated transactivation. EMSA and ChIP assay further confirmed the binding of PPAR? to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPAR? agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPAR? agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression. PMID:26443862

  8. Genetic association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Zhen-Xin; Chan, Piu; He, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Mou-Ni; Wu, Cheng-Bin; Hong, Zhen

    2008-10-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the elderly. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), as a receptor of apolipoprotein E (APOE), APP, and alpha2 macroglobulin (alpha2-M), keeps the balance between degeneration and production of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) clearance. Its gene had been defined as a candidate gene for AD, but the results were not universal. Total 496 AD patients and 478 controls were recruited in Chinese Han population and real-time PCR was used to detect the polymorphism of LRP C766T. Multiple logistic regression, Chi-square test and survival analysis were performed to explore the association. The distribution of LRP genotypes and alleles was significantly different between cases and controls, and T allele could reduce the risk for developing AD (OR of CT genotype: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38-0.85, rho=0.003; OR of T allele: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39-0.83, rho=0.003). TT genotype carriers had 5 years later for developing AD compared with CC genotype carriers, but survival analysis did not conform this (LRP TT vs. CT and CC log rank chi(2)=2.71, rho=0.26). The distribution of LRP C766T genotypes and alleles was different among different severity stratified by MMSE yet (rho=0.26). Our data suggested that the polymorphism of LRP C766T was strongly associated with AD and T allele might be a protective factor for AD in Chinese Han population. PMID:18706476

  9. Galectin-3-induced oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes the phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, LEI; CHEN, KAN; CAO, JIATIAN; HAN, ZHIHUA; GAO, LIN; WANG, YUE; FAN, YUQI; WANG, CHANGQIAN

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathological phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis. Galectin-3 also has an important role in atherosclerosis. However, little is currently known regarding the effects of galectin-3 on the oxLDL-induced phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study, primary culture human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells were treated with various oxLDL concentrations (0-50 ?g/ml) for 72 h, and phenotypic changes were subsequently recorded. The results of the present study suggested that oxLDL increases the expression levels of galectin-3, and induces the phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The oxLDL-induced cells exhibited increased expression levels of osteopontin, a smooth muscle synthetic protein, and calponin and ?-actin, smooth muscle contractile proteins. The oxLDL-induced changes in cellular phenotype were associated with increased migration, proliferation, and phagocytosis. Concordant with these results, oxLDL-treated smooth muscle cells exhibited activation of canonical Wnt signaling, as determined by an increase in the protein expression levels of ?-catenin. Silencing of galectin-3 by small interfering RNA reversed the phenotypic transformation and functional changes observed in the oxLDL-treated cells, suggesting these changes were dependent on the activation of galectin-3. In addition, galectin-3 knockdown decreased the protein expression levels of ?-catenin in both the cytoplasm and nucleus; however, the mRNA expression levels of ?-catenin remained unchanged. These results suggest that galectin-3 is responsible for the phenotypic transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells, and the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in this process. PMID:26165519

  10. Neuregulin-activated ERBB4 induces the SREBP-2 cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and increases low-density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Jonathan W; Zhang, Shannon; Means, Robert E; Kelleher, Joanne K; Cline, Gary W; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Suárez, Yajaira; Stern, David F

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is a lipid that is critical for steroid hormone production and the integrity of cellular membranes, and, as such, it is essential for cell growth. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ERBB4, which forms signaling complexes with other EGFR family members, can undergo ligand-induced proteolytic cleavage to release a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that enters the nucleus to modify transcription. We found that ERBB4 activates sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) to enhance low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis. Expression of the ERBB4 ICD in mammary epithelial cells or activation of ERBB4 with the ligand neuregulin 1 (NRG1) induced the expression of SREBP target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, including?HMGCR and HMGCS1, and lipid uptake, LDLR, which encodes the LDL receptor. Addition of NRG1 increased the abundance of the cleaved, mature form of SREBP-2 through a pathway that was blocked by addition of inhibitors of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or dual inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, but not by inhibition of AKT or mTORC1. Pharmacological inhibition of the activity of SREBP site 1 protease or of all EGFR family members (with lapatinib), but not EGFR alone (with erlotinib), impaired NRG1-induced expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes. Collectively, our findings indicated that activation of ERBB4 promotes SREBP-2-regulated cholesterol metabolism. The connections of EGFR and ERBB4 signaling with SREBP-2-regulated cholesterol metabolism are likely to be important in ERBB-regulated developmental processes and may contribute to metabolic remodeling in ERBB-driven cancers. PMID:26535009

  11. Chronic Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lectin-Like Low Density Lipoprotein (LOX-1) Receptor Expression in Heart of Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Simin; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overexpression of lectin-like low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) receptor plays an important role in hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications such as atherosclerosis. Based on the beneficial effects of exercise on preventing cardiovascular complications of diabetes, we aimed to examine the protective effects of aerobic exercise on expression of LOX-1 receptor and production of free radicals in the heart of diabetic rats. Methods: Four groups of rats were used: (n = 5 per group): sedentary normal, trained normal, sedentary diabetes and trained diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The exercise protocol was consisted of swimming 30 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Plasma glucose was evaluated at initiation, weeks 4 and 8 of experiment. At the end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and the heart was removed for determination of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and LOX-1 gene expression. Results: In normal non-diabetic rats, the blood glucose level was <150 mg/dl; however, the induction of diabetes resulted in levels more than >400 mg/dl. Gene expression of LOX-1 was increased in the heart of diabetic rats. Exercise reduced the gene expression of this protein in diabetic states without reducing the blood glucose. Finally, swimming exercise decreased the malondialdehyde and nitrate levels in heart tissue both in control and diabetic rats. Conclusion: Swimming exercise reduces heart expression of the LOX-1 receptor in accompany with reduction of free radicals production. Since these parameters are important in generation of diabetic complications, swimming exercise is a good candidate for reducing these complications. PMID:26432573

  12. Proliferation of macrophages due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Monika; Gruber, Miriam; Schmid, Diethart; Baran, Halina; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is assumed to be a major causal agent in hypercholesteraemia-induced atherosclerosis. Because the proliferation of lipid-loaden macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions has been described, we investigated the dependence of macrophage proliferation on the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by hypochlorite oxidized LDL. Ox-LDL induces a dose dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-interferon stimulated mouse macrophages (J774.A1) with concomitant macrophage proliferation as assayed by cell counting, tritiated-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cell protein. Native LDL did not influence macrophage proliferation and inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein and mRNA was reduced by HOCl-oxidized LDL (0-40 µg/ml) as revealed by immunoblotting and competitive semiquantitative PCR. Macrophage proliferation was increased by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The addition of ox-LDL to L-NAME containing incubations induced no further statistically significant increase in cell number. Nitric oxide donors decreased ox-LDL induced macrophage proliferation and nitric oxide scavengers restored macrophage proliferation to the initial values achieved by ox-LDL. The decrease of cytosolic DNA fragments in stimulated macrophages incubated with ox-LDL demonstrates that the proliferative actions of ox-LDL are associated with a decrease of NO-induced apoptosis. Our data show that inhibition of iNOS dependent nitric oxide production caused by hypochlorite oxidized LDL enhances macrophage proliferation. This might be a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune function. PMID:24278029

  14. Interaction between SCO-spondin and low density lipoproteins from embryonic cerebrospinal fluid modulates their roles in early neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vera, América; Recabal, Antonia; Saldivia, Natalia; Stanic, Karen; Torrejón, Marcela; Montecinos, Hernán; Caprile, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    During early stages of development, encephalic vesicles are composed by a layer of neuroepithelial cells surrounding a central cavity filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF). This fluid contains several morphogens that regulate proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial cells. One of these neurogenic factors is SCO-spondin, a giant protein secreted to the eCSF from early stages of development. Inhibition of this protein in vivo or in vitro drastically decreases the neurodifferentiation process. Other important neurogenic factors of the eCSF are low density lipoproteins (LDL), the depletion of which generates a 60% decrease in mesencephalic explant neurodifferentiation. The presence of several LDL receptor class A (LDLrA) domains (responsible for LDL binding in other proteins) in the SCO-spondin sequence suggests a possible interaction between both molecules. This possibility was analyzed using three different experimental approaches: (1) Bioinformatics analyses of the SCO-spondin region, that contains eight LDLrA domains in tandem, and of comparisons with the LDL receptor consensus sequence; (2) Analysis of the physical interactions of both molecules through immunohistochemical colocalization in embryonic chick brains and through the immunoprecipitation of LDL with anti-SCO-spondin antibodies; and (3) Analysis of functional interactions during the neurodifferentiation process when these molecules were added to a culture medium of mesencephalic explants. The results revealed that LDL and SCO-spondin interact to form a complex that diminishes the neurogenic capacities that both molecules have separately. Our work suggests that the eCSF is an active signaling center with a complex regulation system that allows for correct brain development. PMID:26074785

  15. Blood purification by a membrane technique--a new method for the effective removal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J M; Ciechanowska, A; Strobl, W; Sabali?ska, S; Falkenhagen, D

    2000-01-01

    A membrane plasma fractionation (MPS) technique is applied in order to obtain selective removal of pathological plasma components from the extracorporeal circuit. An effective plasma fractionation procedure should be characterized by the highest possible removal of the pathological plasma components and, equally as important, the lowest unwanted protein losses caused mainly by adsorption to the membrane structure. In order to obtain a higher efficiency of the MPS procedure (high selectivity between removal of pathological plasma components and unwanted losses mainly represented by albumin) several methods such as thermofiltration, application of pulsate flow at the end of secondary filter, etc. have been developed. Clinical verification of these methods led to some improvement in MPS procedure but these results did not seem to be optimal. The main objective of this paper is to present a new two-stage membrane system utilizing a high flow recirculation circuit developed particularly, but not only, for effective removal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The designed and developed system has been tested in vitro using several different plasma fractionation membranes. The results obtained indicated the importance of the membrane structure and membrane material on the efficiency of the tested plasma fractionation procedure. It was also found that it is possible to obtain negligible protein losses for some selected membrane structures applied in the assessed system. Based on preliminary results, it seems that the new two-stage membrane system proposed could be characterized by a very low range of unwanted protein losses leading to high effectiveness of the plasma fractionation procedure. PMID:10898242

  16. Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotein Impairs Endothelial Progenitor Cells' Function by Activation of CD36-MAPK-TSP-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianxiang; He, Zhiqing; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Feng; Ding, Ru; Ren, Yusheng; Jiang, Qijun; Fan, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels inversely correlate with cardiovascular events due to the protective effects on vascular wall and stem cells, which are susceptible to oxidative modifications and then lead to potential pro-atherosclerotic effects. We proposed that oxidized HDL (ox-HDL) might lead to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction and investigated underlying mechanisms. Results: ox-HDL was shown to increase apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, but to reduce migration, angiogenesis, and cholesterol efflux of EPCs in a dose-dependent manner. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-?B were activated after ox-HDL stimulation, which also upregulated thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression without affecting vascular endothelial growth factor. Effects caused by ox-HDL could be significantly attenuated by pretreatment with short hairpin RNA-mediated CD36 knockdown or probucol. Data of in vivo experiments and the inverse correlation of ox-HDL and circulating EPC numbers among patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) or CAD and type 2 diabetes also supported it. Meanwhile, HDL separated from such patients could significantly increase cultured EPC's caspase 3 activity, further supporting our proposal. Innovation: This is the most complete study to date of how ox-HDL would impair EPCs function, which was involved with activation of CD36-p38 MAPK-TSP-1 pathways and proved by not only the inverse relationship between ox-HDL and circulating EPCs in clinic but also pro-apoptotic effects of HDL separated from patients' serum. Conclusion: Activation of CD36-p38 MAPK-TSP-1 pathways contributes to the pathological effects of ox-HDL on EPCs' dysfunction, which might be one of the potential etiological factors responsible for the disturbed neovascularization in chronic ischemic disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 308–324. PMID:25313537

  17. Multiple Hepatic Regulatory Variants at the GALNT2 GWAS Locus Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Roman, Tamara S; Marvelle, Amanda F; Fogarty, Marie P; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Gonzalez, Arlene J; Buchkovich, Martin L; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fuchsberger, Christian; Jackson, Anne U; Wu, Ying; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J; Gaulton, Kyle J; Sethupathy, Praveen; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Collins, Francis S; Laakso, Markku; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 150 loci associated with blood lipid and cholesterol levels; however, the functional and molecular mechanisms for many associations are unknown. We examined the functional regulatory effects of candidate variants at the GALNT2 locus associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fine-mapping and conditional analyses in the METSIM study identified a single locus harboring 25 noncoding variants (r(2) > 0.7 with the lead GWAS variants) strongly associated with total cholesterol in medium-sized HDL (e.g., rs17315646, p = 3.5 × 10(-12)). We used luciferase reporter assays in HepG2 cells to test all 25 variants for allelic differences in regulatory enhancer activity. rs2281721 showed allelic differences in transcriptional activity (75-fold [T] versus 27-fold [C] more than the empty-vector control), as did a separate 780-bp segment containing rs4846913, rs2144300, and rs6143660 (49-fold [AT(-) haplotype] versus 16-fold [CC(+) haplotype] more). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed differential CEBPB binding to rs4846913, and we confirmed this binding in a native chromatin context by performing chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines of differing genotypes. Additionally, sequence reads in HepG2 DNase-I-hypersensitivity and CEBPB ChIP-seq signals spanning rs4846913 showed significant allelic imbalance. Allelic-expression-imbalance assays performed with RNA from primary human hepatocyte samples and expression-quantitative-trait-locus (eQTL) data in human subcutaneous adipose tissue samples confirmed that alleles associated with increased HDL-C are associated with a modest increase in GALNT2 expression. Together, these data suggest that at least rs4846913 and rs2281721 play key roles in influencing GALNT2 expression at this HDL-C locus. PMID:26637976

  18. Restoration of Physiologically Responsive Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Genetically Deficient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat M.; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Tien, Kevin T.; McKinley, Thomas R.; Bocard, Braden R.; Maijub, John G.; Burchell, Patrick O.; Williams, Stuart K.; Morris, Marvin E.; Hoying, James B.; Wade-Martins, Richard; West, Franklin D.; Boyd, Nolan L.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring sufficient amounts of high-quality cells remains an impediment to cell-based therapies. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) may be an unparalleled source, but autologous iPSC likely retain deficiencies requiring correction. We present a strategy for restoring physiological function in genetically deficient iPSC utilizing the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) as our model. FH fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSC using synthetic modified mRNA. FH-iPSC exhibited pluripotency and differentiated toward a hepatic lineage. To restore LDLR endocytosis, FH-iPSC were transfected with a 31?kb plasmid (pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR) containing a wild-type LDLR (FH-iPSC-LDLR) controlled by 10?kb of upstream genomic DNA as well as Epstein-Barr sequences (EBNA1 and oriP) for episomal retention and replication. After six months of selective culture, pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR was recovered from FH-iPSC-LDLR and transfected into Ldlr-deficient CHO-a7 cells, which then exhibited feedback-controlled LDLR-mediated endocytosis. To quantify endocytosis, FH-iPSC?±?LDLR were differentiated into mesenchymal cells (MC), pretreated with excess free sterols, Lovastatin, or ethanol (control), and exposed to DiI-LDL. FH-MC-LDLR demonstrated a physiological response, with virtually no DiI-LDL internalization with excess sterols and an ~2-fold increase in DiI-LDL internalization by Lovastatin compared to FH-MC. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of functionalizing genetically deficient iPSC using episomal plasmids to deliver physiologically responsive transgenes. PMID:26307169

  19. Genome-wide association studies identified novel loci for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its postprandial lipemic response

    PubMed Central

    An, Ping; Straka, Robert J.; Pollin, Toni I.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Daw, E. Warwick; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Gibson, Quince; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Province, Michael A.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Shuldiner, Alan R; Arnett, Donna K.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to LDL alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify loci influencing baseline NHDL and its postprandial lipemic (PPL) response. We carried out GWAS in 4,241 participants of European descent. Our discovery cohort included 928 subjects from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Our replication cohorts included 3,313 subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study and Family Heart Study (FamHS). A linear mixed model using the kinship matrix was used for association tests. The best association signal was found in a tri-genic region at RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT for baseline NHDL (lead SNP rs6544903, discovery p = 7e-7, MAF = 2%; validation p = 6e-4 at 0.1 kb upstream neighboring SNP rs3768725, and 5e-4 at 0.7 kb downstream neighboring SNP rs6733143, MAF = 10%). The lead and neighboring SNPs were not perfect surrogate proxies to each other (D? = 1, r2 = 0.003) but they seemed to be partially dependent (likelihood ration test p = 0.04). Other suggestive loci (discovery p < 1e-6) included LOC100419812 and LOC100288337 for baseline NHDL, and LOC100420502 and CDH13 for NHDL PPL response that were not replicated (p > 0.01). The current and first GWAS of NHDL yielded an interesting common variant in RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT influencing baseline NHDL levels. Another common variant in CDH13 for NHDL response to dietary high fat intake challenge was also suggested. Further validations for both loci from large independent studies, especially interventional studies, are warranted. PMID:24604477

  20. Effects of high-density lipoproteins on intracellular pH and proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tamagaki, T; Sawada, S; Imamura, H; Tada, Y; Yamasaki, S; Toratani, A; Sato, T; Komatsu, S; Akamatsu, N; Yamagami, M; Kobayashi, K; Kato, K; Yamamoto, K; Shirai, K; Yamada, K; Higaki, T; Nakagawa, K; Tsuji, H; Nakagawa, M

    1996-06-01

    We investigated the effects of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on the intracellular pH ([pH]i), and on the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as on their production of prostacyclin (PGI2). The [pH]i was slightly acidified when extracellular Ca2+ was chelated with EGTA. Pretreatment of HUVEC with amiloride, the Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, caused the [pH]i to become strongly acidic. The addition of HDL produced a biphasic shift in [pH]i, with a brief initial acidification followed by a rapid alkaline shift. The initial decrease in [pH]i was abolished in the cells pretreated with EGTA, and subsequent alkalinization was inhibited. The alkalinization of [pH]i disappeared in the cells pretreated with amiloride. These results suggest that [pH]i depends mainly on Na+/H+ exchange and partially on the extracellular Ca2+ of the HUVEC either in the resting unstimulated state or during HDL stimulation. In contrast, the addition of LDL produced an acidification of [pH]i, which was increased by LDL in the Ca(2+)-free condition. In the cells pretreated with amiloride, [pH]i was not further acidified by LDL. As a result, HDL promoted the proliferation of cells, an action that was inhibited by pretreatment with EGTA. However LDL inhibited cell proliferation, an action unaffected by EGTA pretreatment. The addition of HDL also enhanced the generation of prostacyclin in endothelial cells, the enhancement of PGI2 generation resulted from an increase in the release of Ca2+ from storage sites, due not only to an increased production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), but also to the alkalinization of [pH]i. These effects may be involved in the mechanism of HDL's anti-atherosclerotic action. PMID:8782838

  1. Positive Relationship between Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Visceral Fat in a Chinese Nondiabetic Population

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yun; Hao, Yaping; Hu, Yaqin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been reported that obesity and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is recognized that regionalized adiposity has different cardiovascular risk, visceral versus subcutaneous, is a better predictor of CVD. However, the relationship between regionalized adiposity and LDL-c is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and serum LDL-c levels in a Chinese cohort. Methods A total of 1 538 subjects (539 men, 999 women; 20–75 years old) with normal glucose tolerance and blood pressure were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area. Serum LDL-c levels were detected by direct assay method. Results Overweight/obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg/m2) had significantly higher serum LDL-c levels than the lean subjects (BMI <25 kg/m2) (P<0.01). An increasing trend in serum LDL-c levels was found to accompany the increase in VFA (P for trend <0.01). Within the same BMI category, subjects with abdominal obesity (VFA ?80 cm2) had significantly higher LDL-c levels than those without abdominal obesity (VFA <80 cm2) (P<0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that increased VFA was an independent risk factor for elevated LDL-c levels, not only in the entire study population (Standard ??=?0.138; P<0.01), but also when the study population was subdivided into men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women (Standard ??=?0.117, 0.145, 0.090 respectively for men, premenopausal women, postmenopausal women; all P<0.01). Conclusions VFA was positively correlated with serum LDL-c levels in a nondiabetic Chinese population with normal blood pressure. PMID:25398089

  2. Genetic-morphologic association study: association between the low density lipoprotein-receptor related protein (LRP) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, M; Schober, R; Krohn, K

    2005-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), can act in different ways in the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor related protein (LRP), the major cerebral APOE receptor, in AD has been discussed controversially depending on data from different populations and methodological approaches. We examined the influence of LRP polymorphisms on CAA in 125 post-mortem cases genotyped for APOE and classified according to the neurofibrillary Braak and Braak staging of AD (indicating neurodegeneration grade). CAA was assessed separately for leptomeningeal (CAAlep.), noncapillary cortical (CAAcort.) and capillary cortical (CAAcap.) vessels in beta-amyloid stained sections. Our results suggest: (i) the 87 bp allele of LRP5' polymorphism (LRP5') is an independent predictive factor for CAAcort. and CAAlep.; (ii) the C/C genotype (C allele) of the LRP exon 3 polymorphism is positively associated with the severity of CAAlep. and CAAcort., implicating a younger age of CAA onset and/or faster CAA progression; (iii) as CAAcort. and CAAlep. showed different genetic associations in contrast to CAAcap., we can underscore the hypothesis that different molecular mechanisms are involved in CAA pathogenesis of noncapillary and capillary cerebral vessels. Our results lead us to postulate that the LRP5'87 bp and the LRP exon 3 C alleles of the LRP gene (or another locus that might be in linkage disequilibrium with these LRP polymorphic sites) could modify cerebrovascular LRP function or expression in noncapillary cerebral vessels, leading to an increased cerebrovascular amyloid deposition. PMID:15634227

  3. High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: measurement of HDL turnover using tritiated HDL

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, A.; Zech, L.; Shi, M.Z.; Chiou, Y.A.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D.

    1987-09-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were studied by injecting (/sup 3/H)apoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/HDL into 12 subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results indicate that the mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apoA-I/HDL was significantly faster (0.63 +/- 0.07 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 1/day; P less than 0.001) and the apoA-I/HDL synthetic rate greater (29.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg X day; P less than 0.02) in patients with NIDDM than in normal subjects. Furthermore, there were statistically significant inverse relationships between apoA-I/HDL FCR and plasma levels of both HDL cholesterol (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (r = -0.63; P less than 0.001). In addition, the increase in apoA-I/HDL FCR was directly related to fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) concentrations. These data support the view that the decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels commonly found in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes is due to an increase in the catabolic rate of apoA-I/HDL secondary to the defects in carbohydrate metabolism present in these patients.

  4. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene: Two common mutations and their effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content

    SciTech Connect

    Akita, H.; Chiba, H.; Matsuno, K.

    1994-12-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein regulates high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C) level, and genetic deficiency causes hyperalphalpoproteinemia (HALP). The G to A mutation in the intron 14 splice donor (I14A) has been known to be a common mutation in HALP. Recently, another mutant, D442G (Asp 442 to Gly), was ascertained. The allelic frequencies of I14A and D442G were investigated using 226 unrelated patients with HDL-C of 1.03 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) or greater. Of these, 44 had a mutation I14A and/or D442G. The I14A was found in 15, including 4 compound heterozygotes (I14A/D442G) in patients with HDL-C of 2.05 mmol/L (80 mg/dL) or greater. All I14A homozygotes (n = 5) were present in the group with HDL-C of 3.08 mmol/L (120 mg/dL) or greater, and the allelic frequency paralleled the increase in HDL-C level. D442G was identified in 33, including the 4 compound heterozygotes. Its allelic frequency appeared as two clusters, one at HDL-C around 1.79-2.03 mmol/L (70-79 mg/dL) and the other at HDL-C of 2.82 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) or greater; the latter consisted exclusively of compound heterozygotes. Allelic frequency in the general population for I14A and D442G was 0.81% and 4.62%, respectively. These data suggest that D442G is a common mutation and that although I14A is responsible for the most severe HALP, D442G leads to a relatively smaller increase in HDL-C. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies as probes of high-density lipoprotein structure: identification and localization of a lipid-dependent epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Silberman, S.R.; Bernini, F.; Sparrow, J.T.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Smith, L.C.

    1987-09-08

    Eight stable murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were raised against human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Three different antibody reactivities were demonstrated by immunoblotting. A group of five antibodies were specific for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and bound to similar or overlapping epitopes. The second type of reactivity, shown by mab-32, was specific for apoA-II. In the third group, two antibodies showed high reactivity with apoA-II and slight cross-reactivity with apoA-I. The properties of two antibodies, mab M-30 specific for apoA-I and mab M-32 specific for apoA-II, were characterized in detail as probes of HDL structure. The association of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL or synthetic complexes of apoA-I and phosphatidylcholine with mab M-30 was lipid dependent. Mab M-32 binding to apoA-II was independent of lipid. The lipid-dependent epitope bound by mab M-30 has been localized to an 18 amino acid synthetic apoA-I peptide. Moreover, studies with HDL/sub 2/, HDL/sub 3/, and immunoadsorbed HDL subfractions indicate that binding of mab M-30 to HDL is influenced by some component within the microenvironment of individual HDL particles. These lines of evidence suggest that the molar ratio of apoA-I to apoA-II is the critical determinant. Binding of mab M-32 to HDL increased the reactivity of HDL to mab M-30 in a dose-dependent manner, indicating an unusual form of cooperativity between two mabs that recognize different proteins in HDL. These monoclonal antibodies will be valuable in studies of the metabolic significance of protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions in HDL.

  6. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene haplotypes, plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and the risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    McCaskie, Pamela A; Beilby, John P; Chapman, Caroline M L; Hung, Joseph; McQuillan, Brendan M; Thompson, Peter L; Palmer, Lyle J

    2007-05-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a known inverse predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein in HDL-C metabolism such that elevated CETP activity is associated with lower HDL-C. Currently available HDL-C raising drugs are relatively ineffective and evidence suggesting the role of CETP in HDL-C levels has promoted the development of CETP inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for CHD. We investigated three SNPs in the CETP gene in two cross-sectional community-based populations (n = 1,574 and 1,109) and a population of 556 CHD patients to determine if reduced CETP activity due to genetic variations in the CETP gene would increase HDL-C levels and reduce the risk of CHD. CETP genotypes and haplotypes were tested for association with lipid levels, CETP activity and risk of CHD. Multivariate analysis showed the common AAB2 haplotype defined by the G-2708A, C-629A and TaqIB polymorphisms, was consistently associated with reduced CETP activity and increased HDL-C levels. A mean increase in HDL-C levels of 0.16-0.24 mmol/l was observed in individuals with two copies of the AAB2 haplotype relative to non AAB2 carriers across all three populations (P < 0.001). A case-control study of males indicated no association between single SNPs or haplotypes and the risk of CHD. These results suggest that raising HDL-C via CETP inhibition may not alter risk of CHD. Randomized control trials are needed to determine whether CETP inhibition will in reality reduce risk of CHD by raising HDL-C. PMID:17287950

  7. Restoration of Physiologically Responsive Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Genetically Deficient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat M; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Tien, Kevin T; McKinley, Thomas R; Bocard, Braden R; Maijub, John G; Burchell, Patrick O; Williams, Stuart K; Morris, Marvin E; Hoying, James B; Wade-Martins, Richard; West, Franklin D; Boyd, Nolan L

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring sufficient amounts of high-quality cells remains an impediment to cell-based therapies. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) may be an unparalleled source, but autologous iPSC likely retain deficiencies requiring correction. We present a strategy for restoring physiological function in genetically deficient iPSC utilizing the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) as our model. FH fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSC using synthetic modified mRNA. FH-iPSC exhibited pluripotency and differentiated toward a hepatic lineage. To restore LDLR endocytosis, FH-iPSC were transfected with a 31?kb plasmid (pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR) containing a wild-type LDLR (FH-iPSC-LDLR) controlled by 10?kb of upstream genomic DNA as well as Epstein-Barr sequences (EBNA1 and oriP) for episomal retention and replication. After six months of selective culture, pEHZ-LDLR-LDLR was recovered from FH-iPSC-LDLR and transfected into Ldlr-deficient CHO-a7 cells, which then exhibited feedback-controlled LDLR-mediated endocytosis. To quantify endocytosis, FH-iPSC?±?LDLR were differentiated into mesenchymal cells (MC), pretreated with excess free sterols, Lovastatin, or ethanol (control), and exposed to DiI-LDL. FH-MC-LDLR demonstrated a physiological response, with virtually no DiI-LDL internalization with excess sterols and an ~2-fold increase in DiI-LDL internalization by Lovastatin compared to FH-MC. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of functionalizing genetically deficient iPSC using episomal plasmids to deliver physiologically responsive transgenes. PMID:26307169

  8. Linker chain L1 of earthworm hemoglobin. Structure of gene and protein: homology with low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Riggs, A F

    1993-06-25

    The extracellular hemoglobins (Hbs) of annelids and tube worms are giant multisubunit proteins of up to approximately 200 polypeptides and molecular masses to at least 3,900 kDa. They differ from all other Hbs in having both O2-binding chains and "linker" chains. The latter are required for assembly and structural integrity of the protein and are deficient in or lack heme. We have determined the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and gene for linker chain L1 of the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequence has 225 residues and a calculated molecular mass of 25,847 Da. The chain is 21-28% identical to linker chains of the related annelid Tylorrhynchus heterochaetus and the deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia sp. A remarkable feature of the linker chains is a conserved 38-39-residue segment that contains a repeating pattern of cysteinyl residues: (Cys-X6)3-Cys-X5-Cys-X10-Cys. This pattern, not present in any globin sequence, corresponds exactly to the cysteine-rich repeats of the ligand binding domains of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors of man and Xenopus laevis. Furthermore, the cysteine-rich segment of linker chain L1 has the sequence Asp-Gly-Ser-Asp-Glu which is characteristic of LDL receptor repeats. Similar cysteine-rich sequences also occur in two other mammalian proteins, complement C9 and renal glycoprotein GP330. The results support the conclusion that the cysteine-rich motif of the LDL receptor and annelid Hbs is a multipurpose protein-binding unit of ancient origin which has been incorporated into diverse unrelated proteins, presumably by the process of exon shuffling. PMID:8514788

  9. Autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipid profile in patients with chronic periaortitis: case-control study.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, E F H; van Tits, L J H; van den Berg, E A; Prins, J; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2011-02-01

    Chronic periaortitis is thought to result from an autoallergic reaction to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). No data exist on lipid profile and atherosclerotic biomarkers. We investigated circulating levels of OxLDL and of anti-OxLDL (aOxLDL) antibodies in patients with chronic periaortitis using the cross-sectional case-control study on 20 patients with chronic periaortitis. Patients were compared to 20 age- and sex-matched controls. aOxLDL antibodies were measured by ELISA and expressed as mean optical density values at 450 nm from duplicate measurements (OD(450)). aOxLDL antibody titers (median [interquartile range]) did not differ significantly between patients and controls (aOxLDL-IgM: 0.70 [0.24-1.08] vs. 0.54 [0.25-0.73] OD(450); aOxLDL-IgG: 0.59 [0.38-0.75] vs. 0.41[0.33-0.63]OD(450)). Female patients had higher aOxLDL-IgM levels than male patients (1.02 [0.46-1.38] vs. 0.29 [0.22-0.84] OD(450); P = 0.05). aOxLDL-IgM titers were lower in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in patients without CVD (0.22 [0.16-0.37] vs. 0.92 [0.70-1.30] OD(450); P = 0.003) and correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.47, 95% CI 0.02-0.69; P = 0.03) and inversely with diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.46, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.01; P = 0.03) and OxLDL/apoB ratio (r = -0.41, 95% CI -0.73 to 0.04; P = 0.06). No differences or associations were found between aOxLDL-IgG titers and other variables between or within patients and/or controls. In patients OxLDL levels correlated with smoking pack-years (r = 0.58, 95% CI 0.17-0.81; P = 0.007). Data suggest a differing innate immune response to OxLDL in patients with chronic periaortitis compared to controls. Whether this response is causally related to chronic periaortitis development remains to be clarified. PMID:20012624

  10. Deuterium magnetic resonance of human plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wassall, S.R.; Treleaven, W.D.; Parmar, Y.I.; Cushley, R.J.

    1982-07-30

    Palmitic-d/sub 31/ acid was incorporated into human plasma low and high density lipoproteins by incubation of lipoprotein dispersions with the fatty acid. /sup 2/H NMR spectra were obtained and indicate that acyl chain order is higher in the surface monolayer of lipoproteins than in model phospholipid bilayer membrane. Thus the method can usefully be applied to investigate molecular motion within the monolayer of native lipoproteins.

  11. Congruency between biophysical data from multiple platforms and molecular dynamics simulation of the double super helix model of nascent high-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gogonea, Valentin; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Pipich, Vitaliy; Li, Xin-Min; Ioffe, Alexander I.; DiDonato, Joseph; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    The predicted structure and molecular trajectories from over 80 ns molecular dynamics simulation of the solvated double super helix (DSH) model of nascent-high density lipoprotein (HDL) was determined and compared with experimental data on reconstituted nascent HDL obtained from multiple biophysical platforms including small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation, hydrogen-deuterium exchange tandem mass spectrometry (H/D-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), cross-linking tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), and electron microscopy. In general, biophysical constraints experimentally derived from the multiple platforms agree with the same quantities evaluated using the simulation trajectory. Notably, key structural features postulated for the recent DSH model of nascent HDL are retained during the simulation including: 1) the super helical conformation of the anti-parallel apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) chains; 2) the lipid micellar-pseudolamellar organization; and 3) the solvent exposed Solar Flare loops, proposed sites of interaction with LCAT (lecithin cholesteryl acyltransferase). Analysis of salt bridge persistence during simulation provides insights into structural features of apoA1 that form the backbone of the lipoprotein. The combination of molecular dynamics simulation and experimental data from a broad range of biophysical platforms serves as a powerful approach to study large macromolecular assemblies such as lipoproteins. The present application to nascent HDL validates the DSH model proposed earlier, and suggests new structural details of nascent HDL. PMID:20687589

  12. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  13. Genetic determination of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1 plasma levels in a family study of cardiac catheterization patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, V.L.; Beaty, T.H.; Kwiterovich, P.O. )

    1992-11-01

    Plasma levels of two lipoprotein risk factors, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1), have been shown to be negatively associated with the risk of developing coronary artery disease, and several reports have examined familial factors in HDL-C and apo A-1 levels. A number of studies suggest that shared genes influence familial resemblance of these lipoprotein levels far more than do shared environments. Possible mechanisms for the inheritance of these risk factors (HDL-C and apo A-1 plasma levels) are explored using data from 390 individuals in 69 families ascertained through probands undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Segregation analysis was used to test a series of specific models of inheritance. Evidence for single-locus control of apo A-1 levels, with Mendelian transmission of a dominant allele leading to elevated apo A-1 levels, was seen in these families, although there was additional correlation among sibs present. This locus accounted for 48.6% and 37.2% of the total variation in apo A-1 levels in males and females, respectively. Similar evidence of segregation at a single locus controlling HDL-C levels was not seen in these families. 27 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  15. Imbalance in superoxide dismutase/thioredoxin reductase activities in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relationship with low density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a relationship among hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in the atherogenesis. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess paraoxonase (PON1), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR-1) activities and their relationship with lipids, oxidative stress and inflammation in subjects with different low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels. Methods Serum lipids, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipid and protein oxidation, oxidized LDL (LDLox) and LDLox autoantibodies (LDLoxAB) levels and enzymes activities were measured in a total of 116 subjects that were divided into the following groups according to their LDL levels: low-LDL group (LDL??160?mg/dL, n?=?43). Results The LDLox and hs-CRP levels increased in the high-LDL group (2.7- and 3.7- fold, respectively), whereas the intermediate and high-LDL groups had higher LDLoxAB (2.2- and 3.1-fold) when compared to low-LDL group (p?

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Modified Low-Density Lipoproteins in the Serum of Healthy and Obese Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Tsuchida, Naoto; Hatano, Yutaka; Habara, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shingo; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play an important role in the inflammatory response associated with human obesity. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine oxidized LDL concentrations in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate whether obesity affects oxidized LDL concentration, using 39 cats and 19 dogs that had visited two different veterinary clinics in Japan. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL concentrations measured against body condition score (BCS) may have a potential value in evaluating the qualities of accumulated or circulating lipids in obese dogs and cats that do not show signs of metabolic diseases. The mean oxidized LDL value in BCS3 dogs (2.4?±?0.9??g/dl) was very similar to that of BCS5 dogs (2.2?±?0.3??g/dl). The mean oxidized LDL value of BCS4 dogs was 7.2?±?10.3??g/dl and the highest among three groups. BCS4 dogs included two dogs whose oxidized LDL values were higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans (11.2?±?0.3??g/dl). On the other hand, the mean oxidized LDL value of BCS3 cats was 2.5?±?0.9??g/dl, and those of BCS4 and 5 cats were higher than that of BCS3, but there was no significant difference. The BCS4 cat group included one cat with a higher oxidized LDL value, and the BCS5 group also included two cats with oxidized LDL values higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans. Interestingly, the oxidized LDL values in two obese dogs and three obese cats were indeed higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of humans with coronary artery disease (20.1?±?1.1??g/dl). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed reference ranges of oxidized dogs and cats against BCS. Obesity alone does not appear to have any direct effect on serum oxidized LDL values in healthy dogs and cats. PMID:26664963

  17. Antibodies to high-density lipoproteins are associated with inflammation and cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco J; Abal, Francisco; Suárez, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation are related to altered lipid profiles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the actual mechanisms are still unclear. We wondered whether the development of antibodies against high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can be found in RA patients linked to clinical and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. To this end, immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HDL antibodies and total IgG serum levels were quantified in 212 RA patients, 131 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC), and 52 subjects with traditional CV risk factors (tCVRs). A subgroup of 13 RA patients was prospectively followed on TNF?-blockade. TNF?, interferon (IFN)?, MIP1?, IFN?, IL-8, VEGF, GM-CSF, IL-17, MCP-1, SDF-1?, resistin, and leptin serum levels were quantified by immunoassays. IgG anti-HDL levels were higher in RA patients compared with HC (P < 0.0001) and tCVR subjects (P = 0.015). Differences with HC remained after correction for total IgG levels (P < 0.003). Anti-HDL/IgG were negatively associated with HDL levels in RA (-1.182 [-1.823 to -0.541], P = 0.0003) after adjusting for demographical, clinical, inflammatory parameters, and treatments. RA patients with high levels of anti-HDL/IgG (n = 40, 18.8%) were more likely to have experienced a CV event (P < 0.0001) and exhibited increased levels of several proinflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, IFN?, MIP1?, IFN?, IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-17 and MCP-1). Finally, change in anti-HDL antibodies on TNF?-blockade was independently associated with increasing HDL levels. Overall, IgG anti-HDL antibodies are increased in RA independently of tCVRs and associated with a proinflammatory milieu and impaired lipid blood profile, which may contribute to the increased rate of CV events in these patients. PMID:26279255

  18. No Effect of Acute Exposure to Coarse Particulate Matter Air Pollution in a Rural Location on High Density Lipoprotein Function

    PubMed Central

    Maiseyeu, Andrei; Yang, Hui-yu; Ramanathan, Gajalakshmi; Yin, Fen; Bard, Robert L; Morishita, Masako; Dvonch, J Timothy; Wang, Lu; Spino, Catherine; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Badgeley, Marcus A.; Barajas-Espinosa, Alma; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Araujo, Jesus A.; Brook, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Context High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles perform numerous vascular-protective functions. Animal studies demonstrate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate matter (PM) can promote HDL dysfunction. However, the impact of PM on humans remains unknown. Objective We aimed to determine the effect of exposure to coarse concentrated ambient particles (CAP) on several metrics of HDL function. Methods Thirty-two adults (25.9 ± 6.6 years) were exposed to coarse CAP [76.2 ± 51.5 µg·m?3] in a rural location and filtered air (FA) for 2-hours in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Venous blood collected 2 and 20 hours post-exposures was measured for HDL-mediated efflux of [3H]-cholesterol from cells and 20 hours post-exposures for HDL anti-oxidant capacity by the HDL oxidation index (HOI) and paraoxonase activity. The changes [median (first, third quartiles)] between exposures among 29 subjects with available results were compared by matched Wilcoxon tests. Results HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity did not differ between exposures at either time point [16.60% (15.17, 19.19) 2-hours post-CAP versus 17.56% (13.43, 20.98) post-FA, p=0.768 and 14.90% (12.47, 19.15) 20-hours post-CAP versus 17.75% (13.22, 23.95) post-FA, p=0.216]. HOI [0.26 (0.24, 0.35) versus 0.28 (0.25, 0.40), p=0.198] and paraoxonase activity [0.54 (0.39, 0.82) versus 0.60 µmol·min?1·ml plasma?1 (0.40, 0.85), p=0.137] did not differ 20-hours post-CAP versus FA, respectively. Conclusions Brief inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location did not acutely impair several facets of HDL functionality. Whether coarse PM derived from urban sites, fine particles, or longer-term PM exposures can promote HDL dysfunction warrant future investigations. PMID:24417404

  19. Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol are Associated With Biomarkers of Inflammation in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Pacheco, Héctor; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis M; Vazquez-Rangel, Armando; Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Verdejo, Juan; Bojalil, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Pathologic conditions associated with inflammation show an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and inflammatory biomarker levels. Our aim was to investigate, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether very low HDL-C levels are associated with inflammatory biomarkers. In a cross-sectional study, we included 6,134 patients with ACS; they were classified as having very low (<30 mg/dl), low (30 to 39.9 mg/dl), and normal HDL-C (?40 mg/dl) levels. We analyzed the association of different categories of HDL-C levels with serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), albumin, and white blood cell count at admission. Overall, 18.5% of patients had very low HDL-C levels. Patients with very low HDL-C levels, compared to patients with low or normal HDL-C levels, had the highest hs-CRP (median 17.8 [interquartile range 7.2 to 54.5] vs 12.6 [5.6 to 33.9] vs 12.0 [5.4 to 36.9] mg/L, respectively, p <0.001) and the lowest albumin levels (median 3.6 [IQR 3.3 to 4.0] vs 3.8 [3.5 to 4.0] vs 3.8 [3.5 to 4.1] g/dl, respectively, p <0.001). White blood cell count did not differ significantly (p = 0.40). The multivariate analysis showed that albumin ?3.5 g/dl (odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.88 to 2.49, p <0.001) and hs-CRP ?10 mg/L (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.55, p <0.001) were independent predictors of very low HDL-C levels. Patients with very low HDL-C levels had the highest inhospital mortality rates compared with the other groups. In conclusion, in patients with ACS, hs-CRP and serum albumin were associated independently with very low HDL-C levels. PMID:26456205

  20. Rabbit aortic endothelial dysfunction by low-density lipoprotein is attenuated by L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong; Han, Yi; Diao, Jianxin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relative effectiveness of L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine in preventing the impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) from healthy subjects, oxidised LDL (oxLDL, formed by oxidation of nLDL) or nLDL from type II diabetic patients (dLDL). Rabbit aortic rings were exposed to nLDL, dLDL or oxLDL (50–200 mg protein l?1), or corresponding vehicle, following which they were constricted with noradrenaline 10?6 M; concentration–relaxation curves were determined to acetylcholine (ACh), A23187, or sodium nitroprusside (NP), in the absence or presence of L-arginine (10?5–10?3 M), L-ascorbate (10?5–10?3 M) and pyridoxine (0.5–2.0 mM). nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL all inhibited relaxant responses to ACh and A23187, but not to NP, in a concentration-dependent manner (oxLDL>dLDL>nLDL). In the presence of all LDL preparations, L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine each improved ACh and A23187 responses, although none completely normalised endothelium-dependent relaxations. The maximal effect of L-arginine occurred at 10?4 M. The combination of L-arginine 10?4 M, L-ascorbate 10?5 M and pyridoxine 2.0 mM was equally effective as L-arginine 10?4 M alone. Our results confirm that nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL exert inhibitory effects on endothelium dependent, but not endothelium independent, relaxation of rabbit aorta. ACh and A23187 responses in the presence of any LDL species can be ameliorated by supplementation with L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine, either singly or in combination, with no agent or combination proving superior to L-arginine alone. Nevertheless, ACh and A23187 responses are not completely normalised with such supplements, suggesting that there also exists a component of LDL-induced inhibition of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation that is independent of the nitric oxide system. PMID:14597596

  1. Lipoprotein metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Robson, Simon C.; Yao, Zemin

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an escalating health problem worldwide, covers a spectrum of pathologies characterized by fatty accumulation in hepatocytes in early stages, with potential progression to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and failure. A close, yet poorly understood link exists between NAFLD and dyslipidemia, a constellation of abnormalities in plasma lipoproteins including triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are a group of primarily liver-derived proteins found in serum lipoproteins; they not only play an extracellular role in lipid transport between vital organs through circulation, but also play an important intracellular role in hepatic lipoprotein assembly and secretion. The liver functions as the central hub for lipoprotein metabolism, as it dictates lipoprotein production and to a significant extent modulates lipoprotein clearance. Lipoprotein metabolism is an integral component of hepatocellular lipid homeostasis and is implicated in the pathogenesis, potential diagnosis, and treatment of NAFLD. PMID:23554788

  2. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in Individual Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Pre- and Postprandial State

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J; Motton, D; Rutledge, J; Keim, N; Huser, T

    2004-09-13

    Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are non-destructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits distinct peaks associated with molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, lipids, and structural rearrangements of lipids. Our analysis of pre- and postprandial VLDL exhibits the signature of biochemical changes in individual lipoprotein particles following the consumption of meals. Interaction of VLDL with endothelium leads to the breakdown of complex triacylglycerols and the formation of a highly ordered core of free saturated fatty acids in the particle. A particle distribution analysis reveals trends in the degree to which this process has occurred in particles at different times during the postprandial period. Differences in particle distributions based on the different ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fats in the consumed meals are also easily discerned. Individual lipoprotein particles hydrolyzed in-vitro through addition of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) exhibit strikingly similar changes in their Raman spectra. These results demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the dynamics of lipid metabolism of individual TGRL particles as they interact with LpL in the endothelial cell wall using Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T.

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Intake of cooked tomato sauce preserves coronary endothelial function and improves apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J protein profile in high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; González, Alicia; Badimon, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Intake of tomatoes has been linked with healthy diets (eg, Mediterranean diet). However, it remains unknown whether tomato intake exerts protective effects on the vasculature. The aim of this study was to determine whether medium-term supplementation with cooked tomato sauce (CTS) Mediterranean style (sofrito) attenuates diet-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction in an animal model with clinical impact and explore the mechanisms behind the effects. Pigs (N = 18) were fed a 10-day hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 100 g/d of CTS (21.5 mg lycopene per day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. In the coronary arteries, we investigated eNOS gene expression and activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression, and oxidative DNA damage. In the circulation, we investigated lipoprotein resistance to oxidation and the differential proteomic protein profile. In dyslipidemic animals, CTS intake prevented diet-induced impairment of receptor-operated and nonreceptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. These beneficial effects were associated with enhanced eNOS transcription and activation and diminished DNA damage in the coronary arteries. CTS-fed animals showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant potential and plasma lycopene levels of 0.16 mg/L. Interestingly, improved HDL functionality was associated with protein profile changes in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J. Lipids levels and MCP-1 expression were not affected by CTS. We report that CTS intake protects against low-density lipoprotein-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative damage, enhancing eNOS expression and activity, and improving HDL functionality. PMID:25514506

  5. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be diminished. PMID:26393644

  6. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS: Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30.6%, GG: 17.2%) (P < 0.001). The G allele of LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A predominated in cases and controls over the A allele, and a statistically significant association with response to interferon was observed. The frequency of the LDLR exon8c.1171G>A allele in non-responders was: A: 67.4% and G: 32.6 vs A: 11.2% and G: 88.8% in responders (P < 0.001). Therefore, carriers of the A allele exhibited a 16.4 times greater risk for non-response. There was a significant association between LDL receptors exon8 c.1171G>A and HAI (P < 0.011). There was a significant association between LDL receptors exon8c.1171G>A and BMI. The mean BMI level was highest in patients carrying the AA genotype (28.7 ± 4.7 kg/m2) followed by the GA genotype (28.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2). The lowest BMI was the GG genotype (26.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) (P < 0.001). The only significant associations were found between LDL receptors exon8 c.1171G>A and METAVIR score or steatosis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: LDL receptor gene polymorphisms play a role in the treatment response of HCV and the modulation of disease progression in Egyptians infected with chronic HCV. PMID:26494968

  7. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL. PMID:16019008

  8. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), ?-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:22275303

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the ligand-binding domain of human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Tomoko; Ohki, Izuru; Oyama, Takuji; Machida, Sachiko; Morikawa, Kousuke; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2005-05-01

    Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. Two different fragments of the ligand-binding domain of LOX-1, the major receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on endothelial cells, have been crystallized in different forms. One crystal form contains the disulfide-linked dimer, which is the form of the molecule present on the cell surface; the other contains a monomeric form of the receptor that lacks the cysteine residue necessary to form disulfide-linked homodimers. The crystal of the monomeric ligand-binding domain belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.79, b = 67.57, c = 79.02 Å. The crystal of the dimeric form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.86, b = 49.56, c = 76.73 Å, ? = 98.59°. Data for the dimeric form of the LOX-1 ligand-binding domain have been collected to 2.4 Å. For the monomeric form of the ligand-binding domain, native, heavy-atom derivative and SeMet-derivative crystals have been obtained; their diffraction data have been measured to 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively.

  10. Identification of a nonsense mutation in the very low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (VLDLR) in an Iranian family with dysequilibrium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moheb, Lia Abbasi; Tzschach, Andreas; Garshasbi, Masoud; Kahrizi, Kimia; Darvish, Hossein; Heshmati, Yaser; Kordi, Alireza; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kuss, Andreas Walter

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated a consanguineous Iranian family with eight patients who suffer from mental retardation, disturbed equilibrium, walking disability, strabismus and short stature. By autozygosity mapping we identified one region with a significant LOD score on chromosome 9(p24.2-24.3). The interval contains the VLDLR gene, which codes for the very low-density lipoprotein receptor. This protein is part of the reelin signalling pathway, which is involved in neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A homozygous deletion encompassing VLDLR has previously been found to cause a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in the Hutterite population known as dysequilibrium syndrome (DES). The reported deletion however, contains an additional brain expressed gene of unknown function, whose involvement in the aetiology of the phenotype could so far not be excluded. We screened the coding region of VLDLR for mutations in our patients and found a homozygous c.1342C>T nucleotide substitution, which leads to a premature stop codon in exon 10. This is the first report of a mutation in patients with DES that affects VLDLR exclusively, confirming the central role of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor in the aetiology of this condition. PMID:18043714

  11. An Extracellular bbb-Propeller Module Predicted in Lipoprotein and Scavenger Receptors, Tyrosine

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    (LDLR), the many mutations in familial hypercholes- terolaemia that map to the YWTD domain can now; LDL, low density lipoprotein; LDLR, low density lipoprotein receptor; LDVR, very low density lipoprotein receptor; LRP, LDLR-related proteins; VLDL, very low density lipoprotein; S.D., standard deviation

  12. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  13. Transfer of 15-lipoxygenase gene into rabbit iliac arteries results in the appearance of oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts characteristic of oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Luoma, J; Viita, H; Hiltunen, T; Sisto, T; Nikkari, T

    1995-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) possesses several atherogenic properties. The mechanisms by which LDL becomes oxidized in vivo remain unknown, but previous studies have suggested that 15-lipoxygenase may be one of the factors involved in the initiation of LDL oxidation in the arterial wall. 3 wk after a retrovirus-mediated 15-lipoxygenase gene transfer into iliac arteries of normocholesterolemic rabbits there was a threefold increase in 15-lipoxygenase activity but no signs of LDL oxidation. However, when animals were made moderately hypercholesterolemic by feeding a 0.13% cholesterol diet for 2-3 wk starting from day 4 after the gene transfer, oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts characteristic of oxidized LDL were detected in 15-lipoxygenase-transduced arteries. Control experiments in which contralateral iliac arteries were transduced with beta-galactosidase-containing retroviruses showed only occasional signs of the presence of oxidation-specific adducts. The results support the hypothesis that products derived from the 15-lipoxygenase activity are involved in the induction of LDL oxidation within the arterial wall, provided that sufficient concentrations of lipoproteins are present in the artery. Images PMID:7769108

  14. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  15. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  16. In vitro and in vivo investigations on the effects of low-density lipoprotein concentration polarization and haemodynamics on atherosclerotic localization in rabbit and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang; Tan, Ju; Wei, Dangheng; Lei, Daoxi; Yin, Tieying; Huang, Junli; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Qiu, Juhui; Tang, Chaojun; Wang, Guixue

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) commonly occurs in the regions of the arterial tree with haemodynamic peculiarities, including local flow field disturbances, and formation of swirling flow and vortices. The aim of our study was to confirm low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration polarization in the vascular system in vitro and in vivo, and investigate the effects of LDL concentration polarization and flow field alterations on atherosclerotic localization. Red fluorescent LDL was injected into optically transparent Flk1: GFP zebrafish embryos, and the LDL distribution in the vascular lumen was investigated in vivo using laser scanning confocal microscopy. LDL concentration at the vascular luminal surface was found to be higher than that in the bulk. The flow field conditions in blood vessel segments were simulated and measured, and obvious flow field disturbances were found in the regions of vascular geometry change. The LDL concentration at the luminal surface of bifurcation was significantly higher than that in the straight segment, possibly owing to the atherogenic effect of disturbed flow. Additionally, a stenosis model of rabbit carotid arteries was generated. Atherosclerotic plaques were found to have occurred in the stenosis group and were more severe in the stenosis group on a high-fat diet. Our findings provide the first ever definite proof that LDL concentration polarization occurs in the vascular system in vivo. Both lipoprotein concentration polarization and flow field changes are involved in the infiltration/accumulation of atherogenic lipids within the location of arterial luminal surface and promote the development of AS. PMID:23449959

  17. Myeloperoxidase-derived chlorinating species induce protein carbamylation through decomposition of thiocyanate and urea: Novel pathways generating dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Michael; Zangger, Klaus; El-Gamal, Dalia; Binder, Veronika; Curcic, Sanja; Konya, Viktoria; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Aim Protein carbamylation through cyanate is thought to have a causal role in promoting cardiovascular disease. We recently observed that the phagocyte protein myeloperoxidase (MPO) specifically induces high-density lipoprotein carbamylation, rather than chlorination, in human atherosclerotic lesions, raising the possibility that MPO-derived chlorinating species are involved in cyanate formation. Results Here we show that MPO-derived chlorinating species rapidly decompose the plasma components thiocyanate and urea thereby promoting (lipo)protein carbamylation. Strikingly, the presence of physiologic concentrations of thiocyanate completely prevented MPO-induced 3-chlorotyrosine formation in HDL. Moreover, thiocyanate scavenged a 2.5-fold molar excess of hypochlorous acid, promoting HDL carbamylation, but not chlorination. Carbamylation of HDL resulted in a loss of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Cyanate significantly impaired (i) HDL’s ability to activate lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, (ii) the activity of paraoxonase, a major HDL-associated anti-inflammatory enzyme and (iii) the anti-oxidative activity of HDL. Innovation Here we report that MPO-derived chlorinating species preferentially induce protein carbamylation - rather than chlorination - in the presence of physiologically relevant thiocyanate concentrations. Carbamylation of HDL results in the loss of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Conclusion MPO-mediated decomposition of thiocyanate and/or urea might be a relevant mechanism for generating dysfunctional HDL in human disease. PMID:22462773

  18. Higher Levels of Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins in Alzheimer's Disease Patients: Roles for Platelet Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase and Paraoxonase-1.

    PubMed

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Vignini, Arianna; Giulietti, Alessia; Nanetti, Laura; Provinciali, Leandro; Luzzi, Simona; Mazzanti, Laura; Ferretti, Gianna

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with oxidative damage of low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL). In order to investigate whether higher levels of ox-LDL are related to alterations of the activity of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, we studied the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) in AD patients and the relationship between biochemical markers and severity of the disease. Levels of ox-LDL, PON1 (paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lactonase activities), and PAF-AH activity were evaluated in plasma from 49 patients affected by AD and from 34 control subjects matched for gender and age. Our results demonstrated alterations in the activities of PON1 and PAF-AH in AD patients compared to controls and showed, for the first time, a relationship between the activities of these enzymes, ox-LDL levels, and severity of the disease. A significant negative correlation was observed between the ratio PON1/PAF-AH and ox-LDL. Whatever the causes that contribute to a systemic oxidative stress in AD, our results have shown that AD patients exhibit higher PAF-AH activity than control subjects and higher ox-LDL. This phenomenon, in combination with diminished PON1 in these patients and, consequently, the relatively lower ratio PON1/PAF-AH activity, could contribute to inflammation and oxidative stress of plasma lipoproteins. PMID:25720407

  19. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination induces the predominance of the large HDL subclasses and increased apo AI fractional catabolic rates in New Zealand white rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Flores-Castillo, Cristobal; Zamora-Pérez, Juan Á; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; López-Olmos, Victoria; Fragoso, José M; Luna-Luna, María; Rodríguez-Pérez, José M; Franco, Martha; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

    2015-08-01

    The anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) may be related to their structure and metabolism. The HDL physicochemical characteristics that determine their plasma clearance during treatment with statins and fibrates are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rates (FCRs), size distributions, and the lipid composition of the HDL subclasses in New Zealand white rabbits with exogenous dyslipidemia that received low doses of atorvastatin and fenofibrate. Hypercholesterolemia decreased only partially with the combination of both drugs. HDL size distribution shifted toward larger particles among the groups of rabbits that received atorvastatin, fenofibrate, or their combination, compared with both the control group and the dyslipidemic group. The HDL subclasses were significantly rich in cholesterol in each of the groups compared with controls. The structural changes noted in the HDL subclasses were not associated with impaired plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity. The groups receiving monotherapy and the drug combination group were all associated with a higher apo AI FCR value compared with both the dyslipidemic rabbits and the control group. In conclusion, the combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate induced a more favorable HDL subclass profile than did the individual use of these drugs. Similarly, the apo AI FCR values were augmented in every group receiving drug treatment (either monotherapy or combination therapy) in the setting of hypercholesterolemia. The anti-atherogenic properties of HDLs, excluding their capacity to bind PON1, may be enhanced by the structural and metabolic modifications induced by the combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate. PMID:25982284

  20. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of...

  1. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    DOEpatents

    Cubicciotti, Roger S. (El Cerrito, CA); Karu, Alexander E. (Kensington, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  2. The effects of low density lipoproteins modified by incubation with chondroitin 6-sulfate on human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tîrziu, D; Jinga, V V; Serban, G; Simionescu, M

    1999-11-01

    One of the first changes that take place within the artery intima at the inception of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of LDL-derived modified lipoproteins which appear as subendothelial lipid droplets and vesicles. With time, the LDL retention and interaction with intimal chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycans may induce further structural and functional modification of the lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to produce 'in vitro' modified lipoproteins by LDL incubation with chondroitin 6-sulfate (CS, at 37 degrees C, for 48 h, in the absence of antioxidants) and to test their effects on cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). CS induced LDL modification (CS-mLDL) consisted in formation of a mixture of fused particles (up to 150 nm diameter) and monomers with a small content of lipid peroxides and a partially degraded apo B-100, corresponding to a mild oxidation. Upon incubation with SMCs, CS-mLDL produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation, that, at low concentration (25 microg/ml), was 2-3-fold higher than that obtained when native LDL was used; this increase correlates well with the level of CS-mLDL uptake at the same concentration. Besides the mitogenic effect, CS-mLDL induced a significant stimulation of SMCs migration, comparable with that reported for oxidized LDL. Upon incubation with CS-mLDL, SMCs accumulated lipid droplets of various number and dimension, as revealed by Nile red staining and electron microscopy. Competition studies performed in the presence of 20-fold excess of native LDL and acetyl LDL showed that 125I-CS-mLDL were taken up both by LDL receptor and scavenger receptor. At high concentration (200 microg/ml), CS-mLDL had a cytotoxic effect that was not significantly different from that of native LDL. Together these results provide evidence of (i) the direct alteration produced by CS on LDL and (ii) the effect of CS-mLDL on SMCs migration, proliferation and transformation in lipid-laden cells, events that are crucial in the development of fibro-muscular atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:10525137

  3. Mapping of the gene for high-density lipoprotein binding protein (Hdlbp) to proximal mouse Chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, R.C.; Oram, J.F.; Xia, Y.R.; Lusis, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    HDL binding protein (HBP) is a 150-kDa glycoprotein that is processed to smaller forms (105-110 kDa) that bind HDL. In vitro studies have shown that HBP protein mass and mRNA levels increase in cells overloaded with cholesterol, suggesting that this protein plays a role in HDL-mediated removal of cholesterol from cells, a process that may underlie the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. The cDNA for human HBP has been identified and the gene (HDLBP) localized to chromosome 2q37. To test whether the HDL binding protein gene underlies any mutations in the mouse or whether it contributes to multigenic variations contributing to lipoprotein metabolism between inbred mouse strains, we report the chromosomal mapping in mouse for the mouse HBP gene (Hdlbp).

  4. Ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J. (Berkeley, CA)

    2007-08-21

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  5. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  6. Release of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Spike Protein G-Pseudotyped Lentivirus from the Host Cell Is Impaired upon Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Otahal, Alexander; Fuchs, Renate; Al-Allaf, Faisal A; Blaas, Dieter

    2015-11-15

    Production of a vesicular stomatitis virus spike protein G (VSVG)-pseudotyped lentiviral expression vector in HEK293 cells decreased on overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) but not that of ICAM1 or TfR1. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed a reduction in vector RNA as a function of LDLR expression. Decreased syncytium formation suggested diminished surface expression of VSVG. Intracellular VSVG granules colocalized with LDLR, ER-Golgi intermediate compartment protein 53 (ERGIC53), LAMP2, and vimentin but not with GM130 or calnexin, suggesting that VSVG interacts with LDLR within the ERGIC, resulting in rerouting into the aggresome/autophagosome pathway. PMID:26339060

  7. Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solutions from patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal treatment: evaluation of cardiovascular risk markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Andréa M.; Jardini, Maria A. N.; Giampaoli, Viviana; Alves, Sarah; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio M.; Gidlund, Magnus

    2012-11-01

    The Z-Scan (ZS) technique in the thermal regime has been used to measure the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The ZS technique is carried out in LDL from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis before and after three, six, and 12 months of periodontal treatment. Clinical parameters such as probing depths, bleeding on probing, total and differential white blood cells counts, lipid profiles, cytokine levels, and antibodies against oxidized LDL are also determined and compared over time. Before the treatment, the ZS experimental results reveal that the LDL particles of these patients are heavily modified. Only after 12 months of the periodontal treatment, the ZS results obtained reveal behavioral characteristics of healthy particles. This conclusion is also supported by complementary laboratorial analysis showing that the periodontal treatment induces systemic changes in several inflammatory markers.

  8. Purification of the mRNA for chicken very low density lipoproteinII and molecular cloning of its full-length double-stranded cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, B; Roskam, W; Arnberg, A; van der Zwaag-Gerritsen, J; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1979-01-01

    The mRNA coding for the small apo-Very Low Density Lipoprotein (apo-VLDLII) from chicken serum was highly enriched by oligo(dT) chromatography and preparative gel electrophoresis of estrogenised liver RNA. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesised by the subsequent actions of reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase, and used for a preliminary characterisation of the structural gene. Molecular cloning of dC-tailed ds-cDNA into the Pst I site of plasmid pBR 322 yielded several recombinant clones. Five chimeric DNAs were selected and characterised by restriction enzyme mapping and electron microscopy of R-loops. At least two of them (pVLDLII 3.33 and pVLDLII 4.82) contain an almost full-length ds-transcript of VLDLII mRNA in which no more than 10-20 bases at the 5'- end are missing. Images PMID:230463

  9. Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for efficient and repetitive removal of low density lipoprotein in plasma and on blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Juan; Yue, Danyang; Fan, Yijuan; Yi, Caixia; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Mengxue; Pan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis therapy, which directly removes LDL from plasma by LDL-adsorbents in vitro is found to be clinically effective and safe to lower the LDL content in blood to prevent cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing excellent LDL adsorbents are becoming more and more attractive. Herein, functional Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile and eco-friendly two-step method. Not only do they possess high LDL adsorption (in PBS/plasma as well as on blood vessels) and favorable magnetic targeting ability but they can also be reused conveniently, which offer the Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites significant potential in the removal of LDL in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong Tang Jian

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.

  11. The influence of dietary vitamin E, fat, and methionine on blood cholesterol profile, homocysteine levels, and oxidizability of low density lipoprotein in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, Nick; Gilani, G Sarwar; Long, Lori; Zhao, Xin; Madere, Rene; Cockell, Kevin; Belonge, Bart; Ratnayake, W M Nimal; Peace, Robert

    2004-12-01

    A 90-day feeding study with gerbils was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary vitamin E levels (25 mg/kg diet, 75 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg), two levels of dietary methionione (casein or casein+L-methionine (1% w/w)) and two sources of lipid (soybean oil [20%] or soybean oil [4%]+coconut oil [16%, 1:4 w/w]) upon serum lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol). In addition, this study examined the effects of diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and supplemental dietary vitamin E on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Tissue vitamin E (heart, liver, and plasma) demonstrated a dose response (P< or =0.001) following the supplementation with increasing dietary vitamin E (25, 75, 300, and 900 mg/kg). In addition, tissue vitamin E levels were found to be higher (P< or =0.001) in those animals receiving a combination of coconut oil+soybean oil as compared to the group receiving soybean oil solely. Blood cholesterol profiles indicated an increase (P< or =0.001) in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by the influence of saturated fat and supplemental methionine. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol profile demonstrated a reduction (P< or =0.001) at the higher dietary vitamin E levels (300 and 900 mg/kg) as compared to the 25 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg dietary vitamin E. Plasma protein carbonyls were not influenced by dietary vitamin E nor by supplemental methionine intake. In vitro oxidation of LDL showed that vitamin E delayed the lag time of the oxidation phase (P< or =0.001) and reduced total diene production (P< or =0.001). On the contrary, supplemental methionine decreased (P< or =0.001) the delay time of the lag phase, whereas total diene production was increased (P< or =0.001). Plasma lipid hydroperoxides were significantly reduced (P< or =0.05) with supplemental dietary vitamin E, whereas supplemental L-methionine (1%) resulted in a significant (P< or =0.05) increase in lipid plasma hydroperoxide formation. Plasma homocysteine was elevated (P< or =0.001) with supplemental dietary L-methionine (1%) as well as the inclusion of dietary saturated fat. The present data showed that 1) a combination of dietary lipids (saturated and unsaturated fatty acids) as well as vitamin E and methionine supplementation altered blood cholesterol lipoprotein profiles; 2) in vitro oxidation parameters including LDL (lag time and diene production) and plasma hydroperoxide formations were affected by vitamin E and methionine supplementation; and 3) plasma homocysteine concentrations were influenced by supplemental methionine and the inclusion of dietary saturated fat. PMID:15607646

  12. Human apolipoprotein E4 domain interaction. Arginine 61 and glutamic acid 255 interact to direct the preference for very low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dong, L M; Weisgraber, K H

    1996-08-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) E contains an amino- and a carboxyl-terminal domain, which are connected by a hinge region (approximately residues 165 to 215). The interaction of the two domains has been suggested to be responsible for the apoE4-binding preference for very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). In the absence of this interaction in apoE3, the preference is for high density lipoproteins (HDL). To exclude the possibility that the interaction of apoE with other apolipoproteins on the native particles may contribute to the isoform-specific preferences, VLDL-like emulsion particles were incubated with apoE, and the lipid-bound apoE was separated from free apoE on a Superose 6 column. The apoE4 bound more effectively to these particles than did apoE3, indicating that the apoE4 preference for VLDL is due not to interactions with other apolipoproteins but to an intrinsic property of apoE4, likely related to domain interaction. Previously, arginine 61 was shown to be critical for the isoform preferences, suggesting that it interacted with an acidic residue(s) in the carboxyl terminus. Substitution of arginine 61 with lysine did not alter the preference of apoE4 for VLDL, demonstrating that a positive charge rather than a specific requirement for arginine is critical for domain interaction. To identify the acidic residue(s) in the carboxyl terminus interacting with arginine 61, the six acidic residues (244, 245, 255, 266, 270, and 271) in a region known to be important for both lipoprotein association and isoform-specific preferences were substituted individually with alanine in apoE4. Only substitution of glutamic acid 255 altered the preference of apoE4 from VLDL to HDL, indicating that this was the sole residue in the carboxyl terminus that interacts with arginine 61. The participation of the hinge region in domain interaction was examined with internal deletion mutants. Deletion of the residues 186-202 or 186-223, representing major portions of the hinge region, had no effect on the apoE4 preference for VLDL. This suggests that the hinge region may act as a spacer that connects the two domains. Further deletion into the carboxyl-terminal domain (to residue 244) results in a loss of apoE4 VLDL binding. These studies establish that interaction of arginine 61 and glutamic acid 255 mediates apoE4 domain interaction. PMID:8702576

  13. Human Serum Amyloid A3 (SAA3) Protein, Expressed as a Fusion Protein with SAA2, Binds the Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Takeshi; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Maru, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3) is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3) has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1) and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein. PMID:25738827

  14. Kinetic analysis of thermal stability of human low density lipoproteins: a model for LDL fusion in atherogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengxiao; Gantz, Donald L.; Herscovitz, Haya; Gursky, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Fusion of modified LDL in the arterial wall promotes atherogenesis. Earlier we showed that thermal denaturation mimics LDL remodeling and fusion, and revealed kinetic origin of LDL stability. Here we report the first quantitative analysis of LDL thermal stability. Turbidity data show sigmoidal kinetics of LDL heat denaturation, which is unique among lipoproteins, suggesting that fusion is preceded by other structural changes. High activation energy of denaturation, Ea = 100 ± 8 kcal/mol, indicates disruption of extensive packing interactions in LDL. Size-exclusion chromatography, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, and negative-stain electron microscopy suggest that LDL dimerization is an early step in thermally induced fusion. Monoclonal antibody binding suggests possible involvement of apoB N-terminal domain in early stages of LDL fusion. LDL fusion accelerates at pH < 7, which may contribute to LDL retention in acidic atherosclerotic lesions. Fusion also accelerates upon increasing LDL concentration in near-physiologic range, which likely contributes to atherogenesis. Thermal stability of LDL decreases with increasing particle size, indicating that the pro-atherogenic properties of small dense LDL do not result from their enhanced fusion. Our work provides the first kinetic approach to measuring LDL stability and suggests that lipid-lowering therapies that reduce LDL concentration but increase the particle size may have opposite effects on LDL fusion. PMID:22855737

  15. [THE SPIRIT CHOLESTEROL, BIOLOGICA L ROLE AT STAGES OF PHYLOGENESIS, MECHANISMS OF INHIBITION OF SYNTHESIS OF STEROL BY STATINS, FACTORS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Kotlovskii, M Yu; Pokrovskii, A A; Kotlovskaia, O S; Osedko, A V; Titova, N M; Kotlovskii, Yu V; Digaii, A M

    2015-04-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of statins is realized by inhibition of synthesis of local pool of cholesterol spirit in endoplasmic net of hepatocytes. The cholesterol spirit covers all hydrophobic medium of triglycerides with polar mono layer of phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol spirit prior to secretion of lipoproteins of very low density into hydrophilic medium. The lesser mono layer between lipase enzyme and triglycerides substrate contains of cholesterol spirit the higher are the parameters of hydrolysis of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density. The sequence of effect of statins is as follows: blocking of synthesis in hepatocytes and decreasing of content of unesterified cholesterol spirit in blood plasma; activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density; formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells by force of apoB-100 endocytosis; decreasing in blood of content of polyenoic fatty acids, equimolar esterified by cholesterol spirit, polyethers of cholesterol spirit and decreasing of level of cholesterol spirit-lipoproteins of very low density. There is no way to eliminate aphysiological effect of disordered biological function of trophology (nutrition) on metabolism of fatty acids in population by means of pharmaceuticals intake. It is necessary to eliminate aphysiological effect of environment. To decrease rate of diseases of cardiovascular system one has to decrease in food content of saturated fatty acids and in the first instance palmitic saturated fatty acid, trans-form fatty acid, palmitoleic fatty acids up to physiological values and increase to the same degree the content of polyenoic fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids block absorption of polyenoic fatty acids by cells. The atherosclerosis is a deficiency of polyenoic fatty acids under surplus of palmitic saturated fatty acid. PMID:26189285

  16. The terminal complement proteins C5b-9 augment binding of high density lipoprotein and its apolipoproteins A-I and A-II to human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, K K; Sims, P J

    1991-01-01

    Terminal complement protein complexes C5b-9 have been found in human atherosclerotic lesions. Insertion of C5b-9 in the endothelial cell membrane alters permeability, induces membrane vesiculation, and activates secretion. We hypothesized that complement might also alter interactions of the endothelial surface with lipoproteins, particularly high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is reported to inhibit C5b-9-induced hemolysis. We now demonstrate that exposure to C5b-9 increases (by 2- to 50-fold) specific binding of HDL and its apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II to endothelial cells. Binding to cells exposed to antibody, C5b67, and C5b-8 was virtually unchanged. Enhanced binding was also dependent on the number of C5b-9 complexes deposited on the cells. Other agonists that activate endothelial secretion did not augment binding. Calcium was required for full exposure of new binding sites by C5b-9. The C5b-9-induced increase in binding was independent of the increase observed after cholesterol loading. In addition, apo A-I and A-II appear to compete for the same binding sites on untreated and C5b-9-treated cells. In contrast to the data reported for red cells, we were unable to detect significant inhibition of C5b-9-mediated endothelial membrane permeabilization by HDL (up to 1 mg/ml) or by apo A-I (up to 100 micrograms/ml). These data demonstrate that the C5b-9 proteins enhance endothelial binding of HDL and its apoproteins, suggesting that intravascular complement activation may alter cholesterol homeostasis in the vessel wall. PMID:1752944

  17. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. "Sticky" and "promiscuous", the yin and yang of apolipoprotein A-I termini in discoidal high-density lipoproteins: a combined computational-experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martin K; Gu, Feifei; Catte, Andrea; Li, Ling; Segrest, Jere P

    2011-03-29

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I-containing lipoproteins in the form of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Because HDL is a soft form of condensed matter easily deformable by thermal fluctuations, the molecular mechanisms for HDL remodeling are not well understood. A promising approach to understanding HDL structure and dynamics is molecular dynamics (MD). In the present study, two computational strategies, MD simulated annealing (MDSA) and MD temperature jump, were combined with experimental particle reconstitution to explore molecular mechanisms for phospholipid- (PL-) rich HDL particle remodeling. The N-terminal domains of full-length apoA-I were shown to be "sticky", acting as a molecular latch largely driven by salt bridges, until, at a critical threshold of particle size, the associated domains released to expose extensive hydrocarbon regions of the PL to solvent. The "sticky" N-termini also associate with other apoA-I domains, perhaps being involved in N-terminal loops suggested by other laboratories. Alternatively, the overlapping helix 10 C-terminal domains of apoA-I were observed to be extremely mobile or "promiscuous", transiently exposing limited hydrocarbon regions of PL. Based upon these models and reconstitution studies, we propose that separation of the N-terminal domains, as particles exceed a critical size, triggers fusion between particles or between particles and membranes, while the C-terminal domains of apoA-I drive the exchange of polar lipids down concentration gradients between particles. This hypothesis has significant biological relevance since lipid exchange and particle remodeling are critically important processes during metabolism of HDL particles at every step in the antiatherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:21329368

  19. “Sticky” and “Promiscuous”—the Yin and Yang of Apolipoprotein A-I Termini in Discoidal High Density Lipoproteins: A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin K.; Gu, Feifei; Catte, Andrea; Li, Ling; Segrest, Jere P.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I-containing lipoproteins in the form of high density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Because HDL is a soft form of condensed matter easily deformable by thermal fluctuations, the molecular mechanisms for HDL remodeling are not well understood. A promising approach to understanding HDL structure and dynamics is molecular dynamics (MD). In the present study, two computational strategies, MD simulated annealing (MDSA) and MD temperature-jump, were combined with experimental particle reconstitution to explore molecular mechanisms for phospholipid (PL)-rich HDL particle remodeling. The N-terminal domains of full length apoA-I were shown to be “sticky”, acting as a molecular latch largely driven by salt bridges, until, at a critical threshold of particle size, the associated domains released to expose extensive hydrocarbon regions of the PL to solvent. The “sticky” N-termini also associate with other apoA-I domains, perhaps being involved in N-terminal loops suggested by other laboratories. Alternatively, the overlapping helix 10 C-terminal domains of apoA-I were observed to be extremely mobile or “promiscuous”, transiently exposing limited hydrocarbon regions of PL. Based upon these models and reconstitution studies, we propose that separation of the N-terminal domains, as particles exceed a critical size, trigger fusion between particles or between particles and membranes, while the C-terminal domains of apoA-I drive the exchange of polar lipids down concentration gradients between particles. This hypothesis has significant biological relevance since lipid exchange and particle remodeling are critically important processes during metabolism of HDL particles at every step in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:21329368

  20. Genetic and metabolic influences on LDL subclasses

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Rotter, J.I.; Lusis, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence LDL particle size and density, and expression of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) characterized by predominance of small, dense LDL particles. Linkage of ALP the LDL receptor locus has been reported previously. Quantitative sib-pair relative-pair linkage methodologies were used to test for linkage of LDL particle size to candidate loci in 25 large pedigrees with familial coronary artery disease. Linkage to the LDL receptor gene locus was confirmed (p=0.008). Evidence was also obtained for linkage to the genes for apoCIII, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The results suggest multiple genetic determinants of LDL particle size that may involve different metabolic mechanisms giving rise to small, dense LDL and increased atherosclerosis risk.

  1. Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in 28,318 Adults With Diabetes Mellitus and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol <100 mg/dl.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Liu, Jennifer Y; Moffet, Howard H; Solomon, Matthew D; Go, Alan S; Jaffe, Marc G; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with diabetes and "metabolic dyslipidemia" (high triglyceride [TGs] and low high-density cholesterol levels) remains a matter of concern. Little is known regarding the risk of CHD for this phenotype with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <100 mg/dl. We analyzed a diabetes cohort of 28,318 members (aged 30 to 90 years) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2002 to 2011 (192,356 person-years [p-y] follow-up), with LDL-C levels <100 mg/dl and without known CHD. We compared the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events in groups using Cox models: normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and TG (reference; n = 7,278, 25.7%); normal HDL and high TG (?150 mg/dl; n = 4,484,15.8%); low HDL (?50 mg/dl for women and ?40 mg/dl for men) and normal TG (n = 4,048, 14.3%); low HDL and high TG (metabolic dyslipidemia; n = 12,508, 44%). Patients with metabolic dyslipidemia had the highest age-adjusted CHD events/1,000 p-y (12.7/1,000 p-y and 19.0/1,000 p-y for women and men, respectively). After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, smoking, statin use, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, we observed an increased CHD risk in women (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.60) and men (HR 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 1.83) with metabolic dyslipidemia compared to those with normal HDL and TG. Even in subjects with an LDL-C <100 mg/dl, presence of metabolic dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. In conclusion, effective CHD prevention strategies are needed for adults with diabetes and metabolic dyslipidemia. PMID:26428026

  2. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava ? polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava ? polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (? 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had higher serum LDL-C, TC, HDL-C or ApoA1 levels than the subjects with A-A+ and A-A- genotypes. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that the levels of LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C in Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01; respectively). Conclusions The association of LDL-R gene Ava ? polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. The discrepancy might partly result from different LDL-R gene Ava ? polymorphism or LDL-R gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21345210

  3. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein/Apolipoprotein E receptor and assignment of the gene to chromosome 9pter-p23[sup 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gafvels, M.E.; Strauss, J.F. III ); Caird, M.; Patterson, D. ); Britt, D.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors report the cloning of a 3656-bp cDNA encoding a putative human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor. The gene encoding this protein was mapped to chromosome 9pter-p23. Northern analysis of human RNA identified cognate mRNAs of 6.0 and 3.8 kb with most abundant expression in heart and skeletal muscle, followed by kidney, placenta, pancreas, and brain. The pattern of expression generally paralleled that of lipoprotein lipase mRNA but differed from that of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/[alpha][sub 2]-macroglobulin receptor (LRP), which are members of the same gene family. VLDL/ApoE receptor message was not detected in liver, whereas mRNAs for both LDL receptor and LRP were found in hepatic tissue. In mouse 3T3-L1 cells, VLDL/ApoE receptor mRNA was induced during the transformation of the cells into adipocytes. Expression was also detected in human choriocarcinoma cells, suggesting that at least part of the expression observed in placenta may be in trophoblasts, cells which would be exposed to maternal blood. Expression in brain may be related to high levels of ApoE expression in that organ, an observation of potential relevance to the recently hypothesized role for ApoE in late onset Alzheimer disease. The results suggest that the putative VLDL/ApoE receptor could play a role in the uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles by specific organs including striated and cardiac muscle and adipose tissue and in the transport of maternal lipids across the placenta. The findings presented here, together with recent observations from other laboratories, bring up the possibility that a single gene, the VLDL/ApoE receptor, may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and obesity.

  4. Proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein results from oxidized lipid mediators in the pathogenesis of both idiopathic and associated types of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Greg; Hama, Susan; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Belperio, John A.; Saggar, Rajan; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Ardehali, Abbas; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Reddy, Srinivasa; Fogelman, Alan M.; Navab, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal elaboration of vasoactive peptides, endothelial cell dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and inflammation, which collectively contribute to its pathogenesis. We investigated the potential for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction (i.e., proinflammatory effects) and abnormal plasma eicosanoid levels to contribute to the pathobiology of PAH and assessed ex vivo the effect of treatment with apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F on the observed HDL dysfunction. We determined the “inflammatory indices” HII and LII for HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively, in subjects with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and associated PAH (APAH) by an in vitro monocyte chemotaxis assay. The 4F was added ex vivo, and repeat LII and HII values were obtained versus a sham treatment. We further determined eicosanoid levels in plasma and HDL fractions from patients with IPAH and APAH relative to controls. The LIIs were significantly higher for IPAH and APAH patients than for controls. Incubation of plasma with 4F before isolation of LDL and HDL significantly reduced the LII values, compared with sham-treated LDL, for IPAH and APAH. The increased LII values reflected increased states of LDL oxidation and thereby increased proinflammatory effects in both cohorts. The HIIs for both PAH cohorts reflected a “dysfunctional HDL phenotype,” that is, proinflammatory HDL effects. In contrast to “normal HDL function,” the determined HIIs were significantly increased for the IPAH and APAH cohorts. Ex vivo 4F treatment significantly improved the HDL function versus the sham treatment. Although there was a significant “salutary effect” of 4F treatment, this did not entirely normalize the HII. Significantly increased levels for both IPAH and APAH versus controls were evident for the eicosanoids 9-HODE, 13-HODE, 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE, while no statistical differences were evident for comparisons of IPAH and APAH for the determined plasma eicosanoid levels in the HDL fractions. Our study has further implicated the putative role of “oxidant stress” and inflammation in the pathobiology of PAH. Our data suggest the influences on the “dysfunctional HDL phenotype” of increased oxidized fatty acids, which are paradoxically proinflammatory. We speculate that therapies that target either the “inflammatory milieu” or the “dysfunctional HDL phenotype,” such as apoA-I mimetic peptides, may be valuable avenues of further research in pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:26697171

  5. Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor involves basic residues in the inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, K W; Kjoller, L; Petersen, H H; Andreasen, P A

    1998-01-01

    The complex of the type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its target proteinases, the urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA and tPA), but not the free components, bind with high affinity to the endocytosis receptors alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP) and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). To characterize the molecular interaction between the complexes and the receptors, alanine codons were introduced into the human PAI-1 cDNA to replace the four basic residues, Arg-78, Lys-82, Arg-120 and Lys-124, as double mutations. The purified recombinant mutant proteins, rPAI-1/R78A-K124A and rPAI-1/K82A-R120A, produced by the yeast Pichia pastoris, were indistinghuisable from wild-type recombinant and natural human PAI-1 with respect to inhibitory activity against uPA, stability of SDS-resistant complexes with uPA, and vitronectin binding. Radiolabelled mutant uPA.PAI-1 complexes bound with a 10- to 20-fold, and 3- to 7-fold reduced affinity to purified alpha2MR/LRP and VLDLR respectively. alpha2MR/LRP-mediated endocytosis of the mutant complexes by COS-1 cells was reduced to 48 and 38% of the level of endocytosis of wild-type PAI-1. Binding of the mutant complexes to the uPA receptor was not affected. These findings suggest that the binding mode of the uPA.PAI-1 complex to both alpha2MR/LRP and VLDLR is similar. The four residues are surface exposed in the region defined by alpha-helix D and beta-strand 1A in the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) structure. Our study represents the first identification of residues in a surface region implicated in molecular recognition of protease.serpin complexes by endocytosis receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. PMID:9405275

  6. Combination of body mass index and oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 in prognosis prediction of patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yongbin; Yang, Han; Zhao, Zerui; Xie, Zehua; Lin, Yaobin; Long, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), represents enormous challenges in continuously achieving treatment improvements. Besides cancer, obesity is becoming ever more prevalent. Obesity is increasingly acknowledged as a major risk factor for several types of common cancers. Significant mechanisms overlap in the pathobiology of obesity and tumorigenesis. One of these mechanisms involves oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), as a link between obesity and cancer. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) has been widely used in exploiting the role of obesity on a series of diseases, including cancer. Significantly, squamous NSCLC revealed to be divergent clinical and molecular phenotypes compared with non-squamous NSCLC. Consequently, OLR1 immunostaining score and BMI were assessed by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis to discriminate if progression-free survival (PFS) would exceed 2 years. In addition, the final model was utilized to calculate the discriminant score in each study participant. Finally, 131 patients with squamous NCSLC were eligible for analysis. And a prediction model was established for PFS based on these 2 markers and validated in a second set of squamous NCSLC patients. The model offers a novel tool for survival prediction and could establish a framework for future individualized therapy for patients with squamous NCSLC. PMID:26061746

  7. Inhibition of Glutathione Production Induces Macrophage CD36 Expression and Enhances Cellular-oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL) Uptake.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Hui; Chen, Yuanli; Sun, Lei; Li, Yan; Ma, Xingzhe; Duan, Shengzhong; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2015-09-01

    The glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidant system has been demonstrated to inhibit atherosclerosis. Macrophage CD36 uptakes oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) thereby facilitating foam cell formation and development of atherosclerosis. It remains unknown if GSH can influence macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL uptake directly. Herein we report that treatment of macrophages with l-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) decreased cellular GSH production and ratios of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) while increasing production of reactive oxygen species. Associated with decreased GSH levels, macrophage CD36 expression was increased, which resulted in enhanced cellular oxLDL uptake. In contrast, N-acetyl cysteine and antioxidant enzyme (catalase or superoxide dismutase) blocked BSO-induced CD36 expression as well as oxLDL uptake. In vivo, administration of mice with BSO increased CD36 expression in peritoneal macrophages and kidneys. BSO had no effect on CD36 mRNA expression and promoter activity but still induced CD36 protein expression in macrophages lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression, suggesting it induced CD36 expression at the translational level. Indeed, we determined that BSO enhanced CD36 translational efficiency. Taken together, our study demonstrates that cellular GSH levels and GSH/GSSG status can regulate macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL uptake and demonstrate an important anti-atherogenic function of the GSH-dependent antioxidant system by providing a novel molecular mechanism. PMID:26187465

  8. Danhong inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced immune maturation of dentritic cells via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Wang, Shijun; Sun, Aijun; Huang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chunyu; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is effective in the treatment of atherosclerosis (AS)-related diseases. It is widely recognized that AS is a complex inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and the dendritic cells (DCs) is a major player in the pathogenesis of AS via mediating atherosclerotic antigen presenting and T lymphocytes. Here, we determined the effect and possible mechanism of DHI on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced maturation and immune function of DCs. Human monocyte-derived DCs were incubated with DHI or ciglitazone and were subsequently stimulated with ox-LDL to induce maturation. Similar to ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist, DHI, could significantly reduce ox-LDL-induced expressions of mature markers, enhance the endocytotic function, and inhibit secretions of cytokine on DCs. These effects of DHI could be partly reversed by silencing the PPAR?. In conclusion, DHI could inhibit ox-LDL-induced maturation of DCs partly through activating a PPAR?-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:22739234

  9. Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Saputri, Fadlina Chany; Qaisar, Muhammad Naeem; Buang, Fhataheya

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC50 value 0.57??mol/L) as reference, with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33??mol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC50 value of 1.93??mol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC50 values of 10.18 and 24.90??mol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs. PMID:23243446

  10. Loss of resistance to dietary cholesterol in the rat after hypophysectomy: importance of the presence of growth hormone for hepatic low density lipoprotein-receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M; Angelin, B

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the role of pituitary function and, in particular, the possible influence of growth hormone (GH) on hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor expression in response to dietary cholesterol. Feeding normal rats with 2% cholesterol for 5 or 6 days did not alter LDL-receptor numbers, LDL-receptor mRNA levels, or plasma cholesterol, although hepatic cholesterol increased 5-fold. When hypophysectomized rats received the same diet, the LDL-receptor number and its mRNA levels were reduced by 75%, plasma cholesterol increased 6-fold, and hepatic cholesterol increased 12-fold. Stepwise hormonal substitution of cholesterol-fed, hypophysectomized rats revealed that substitution with GH was important to restore hepatic LDL-receptor number and mRNA levels. The presence of GH was also important to reduce the hypercholesterolemia in cholesterol-fed hypophysectomized rats. We conclude that the presence of GH is important for hepatic LDL-receptor expression, both at the protein and the mRNA level. The resistance to suppression of rat hepatic LDL receptors by dietary cholesterol depends, at least in part, on the presence of GH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8415619

  11. Colocalization of 15-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein with epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein in macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Rosenfeld, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Glass, C K; Sigal, E; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) enhances its atherogenicity, and inhibition of such oxidation decreases the rate of progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo remains uncertain, but in vitro studies have suggested that cellular lipoxygenases may play a role by initiating lipid peroxidation in LDL. In situ hybridization studies using a 15-lipoxygenase riboprobe and immunostaining using antibodies against 15-lipoxygenase showed strongly positive reactivity largely confined to macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic lesions. Polymerase chain reaction with 15-lipoxygenase-specific oligonucleotides and restriction enzyme digestions of the amplified fragment were used to confirm the presence of 15-lipoxygenase message in the reverse-transcribed lesion mRNA. Immunostaining with antibodies reactive with oxidized LDL (but not with native LDL) indicated that the lipoxygenase colocalizes with epitopes of oxidized LDL, compatible with a role for macrophage lipoxygenase in the oxidation of LDL in vivo. Since oxidized LDL is chemotactic for blood monocytes, early lesions might progress at a markedly accelerated rate because of further recruitment of more monocytes which, in turn, would increase further the rate of oxidation of LDL. These data suggest that therapy targeted to block macrophage lipoxygenase activity might decrease the rate of development of atherosclerotic lesions. Images PMID:1698286

  12. Gene expression in macrophage-rich human atherosclerotic lesions. 15-lipoxygenase and acetyl low density lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA colocalize with oxidation specific lipid-protein adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Rosenfeld, M E; Parthasarathy, S; Sigal, E; Särkioja, T; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1991-01-01

    Oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits several potentially atherogenic properties, and inhibition of LDL oxidation in rabbits decreases the rate of the development of atherosclerotic lesions. In vitro studies have suggested that cellular lipoxygenases may be involved in LDL oxidation, and we have shown previously that 15-lipoxygenase and oxidized LDL are present in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. We now report that epitopes of oxidized LDL are also found in macrophage-rich areas of human fatty streaks as well as in more advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. Using in situ hybridization and immunostaining techniques, we also report that 15-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein colocalize to the same macrophage-rich areas. Moreover, these same lesions express abundant mRNA for the acetyl LDL receptor but no detectable mRNA for the LDL receptor. We suggest that atherogenesis in human arteries may be linked to macrophage-induced oxidative modification of LDL mediated by 15-lipoxygenase, leading to subsequent enhanced macrophage uptake, partly by way of the acetyl LDL receptor. Images PMID:2010531

  13. Low-density lipoprotein accumulation within a carotid artery with multilayer elastic porous wall: fluid-structure interaction and non-Newtonian considerations.

    PubMed

    Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza

    2015-09-18

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is recognized as bad cholesterol, typically has been regarded as a main cause of atherosclerosis. LDL infiltration across arterial wall and subsequent formation of Ox-LDL could lead to atherogenesis. In the present study, combined effects of non-Newtonian fluid behavior and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) on LDL mass transfer inside an artery and through its multilayer arterial wall are examined numerically. Navier-Stokes equations for the blood flow inside the lumen and modified Darcy's model for the power-law fluid through the porous arterial wall are coupled with the equations of mass transfer to describe LDL distributions in various segments of the artery. In addition, the arterial wall is considered as a heterogeneous permeable elastic medium. Thus, elastodynamics equation is invoked to examine effects of different wall elasticity on LDL distribution in the artery. Findings suggest that non-Newtonian behavior of filtrated plasma within the wall enhances LDL accumulation meaningfully. Moreover, results demonstrate that at high blood pressure and due to the wall elasticity, endothelium pores expand, which cause significant variations on endothelium physiological properties in a way that lead to higher LDL accumulation. Additionally, results describe that under hypertension, by increasing angular strain, endothelial junctions especially at leaky sites expand more dramatic for the high elastic model, which in turn causes higher LDL accumulation across the intima layer and elevates atherogenesis risk. PMID:26300402

  14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Endocytic Clearance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Promotes Its Cytokine-Like Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  15. Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

    1987-04-01

    The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of /sup 125/I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in /sup 14/C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages.

  16. Antioxidative Effects and Inhibition of Human Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation In Vitro of Polyphenolic Compounds in Flammulina velutipes (Golden Needle Mushroom)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenolic compounds mediate polynomial actions in guarding against multiple diseases. Atherosclerosis is an oxidative stress driven pathophysiological complication where free radical induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays the ground breaking role. Mushrooms have been highly regarded for possessing an antioxidant arsenal. Polyphenolic compounds present in dietary mushrooms seem pertinent in withstanding LDL oxidation en route to controlling atherosclerosis. In this study, the antioxidative effect of five solvent fractions consisting of methanol?:?dichloromethane (M?:?DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ) of Flammulina velutipes was evaluated. M?:?DCM fraction showed the most potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect with IC50 of 0.86?mg/mL and total phenolic content of 56.36 gallic acid equivalent/g fraction. In LDL oxidation inhibitory tests, M?:?DCM fraction at 1?µg/mL concentration mostly lengthened the lag time (125?mins) of conjugated diene formation and inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (48.71%, at 1?mg/mL concentration). LC-MS/MS analyses of M?:?DCM fraction identified the presence of polyphenolic substances protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric, and ellagic acid. These chain-breaking polyphenolics might impart the antioxidative effects of F. velutipes. Thus, mushroom-based dietary polyphenolic compounds might be implicated in slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26180589

  17. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  18. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  19. Acceleration of Lung Regeneration by Platelet-Rich Plasma Extract through the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5-Tie2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Ingber, Donald E; Mammoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in organ development, homeostasis, and regeneration. The cooperation of multiple angiogenic factors, rather than a single factor, is required for physiological angiogenesis. Recently, we have reported that soluble platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract, which contains abundant angiopoietin-1 and multiple other angiogenic factors, stimulates angiogenesis and maintains vascular integrity in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we have demonstrated that mouse PRP extract increases phosphorylation levels of the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and thereby activates angiogenic factor receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells (ECs) and accelerates EC sprouting and lung epithelial cell budding in vitro. PRP extract also increases phosphorylation levels of Tie2 in the mouse lungs and accelerates compensatory lung growth and recovery of exercise capacity after unilateral pneumonectomy in mice, whereas soluble Tie2 receptor or Lrp5 knockdown attenuates the effects of PRP extract. Because human PRP extract is generated from autologous peripheral blood and can be stored at -80°C, our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for various angiogenesis-related lung diseases and to the improvement of strategies for lung regeneration. PMID:26091161

  20. Protection of endogenous vitamin E and beta-carotene by aminoguanidine upon oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by *OH/O(2)*-.

    PubMed

    Lisfi, D; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Fernet, M; Jore, D; Delattre, J; Gardès-Albert, M

    2000-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of aminoguanidine toward human low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) initiated by oxygenated free radicals (*OH/O(2)*-) generated by gamma radiolysis. Initial radiolytic yields related to the markers of lipid peroxidation [i.e. decrease in endogenous alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes] were determined in 3 g liter(-1) LDLs (expressed as total LDL concentration) in the absence and presence of 10 different concentrations of aminoguanidine (from 0.04 to 5 mmol liter(-1)). Fluorescence and relative electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDLs were also studied as markers that indirectly reflect the attack of the protein moiety of LDLs (namely apolipoprotein B). Our data clearly showed the inhibitory effect of aminoguanidine on lipid peroxidation induced in LDLs by *OH/O(2)*- in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect probably resulted from a scavenging activity of aminoguanidine toward *OH. In contrast, aminoguanidine did not appear to react significantly with O(2)*-, which resulted in a poor residual lipid peroxidation. Our data led us to determine an optimum [aminoguanidine]/[LDL] ratio ranging from 250 to 500 to obtain the best in vitro protection of LDLs under our experimental conditions. It is also of great interest that aminoguanidine was able to protect endogenous alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene of LDLs upon *OH/O(2)*(-)-induced oxidation. PMID:10790269

  1. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P?

  2. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  3. ORMDL3 contributes to the risk of atherosclerosis in Chinese Han population and mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced autophagy in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaochun; Qiu, Rongfang; Dang, Jie; Li, Jiangxia; Hu, Qin; Shan, Shan; Xin, Qian; Pan, Wenying; Bian, Xianli; Yuan, Qianqian; Long, Feng; Liu, Na; Li, Yan; Gao, Fei; Zou, Chengwei; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

    2015-01-01

    ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 (ORMDL3) is a universally confirmed susceptibility gene for asthma and has recently emerged as a crucial modulator in lipid metabolism, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-the mechanisms also closely involved in atherosclerosis (AS). Here we first presented the evidence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms regulating ORMDL3 expression (rs7216389 and rs9303277) significantly associated with AS risk and the evidence of increased ORMDL3 expression in AS cases compared to controls, in Chinese Han population. Following the detection of its statistical correlation with AS, we further explored the functional relevance of ORMDL3 and hypothesized a potential role mediating autophagy as autophagy is activated upon modified lipid, inflammation and ER stress. Our results demonstrated that in endothelial cells oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) up-regulated ORMDL3 expression and knockdown of ORMDL3 alleviated not only ox-LDL-induced but also basal autophagy. BECN1 is essential for autophagy initiation and silencing of ORMDL3 suppressed ox-LDL-induced as well as basal BECN1 expression. In addition, deletion of ORMDL3 resulted in greater sensitivity to ox-LDL-induced cell death. Taken together, ORMDL3 might represent a causal gene mediating autophagy in endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26603569

  4. Antrodia salmonea in submerged culture exhibits antioxidant activities in vitro and protects human erythrocytes and low-density lipoproteins from oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Lee, Chuan-Chen; Chen, Yung-Chang; Senthil Kumar, K J; Chen, Chee-Shan; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wang, Hui-Min; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Antrodia salmonea is well known in Taiwan as a beneficial mushroom. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of whole fermented broth (AS), filtrate (ASF), and mycelia (ASM) of A. salmonea using different antioxidant models. Furthermore, the effect of A. salmonea on AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes and CuSO4-induced oxidative modification of human low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) was examined. We found that the AS, ASF, and ASM possess effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems including superoxide anion scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, and DPPH radical scavenging. Further, AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis in erythrocytes was prevented by AS, ASF, and ASM. Notably, AS, ASF, and ASM appear to possess powerful antioxidant activities against CuSO4-induced oxidative modification of LDL as assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, cholesterol degradation, and the relative electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL. It is noteworthy that AS had comparatively strong antioxidant ability compared to ASF or ASM, which is well correlated with the content of their total polyphenols. Thus, A. salmonea may exert antioxidant properties and offer protection from atherogenesis. PMID:24480039

  5. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma viscosity, and whole blood viscosity by the application of pulsed corona discharges and filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin M.; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.; Cho, Young I.

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of applying pulsed corona discharges to blood plasma to reduce the viscosity of blood plasma and whole blood. Blood plasma was separated from blood cells, treated with corona discharges, and filtered before it was re-mixed with blood cells. Plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-c concentration were measured before and after the corona treatment and filtration. Both PV and WBV increased in the case of the corona treatment only, whereas both of them decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration. In particular, the LDL-c decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration by 31.5% from the baseline value. The effect of the corona treatment on the reduction of the WBV was significant at low shear rates, but not at high shear rates, suggesting that the precipitation of the molecules in blood plasma by the corona treatment and subsequent removal may suppress the aggregation of erythrocytes and improve rheological properties of blood.

  6. A Biomimic Reconstituted High-Density-Lipoprotein-Based Drug and p53 Gene Co-delivery System for Effective Antiangiogenesis Therapy of Bladder Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Qiaohong; Duan, Zhongxiang; Jiao, Guangli; Lei, Jixiao

    2015-07-01

    A biomimic reconstituted high-density-lipoprotein-based drug and p53 gene co-delivery system (rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes) was fabricated as a targeted co-delivery nanovector of drug and gene for potential bladder cancer therapy. Here, CD-PEI was utilized to effectively condense the p53 plasmid, to incorporate the plasmid into rHDL, and to act as an antitumor drug to suppress tumor angiogenesis. The rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, neutral surface charge, and low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that SR-BI-targeted function induced specific cytoplasmic delivery and high gene transfection efficiency in MBT-2 murine bladder cells. In addition, rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes co-delivering CD and p53 gene achieved synergistic angiogenesis suppression by more effectively downregulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein via different pathways in vitro. In vivo investigation on C3H/He mice bearing MBT-2 tumor xenografts revealed that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes possessed strong antitumor activity. These findings suggested that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes could be an ideal tumor-targeting system for simultaneous transfer of drug and gene, which might be a new promising strategy for effective bladder cancer therapy.

  7. Antioxidative Effects and Inhibition of Human Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation In Vitro of Polyphenolic Compounds in Flammulina velutipes (Golden Needle Mushroom).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenolic compounds mediate polynomial actions in guarding against multiple diseases. Atherosclerosis is an oxidative stress driven pathophysiological complication where free radical induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays the ground breaking role. Mushrooms have been highly regarded for possessing an antioxidant arsenal. Polyphenolic compounds present in dietary mushrooms seem pertinent in withstanding LDL oxidation en route to controlling atherosclerosis. In this study, the antioxidative effect of five solvent fractions consisting of methanol?:?dichloromethane (M?:?DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ) of Flammulina velutipes was evaluated. M?:?DCM fraction showed the most potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect with IC50 of 0.86?mg/mL and total phenolic content of 56.36 gallic acid equivalent/g fraction. In LDL oxidation inhibitory tests, M?:?DCM fraction at 1?µg/mL concentration mostly lengthened the lag time (125?mins) of conjugated diene formation and inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (48.71%, at 1?mg/mL concentration). LC-MS/MS analyses of M?:?DCM fraction identified the presence of polyphenolic substances protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric, and ellagic acid. These chain-breaking polyphenolics might impart the antioxidative effects of F. velutipes. Thus, mushroom-based dietary polyphenolic compounds might be implicated in slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26180589

  8. Factor VIII Interacts with the Endocytic Receptor Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 via an Extended Surface Comprising "Hot-Spot" Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Madsen, Jesper J; Faber, Johan H; Zuurveld, Marleen G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Olsen, Ole H; Stennicke, Henning R; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2015-07-01

    Lysine residues are implicated in driving the ligand binding to the LDL receptor family. However, it has remained unclear how specificity is regulated. Using coagulation factor VIII as a model ligand, we now study the contribution of individual lysine residues in the interaction with the largest member of the LDL receptor family, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and SPR interaction analysis on a library of lysine replacement variants as two independent approaches, we demonstrate that the interaction between factor VIII (FVIII) and LRP1 occurs over an extended surface containing multiple lysine residues. None of the individual lysine residues account completely for LRP1 binding, suggesting an additive binding model. Together with structural docking studies, our data suggest that FVIII interacts with LRP1 via an extended surface of multiple lysine residues that starts at the bottom of the C1 domain and winds around the FVIII molecule. PMID:25903134

  9. Attaining United Kingdom-European Atherosclerosis Society low-density lipoprotein cholesterol guideline target values in the Greek Atorvastatin and Coronary-heart-disease Evaluation (GREACE) Study.

    PubMed

    Athyros, Vasilios G; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Papageorgiou, Athanasios A; Mercouris, Bodosakis R; Athyrou, Valasia V; Symeonidis, Athanasios N; Basayannis, Elias O; Demitriadis, Dimokritos S; Kontopoulos, Athanasios G

    2002-01-01

    The GREek Atorvastatin and Coronary-heart-disease Evaluation (GREACE) Study compared two standards (structured vs. usual care) of lipid lowering treatment in 1600 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Structured care aimed at achieving (with atorvastatin 10-80 mg) the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.6 mmol/l; 100 mg/dl) goal described in the NCEP ATP II and III guidelines for patients with CHD. Structured care was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality and coronary events compared to usual care. In the present brief report we interpret the results of GREACE using the United Kingdom (UK) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) treatment goal for LDL-C in secondary CHD prevention (3.0 mmol/l; 115 mg/dl. The mean dose of atorvastatin decreased from 24 mg to 22 mg/day. More patients achieved the UK and EAS LDL-C target (95.6 vs. 95%) in the structured care arm of the trial; 90% of the patients achieved this target with 10 or 20 mg atorvastatin. These findings may have cost implications, especially if the LDL-C target for high-risk patients will fall below those described above. PMID:12564661

  10. High Density Lipoproteins Affect Endothelial BMP-Signaling by Modulating Expression of the Activin-Like Kinase Receptor 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yucheng; Shao, Esther S.; Jumabay, Medet; Shahbazian, Ani; Ji, Sheng; Boström, Kristina I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have antiinflammatory effects on the vascular endothelium. Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are known to be inflammatory mediators, we examined the effect of HDL on BMP signaling. Methods and Results Increasing concentrations of HDL progressively enhanced expression of the activin-like kinase receptor (ALK)1 and ALK2 in human aortic endothelial cells as determined by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Induction of ALK1 was a result of enhanced ALK2 expression as determined by siRNA interference, and was associated with increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix Gla protein (MGP). The HDL-induction of ALK2 was dependent on BMP-signaling, and affected co-regulation of the ALK2 gene by the homeodomain proteins MSX2, DLX3 and DLX5, as determined by reporter gene assays, siRNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Apolipoprotein A-I transgenic mice, known to have high HDL and inhibition of atherogenesis, exhibited similar changes in aortic gene expression as seen in endothelial cells treated with HDL in vitro. Conclusions We conclude that HDL benefits the arterial wall by allowing for enhanced ALK1 and ALK2 signaling, resulting in an increase of VEGF and MGP, essential for endothelial cell survival and prevention of vascular calcification, respectively. PMID:18948634

  11. Green-step assembly of low density lipoprotein/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose nanogels for facile loading and pH-dependent release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Liang, Hongshan; Lin, Liufeng; Shah, Bakht Ramin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and green approach was developed to produce a novel nanogel via self-assembly of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to efficiently deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells. Under optimal conditions, the stable nanogels were of spherical shape with an average diameter of about 90 nm, PDI<0.3 and a zeta potential -35 mV. Furthermore, the cationic anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) was effectively encapsulated into LDL/CMC nanogels with an exceptionally high encapsulation efficiency of ? 98%. The release of DOX from DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels was pH-dependent, and DOX was released at a quicker rate at pH 6.2 than at pH 7.4. Importantly, the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels were shown to effectively kill cancer cells in vitro. The IC50 of the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels in HeLa and HepG2 cells was approximately 2.45 and 1.72 times higher than that of free DOX. The slightly reduced antitumor efficacy was primarily due to the less cellular uptake of the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels, which was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry analysis. The high DOX payload and pH-dependent drug release rendered LDL/CMC nanogels as an efficient carrier for doxorubicin and possibly be used for other cationic drugs in different biomedical applications. PMID:25576811

  12. Anti-TNF? therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF?) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNF? treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3?months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2?weeks (p?

  13. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) polymorphism is associated with apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Nie, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the association of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 gene (SOCS3) A+930-->G (rs4969168) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Han and Mulao populations. Genotyping of the SOCS3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) SNP was performed in 752 of Han and 690 of Mulao participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between the Han and Mulao populations (GG, 57.71% vs. 51.16%, GA, 36.97% vs. 41.16%, AA, 5.32% vs. 7.68%, P = 0.023; G, 76.20% vs. 71.74%, A, 23.80% vs. 28.26%; P = 0.006; respectively). Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed that the levels of ApoA1 in Han females, and ApoA1 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the SOCS3 A+930-->G (rs4969168) SNP and serum lipid parameters in some populations. PMID:26261631

  14. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components. PMID:26304341

  15. Comparative reactivity of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants HOCl and HOSCN with low-density lipoprotein (LDL): Implications for foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Fahd O; Proudfoot, Julie M; Brown, Bronwyn E; van Reyk, David M; Croft, Kevin D; Davies, Michael J; Hawkins, Clare L

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterised by the accumulation of lipids within macrophages in the artery wall. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the source of this lipid, owing to the uptake of oxidised LDL by scavenger receptors. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) released by leukocytes during inflammation produces oxidants that are implicated in atherosclerosis. Modification of LDL by the MPO oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), results in extensive lipid accumulation by macrophages. However, the reactivity of the other major MPO oxidant, hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with LDL is poorly characterised, which is significant given that thiocyanate is the favoured substrate for MPO. In this study, we comprehensively compare the reactivity of HOCl and HOSCN with LDL, and show key differences in the profile of oxidative damage observed. HOSCN selectively modifies Cys residues on apolipoprotein B100, and oxidises cholesteryl esters resulting in formation of lipid hydroperoxides, 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and F2-isoprostanes. The modification of LDL by HOSCN results macrophage lipid accumulation, though generally to a lesser extent than HOCl-modified LDL. This suggests that a change in the ratio of HOSCN:HOCl formation by MPO from variations in plasma thiocyanate levels, will influence the nature of LDL oxidation in vivo, and has implications for the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25795019

  16. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  17. A Biomimic Reconstituted High-Density-Lipoprotein-Based Drug and p53 Gene Co-delivery System for Effective Antiangiogenesis Therapy of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qiaohong; Duan, Zhongxiang; Jiao, Guangli; Lei, Jixiao

    2015-12-01

    A biomimic reconstituted high-density-lipoprotein-based drug and p53 gene co-delivery system (rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes) was fabricated as a targeted co-delivery nanovector of drug and gene for potential bladder cancer therapy. Here, CD-PEI was utilized to effectively condense the p53 plasmid, to incorporate the plasmid into rHDL, and to act as an antitumor drug to suppress tumor angiogenesis. The rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, neutral surface charge, and low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that SR-BI-targeted function induced specific cytoplasmic delivery and high gene transfection efficiency in MBT-2 murine bladder cells. In addition, rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes co-delivering CD and p53 gene achieved synergistic angiogenesis suppression by more effectively downregulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein via different pathways in vitro. In vivo investigation on C3H/He mice bearing MBT-2 tumor xenografts revealed that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes possessed strong antitumor activity. These findings suggested that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes could be an ideal tumor-targeting system for simultaneous transfer of drug and gene, which might be a new promising strategy for effective bladder cancer therapy. PMID:26156217

  18. Effect of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolic Pathway Gene Variations and Risk Factors on Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaoyao; Bai, Yujing; Wang, Bin; Yu, Wenzhen; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of genetic variants in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolic pathway and risk factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in China. Methods A total of 742 Chinese subjects, including 221 controls, 230 cases with nAMD, and 291 cases with PCV, were included in the present study. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from three genes in the HDL metabolic pathway (HDLMP) including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were genotyped in all study subjects with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Risk factors including gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease were identified. Chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact tests were applied to discover associations between SNPs and risk factors for PCV and nAMD. Gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions were evaluated by the multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Results CETP rs3764261 were significantly associated with an increased risk for PCV (odds ratio (OR) = 1.444, P = 0.0247). LIPC rs1532085 conferred an increased risk for PCV (OR = 1.393, P = 0.0094). We found no association between PCV and LPL rs12678919, LIPC rs10468017 or CETP rs173539. No association was found between five SNPs with nAMD. Regarding risk factors, females were found to have significantly decreased risks for both PCV and nAMD (P = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively). Coronary artery disease (CAD) was a risk factor in PCV patients but played a protective role in nAMD patients. Hyperlipidemia was associated with PCV but not with nAMD. Neither hypertension nor diabetes mellitus was associated with PCV or nAMD. The MDR analysis revealed that a three-locus model with rs12678919, rs1532085, and gender was the best model for nAMD, while a five-locus model consisting of rs10468017, rs3764261, rs1532085, gender, and hyperlipidemia was best for PCV. Conclusion Our large-sample study suggested that CETP rs3764261 conferred an increased risk for PCV. We also first found the association between rs1532085 and PCV. The result of present study also showed that gender and CAD are associated with PCV and nAMD. Significant association was found between hyperlipidemia and PCV but not nAMD. PMID:26624898

  19. Cholesterol in serum lipoprotein fractions after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.; Krauhs, Jane M.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from blood-lipid measurements obtained from 125 Space Shuttle crew members before and after space flight. The data are presented in tables and discussed in detail. The main differences noted between preflight and postflight values are a 12.8-percent decrease in high-density lipoproteins on postflight day 1 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and both high- and low-density lipoproteins later in the 23-day postflight period.

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension treated in general practice in Spain: an assessment of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control and accuracy of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderón, Alberto; Llisterri, José L; Alegría, Eduardo; Muñiz, Javier; Matalí, Arantxa

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether primary care physicians in Spain accurately diagnose the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients, to define the profile and management of these patients in clinical practice, and to ascertain the level of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey involving 12,954 patients with hypertension (Prevención Cardiovascular en España en Atención Primaria: Intervención Sobre el Colesterol en Hipertensión [PRESCOT] study), wherein 52% of the cohort fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The majority of patients (54.6%) had 3 risk factors, 32.4% had 4, and 13% had 5 risk factors. Physician diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was poor, with 43.7% of physicians missing the diagnosis and 12.9% wrongly diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control rates were very low, with only 4.7% of metabolic syndrome patients achieving control for both blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol vs 13.5% for non-metabolic syndrome patients (P<.0001). These findings demonstrate that the metabolic syndrome is common in patients with hypertension and that it is generally poorly diagnosed and treated by primary care physicians. PMID:17684454

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