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Sample records for density lipoprotein subclass

  1. Charge properties of low density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    La Belle, M; Blanche, P J; Krauss, R M

    1997-04-01

    Measurements of electrophoretic mobility and particle size of low density lipoproteins (LDL) allowed use of standard electrokinetic theory to quantitate LDL charge characteristics from subjects with predominance of large LDL (pattern A, n = 9) or small LDL (pattern B, n = 8). Pattern A LDL was found to have significantly lower (P < or = 0.001) mobility (-0.22 +/- 0.01 micron s-1 cm V-1), surface potential (-4.2 +/- 0.3 mV) and charge density (-500 +/- 34 esu/cm2) than pattern B LDL (-0.25 +/- 0.01 micron s-1 cm V-1, -4.9 +/- 0.3 mV, and -580 +/- 30 esu/cm2), but no significant difference in particle valence (-22.0 +/- 1.4 for pattern A vs. -21.8 +/- 1.9 for pattern B). Thus, the greater mobility of pattern B LDL is due to similar net charge residing on a smaller particle. Comparison of subfractions in pattern B relative to pattern A LDL revealed greater surface potential in all pattern B subfractions and greater charge density in fractions of d > or = 1.032 g/ml. In a subset of subjects incubation with neuraminidase produced significant reductions in all LDL charge parameters for all subfractions, but did not abolish the differences between pattern A and B. Thus increased surface potential and charge density of unfractionated pattern B LDL is due both to charge properties of particles across the size and density spectrum as well as enrichment of pattern B LDL with smaller, denser particles that have higher surface charge density. PMID:9144084

  2. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Austin, M A; Breslow, J L; Hennekens, C H; Buring, J E; Willett, W C; Krauss, R M

    1988-10-01

    The association of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass patterns with coronary heart disease was investigated in a case-control study of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Subclasses of LDL were analyzed by gradient gel electrophoresis of plasma samples from 109 cases and 121 controls. The LDL subclass pattern characterized by a preponderance of small, dense LDL particles was significantly associated with a threefold increased risk of myocardial infarction, independent of age, sex, and relative weight. Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased, and levels of triglyceride, very low-density lipoproteins, and intermediate-density lipoproteins were increased in subjects with this LDL subclass pattern. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels contributed to the risk associated with the small, dense LDL subclass pattern. Thus, the metabolic trait responsible for this LDL subclass pattern results in a set of interrelated lipoprotein changes that lead to increased risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:3418853

  3. Variations in high-density lipoprotein subclasses during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Austin, M A; Krauss, R M

    1994-11-01

    In a study of 41 healthy premenopausal women, plasma high-density lipoprotein-2a (HDL2a) levels (ie, HDL of diameter 8.8 to 9.7 nm) were significantly higher during the luteal phase than during the follicular phase of the cycle. There was no significant variation in HDL2b or any of the HDL3 subclasses. PMID:7968600

  4. Effects of dietary fat on high-density-lipoprotein subclasses are influenced by both apolipoprotein E isoforms and low-density-lipoprotein subclass patterns.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Dreon, D M; Krauss, R M

    1995-06-01

    We examined the effects of replacing dietary fat with carbohydrates on high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses as measured by nondenaturing polyacrylamide-gradient-gel electrophoresis. One hundred five men received a 6-wk low-fat diet (24% of total energy) and a 6-wk high-fat diet (46% of energy) in a crossover design. Absorbency of protein stain was measured within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2-7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8-8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2-8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8-9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7-12 nm). The low-density-lipoprotein-(LDL) subclass pattern was determined by gradient-gel electrophoresis, with pattern B men defined as having an LDL-predominant peak diameter < or = 25.5 nm and an LDL distribution skewed toward larger size particles. On the high-fat diet, 18 men exhibited LDL-subclass pattern B and 87 men exhibited the alternative LDL pattern A. Twelve men had the apolipoprotein (apo) epsilon 2 allele. Replacing dietary fat with carbohydrates 1) significantly decreased HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b; 2) reduced HDL2b significantly more in pattern A than in pattern B men; and 3) increased plasma HDL3b concentrations significantly more in those men with the epsilon 2 allele. Our results suggest that unfavorable HDL changes were significantly more likely to occur in men who had LDL-subclass pattern A or the apo epsilon allele than in men who had pattern B or lacked the epsilon 2 allele. PMID:7762523

  5. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and lipoprotein response to a reduced-fat diet in men.

    PubMed

    Dreon, D M; Fernstrom, H A; Miller, B; Krauss, R M

    1994-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass pattern B is a common genetically influenced lipoprotein profile characterized by a predominance of small, dense LDL particles, and associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, reductions in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased risk of coronary artery disease compared to individuals with a predominance of larger LDL (pattern A). We sought to determine whether LDL subclass patterns are associated with response of plasma lipoprotein levels to changes in dietary fat and carbohydrate content. In a randomized cross-over study, 105 men consumed, for six weeks each, high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) solid food diets, with replacement of fat by carbohydrate. Diet-induced changes in subjects who exhibited pattern B (n = 18) following the high-fat diet differed significantly from those in subjects with pattern A (n = 87): in pattern B subjects LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) reductions were two-fold greater and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B levels decreased significantly. These differences remained significant after adjustment for levels of plasma LDL-C, apo B, HDL-C, and body mass index. Thus, LDL subclass pattern is a factor that contributes significantly to interindividual variation of plasma lipoprotein response to a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:8299884

  6. Inheritance of low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns: results of complex segregation analysis.

    PubMed

    Austin, M A; King, M C; Vranizan, K M; Newman, B; Krauss, R M

    1988-12-01

    Heterogeneity in the size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was used to identify two distinct patterns based on gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. These two phenotypes, LDL subclass pattern A and pattern B, were characterized by a predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles and small, dense LDL particles, respectively. The inheritance of these LDL subclass patterns was investigated in a sample of 61 healthy families including 301 individuals. LDL subclass pattern B was present in 31% of the subjects, with the prevalence varying by gender, age, and (in women) menopausal status. Complex segregation analysis suggested a major locus controlling LDL subclass patterns. The model providing the best fit to the data included a dominant mode of inheritance with a frequency of .25 for the allele determining LDL subclass pattern B and reduced penetrance for men under age 20 and for premenopausal women. Thus, the allele for the LDL subclass pattern characterized by a predominance of small, dense LDL particles appears to be very common in the population, although not usually expressed until adulthood in men and until after menopause in women. The presence of a major gene controlling LDL subclass could explain much of the familial aggregation of lipid and apolipoprotein levels and may be involved in increased risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:3195585

  7. Low-density-lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Dreon, D M

    1995-08-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein responses to reduced dietary fat intake were investigated in relation to differences in distribution of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46% fat) and low-fat (24% fat) diets in random order for 6 wk each. With high-fat diets, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL (pattern A), whereas the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). With low-fat diets, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men with pattern A with both diets (stable A group), men in the stable B group (n = 18) had significantly greater reductions in plasma LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and mass of mid-sized (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subfractions. In both the stable A and change groups, there was a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, suggestive of change in LDL composition with minimal change in particle number, and consistent with the observation of reduced plasma LDL cholesterol without reduced apolipoprotein B. Stable B subjects had significantly greater increases in the largest very-low-density-lipoprotein subfraction with the low-fat diet than the stable A group, and also had greater decreases in the high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subclass HDL3 but smaller reductions in HDL2. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in plasma lipoprotein response to a low-fat diet. PMID:7625363

  8. Linkage analysis of low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes and the apolipoprotein B gene.

    PubMed

    LaBelle, M; Austin, M A; Rubin, E; Krauss, R M

    1991-01-01

    A common heritable phenotype has recently been identified which is characterized by a relative abundance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and mild elevations of plasma triglycerides and reductions in plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol. This phenotype, designated LDL subclass phenotype B, has been associated with up to a three-fold increase in coronary disease risk. Complex segregation analysis in two large family studies has demonstrated that LDL subclass phenotype B is influenced by an allele at a single genetic locus with a population frequency of 0.25-0.3, and autosomal dominant inheritance, but with full penetrance only in males age 20 and over and in postmenopausal women. Since apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the principal protein component of LDL, linkage analysis was used to investigate possible linkage between the phenotype B phenotype and the apoB gene, using a variable number of tandem repeats site located 0.5 kb from the 3' end of the apoB gene. In 6 informative families including only family members in the penetrant classes, a total LOD score of -7.49 was found at a recombination fraction of 0.001. Thus, under the assumptions of the single gene model, it is unlikely that the apoB locus controls LDL subclass phenotype B. PMID:1756949

  9. Associations of hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities with changes in dietary composition and low density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Campos, H; Dreon, D M; Krauss, R M

    1995-03-01

    To test whether lipoprotein lipase or hepatic lipase activities are associated with lipoprotein subclasses, and to assess the effects of dietary manipulations on these associations, enzyme activities were measured in postheparin plasma (75 U heparin/kg) from 43 healthy men who were randomly allocated to a low-fat (24% fat, 60% carbohydrate) and a high-fat (46% fat, 38% carbohydrate) diet for 6 weeks each in a cross-over design. The high-fat diet significantly increased both lipoprotein lipase (+20%, P = 0.02) and hepatic lipase (+8%, P = 0.007) activities. On both diets, hepatic lipase activity was significantly positively correlated (P < 0.01) with plasma apolipoprotein (apo)B concentrations, and with levels of small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) III, measured by analytic ultracentrifugation as mass of lipoproteins of flotation rate (Sof) 3-5, while lipoprotein lipase activity was inversely associated with levels of LDL III (P < 0.05). Despite the cross-sectional correlations, increased hepatic lipase activity was not significantly correlated with the reduction in LDL III mass observed on the high-fat diet. Rather, changes in hepatic lipase were correlated inversely with changes in small very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) of Sof 20-40, and small intermediate density lipoproteins (VLDL) of Sof 10-16. Moreover, changes in lipoprotein lipase activity were not significantly correlated with changes in small LDL, but were positively associated with changes in small IDL of Sof 10-14, and large LDL I of Sof 7-10. Thus, while increased levels of small dense LDL are associated with a metabolic state characterized by relatively increased hepatic lipase and decreased lipoprotein lipase activity, changes in these enzymes do not appear to be primary determinants of diet-induced changes in levels of this LDL subfraction. On the other hand, increased lipoprotein lipase activity induced by high-fat feeding may contribute to the accumulation in plasma of both large LDL I and small IDL, whereas increased hepatic lipase may promote catabolism or clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants. PMID:7775858

  10. The Interplay between Size, Morphology, Stability, and Functionality of High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Shao, Baohai; Geier, Ethan G.; Ren, Gang; Heinecke, Jay W.; Oda, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), wherein excess cholesterol is conveyed from peripheral tissues to the liver and steroidogenic organs. During this process HDL continually transitions between subclass sizes, each with unique biological activities. For instance, RCT is initiated by the interaction of lipid-free/lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with ABCA1, a membrane-associated lipid transporter, to form nascent HDL. Because nearly all circulating apoA-I is lipid-bound, the source of lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I is unclear. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) then drives the conversion of nascent HDL to spherical HDL by catalyzing cholesterol esterification, an essential step in RCT. To investigate the relationship between HDL particle size and events critical to RCT such as LCAT activation and lipid-free apoA-I production for ABCA1 interaction, we reconstituted five subclasses of HDL particles (rHDL of 7.8, 8.4, 9.6, 12.2, and 17.0 nm in diameter, respectively) using various molar ratios of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, free cholesterol, and apoA-I. Kinetic analyses of this comprehensive array of rHDL particles suggest that apoA-I stoichiometry in rHDL is a critical factor governing LCAT activation. Electron microscopy revealed specific morphological differences in the HDL subclasses that may affect functionality. Furthermore, stability measurements demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized 8.4 nm rHDL particles rapidly convert to 7.8 nm particles, concomitant with the dissociation of lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I. Thus, lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I generated by the remodeling of HDL may be an essential intermediate in RCT and HDLs in vivo maturation. PMID:18366184

  11. The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ? 2.5). Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ? 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their contents among the total subjects. On the other hand, the apoA-I level might be a more powerful factor than HDL-C to influence the distribution of HDL subclasses in hyperlipidemic subjects. At the same time, from point of HDL subclasses distribution, the plasma lipids, apos concentrations and apos ratios should be considered while assessing the CHD risk. Abnormality of HDL subclasses distribution may result in accelerated atherosclerosis, therapeutic normalization of attenuated antiatherogenic HDL function in terms of both particle number and distribution of HDL particles is the target of innovative pharmacological approaches to large-sized HDL particles rising, including enhanced apoA-I levels. PMID:20950490

  12. Associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with low-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M

    1997-06-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, menopause, and alcohol intake with LDL subclasses in 355 individuals. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.05 nm within seven LDL subclasses: LDL-IVB (22.0 to 23.2 nm), LDL-IVA (23.3 to 24.1 nm), LDL-IIIB (24.2 to 24.6 nm), LDL-IIIA (24.7 to 25.5 nm), LDL-II (25.5 to 26.4 nm), LDL-I (26.0 to 28.5 nm), and intermediate-size lipoproteins (ISL, 28.0 to 32.0 nm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements of weight and height. In adult men, body mass index correlated positively with LDL-III, and alcohol intake correlated positively with larger LDL-I. Age was positively correlated with LDL-IIIA and ISL in both men and women and with LDL-IIIB and LDL-II in women. Postmenopausal women had higher LDL-IIIA, LDL-II, and ISL than both premenopausal and premenarchal females. Adult males, > or = 18 years old, had higher levels of LDL-IIIA and LDL-II than younger males. Adjustment for fasting plasma triglyceride levels eliminated the significant associations between age and LDL-IIIA in both men and women and between age and LDL-II in women. Partial correlation analyses showed that reductions in the LDL peak diameter associated with increasing age, male sexual maturation, menopause, and adiposity are attributable to increases in the LDL-IIIA subclass. Thus, densitometric measurements of protein-stained gradient gels reveal specific relationships between LDL subclasses and age, adiposity, and alcohol intake beyond those identified by the LDL peak or average diameter. PMID:9194758

  13. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  14. Associations of age, adiposity, alcohol intake, menstrual status, and estrogen therapy with high-density lipoprotein subclasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Vranizan, K M; Austin, M A; Krauss, R M

    1993-11-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of age, adiposity, alcohol intake, and exogenous estrogen with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses in 427 members of 51 principally Mormon kindreds. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 mm). Age and alcohol intake were obtained from questionnaires, and body mass index was computed from clinic measurements as weight (kg)/height (m)2. The results suggest that HDL3b concentrations were higher after menopause than before. Adult men (> or = 18 years old) had significantly higher HDL3c and HDL3b and significantly lower HDL2b and HDL2a levels than younger boys. Compared with the women, adult men had higher levels of HDL3c and HDL3b and lower levels of HDL2b, HDL2a, and larger-diameter HDL3a particles. There were no significant differences between the HDL profiles of women and younger boys, suggesting that divergence in HDL occurs during puberty. Eighty-eight percent of the increase in HDL associated with estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women occurred within HDL3a and HDL2a. Reported alcohol intake in adult men correlated with two HDL regions: one within the HDL2b region and a second within the HDL3a/2a region, whereas in women the positive correlation between alcohol and HDL levels was within the HDL2b region only. In both men and premenopausal adult women, increasing levels of body mass index were associated with higher levels of HDL3b and lower levels of HDL2b.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8218107

  15. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: the Berkeley data set.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Williams, P T; Blanche, P J; Cavanaugh, A; Holl, L G; Austin, M A

    1993-01-01

    In conjunction with a study examining the inheritance of LDL subclass patterns in a healthy population, measurements of lipids, lipoproteins, and lipoprotein subclasses were performed in 301 individuals in 27 kindreds. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on use of medications, hormones, cigarettes, and alcohol. Laboratory data from this study (the Berkeley data set) include measurements of LDL and HDL size subclasses by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and measurement of apolipoprotein A-I by radial immunodiffusion. PMID:8314054

  16. Effects of Lipid-Lowering Drugs on High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses in Healthy MenA Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spenrath, Nadine; Montalto, Giuseppe; Krone, Wilhelm; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Context and Objective Investigating the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on HDL subclasses has shown ambiguous results. This study assessed the effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, and their combination on HDL subclass distribution. Design and Participants A single-center randomized parallel 3-group open-label study was performed in 72 healthy men free of cardiovascular disease with a baseline LDL-cholesterol of 11130 mg/dl (2.90.8 mmol/l) and a baseline HDL-cholesterol of 6415 mg/dl (1.70.4 mmol/l). They were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n?=?24), simvastatin (40 mg/day, n?=?24) or their combination (n?=?24) for 14 days. Blood was drawn before and after the treatment period. HDL subclasses were determined using polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the influence of treatment and covariates on changes in HDL subclass composition. Results Baseline HDL subclasses consisted of 3310% large, 486% intermediate and 198% small HDL. After adjusting for baseline HDL subclass distribution, body mass index, LDL-C and the ratio triglycerides/HDL-C, there was a significant increase in large HDL by about 3.9 percentage points (P<0.05) and a decrease in intermediate HDL by about 3.5 percentage points (P<0.01) in both simvastatin-containing treatment arms in comparison to ezetimibe. The parameters obtained after additional adjustment for the decrease in LDL-C indicated that about one third to one half of these effects could be explained by the extent of LDL-C-lowering. Conclusions In healthy men, treatment with simvastatin leads to favorable effects on HDL subclass composition, which was not be observed with ezetimibe. Part of these differential effects may be due to the stronger LDL-C-lowering effects of simvastatin. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317993 PMID:24662777

  17. High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses and Noncardiovascular, Noncancer Chronic Inflammatory-Related Events Versus Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Daniel A; Otvos, James; Tracy, Russell P; Feingold, Kenneth R; Greenland, Philip; Gross, Myron D; Lima, Joao A C; Mackey, Rachel H; Neaton, James D; Sanchez, Otto A; Jacobs, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have properties beyond reverse cholesterol transport. We hypothesized that their protection extends to inflammation-related disease. The predictive value of HDL particle subclasses and inflammatory markers was studied for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammationrelated death and hospitalization, and for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results A multiethnic, multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 6475 men and women (aged 45 to 84 years) free of known CVD at baseline with median follow-up of 10.1 years. Fasting venous samples were analyzed for baseline lipid profile and lipoprotein particles. We focused on the HDL family of variables (small-, medium-, and large-diameter HDL particles and HDL cholesterol). Analyses identified the sum of small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles as important. Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were inversely associated with diagnostic codebased noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammationrelated death and hospitalization (n=1054) independent of covariates: relative risk per SD 0.85 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.91, P<0.0001). Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles were also associated with adjudicated fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease events (n=423): relative risk per SD 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98, P=0.02). Conclusions Small- plus medium-diameter HDL particles are an independent predictor for noncardiovascular, noncancer chronic inflammationrelated death and hospitalization and for coronary heart disease events in subjects initially free of overt CVD. These findings support the hypothesis that smaller HDL particles of diameter <9.4 nm have anti-inflammatory properties in the general population. PMID:26370448

  18. Lipoprotein subclass metabolism in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis[S

    PubMed Central

    Mnnist, Ville T.; Simonen, Marko; Soininen, Pasi; Tiainen, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Kkel, Pirjo; Krj, Vesa; Gylling, Helena; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Pihlajamki, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol coupled with increased VLDL synthesis in the liver. In addition, increased cholesterol content in the liver associates with NASH. Here we study the association of lipoprotein subclass metabolism with NASH. To this aim, liver biopsies from 116 morbidly obese individuals [age 47.3 8.7 (mean SD) years, BMI 45.1 6.1 kg/m2, 39 men and 77 women] were used for histological assessment. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure lipid concentrations of 14 lipoprotein subclasses in native serum samples at baseline and after obesity surgery. We observed that total lipid concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses, but not HDL subclasses, associated with NASH [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1]. More specifically, total lipid and cholesterol concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cell injury (FDR < 0.1), independent of steatosis. Cholesterol concentration of all VLDL subclasses also correlated with total and free cholesterol content in the liver. All NASH-related changes in lipoprotein subclasses were reversed by obesity surgery. High total lipid and cholesterol concentration of serum VLDL and LDL subclasses are linked to cholesterol accumulation in the liver and to liver cell injury in NASH. PMID:25344588

  19. The associations of high-density lipoprotein subclasses with insulin and glucose levels, physical activity, resting heart rate, and regional adiposity in men with coronary artery disease: the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project baseline survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Krauss, R M

    1995-01-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses with adiposity, physical activity, resting heart rate (an indicator of sympathetic drive), and plasma insulin and glucose levels in 97 men with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. These men neither smoked nor used medications known to affect lipoproteins. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 nm). HDL peak diameter was determined from the predominant peak of the HDL particle distribution when plotted against particle diameter. Four men who were non-insulin-dependent diabetics as defined by a fasting glucose exceeding 140 mg/dL had significantly higher plasma HDL3b levels and significantly smaller HDL peak diameters than nondiabetic men, and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In the remaining 93 nondiabetic men, plasma HDL3b levels correlated positively with indices of truncal obesity (waist to hip ratio and subscapular skinfold), whereas plasma HDL2b levels correlated negatively with indices of total adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) and truncal obesity (subscapular and abdominal skinfold). Fasting plasma insulin levels correlated negatively with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b. Obesity significantly affected the relationships of resting heart rate with insulin and HDL subclasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7854154

  20. The Associations of High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses With Insulin and Glucose Levels, Physical Activity, Resting Heart Rate, and Regional Adiposity in Men With Coronary Artery Disease: The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Haskell, William L.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses with adiposity, physical activity, resting heart rate (an indicator of sympathetic drive), and plasma insulin and glucose levels in 97 men with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. These men neither smoked nor used medications known to affect lipoproteins. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 nm). HDL peak diameter was determined from the predominant peak of the HDL particle distribution when plotted against particle diameter. Four men who were non-insulin-dependent diabetics as defined by a fasting glucose exceeding 140 mg/dL had significantly higher plasma HDL3b levels and significantly smaller HDL peak diameters than nondiabetic men, and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In the remaining 93 nondiabetic men, plasma HDL3b levels correlated positively with indices of truncal obesity (waist to hip ratio and subscapular skinfold), whereas plasma HDL2b levels correlated negatively with indices of total adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) and truncal obesity (subscapular and abdominal skinfold). Fasting plasma insulin levels correlated negatively with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b. Obesity significantly affected the relationships of resting heart rate with insulin and HDL subclasses. In heavier men (BMI > 25.8 kg/m2) but not in the less-obese men (BMI < 25.8 kg/m2), resting heart rate was negatively correlated with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b levels and HDL peak diameter and positively correlated with fasting plasma insulin concentrations. Although the reported physical activity in heavier men also correlated with HDL3a, HDL2a, and resting heart rate, the associations of resting heart rate with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b could not be attributed to activity level. These analyses suggest that the influences of plasma insulin, regional adiposity, physical activity, and resting heart rate on HDL involve specific HDL subclasses. In the presence of increased adiposity, sympathetic drive and physical inactivity may reduce levels of larger HDL and the peak diameter of the major HDL subspecies. PMID:7854154

  1. Cholesterol esters selectively delivered in vivo by high-density-lipoprotein subclass LpA-I to rat liver are processed faster into bile acids than are LpA-I/A-II-derived cholesterol esters.

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, M N; Castro, G R; Schouten, D; Duchateau, P; Fruchart, J C; Van Berkel, T J

    1993-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass LpA-I has been reported to promote cholesterol efflux from mouse adipose cells in vitro, whereas subclass LpA-I/A-II has no effect. To investigate whether the apolipoprotein composition of HDL plays a role in the selective delivery of cholesterol esters to the liver in vivo, we labelled HDL in its cholesterol ester moiety and separated [3H]cholesterol oleate-labelled HDL into subclasses LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II by immuno-affinity chromatography. Serum decay and liver association of LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II were compared for the apoprotein and cholesterol ester moieties. Both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II selectively delivered cholesterol esters to the liver with similar kinetics. The kinetics of biliary secretion of processed cholesterol esters, initially associated with LpA-I or LpA-I/A-II, were studied in rats equipped with permanent catheters in bile, duodenum and heart. For both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, liver association was coupled to bile acid synthesis, with an increase in secretion rate during the night. During the first night period, the biliary secretion of LpA-I-derived radio-activity was significantly greater than for LpA-I/A-II. The data indicate that with both LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II selective delivery of cholesterol esters from HDL to the liver occurs, but that cholesterol esters delivered by LpA-I are more efficiently coupled to bile acid synthesis. PMID:8318010

  2. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic mice results in reduced plasma levels of murine apolipoprotein A-I and the appearance of two new high density lipoprotein size subclasses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E M; Ishida, B Y; Clift, S M; Krauss, R M

    1991-01-15

    In Western societies high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels correlate inversely with the risk for coronary heart disease. The primary protein component of both human and mouse HDL is apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), which comprises greater than 70% of HDL protein and 30% of HDL mass. Human HDLs include particles of several distinct size subpopulations, whereas HDLs from inbred C57BL/6 mice contain a single population of particles. To study the regulation of apoAI expression and its role in HDL assembly, we created transgenic C57BL/6 mice containing the human apoAI gene. Two independent lines of transgenic mice with approximately twice the normal plasma levels of total apoAI were studied. The level of mouse apoAI is reduced greater than 4-fold in both transgenic lines, comprising only 4% of total plasma apoAI levels in one transgenic line and 13% in the other. We demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for the decrease in mouse apoAI is posttranscriptional. Parallel to the replacement of mouse with human apoAI, the single HDL species normally present in the plasma of C57BL/6 is replaced by two HDL subclasses similar in size to human HDL2b and HDL3a. The changes in murine apolipoprotein levels and HDL subclass size are inherited by all transgenic offspring of the two founder animals. These results suggest a dominant role of apoAI in determining the HDL particle size distribution and a mechanism involving expression of human apoAI transgenes that alters the plasma levels of mouse apoAI. PMID:1703299

  3. Involvement of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein in the proliferative effect of high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3) on the adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, K A; Bonnafous, M; Favre, G; Soula, G; Le Gaillard, F

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that high-density lipoproteins (subclass 3; HDL3) bind to sites specific for apolipoprotein AI on the human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and that HDL3 binding promotes a mitogenic effect [Favre, Tazi, Le Gaillard, Bennis, Hachem and Soula (1993) J. Lipid Res. 34, 1093-1106]. In the present study, we have examined the cell proteins that showed modified phosphorylation after binding of HDL3 to specific sites, and the roles of Ca2+ and protein kinase C. Native HDL3 (but not tetranitromethane-modified HDL3) and Ca2+ ionophore A23187 strongly enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein (x 3.6) and, to a lower extent, the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins (x 2.2 and 2.6 respectively). The two effectors were equally able to stimulate cell growth. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by a 24 h incubation of cells with phorbol myristate acetate prevented the effects of HDL3 on the phosphorylation of 24 and 28 kDa proteins. However, the extent of phosphorylation of the 20 kDa protein was not affected. In contrast, activation of protein kinase C by a short incubation with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in inhibition of proliferation and an increase in 24 and 28 kDa (but not 20 kDa) protein phosphorylation. These results suggest that HDL3 putative receptors exert their proliferative effect on A549 cells through activation of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. This kinase activity is not modulated by phorbol ester and thus may be a calmodulin kinase or an isoenzyme of protein kinase C that is independent of phorbol ester. It allows a subsequent 20 kDa protein to be phosphorylated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7733897

  4. Hypertriglyceridemia and unusual lipoprotein subclass distributions associated with late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, T.M.; Kretchmer, N.; Silliman, K. )

    1991-03-15

    In the human adult population elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decreased HDL and LDL particle sizes. Late pregnancy is a hypertriglyceridemic state where little is known about LDL and HDL subpopulation distribution. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apo) and lipoprotein subpopulations were examined in 36 pregnant women at 36 wk pregnancy and 6 wk postpartum and correlated with HDL and LDL size. There was a significant decrease in LDL diameter at 36 wk pre, 25 {plus minus} 0.7 nm compared, with 6 wk post, 26.4 {plus minus} 0.8 nm. A total of 97% of the 36 wk pre subjects had small dense LDL which paralleled increases in apoB concentration. Unlike LDL HDL at 36 wks pre showed a significant increase in larger sized particles where HDL{sub 2b} predominated. There was a positive correlation between HDL{sub 2b} mass and apoAl and HDL-C concentrations. Late pregnancy is a metabolic state where the predominance of large, HDL{sub 2b} particles is discordant with the predominance of small LDL and elevated TG. This annual metabolic pattern may in part be due to hormonal changes occurring in late pregnancy.

  5. Lipoprotein subclasses in genetic studies: The Berkeley Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Williams, P.T.; Blanche, P.J.; Cavanaugh, A.; Holl, L.G.; Austin, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Data from the Berkeley Data Set was used to investigate familial correlations of HDL-subclasses. Analysis of the sibling intraclass correlation coefficient by HDL particle diameter showed that sibling HDL levels were significantly correlated for HDL{sub 2b}, HDL{sub 3a} and HDL{sub 3b} subclasses. The percentage of the offsprings` variance explained by their two parents. Our finding that parents and offspring-have the highest correlation for HDL{sub 2b} is consistent with published reports that show higher heritability estimates for HDL{sub 2} compared with HDL{sub 3}{minus} cholesterol.

  6. The inherent accuracy of 1H NMR spectroscopy to quantify plasma lipoproteins is subclass dependent.

    PubMed

    Ala-Korpela, Mika; Lankinen, Niko; Salminen, Aino; Suna, Teemu; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino; Ingman, Petri; Jauhiainen, Matti; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Hberger, Kroly; Kaski, Kimmo

    2007-02-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy as a means to quantify lipoprotein subclasses has received wide clinical interest. The experimental part is a fast routine procedure that contrasts favourably to other lipoprotein measurement protocols. The difficulties in using (1)H NMR, however, are in uncovering the subclass specific information from the overlapping data. The NMR-based quantification has been evaluated only in relation to biochemical measures, thereby leaving the inherent capability of NMR rather vague due to biological variation and diversity among the biochemical experiments. Here we will assess the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy of plasma per se. This necessitates data for which the inherent parameters, namely the shapes and areas of the (1)H NMR signals of the subclasses are available. This was achieved through isolation and (1)H NMR experiments of 11 subclasses--VLDL1, VLDL2, IDL, LDL1, LDL2, LDL3, HDL(2b), HDL(2a), HDL(3a), HDL(3b) and HDL(3c)--and the subsequent modelling of the spectra. The subclass models were used to simulate biochemically representative sets of spectra with known subclass concentrations. The spectral analyses revealed 10-fold differences in the quantification accuracy of different subclasses by (1)H NMR. This finding has critical significance since the usage of (1)H NMR methodology in the clinical arena is rapidly increasing. PMID:16730730

  7. Associations between intensive diabetes therapy and NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Jenkins, Alicia J; Basu, Arpita; Stoner, Julie A; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Klein, Richard L; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    Our objective is to define differences in circulating lipoprotein subclasses between intensive versus conventional management of type 1 diabetes during the randomization phase of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSPs), which estimate molar subclass concentrations and mean particle diameters, were determined in 1,294 DCCT subjects after a median of 5 years (interquartile range: 4-6 years) of randomization to intensive or conventional diabetes management. In cross-sectional analyses, we compared standard lipids and NMR-LSPs between treatment groups. Standard total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were similar between randomization groups, while triglyceride levels were lower in the intensively treated group. NMR-LSPs showed that intensive therapy was associated with larger LDL diameter (20.7 vs. 20.6 nm, P = 0.01) and lower levels of small LDL (median: 465 vs. 552 nmol/l, P = 0.007), total IDL/LDL (mean: 1,000 vs. 1,053 nmol/l, P = 0.01), and small HDL (mean: 17.3 vs. 18.6 μmol/l, P < 0.0001), the latter accounting for reduced total HDL (mean: 33.8 vs. 34.8 μmol/l, P = 0.01). In conclusion, intensive diabetes therapy was associated with potentially favorable changes in LDL and HDL subclasses in sera. Further research will determine whether these changes contribute to the beneficial effects of intensive diabetes management on vascular complications. PMID:26658239

  8. Associations of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with gradient gel electrophoresis estimates of high density lipoprotein subfractions in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M; Vranizan, K M; Stefanick, M L; Wood, P D; Lindgren, F T

    1992-03-01

    We examined the relations of gender and lipoproteins to subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in a cross-sectional sample of moderately overweight men (n = 116) and women (n = 78). The absorbance of protein-stained polyacrylamide gradient gels was used as an index of mass concentrations of HDL at intervals of 0.01 nm across the entire HDL particle size range (7.2-12 nm). At least five HDL subclasses have been identified by their particle sizes: HDL3c (7.2-7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8-8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2-8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8-9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7-12 nm). Men had significantly higher HDL3b and significantly lower HDL2a and HDL2b than did women. Correlations of HDL subclasses with concentrations of other lipoprotein variables were generally as strong for gradient gel electrophoresis as for analytical ultracentrifugation measurements of HDL particle distributions. In both sexes, high levels of HDL3b were associated with coronary heart disease risk factors, including high concentrations of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, small low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, and very low density lipoproteins and low concentrations of HDL2 cholesterol and HDL2 mass. Plasma concentrations of HDL3 cholesterol were unrelated to protein-stained HDL3b levels. HDL3 cholesterol concentrations also did not exhibit the sex difference or the relations with lipoprotein concentrations that characterized HDL3b. Thus, low HDL3b levels may contribute in part to the low heart disease risk in men and women who have high HDL cholesterol. Measurements of HDL3 cholesterol may not identify clinically important relations involving HDL3b. PMID:1547192

  9. Association of lipoprotein subclass distribution with use of selective and non-selective beta-blocker medications in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Superko, H R; Haskell, W L; Krauss, R M

    1993-06-01

    The relationship of beta-blocker drug use to plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein mass distribution, (LDL, Sf0-12), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL, Sf12-20), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf20-400), and high density lipoproteins (HDL, F(1.2)0-9) were examined in 206 men with coronary heart disease. Thirty-three used non-selective (NSEL), 49 used selective (SEL), and were compared to 124 who used no beta-blockade (NoBB). No significant between group differences were seen for potentially confounding variables. LDL and IDL mass, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between groups. HDL-C was significantly lower in both NSEL (P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.01). NSEL and SEL had significantly lower HDL mass (P < 0.005 and P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.01 and P = 0.06), and HDL3 mass (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). VLDL mass was significantly higher (P < 0.02) only in NSEL. Small LDL (Sf0-7) was not significantly different between groups and large LDL (Sf7-12) was significantly lower in NSEL (P < 0.05) and SEL (P < 0.05). LDL peak Sf was significantly lower in both NSEL (P < 0.005) and SEL (P < 0.02) compared to NoBB. Despite the lack of differences in levels of LDL-cholesterol, beta-blocker use is associated with a significant difference in the distribution of larger, more buoyant to smaller, more dense LDL particles. Reduced HDL levels in subjects on beta-blockade therapy are associated with reductions in both HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8105786

  10. Dietary and genetic effects on low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    2001-01-01

    We have tested whether differences in distribution and dietary responsiveness of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses contribute to the variability in the magnitude of LDL-cholesterol reduction induced by diets low in total and saturated fat and high in carbohydrate. Our studies have focused on a common, genetically influenced metabolic profile, characterized by a predominance of small, dense LDL particles (subclass pattern B), that is associated with a two- to threefold increase in risk for coronary artery disease. We have found that healthy normolipidemic individuals with this trait show a greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and particle number in response to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets than do unaffected individuals (subclass pattern A). Moreover, such diets result in reduced LDL particle size, with induction of pattern B in a substantial proportion of pattern A men. Recent studies have indicated that this response is under genetic influence. Future identification of the specific genes involved may lead to improved targeting of dietary therapies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:11375438

  11. High-density lipoproteins delivering interleukin-15.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Maria C; Melero, Ignacio; Berraondo, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Circulating lipoproteins may offer interesting properties as therapeutic carriers for cytokines and hormones, in terms of both stability and bio-distribution. The fusion of apolipoprotein A-I with interleukin-15 (IL-15) targets the latter to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). The bioactivity of this chimera can be further enhanced by creating triple fusions with IL-15 receptor ? domain involved in IL-15 trans-presentation. PMID:23734302

  12. Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Background on Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals1. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol/L or 500-1000mg/dL). Homozygous FH patients are typically diagnosed in infancy, usually due to the presence of cholesterol deposits in the skin and tendons. The main complication of HMZ FH is supravalvular aortic stenosis, which is caused by cholesterol deposits on the aortic valve and in the ascending aorta. The average life expectancy of affected individuals is 23 to 25 years. In Ontario, it is estimated that there are 13 to 15 cases of HMZ FH. An Ontario clinical expert confirmed that 9 HMZ FH patients have been identified to date. Diagnosis There are 2 accepted clinical diagnostic criterion for the diagnosis of FH: the Simon Broome FH Register criteria from the United Kingdom and the Dutch Lipid Network criteria from the Netherlands. The criterion supplement cholesterol levels with clinical history, physical signs and family history. DNA-based-mutation-screening methods permit a definitive diagnosis of HTZ FH to be made. However, given that there are over 1000 identified mutations in the LDL receptor gene and that the detection rates of current techniques are low, genetic testing becomes problematic in countries with high genetic heterogeneity, such as Canada. Treatment The primary aim of treatment in both HTZ and HMZ FH is to reduce plasma LDL-C levels in order to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and CAD. The first line of treatment is dietary intervention, however it alone is rarely sufficient for the treatment of FH patients. Patients are frequently treated with lipid-lowering drugs such as resins, fibrates, niacin, statins and cholesterol absorption-inhibiting drugs (ezetimibe). Most HTZ FH patients require a combination of drugs to achieve or approach target cholesterol levels. A small number of HTZ FH patients are refractory to treatment or intolerant to lipid-lowering medication. According to clinical experts, the prevalence of refractory HTZ FH in Ontario is between 1 to 5%. Using the mean of 3%, it is estimated that there are approximately 765 refractory HTZ FH patients in Ontario, of which 115 are diagnosed and 650 are undiagnosed. Drug therapy is less effective in HMZ FH patients since the effects of the majority of cholesterol-lowering drugs are mediated by the upregulation of LDL receptors, which are often absent or function poorly in HMZ FH patients. Some HMZ FH patients may still benefit from drug therapy, however this rarely reduces LDL-C levels to targeted levels. Existing Technology: Plasma Exchange An option currently available in Ontario for FH patients who do not respond to standard diet and drug therapy is plasma exchange (PE). Patients are treated with this lifelong therapy on a weekly or biweekly basis with concomitant drug therapy. Plasma exchange is nonspecific and eliminates virtually all plasma proteins such as albumin, immunoglobulins, coagulation factors, fibrinolytic factors and HDL-C, in addition to acutely lowering LDL-C by about 50%. Blood is removed from the patient, plasma is isolated, discarded and replaced with a substitution fluid. The substitution fluid and the remaining cellular components of the blood are then returned to the patient. The major limitation of PE is its nonspecificity. The removal of HDL-C prevents successful vascular remodeling of the areas stenosed by atherosclerosis. In addition, there is an increased susceptibility to infections, and costs are incurred by the need for replacement fluid. Adverse events can be expected to occur in 12% of procedures. Other Alternatives Surgical alternatives for FH patients include portocaval shunt, ileal bypass and liver transplantation. However, these are risky procedures and are associated with a high morbidity rate. Results with gene therapy are not convincing to date. The Technology Being Reviewed: LDL Apheresis An alternative to PE is LDL apheresis. Unlike PE, LDL apheresis is a selective treatment that removes LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins from the blood while minimally impacting other plasma components such as HDL-C, total serum protein, albumin and immunoglobulins. As with PE, FH patients require lifelong therapy with LDL apheresis on a weekly/biweekly basis with concomitant drug therapy. Heparin-Induced Extracorporeal LDL Precipitation Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) is one of the most widely used methods of LDL apheresis. It is a continuous closed-loop system that processes blood extracorporeally. It operates on the principle that at a low pH, LDL and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] bind to heparin and fibrinogen to form a precipitate which is then removed by filtration. In general, the total duration of treatment is approximately 2 to 3 hours. Results from early trials indicate that LDL-C concentration is reduced by 65% to 70% immediately following treatment in both HMZ and HTZ FH and then rapidly begins to rise. Typically patients with HTZ FH are treated every 2 weeks while patients with HMZ FH require weekly therapy. Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation also produces small transient decreases in HDL-C, however levels generally return to baseline within 2 days. After several months of therapy, long-term reductions in LDL-C and increases in HDL-C have been reported. In addition to having an impact on plasma cholesterol concentrations, HELP lowers plasma fibrinogen, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and reduces concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules, which play a role in early atherogenesis. In comparison with PE, HELP LDL apheresis does not have major effects on essential plasma proteins and does not require replacement fluid, thus decreasing susceptibility to infections. One study noted that adverse events were documented in 2.9% of LDL apheresis treatments using the HELP system compared with 12% using PE. As per the manufacturer, patients must weigh at least 30kgs to be eligible for treatment with HELP. Regulatory Status The H.E.L.P. System (B.Braun Medizintechnologie GmbH, Germany) has been licensed by Health Canada since December 2000 as a Class 3 medical device (Licence # 26023) for performing LDL apheresis to acutely remove LDL from the plasma of 3 high-risk patient populations for whom diet has been ineffective and maximum drug therapy has either been ineffective or not tolerated. The 3 patient groups are as follows: Functional hypercholesterolemic homozygotes with LDL-C >500 mg/dL (>13mmol/L); Functional hypercholesterolemic heterozygotes with LDL-C >300 mg/dL (>7.8mmol/L); Functional hypercholesterolemic heterozygotes with LDL-C >200 mg/dL (>5.2mmol/L) and documented CAD No other LDL apheresis system is currently licensed in Canada. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat systematically reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness and safety of LDL apheresis performed with the HELP system for the treatment of patients with refractory HMZ and HTZ FH. A standard search methodology was used to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The GRADE approach was used to systematically and explicitly make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Summary of Findings The search identified 398 articles published from January 1, 1998 to May 30, 2007. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Five case series, 2 case series nested within comparative studies, and one retrospective review, were included in the analysis. A health technology assessment conducted by the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, and a review by the United States Food and Drug Administration were also included. Large heterogeneity among the studies was observed. Studies varied in inclusion criteria, baseline patient characteristics and methodology. Overall, the mean acute1 relative decrease in LDL-C with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 53 to 77%. The mean acute relative reductions ranged as follows: total cholesterol (TC) 47 to 64%, HDL-C +0.4 to -29%, triglycerides (TG) 33 to 62%, Lp(a) 55 to 68% and fibrinogen 56 to 65%. The mean chronic2 relative decreases in LDL-C and TC with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 9 to 46% and 5 to 34%, respectively. Familial hypercholesterolemia patients treated with HELP did not achieve the target LDL-C value set by international guidelines (LDL-C < 2.5mmol/L, 100mg/dL). The chronic mean relative increase in HDL-C ranged from 12 to 27%. The ratio of LDL:HDL and the ratio of TC:HDL are 2 measures that have been shown to be important risk factors for cardiac events. In high-risk patients, the recommended target LDL:HDL ratio is less than or equal to 2, and the target TC:HDL ratio is less than 4. In the studies that reported chronic lipid changes, the LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios exceeded targeted values. Three studies investigated the effects of HELP on coronary outcomes and atherosclerotic changes. One noted that twice as many lesions displayed regression in comparison to those displaying progression. The second study found that there was a decrease in Agatston scores3 and in the volume of coronary calcium. The last study noted that 2 of 5 patients showed regression of coronary atherosclerosis, and 3 of the 5 patients showed no change as assessed by a global change score. Adverse effects were typically mild and transient, and the majority of events were related to problems with vascular access. Of the 3 studies that provided quantitative information, the proportion of adverse events ranged from 2.9 to 5.1%. GRADE Quality of Evidence In general, studies were of low quality, i.e., case series studies (Tables 1-3). No controlled studies were identified and no studies directly compared the effectiveness of the HELP system with PE or with diet and drug therapy. Conducting trials with a sufficiently large control group would not have been feasible or acceptable given that HELP represents a last alternative in these patients who are resistant to conventional therapeutic strategies. A major limitation is that there is limited evidence on the effectiveness and safety of HELP apheresis in HMZ FH patients. However, it is unlikely that better-quality evidence will become available, given that HMZ FH is rare and LDL apheresis is a last therapeutic option for these patients. Lastly, there is limited data on the long-term effects of LDL apheresis in FH patients. No studies with HELP were identified that examined long-term outcomes such as survival and cardiovascular events. The absence of this data may be attributed to the rarity of the condition, and the large number of subjects and long duration of follow-up that would be needed to conduct such trials. Table 1: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Lipid Outcomes Number ofStudies Study Design Quality of Studies Consistency Directness OtherModifyingFactors OverallQuality of Evidence 1 Case series=Low Low + Yes Sparse data Very low 1 Retrospective review=Low Table 2: Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Lipid Outcomes Number ofStudies Study Design Quality of Studies Consistency Directness Other Modifying Factors Overall Quality of Evidence 7+FDA Case series=Low Low + Yes Not applicable Low 1 Retrospective review=Low Table 3: Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Coronary Artery Disease Outcomes Number ofStudies Study Design Quality of Studies Consistency Directness Other Modifying Factors Overall Quality of Evidence 2+FDA Case series=Low Low + Yes Not applicable Low 1 Retrospective review=Low Economic Analysis A budget-impact analysis was conducted to forecast future costs for PE and HELP apheresis in FH patients. All costs are reported in Canadian dollars. Based on epidemiological data of 13 HMZ, 115 diagnosed HTZ and 765 cases of all HTZ patients (diagnosed + undiagnosed), the annual cost of weekly treatment was estimated to be $488,025, $4,332,227 and $24,758,556 respectively for PE. For HELP apheresis, the annual cost of weekly treatment was estimated to be $1,025,338, $9,156,209 and $60,982,579 respectively. Costs for PE and HELP apheresis were halved with a biweekly treatment schedule. The cost per coronary artery disease death avoided over a 10-year period in HTZ FH-diagnosed patients was also calculated and estimated to be $37.5 million and $18.7 million for weekly and biweekly treatment respectively, when comparing HELP apheresis with PE and with no intervention. Although HELP apheresis costs twice as much as PE, it helped to avoid 12 deaths compared with PE and 22 deaths compared with no intervention, over a period of 10 years. Ontario Health System Impact Analysis Low-density lipoprotein apheresis using the HELP system is currently being funded by the provinces of Quebec and Alberta. The program in Quebec has been in operation since 2001 and is limited to the treatment of HMZ FH patients. The Alberta program is relatively new and is currently treating HMZ FH patients, but it is expanding to include refractory HTZ FH patients. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis is a lifelong treatment and requires considerable commitment on the part of the patient, and the patients family and physician. In addition, the management of FH continues to evolve. With the advent of new more powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs, some HTZ patients may be able to sufficiently control their hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, according to clinical experts, HMZ patients will likely always require LDL apheresis. Given the substantial costs associated with LDL apheresis, treatment has been limited to HMZ FH patients. However, LDL apheresis could be applied to a much larger population, which would include HTZ FH patients who are refractory to diet and drug therapy. HTZ FH patients are generally recruited in a more advanced state, demonstrate a longer natural survival than HMZ FH patients and are older. Conclusions For HMZ FH patients, the benefits of LDL apheresis clearly outweigh the risks and burdens. According to GRADE, the recommendation would be graded as strong, with low- to very low-quality evidence (Table 4). In both HMZ and HTZ FH patients, there is evidence of overall clinical benefit of LDL apheresis from case series studies. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis has several advantages over the current treatment of PE, including decreased exposure to blood products, decreased risk of adverse events, conservation of nonatherogenic and athero-protective components, such as HDL-C and lowering of other atherogenic components, such as fibrinogen. In contrast to HMZ FH patients, there remains a lot of uncertainty in the social/ethical acceptance of this technology for the treatment of refractory HTZ FH patients. In addition to the substantial costs, it is unknown whether the current health care system could cope with the additional demand. There is uncertainty in the estimates of benefits, risks and burdens. According to GRADE, the recommendation would be graded as weak with low- to very-low-quality evidence (Table 5). Table 4: GRADE Recommendation - Homozygous Patients Benefits Risks Burdens Overall clinical benefit Consistency with social/ethical values Affordable Health system feasibility GRADE of recommendation: Strong recommendation, low-quality or very-low-quality evidence Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens Case series study designs Strong, but may change when higher-quality evidence becomes available Table 5: GRADE Recommendation - Heterozygous Patients Benefits Risks Burdens Overall clinical benefit Less affordable Questionable health system feasibility Unknown if consistent with social/ethical values GRADE of recommendation: Weak recommendation, low-quality or very-low-quality evidence Uncertainty in the estimates of benefits, risks and burden, which these may be closely balanced Case series study designs Very weak; other alternatives may be equally reasonable PMID:23074505

  13. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P < 0.01), OxPL/apolipoprotein (apo)B (P < 0.005), and OxPL-apo(a) (P < 0.05) were significantly higher on the LFHC diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P < 0.0001). Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P < 0.0001). The increases in plasma Lp(a) levels after the LFHC diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P < 0.01) and increases in very small LDL particles (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that induction of increased levels of Lp(a) by an LFHC diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles. PMID:20713651

  14. LDL subclass patterns and lipoprotein response to a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in women.

    PubMed

    Dreon, D M; Fernstrom, H A; Williams, P T; Krauss, R M

    1997-04-01

    A predominance of small, dense LDL particles (subclass pattern B) characterizes a metabolic trait that is associated with higher levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lower levels of HDL compared with those of individuals with predominantly larger LDL (pattern A). This trait appears to be under the influence of one or more genes, with maximal expression in adult males and reduced expression in premenopausal females. In a previous study, men with LDL subclass pattern B had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B than men with pattern A. We hypothesized that despite the low prevalence of pattern B in premenopausal women, genetic predisposition to this trait could affect dietary responsiveness. Specifically, we predicted that LDL-C reduction on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet would be greatest in daughters of two pattern B parents, intermediate in daughters with one pattern B parent, and least in daughters with no pattern B parents. When 72 premenopausal women were placed on a 20% fat diet for 8 weeks, the changes in LDL-C (mmol/L) compared with levels on basal diets were significantly related to the number of pattern B parents (two B parents: -0.92 +/- 0.61, one B parent: -0.23 +/- 0.10, no B parents: -0.05 +/- 0.06) and could not be explained by diet adherence or baseline characteristics including initial lipoprotein profile or body mass index. The number of pattern B parents was also related to reductions in plasma mass concentrations of IDL, total LDL, and large LDL and to increases in plasma triglycerides. There was a significant inverse correlation between changes in triglyceride and LDL-C induced by the low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Thus, genetic and metabolic factors underlying LDL subclass pattern B may result in enhanced LDL and triglyceride responsiveness to substitution of dietary carbohydrate for fat in premenopausal women. PMID:9108784

  15. Dense low density lipoproteins and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1995-02-23

    A common, genetically influenced lipoprotein subclass profile characterized by a predominance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is associated with relative increases in plasma triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apoAI. Recently, this phenotype has also been associated with the insulin resistance syndrome and familial combined hyperlipidemia. Case-control studies of patients with myocardial infarction and angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated that 40-50% of patients have the small, dense LDL phenotype and that this is associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in disease risk. However, because of strong statistical correlations among the multiple features of the phenotype, it has been difficult to determine whether > or = 1 of its metabolic alterations are primarily responsible for increased CAD susceptibility. More direct evidence for enhanced atherogenicity of lipoproteins in this trait derives from a recent report that LDL-cholesterol lowering by diet and drug treatment resulted in reduced coronary angiographic progression in CAD subjects with predominantly dense LDL, but that an equivalent lowering of LDL cholesterol in subjects with more buoyant LDL was not associated with angiographic benefit. Further, in vitro findings have indicated increased susceptibility of small, dense LDL to oxidative modification and relatively greater binding of these particles to arterial wall proteoglycans. Thus, the small, dense LDL trait may underlie familial predisposition to CAD in a large proportion of the population, and its presence may indicate the potential for benefit from specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:7863975

  16. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Jansen, Henning; Aherrarhou, Zouhair; Belz, Stefanie; Mayer, Bjrn; Lieb, Wolfgang; Huber, Fritz; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans-Robert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons). Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02). Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD. PMID:19348677

  17. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and blood triglycerides reflect key metabolic processes including sensitivity to insulin. Blood lipoprotein and lipid concentrations are heritable. To date, the identification o...

  18. Alcohol alters low density lipoprotein composition and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hoinacki, J.; Brown, J.; Dawson, M.; Deschenes, R.; Mulligan, J. )

    1991-03-11

    Two separate studies were conducted to examine the effect of ethanol (EtOH) dose on atherogenic low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions and LDL metabolism in vivo. In the first study, male, atherosclerosis-susceptible squirrel monkeys were divided in three treatments: controls fed liquid diet, and low and high alcohol groups given liquid diet with vodka substituted for carbohydrate at 12% and 24% of calories, respectively. After 6 months, LDL subclasses (LDL{sub 1a}, LDL{sub 1b} and LDL{sub 2}) were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, and their lipid and protein composition was determined. Low dose EtOH had no effect on LDL subfraction distribution while 24% EtOH resulted in an increase in the larger (LDL{sub 1a} and LDL{sub 1b}), buoyant subspecies without affecting the level of the more atherogenic, smaller, denser LDL{sub 2} particles. In the second study, {sup 125}I-LDL apolipoprotein B (apo B) was injected intravenously into Control and High EtOH monkeys and kinetic analyses were performed. Although the absolute catabolic rate (LDL production) was not altered, High EtOH primates showed a reduction in the fractional catabolic rate and a longer LDL apoB residence time.

  19. Beginning to understand high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Badimon, Juan J; Rosenson, Robert S

    2014-12-01

    This article reconciles the classic view of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) associated with low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with recent data (genetics studies and randomized clinical trials) casting doubt over the widely accepted beneficial role of HDL regarding CVD risk. Although HDL cholesterol has been used as a surrogate measure to investigate HDL function, the cholesterol content in HDL particles is not an indicator of the atheroprotective properties of HDL. Thus, more precise measures of HDL metabolism are needed to reflect and account for the beneficial effects of HDL particles. Current and emerging therapies targeting HDL are discussed. PMID:25432389

  20. Developing High Performance Lipoprotein Density Profiling for Use in Clinical Studies Relating to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of the beginning stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an approach to prevention because the process is reversible at this stage. Consequently, several methods for screening for CVD have been introduced in recent years incorporating different analytical methods for characterizing the population of blood-borne lipoprotein subclasses. The gold standard method for lipoprotein subclassification is based on lipoprotein density measured by sedimentation equilibrium using the ultracentrifuge. However, this method has not been adopted for clinical studies because of difficulties in achieving the precision required for distinguishing individuals with and without CVD particularly when statistical classification methods are used. The objective of this study was to identify and improve the major factors that influence the precision of measurement of lipoprotein density profile by sedimentation equilibrium analysis and labeling with a fluorescent probe. The study has two phases, each contributing to precision. The first phase focuses on the ultracentrifugation-related variables, and the second phase addresses those factors involved in converting the fluorescent lipoprotein density profile to a digital format compatible with statistical analysis. The overall improvement in precision was on the order of a factor of 5, sufficient to be effectively applied to ongoing classification studies relating to CVD risk assessment. PMID:21970640

  1. Speciated High-Density Lipoprotein Biogenesis and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Rosales, C; Davidson, W S; Gillard, B K; Gotto, A M; Pownall, H J

    2016-05-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is a negative risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, most attempts to raise plasma HDL-C concentrations in a cardioprotective way have failed. Recently, hypotheses about the atheroprotective effects of HDL have shifted away from quantity to quality, mostly HDL function in reverse cholesterol transport. Plasma HDL from CVD patients is a poorer acceptor of cellular cholesterol than plasma from healthy controls, independent of plasma HDL-C concentrations. The function of HDL is likely determined by two other factors, stability and composition. The kinetic instability of HDL, which varies according to subclass, is a likely determinant of its reactivity in response to many HDL-modifying activities. HDL composition is also heterogeneous and variable; all HDL particles contain apo AI but only about two-thirds contain apo AII. This occurs despite the fact that apo AI and apo AII are hepatically secreted on separate HDL that later fuse in plasma. HDL also contains traces of other proteins, some of which have not yet been associated with HDL function. One minor HDL species are those that are secreted with intact signal peptides, which enhances their binding to HDL; these HDL have special properties that are independent of cholesterol transport. Here, we review and provide a perspective about what is currently known about speciated HDL biogenesis in the context of health and disease. PMID:27005803

  2. Regulation of high-density lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    There is compelling evidence from human population studies that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk. Identification of this relationship has stimulated research designed to understand how HDL metabolism is regulated. The ultimate goal of these studies has been to develop HDL-raising therapies that have the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the situation has turned out to be much more complex than originally envisaged. This is partly because the HDL fraction consists of multiple subpopulations of particles that vary in terms of shape, size, composition, and surface charge, as well as in their potential cardioprotective properties. This heterogeneity is a consequence of the continual remodeling and interconversion of HDL subpopulations by multiple plasma factors. Evidence that the remodeling of HDLs may impact on their cardioprotective properties is beginning to emerge. This serves to highlight the importance of understanding not only how the remodeling and interconversion of HDL subpopulations is regulated but also how these processes are affected by agents that increase HDL levels. This review provides an overview of what is currently understood about HDL metabolism and how the subpopulation distribution of these lipoproteins is regulated. PMID:24385508

  3. Excessive centrifugal fields damage high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Munroe, William H; Phillips, Martin L; Schumaker, Verne N

    2015-06-01

    HDL is typically isolated ultracentrifugally at 40,000 rpm or greater, however, such high centrifugal forces are responsible for altering the recovered HDL particle. We demonstrate that this damage to HDL begins at approximately 30,000 rpm and the magnitude of loss increases in a rotor speed-dependent manner. The HDL is affected by elevated ultracentrifugal fields resulting in a lower particle density due to the shedding of associated proteins. To circumvent the alteration of the recovered HDL, we utilize a KBr-containing density gradient and a lowered rotor speed of 15,000 rpm to separate the lipoproteins using a single 96 h centrifugation step. This recovers the HDL at two density ranges; the bulk of the material has a density of about 1.115 g/ml, while lessor amounts of material are recovered at >1.2 g/ml. Thus, demonstrating the isolation of intact HDL is possible utilizing lower centrifuge rotor speeds. PMID:25910941

  4. Computational Lipidology: Predicting Lipoprotein Density Profiles in Human Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Hbner, Katrin; Schwager, Thomas; Winkler, Karl; Reich, Jens-Georg; Holzhtter, Hermann-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond bad and good cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL), we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile) is calculated. As our main results, we (i) successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii) assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS), revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii) present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia. PMID:18497853

  5. High-Density Lipoproteins: Nature's Multifunctional Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Rui; Li, Dan; Chen, Y Eugene; Moon, James J; Schwendeman, Anna

    2016-03-22

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are endogenous nanoparticles involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. HDL is well-known as the "good" cholesterol because it not only removes excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaques but also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, which protect the cardiovascular system. Circulating HDL also transports endogenous proteins, vitamins, hormones, and microRNA to various organs. Compared with other synthetic nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, and inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, HDL has unique features that allow them to deliver cargo to specific targets more efficiently. These attributes include their ultrasmall size (8-12 nm in diameter), high tolerability in humans (up to 8 g of protein per infusion), long circulating half-life (12-24 h), and intrinsic targeting properties to different recipient cells. Various recombinant ApoA proteins and ApoA mimetic peptides have been recently developed for the preparation of reconstituted HDL that exhibits properties similar to those of endogenous HDL and has a potential for industrial scale-up. In this review, we will summarize (a) clinical pharmacokinetics and safety of reconstituted HDL products, (b) comparison of HDL with inorganic and other organic nanoparticles, PMID:26889958

  6. Nanobiotechnology applications of reconstituted high density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a fundamental role in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. Prior to maturation, nascent HDL exist as disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose perimeter is stabilized by amphipathic apolipoproteins. Methods have been developed to generate reconstituted (rHDL) in vitro and these particles have been used in a variety of novel ways. To differentiate between physiological HDL particles and non-natural rHDL that have been engineered to possess additional components/functions, the term nanodisk (ND) is used. In this review, various applications of ND technology are described, such as their use as miniature membranes for solubilization and characterization of integral membrane proteins in a native like conformation. In other work, ND harboring hydrophobic biomolecules/drugs have been generated and used as transport/delivery vehicles. In vitro and in vivo studies show that drug loaded ND are stable and possess potent biological activity. A third application of ND is their use as a platform for incorporation of amphiphilic chelators of contrast agents, such as gadolinium, used in magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, it is demonstrated that the basic building block of plasma HDL can be repurposed for alternate functions. PMID:21122135

  7. High-density lipoprotein mimetics: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, Dmitri; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-12-15

    The concept of lipoprotein mimetics was developed and extensively tested in the last three decades. Most lipoprotein mimetics were designed to recreate one or several functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the context of cardiovascular disease; however, the application of this approach is much broader. Lipoprotein mimetics should not just be seen as a set of compounds aimed at replenishing a deficiency or dysfunctionality of individual elements of lipoprotein metabolism but rather as a designer concept with remarkable flexibility and numerous applications in medicine and biology. In the present review, we discuss the fundamental design principles used to create lipoprotein mimetics, mechanisms of their action, medical indications and efficacy in animal models and human studies. PMID:26613945

  8. Hemodynamics alter arterial low-density lipoprotein metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Warty, V.S.; Calvo, W.J.; Berceli, S.A.; Pham, S.M.; Durham, S.J.; Tanksale, S.K.; Klein, E.C.; Herman, I.M.; Borovetz, H.S. )

    1989-10-01

    We have investigated the role of hemodynamic factors on low-density lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the intact arterial wall. Freshly excised canine carotid blood vessels were exposed to well-defined pulsatile flow in vitro for continuous periods up to 20 hours. We chose to impose the following hemodynamic conditions on our test carotid arteries: normotension, hypertension (at physiologic flow conditions), and hypertension coupled with elevated flow of canine serum perfusate. In several experiments the effect of endothelial denudation was examined in carotid arteries exposed to normotensive pulsatile flow. A trapped ligand method was used for quantitating low-density lipoprotein uptake and metabolism in the arterial wall. The distribution of both intact and degraded low-density lipoprotein fractions was determined from measurements of radiolabelled low-density lipoprotein activity within thin radial sections of perfused arteries. Our results suggest that both hypertensive hemodynamic simulations exacerbate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein within the arterial wall (by a factor of three to nine). The percentage of low-density lipoprotein that undergoes irreversible degradation falls from 41% under normotensive conditions to below 30% when hypertensive conditions are imposed, indicating that degradative processes are not proportionally elevated with the accelerated influx. A similar pattern is observed for deendothelialized vessels.

  9. Suppression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice overexpressing lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, M; Ishibashi, S; Inaba, T; Yagyu, H; Harada, K; Osuga, J I; Ohashi, K; Yazaki, Y; Yamada, N

    1996-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Conflicting results have been reported concerning its role in atherogenesis. To determine the effects of the overexpressed LPL on diet-induced atherosclerosis, we have generated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice that overexpressed human LPL transgene (LPL/LDLRKO) and compared their plasma lipoproteins and atherosclerosis with those in nonexpressing LDLR-knockout mice (LDLRKO). On a normal chow diet, LPL/LDLRKO mice showed marked suppression of mean plasma triglyceride levels (32 versus 236 mg/dl) and modest decrease in mean cholesterol levels (300 versus 386 mg/dl) as compared with LDLRKO mice. Larger lipoprotein particles of intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)/LDL were selectively reduced in LPL/LDLRKO mice. On an atherogenic diet, both mice exhibited severe hypercholesterolemia. But, mean plasma cholesterol levels in LPL/ LDLRKO mice were still suppressed as compared with that in LDLRKO mice (1357 versus 2187 mg/dl). Marked reduction in a larger subfraction of IDL/LDL, which conceivably corresponds to remnant lipoproteins, was observed in the LPL/LDLRKO mice. LDLRKO mice developed severe fatty streak lesions in the aortic sinus after feeding with the atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. In contrast, mean lesion area in the LPL/LDLRKO mice was 18-fold smaller than that in LDLRKO mice. We suggest that the altered lipoprotein profile, in particular the reduced level of remnant lipoproteins, is mainly responsible for the protection by LPL against atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8692976

  10. Human plasma very low density lipoprotein carries Indian hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Karla C S; Tio, Rene A; Zeebregts, Clark J; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Zijlstra, Felix; Badlou, Bahram; de Vries, Marcel; Ferreira, Carmen V; Spek, C Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2010-11-01

    Hedgehog is one of the major morphogens and fulfils critical functions in both the development and maintenance of the vasculature. Hedgehog is highly hydrophobic and its diffusion toward target tissues remains only partly understood. In Drosophila, hedgehog transport via lipophorins is relevant for development, but neither the presence nor a function for a mammalian Hedgehog carried by human plasma lipoproteins has been established. We investigated the presence of Hedgehog on lipoprotein particles and determined its importance for maintaining the endothelium. LTQ-Orbitrap XL analysis of defined plasma lipoproteins revealed that Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is present in the human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction but not in other plasma lipoprotein fractions (low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL)). Using the same approach, neither Sonic Hedgehog nor Desert Hedgehog could be detected in plasma lipoprotein fractions. Most likely, primary white adipocytes are the source of Ihh loading on VLDL as both transcriptome as well as immunofluorescence analysis showed high expression of Ihh in these cells. Additionally, we show that the endothelial compartment is most likely to be affected by the presence of Ihh on VLDL. Indeed, VLDL increased survival of primary endothelial cells, suggesting that Ihh transport by VLDL is important for maintaining the human endothelium. In conclusion, our study shows that VLDL carries Ihh throughout the body in mammals and Hedgehog signaling by human plasma VLDL particles may affect blood vessel pathophysiology. A combination of three state-of-the-art technologies, proteomics, genomics, and confocal microscopy, appeared to be a powerful tool for analyzing plasma lipoprotein-associated proteins. PMID:20839884

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Is Transferred from High-Density to Low-Density Lipoproteins by Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein and Phospholipid Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Levels, J. H. M.; Marquart, J. A.; Abraham, P. R.; van den Ende, A. E.; Molhuizen, H. O. F.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major outer membrane component of gram-negative bacteria, is a potent endotoxin that triggers cytokine-mediated systemic inflammatory responses in the host. Plasma lipoproteins are capable of LPS sequestration, thereby attenuating the host response to infection, but ensuing dyslipidemia severely compromises this host defense mechanism. We have recently reported that Escherichia coli J5 and Re595 LPS chemotypes that contain relatively short O-antigen polysaccharide side chains are efficiently redistributed from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to other lipoprotein subclasses in normal human whole blood (ex vivo). In this study, we examined the role of the acute-phase proteins LPS-binding protein (LBP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in this process. By the use of isolated HDL containing fluorescent J5 LPS, the redistribution of endotoxin among the major lipoprotein subclasses in a model system was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The kinetics of LPS and lipid particle interactions were determined by using Biacore analysis. LBP and PLTP were found to transfer LPS from HDL predominantly to low-density lipoproteins (LDL), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, to induce remodeling of HDL into two subpopulations as a consequence of the LPS transfer and to enhance the steady-state association of LDL with HDL in a dose-dependent fashion. The presence of LPS on HDL further enhanced LBP-dependent interactions of LDL with HDL and increased the stability of the HDL-LDL complexes. We postulate that HDL remodeling induced by LBP- and PLTP-mediated LPS transfer may contribute to the plasma lipoprotein dyslipidemia characteristic of the acute-phase response to infection. PMID:15784577

  12. Lipolytic degradation of human very low density lipoproteins by human milk lipoprotein lipase: the identification of lipoprotein B as the main lipoprotein degradation product.

    PubMed

    Alaupovic, P; Wang, C S; McConathy, W J; Weiser, D; Downs, D

    1986-01-01

    Although the direct conversion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) into low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins only requires lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as a catalyst and albumin as the fatty acid acceptor, the in vitro-formed LDL and HDL differ chemically from their native counterparts. To investigate the reason(s) for these differences, VLDL were treated with human milk LPL in the presence of albumin, and the LPL-generated LDL1-, LDL2-, and HDL-like particles were characterized by lipid and apolipoprotein composition. Results showed that the removal of apolipoproteins B, C, and E from VLDL was proportional to the degree of triglyceride hydrolysis with LDL2 particles as the major and LDL1 and HDL + VHDL particles as the minor products of a complete in vitro lipolysis of VLDL. In comparison with native counterparts, the in vitro-formed LDL2 and HDL + VHDL were characterized by lower levels of triglyceride and cholesterol ester and higher levels of free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus. The characterization of lipoprotein particles present in the in vitro-produced LDL2 showed that, as in plasma LDL2, lipoprotein B (LP-B) was the major apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein accounting for over 90% of the total apolipoprotein B. Other, minor species of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins included LP-B:C-I:E and LP-B:C-I:C-II:C-III. The lipid composition of in vitro-formed LP-B closely resembled that of plasma LP-B. The major parts of apolipoproteins C and E present in VLDL were released to HDL + VHDL as simple, cholesterol/phospholipid-rich lipoproteins including LP-C-I, LP-C-II, LP-C-III, and LP-E. However, some of these same simple lipoprotein particles were present after ultracentrifugation in the LDL2 density segment because of their hydrated density and/or because they formed, in the absence of naturally occurring acceptors (LP-A-I:A-II), weak associations with LP-B. Thus, the presence of varying amounts of these cholesterol/phospholipid-rich lipoproteins in the in vitro-formed LDL2 appears to be the main reason for their compositional difference from native LDL2. These results demonstrate that the formation of LP-B as the major apolipoprotein B-containing product of VLDL lipolysis only requires LPL as a catalyst and albumin as the fatty acid acceptor. However, under physiological circumstances, other modulating agents are necessary to prevent the accumulation and interaction of phospholipid/cholesterol-rich apolipoprotein C- and E-containing particles. PMID:3080947

  13. Biosynthesis of high density lipoprotein by chicken liver: nature of nascent intracellular high density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, D; Redman, CM

    1983-01-01

    Young chickens were administered L-[(3)H]leucine and after 10 or 30 min the livers were removed and fractioned into rough (RER) and smooth (SER) endoplasmic reticulum fractions and into light, intermediate, and heavy golgo cell fractions. The labeled high density lipoprotein (HDL), contained within these intracellular organelles was isolated either by immunoprecipitation using rabbit antiserum to rooster HDL, or by ultracentrifugal glotation between densities 1.063 and 1.21 g/ml. The radioactive apoproteins of nascent HDL were analyzed by SDS PAGE and detected by fluorography. Analyses of radioactive apoproteins obtained by immunoprecipitation from the contents of the RER, the SER, and the three golgi complex fractions revealed only one apoprotein, A1. The C peptide present in serum HDL was not detected intracellularly. The radioactive apoprotein A1 which is present within the cisternae of the RER and the SER fractions failed to float, whereas apoprotein A1, present within the golgi apparatus, readily floated between densities 1.063 and 1.21 g/ml. The HDL particles, isolated by flotation from the golgi apparatus content, were further characterized by lipid and protein analyses and by electron microscopy. Golgi HDL particles have the same density as serum HDL. On a percentage basis, golgi HDL contains less protein and more phospholipids than does serum HDL. Morphologically, golgi HDL is different in appearance from serum HDL. It is more heterogeneous in size, with most of the particles ranging 8.3-25 nm in diameter. The spherical particles contain small membrane tails. Occasionally, a few disk-shaped bilayer structures are also found within the golgi apparatus. These studies show that the newly synthesized apoprotein A1, present within the RER and the SER cell fractions, is not fully complexed with lipid and that apoprotein A1 does not acquire sufficient lipid to float at the proper HDL density until it enters the golgi apparatus. The difference in chemical composition and the heterogeneous size of golgi HDL may be attributed to the different stages of HDL maturation. PMID:6403553

  14. Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes. PMID:1380327

  15. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.; Bao, Clare; Swaim, AnneMarie F.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC). Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis. PMID:26680360

  16. Effects of human low and high density lipoproteins on the binding of rat intermediate density lipoproteins to rat liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brissette, L.; Nol, S.P.

    1986-05-25

    Upon incubation with rat liver membranes, radioiodinated rat intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) interacted with at least two binding sites having a low and a high affinity as demonstrated by the curvilinear Scatchard plots obtained from the specific binding data. The purpose of our work was to identify the nature of these binding sites. Human low density lipoproteins (LDL), contain apolipoprotein B only, and human high density lipoproteins (HDL3), containing neither apolipoprotein B nor E, were both capable of decreasing the specific binding of rat /sup 125/I-IDL. The Scatchard analysis clearly revealed that only the low affinity component was affected by the addition of these human lipoproteins. In fact, the low affinity binding component gradually decreased as the amount of human LDL or HDL3 increased in the binding assay. At a 200-fold excess of human LDL or HDL3, the low affinity binding was totally masked, and the Scatchard plot of the specific /sup 125/I-IDL binding became linear. Only the high affinity binding component was left, enabling a precise measurement of its binding parameters. In a series of competitive displacement experiments in which the binding assay contained a 200-fold excess of human LDL or HDL3, only unlabeled rat IDL effectively displaced the binding of rat /sup 125/I-IDL. We conclude that the low affinity binding of rat IDL to rat liver membranes is due to weak interactions with unspecified lipoprotein binding sites. The camouflage of these sites by human lipoproteins makes possible the study of IDL binding to the high affinity component which likely represents the combined effect of IDL binding to both the remnant and the LDL receptors.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein...

  2. [THE BECOMING IN PHYLOGENESIS OF TRANSFER IN INTERCELLULAR MEDIUM AND ACTIVE ABSORPTION OF POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS BY CELLS SEQUENTIALLY OF HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS AND HIGH DENSITY APOE-LIPOPROTEINS].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2015-06-01

    After more than half-century of different conceptions, the theory of general pathology was used to substantiate that all lipoproteins are bi-layer:lipid by their structure. The main function of high density lipoproteins as of all lipoproteins is transfer of fatty acids to cells and only in second turn taking away of spirit cholesterol from cells. At the stages of phylogenesis high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins began to function in a subsequent way. The fatty acids were transferred by low density lipoproteins in polar lipids at passive absorption by cells. Later on, lipoproteins transfer fatty acids in non-polar ethers with spirits glycerin and spirit cholesterol. The cells absorb them by receptor endocytosis. The hepatocytes secret in blood palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linoleic very low density lipoproteins. The palmitic and oleic very low density lipoproteins absorb physiologically insulin-dependent cells apoE/B-100 = endocytosis. The linoleic and linoleic very low density lipoproteins after transition of polyethers cholesterol from high density lipoproteins turn into low density lipoproteins. The cells absorb them by apoB-100 = endocytosis. The formation of chylomicrons occurs in blood and hepatocytes absorb them by the way of apoB/E-48 = endocytosis. The absorption of poly-unsaturated fatty acids by cells with apoB-100 = endocytosis form sensitivity of animals to exogenous hyper spirit cholesterol and absorption of poly-unsaturated fatty acids by apoE/A-I = receptors form corresponding resistance. The ApoE in lipoproteins form cooperative ligands--apoE/B-48 for chylomicrons, apoE/B-100 for very low density lipoproteins and apoE/A-I for high density lipoproteins. The chylomicrons in blood form apoB-48 from complexes of triglycerides secreted by enterocytes. These views change conceptions of pathogenesis and prevention of atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and resistance to insulin whose pathogenesis is unified by disorder of transfer in intercellular medium and absorption of fatty acids by cells. PMID:26466444

  3. High-Density Lipoproteins and the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Hidesuke

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a major role in vasodilation and in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis, and infection; however, HDL is now less functional in these roles under certain conditions. This paper focuses on HDL, its anti-inflammation behavior, and the mechanisms by which HDL interacts with components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and proteomic studies have elucidated important molecules involved in the interaction between HDL and the immune system. An understanding of these mechanisms is expected to be useful for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation due to metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, or various autoimmune diseases. PMID:23431458

  4. Low-Density Lipoprotein Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer.

    PubMed

    Chunta, Suticha; Suedee, Roongnapa; Lieberzeit, Peter A

    2016-01-19

    Increased level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) strongly correlates with incidence of coronary heart disease. We synthesized novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) as biomimetic specific receptors to establish rapid analysis of LDL levels. For that purpose the ratios of monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MAA), and N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), respectively, were screened on 10 MHz dual-electrode quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). Mixing MAA and VP in the ratio 3:2 (m/m) revealed linear sensor characteristic to LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) from 4 to 400 mg/dL or 0.10-10.34 mmol/L in 100 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) without significant interference: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) yields 4-6% of the LDL signal, very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) yields 1-3%, and human serum albumin (HSA) yields 0-2%. The LDL-MIP sensor reveals analytical accuracy of 95-96% at the 95% confidence interval with precision at 6-15%, respectively. Human serum diluted 1:2 with PBS buffer was analyzed by LDL-MIP sensors to demonstrate applicability to real-life samples. The sensor responses are excellently correlated to the results of the standard technique, namely, a homogeneous enzymatic assay (R(2) = 0.97). This demonstrates that the system can be successfully applied to human serum samples for determining LDL concentrations. PMID:26643785

  5. THERMAL TRANSITIONS IN HUMAN VERY LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN: FUSION, RUPTURE AND DISSOCIATION OF HDL-LIKE PARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Madhumita; England, Cheryl; Herscovitz, Haya; Gursky, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are metabolic precursors of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Human VLDL are heterogeneous complexes containing triacylglyceride-rich apolar lipid core and polar surface comprised of phospholipids, a non-exchangeable apolipoprotein B, and exchangeable apolipoproteins E and Cs. We report the first stability study of VLDL. Circular dichroism and turbidity data reveal an irreversible heat-induced VLDL transition that involves formation of larger particles and repacking of apolar lipids but no global protein unfolding. Heating rate effect on the melting temperature indicates a kinetically controlled reaction with high activation energy, Ea. Arrhenius analysis of the turbidity data reveals two kinetic phases with Ea=537 kcal/mol that correspond to distinct morphological transitions observed by electron microscopy. One transition involves VLDL fusion, partial rupture and dissociation of small spherical particles (d=715 nm), and another involves complete lipoprotein disintegration and lipid coalescence into droplets accompanied by dissociation of apolipoprotein B. The small particles, which are unique to VLDL denaturation, are comparable in size and density to high-density lipoproteins (HDL); they have apolar lipid core and polar surface comprised of exchangeable apolipoproteins (E and possibly Cs) and phospholipids. We conclude that, similar to HDL and LDL, VLDL are stabilized by kinetic barriers that prevent particle fusion and rupture and decelerate spontaneous inter-conversion among lipoprotein classes and subclasses. In addition to fusion, VLDL disruption involves transient formation of HDL-like particles that may mimic protein exchange among VLDL and HDL pools in plasma. PMID:17469851

  6. Purification of very high density lipoproteins by differential density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Haunerland, N H; Ryan, R O; Law, J H; Bowers, W S

    1987-03-01

    Differential density gradient ultracentrifugation procedures, utilizing a vertical rotor, were developed for the preparative purification of very high density lipoproteins (VHDL, density greater than 1.21 g/ml). The VHDLs of several insect species were purified as follows. An initial density gradient ultracentrifugation step removed lipoproteins of lower density from the VHDL-fraction, which partially separated from the nonlipoproteins present in the infranatant. A complete separation was achieved by a second centrifugation step employing a modified gradient system. The use of a vertical rotor and specially designed discontinuous gradients allows a relatively fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the class of very high density lipoproteins. Similar gradient systems should be useful for the detection and purification of VHDLs from other sources. PMID:3578796

  7. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  8. Imaging and manipulation of high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J W; Jonas, A; Sligar, S G

    1997-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to image a variety of biological systems, but has rarely been applied to soluble protein-lipid complexes. One of the primary physiological protein-lipid complexes is the high-density lipoproteins (HDL), responsible for the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and other lipoproteins to the liver. We have used the AFM to directly image discoidal reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles for the first time. The height of these particles is consistent with a phospholipid bilayer structure, but careful high resolution measurements of particle diameters has indicated that they fuse when adsorbed to mica. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the AFM can be used to initiate this bilayer fusion in a controlled manner, allowing the fabrication of stabilized, nanometer scale, phospholipid bilayer "domains." Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9284285

  9. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases atherogenic lipoproteins and reduces lipoprotein (a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer L; Comperatore, Michael; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Andersen, Catherine; McIntosh, Mark; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet (control group, n = 41) and the same diet plus a medical food (MF) containing phytosterols, soy protein, and extracts from hops and Acacia (MF group, n = 42) on lipoprotein atherogenicity in women with metabolic syndrome. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), lipoprotein subfractions and particle size, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and lipoprotein (a) were measured at baseline, week 8, and week 12 of the intervention. Three-day dietary records were collected at the same time points to assess compliance. Compared with baseline, women decreased energy intake from carbohydrate (P < .001) and fat (P < .001), whereas they increased energy intake from protein (P < .001). A significant increase in energy from monounsaturated fatty acids was also observed as well as increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas trans-fatty acid intake was reduced (P < .00001). The atherogenic lipoproteins, large very low-density lipoprotein (P < .0001) and small LDL (P < .0001), were reduced, whereas the ratio of large high-density lipoprotein to smaller high-density lipoprotein particles was increased (P < .0001). Apolipoprotein B was reduced for all women (P < .0001), with a greater reduction in the MF group (P < .025). Oxidized LDL (P < .05) and lipoprotein (a) (P < .001) were reduced in both groups at the end of the intervention. Consumption of a Mediterranean-style diet reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease by decreasing atherogenic lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, and apo B. Inclusion of an MF may have an additional effect in reducing apo B. PMID:21944261

  10. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC)

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Zhang, Ying; Stoner, Julie A.; Klein, Richard L.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Timothy Garvey, W.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in adults with T1DM (n=455) enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983–89) and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, at EDIC ‘Year 1’ (199–1996) and EDIC ‘Year 6’ (1998–2000). This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and ‘conventional’ total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press) [1]. PMID:26759826

  11. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC).

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Jenkins, Alicia J; Zhang, Ying; Stoner, Julie A; Klein, Richard L; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Timothy Garvey, W; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in adults with T1DM (n=455) enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983-89) and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, at EDIC 'Year 1' (199-1996) and EDIC 'Year 6' (1998-2000). This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and 'conventional' total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press) [1]. PMID:26759826

  12. Diet and low-density lipoprotein particle size.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Sophie; Lamarche, Benoît

    2004-11-01

    Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are being increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This paper provides an overview of how different diets and macronutrients modulate the LDL size phenotype. Data reviewed indicated that several components of the LDL size phenotype should be measured concurrently in order to fully appreciate the impact of diet on this complex trait. Data also suggested that numerous dietary elements have a significant impact on several characteristics of the LDL size phenotype, thus providing further evidence to the concept that specific dietary modifications can beneficially alter cardiovascular disease risk beyond their known and demonstrated effects on plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations. PMID:15485591

  13. Reversible abnormalities of low density lipoprotein composition in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, A V; Thompson, G R

    1979-02-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) composition was analysed in twenty-one patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, including six homozygotes. By comparison with nineteen controls the patients' LDL had an increased ratio of cholesterol:phospholipid and a decreased ratio of lecithin:sphingomyelin; these changes were more marked in homozygotes than in heterozygotes. Treatment of sevel patients with plasma exchange temporarily resulted in near-normalization of the composition of their LDL. These results suggest that abnormalities of LDL composition in familial hypercholesterolaemia are secondary to hypocatabolism of LDL, which prolongs the half-life of LDL and thus increases the mean age of the population of particles circulating in plasma. PMID:222593

  14. Relative atherogenicity and predictive value of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established atherogenic factor for coronary heart disease, it does not completely represent the risk associated with atherogenic lipoproteins in the presence of high triglyceride (TG) levels. Constituent lipoproteins constituting nonhig...

  15. LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE RELEASES ESTERIFIED OXYLIPINS FROM VERY LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defects in lipoprotein metabolism alter the lipoprotein distribution of oxidized PUFAs, and we speculate that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is a determinant in the release of VLDL-associated oxylipins. Here, using 12 wk old normolipidemic (lean) and hyperlipidemic (obese) Zucker-rats, we measured PUFA al...

  16. Phagocytosis of aggregated lipoprotein by macrophages: Low density lipoprotein receptor-dependent foam-cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; Chait, A.; Aviram, M.; Heinecke, J.W. )

    1989-04-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by incubation with phospholipase C (PLC-LDL) aggregates in solution and is rapidly taken up and degraded by human and mouse macrophages, producing foam cells in vitro. Human, mouse, and rabbit macrophages degraded {sup 125}I-labeled PLC-LDL ({sup 125}I-PLC-LDL) more rapidly than native {sup 125}I-labeled LDL ({sup 125}I-LDL), while nonphagocytic cells such as human fibroblasts and bovine aortic endothelial cells degraded {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL more slowly than {sup 125}I-LDL. This suggested the mechanism for internalization of PLC-LDL was phagocytosis. When examined by electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages appeared to be phagocytosing PLC-LDL. The uptake and degradation of {sup 125}I-PLC-LDL by human macrophages was inhibited >80% by the monoclonal antibody C7 (IgG2b) produced by hybridoma C7, which blocks the ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Similarly, methylation of {sup 125}I-LDL ({sup 125}I-MeLDL) prior to treatment with phospholipase C decreased its subsequent uptake and degradation by human macrophages by >90%. The uptake and degradation of phospholipase C-modified {sup 125}I-MeLDL by macrophages could be restored by incubation of the methylated lipoprotein with apoprotein E, a ligand recognized by the LDL receptor. These results indicate that macrophages internalize PLC-LDL by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis.

  17. Protein carbamylation renders high-density lipoprotein dysfunctional

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Carbamylation of proteins through reactive cyanate has been demonstrated to predict an increased cardiovascular risk. Cyanate is formed in vivo by break-down of urea and at sites of inflammation by the phagocyte protein myeloperoxidase. Since myeloperoxidase (MPO) associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human atherosclerotic intima, we examined in the present study whether cyanate specifically targets HDL. Results Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that protein carbamylation is a major post-translational modification of HDL. The carbamyllysine content of lesion derived HDL was more than 20-fold higher in comparison to 3-chlorotyrosine levels, a specific oxidation product of MPO. Notable, the carbamyllysine content of lesion-derived HDL was 5 to 8-fold higher when compared to lesion derived low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or total lesion protein and increased with lesion severity. Importantly, the carbamyllysine content of HDL, but not of LDL, correlated with levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, suggesting MPO mediated carbamylation in the vessel wall. Remarkably, one carbamyllysine residue per HDL associated apolipoprotein A-I was sufficient to induce cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation in macrophages through a pathway requiring the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I. Conclusion The present results raise the possibility that HDL carbamylation contributes to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21235354

  18. An evaluation of serum high density lipoproteins-phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Ide, H; Tsuji, M; Shimada, M; Kondo, T; Fujiya, S; Asanuma, Y; Agishi, Y

    1988-07-01

    Phospholipids in high density lipoproteins (HDL) is being used as a negative risk indicator of atherosclerosis. Phospholipids in HDL may not demonstrate the actual level of HDL-phospholipids when determined by the precipitation or ultracentrifugal methods, because HDL fractions contain very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) and albumin. In the present study, the true level of phospholipids in HDL was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was compared with the level of phospholipids in HDL determined by the precipitation method. Sera from 18 healthy subjects were used as materials. In the HPLC method, the HDL fraction was extracted making sure that it contained no free albumin, which is albumin not bound to phospholipids. The HDL fraction was separated into subfractions. It was found that phospholipids in the VHDL fraction make a 20.2 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- S.D.) part of the total HDL-phospholipids. A large part of the VHDL fraction was constituted of albumin-bound phospholipids. A significant correlation was observed between HDL-phospholipids determined by the precipitation method, which contain albumin, and the actual HDL fraction phospholipids determined by HPLC, which do not contain VHDL (r = 0.903, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that HDL-phospholipids values determined by the precipitation method give useful clinical data. PMID:3176021

  19. Novel therapies focused on the high-density lipoprotein particle.

    PubMed

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Brewer, H Bryan; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major burden for morbidity and mortality in the general population, despite current efficacious low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapies. Consequently, novel therapies are required to reduce this residual risk. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease risk, and this initiated the quest for HDL-C-increasing therapies. Consequently, several different targets in HDL metabolism have been identified. Initial studies addressing the effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition on cardiovascular disease outcome have been discontinued for reasons of futility or increased mortality. As of yet, 2 cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors are still in phase III studies. Other HDL-based interventions, such as apolipoprotein A1-based compounds, ABC-transporter upregulators, selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-based therapy, hold great promise for the future. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of HDL-targeted pharmaceutical strategies in humans, both in early development as well as in late stage clinical trials. PMID:24385512

  20. Effect of dietary fat saturation on plasma lipoproteins and high density lipoprotein metabolism of the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Chong, K S; Nicolosi, R J; Rodger, R F; Arrigo, D A; Yuan, R W; MacKey, J J; Georas, S; Herbert, P N

    1987-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were fed corn or coconut oil-based diets for 3-6 mo to determine effects on the composition of all lipoprotein classes and on the metabolism of high density lipoproteins (HDL). Major findings included the following. Coconut oil feeding increased concentrations of all classes of plasma lipoproteins without altering lipoprotein size, suggesting an increase in particle number. The percentage of saturated fatty acids in the cholesteryl esters (CE) of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and HDL reached 40% with coconut oil feeding. This value probably constitutes a minimum estimate of the CE which were of intracellular rather than intraplasmic origin. The CE in LDL and HDL were nearly identical suggesting virtually complete equilibration by the core lipid transfer reaction. The CE in very low density lipoproteins, in contrast, were significantly more saturated than those in LDL and HDL irrespective of diet. Lower HDL levels on the corn oil diet were associated with higher fractional catabolic rates for both apolipoprotein A-I (0.42 vs. 0.31 d-1) and apolipoprotein A-II (0.45 vs. 0.30 d-1). Images PMID:3102555

  1. Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Guiducci, Candace; Surti, Aarti; Burtt, Noël P; Rieder, Mark J; Cooper, Gregory M; Roos, Charlotta; Voight, Benjamin F; Havulinna, Aki S; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hedner, Thomas; Corella, Dolores; Tai, E Shyong; Ordovas, Jose M; Berglund, Göran; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Hedblad, Bo; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David M; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2008-02-01

    Blood concentrations of lipoproteins and lipids are heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Using genome-wide association data from three studies (n = 8,816 that included 2,758 individuals from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative specific to the current paper as well as 1,874 individuals from the FUSION study of type 2 diabetes and 4,184 individuals from the SardiNIA study of aging-associated variables reported in a companion paper in this issue) and targeted replication association analyses in up to 18,554 independent participants, we show that common SNPs at 18 loci are reproducibly associated with concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and/or triglycerides. Six of these loci are new (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each new locus). Of the six newly identified chromosomal regions, two were associated with LDL cholesterol (1p13 near CELSR2, PSRC1 and SORT1 and 19p13 near CILP2 and PBX4), one with HDL cholesterol (1q42 in GALNT2) and five with triglycerides (7q11 near TBL2 and MLXIPL, 8q24 near TRIB1, 1q42 in GALNT2, 19p13 near CILP2 and PBX4 and 1p31 near ANGPTL3). At 1p13, the LDL-associated SNP was also strongly correlated with CELSR2, PSRC1, and SORT1 transcript levels in human liver, and a proxy for this SNP was recently shown to affect risk for coronary artery disease. Understanding the molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of the newly identified loci may inform therapy and clinical care. PMID:18193044

  2. Cholesterol transfer from normal and atherogenic low density lipoproteins to Mycoplasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mitschelen, J.J.; St. Clair, R.W.; Hester, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the free cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein from cholesterol-fed nonhuman primates has a greater potential for surface transfer to cell membranes than does the free cholesterol of normal low density lipoprotein. The low density lipoproteins were isolated from normal and hypercholesterolemic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, incubated with membranes from Acholeplasma laidlawii, a mycoplasma species devoid of cholesterol in its membranes, and the mass transfer of free cholesterol determined by measuring membrane cholesterol content. Since these membranes neither synthesize nor esterify cholesterol, nor degrade the protein or cholesterol ester moieties of low density lipoprotein, they are an ideal model with which to study differences in the cholesterol transfer potential of low density lipoprotein independent of the uptake of the intact low density lipoprotein particle. These studies indicate that, even though there are marked differences in the cholesterol composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic low density lipoproteins, this does not result in a greater chemical potential for surface transfer of free cholesterol. Consequently, if a difference in the surface transfer of free cholesterol is responsible for the enhanced ability of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein to promote cellular cholesterol accumulation and, perhaps, also atherosclerosis, it must be the result of differences in the interaction to the hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein with the more complicated mammalian cell membranes, rather than differences in the chemical potential for cholesterol transfer.

  3. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  4. Effects of high-density lipoproteins on storage at 4 degrees C of fowl spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Blesbois, E; Hermier, D

    1990-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characterization of lipoproteins found in seminal plasma from domestic cocks was performed after isolation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Trigyceride-rich lipoproteins (very low, intermediate- and low density lipoproteins) were not detectable in seminal plasma. High-density lipoproteins (HDL), identified on the basis of size, chemical composition and protein moiety, were present at a concentration of 66 micrograms/ml. A fraction possibly corresponding to VHDL (very high density lipoproteins, 77% protein, 23% lipid) was also detected but appeared contaminated by a protein-rich opalescent material. Since HDL contains mostly phospholipid and cholesterol, the physiological role of these lipoproteins on the storage of fowl spermatozoa was studied. Replacing seminal plasma with a solution containing chicken HDL at physiological concentration (66 micrograms/ml) had no effect on fertilizing ability of spermatozoa stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h. However, higher concentrations of HDL (560 micrograms/ml) had deleterious effects on spermatozoa stored in vitro. PMID:2250247

  5. Low density lipoprotein undergoes oxidative modification in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Palinski, W; Rosenfeld, M E; Yl-Herttuala, S; Gurtner, G C; Socher, S S; Butler, S W; Parthasarathy, S; Carew, T E; Steinberg, D; Witztum, J L

    1989-01-01

    It has been proposed that low density lipoprotein (LDL) must undergo oxidative modification before it can give rise to foam cells, the key component of the fatty streak lesion of atherosclerosis. Oxidation of LDL probably generates a broad spectrum of conjugates between fragments of oxidized fatty acids and apolipoprotein B. We now present three mutually supportive lines of evidence for oxidation of LDL in vivo: (i) Antibodies against oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde-lysine, or 4-hydroxynonenal-lysine recognize materials in the atherosclerotic lesions of LDL receptor-deficient rabbits; (ii) LDL gently extracted from lesions of these rabbits is recognized by an antiserum against malondialdehyde-conjugated LDL; (iii) autoantibodies against malondialdehyde-LDL (titers from 512 to greater than 4096) can be demonstrated in rabbit and human sera. Images PMID:2465552

  6. Change in composition of high density lipoprotein during gemfibrozil therapy.

    PubMed

    Sorisky, A; Ooi, T C; Simo, I E; Meuffels, M; Hindmarsh, J T; Nair, R

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) response in 20 middle-aged males during a 12-week course of gemfibrozil. Three aspects of the increase in HDL-C (25%) were studied and our observations are as follows: (1) subfraction analysis showed that HDL3-C rose earlier and to a larger extent (28%) than HDL2-C (15%), (2) analysis of variance group--time interaction effect and correlation studies of HDL-C and total triglycerides suggest the increase in HDL-C was due to a direct effect of gemfibrozil on HDL metabolism, and (3) HDL-C was the only one of 4 HDL components to increase. Apoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and HDL-phospholipid (HDL-PL) did not change, and HDL-triglyceride (HDL-TG) decreased. This pattern is consistent with a change in composition of HDL, i.e. cholesterol enrichment and triglyceride depletion. PMID:3118893

  7. Tetravalent vanadium mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Dickson, C; Stern, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Tetravalent vanadium causes oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) as manifest by protein degradation and lipid peroxidation. 2. Oxidative modification of the apolipoprotein B-100 is paralleled by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and fluorescent chromolipid production. 3. The metal chelators ethylenediamine tetracetic acid and desferrioxamine, and the alcohols, ethanol and isopropanol inhibit the oxidation of LDL by tetravalent vanadium. No inhibition is observed with superoxide dismutase, catalase or mannitol. 4. The data suggest that aldehydes formed during the process of lipid peroxidation induced by tetravalent vanadium react with the proteins in LDL to form fluorescent chromolipids and that the oxidative process originates within the hydrophobic domain of LDL. PMID:2112099

  8. Antioxidant properties of macrophages toward low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, A; Dean, R T; Jessup, W

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Intensive scientific efforts over the last two decades have focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms by which LDL is oxidized in vivo. A wealth of in vitro studies has demonstrated that the cell types present in atherosclerotic lesions, including monocyte/macrophages, quantitatively one of the most important cell types in plaque development, promote LDL oxidation. The mechanisms of cellular prooxidant activities have been extensively investigated. Fewer studies have addressed possible protective properties of the cells in LDL oxidation. This review summarizes recent observations of antioxidant, and potentially antiatherogenic, activities of macrophages toward LDL, including macrophage-mediated detoxification of lipid and protein hydroperoxides, metal sequestration and the generation of compounds with antioxidant properties. These activities could contribute to the net effect of macrophages on deleterious LDL oxidation and to the complex role of these cells in lesion development. PMID:11413045

  9. Can phosphatidylserine enhance atheroprotective activities of high-density lipoprotein?

    PubMed

    Darabi, Maryam; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is well known to be protective against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therapeutic interventions to raise HDL-cholesterol levels do not translate into reduction in cardiovascular risk. Due to the compositional complexity of HDL particles, molecular determinants of their atheroprotective function still remain to be clarified. Recent structural and functional data identify phospholipid as a major bioactive component of HDL. Such a role has recently been specifically evidenced for phosphatidylserine (PS); indeed, HDL content of PS displayed positive correlations with all metrics of HDL functionality assessed. This review summarizes current knowledge about HDL-associated PS; possible mechanisms for its atheroprotective role are discussed and potential applications of PS to HDL-based therapies are highlighted. PMID:26141129

  10. High-density lipoprotein and prostate cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Ikpot, Imoh Z; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Remaley, Alan T

    2013-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a common disease in modern, developed societies and has a high incidence and mortality. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has recently received much attention as a possible risk marker of prostate cancer development and prognosis. In the present article, we summarized findings from epidemiologic studies of the association between HDL-C and prostate cancer. Low HDL-C level was found to be a risk and prognostic factor of prostate cancer in several epidemiologic studies, although the overall linkage between HDL and prostate cancer has not been definitively established. The mechanisms for this association remain uncertain; however, limited data from experimental studies imply a possible role of HDL in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer. More epidemiologic research, in combination with experimental studies, is needed in this field. PMID:23985823

  11. Novel therapeutic agents for lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Joy, Tisha R

    2012-07-01

    Elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite a 25-30% reduction in CVD risk with LDL-C reducing strategies, there is still a significant residual risk. Moreover, achieving target LDL-C values in individuals at high CVD risk is sometimes limited because of tolerability and/or efficacy. Thus, novel therapeutic agents are currently being developed to lower LDL-C levels further. This review will highlight some of these therapeutic agents including anti-sense oligonucleotides focused on apolipoprotein B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors, and thyromimetics. For each therapeutic class, an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic data, and efficacy/safety evidence will be provided. PMID:22465160

  12. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing oligonucleotides conjugated HDL NPs in regulating the expression and function of VEGFR2 in cultured endothelial cells. Finally, the efficacy of the conjugates in two animal models of angiogenesis is presented.

  13. Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Paidi, M.; Badimon, J.J.; Le, N.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.; Ginsberg, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of (99mTc) low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of (99mTc)LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these organs. In both normal and HC rabbits, less than 17% of 99mTc activity appeared in the 24-hr urine following injection of (99mTc)LDL, suggesting that in vivo, (99mTc)LDL is trapped and accumulated within the tissues. Direct comparison of (99mTc)LDL, 125I-native-LDL and (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand) in normal rabbits, demonstrated that the biodistribution of (99mTc)LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL. The adrenal glands, liver, and spleen accumulated significantly greater quantities of 99mTc and 131I activity per gram of tissue than 125I (from native-LDL). In addition, imaging studies in monkeys, showed that the hepatic uptake and retention of (99mTc) LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose LDL. In contrast, radioiodine from native-LDL was deiodinated in liver with subsequent excretion into the intestine. These results suggest that (99mTc)LDL acts as a trapped ligand in vivo and should therefore, be a good tracer for noninvasive quantitative biodistribution studies of LDL.

  14. Fitness, Heart Disease, and High-Density Lipoproteins: A Look at the Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCunney, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of fitness in preventing coronary heart disease is explored. Research on high-density lipoprotein, which has been found to be one of the most critical determinants of risk, is reviewed. The relationship between fitness, high-density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease is assessed, and clinical implications are spelled out. (MT)

  15. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Nader; Younesian, Ali; Mohammadion, Morteza; Bambaeichi, Effat

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players. METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml) for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 58.2 vs. 88.63 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001), whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was lower before the match than after it (98.04 28.9 vs. 112.31 30.5 mg/dl). Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 32.75 mg/dl) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (34.04 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 4.6 mg/dl) between before and after the match. CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid profiles, the lower rate of LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride as well as the higher level of HDL in players suggest a beneficial effect of regular soccer training on arthrosclerosis and perhaps on CHD risk as well. PMID:21772906

  16. Low density lipoprotein- and high density lipoprotein-mediated signal transduction and exocytosis in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed Central

    Voyno-Yasenetskaya, T A; Dobbs, L G; Erickson, S K; Hamilton, R L

    1993-01-01

    Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) from serum stimulate signal-transduction pathways and exocytosis in rat alveolar type II cells. Both LDL and HDL stimulated primary cultures of type II cells to secrete phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the major phospholipid component of pulmonary surfactant. The effects on secretion were preceded temporally by stimulation of inositol phospholipid catabolism, calcium mobilization, and translocation of protein kinase C from cytosolic to membrane compartments. Heparin, which blocks the binding of ligands to the LDL receptor, completely inhibited the effects of LDL on signal transduction and PtdCho secretion but did not inhibit the effects of HDL. Unilamellar PtdCho liposomes the size of native LDL had no effect on type II cells; however, PtdCho complexes containing either apolipoproteins E or A-I stimulated both signal transduction and PtdCho secretion. LDL receptors were present in type II cell membranes by immunoblotting. In contrast to findings with hepatic membranes, type II cells exhibited two major bands of 130 kDa and 120 kDa and a minor band at 230 kDa that also was present under reducing conditions. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that the LDL-receptor pathway functions in vivo to deliver cholesterol to type II cells and that this process is coupled to surfactant assembly and secretion via signal-transduction pathway(s). HDL elicits similar responses independent of the LDL receptor, suggesting that type II cells may use the selective uptake pathway to obtain cholesterol or that HDL triggers signal transduction by mechanisms unrelated to lipid delivery. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8483941

  17. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-03-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of /sup 125/I)HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with (/sup 125/I)HDL/sub 3/ and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL/sub 3/ binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation.

  18. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: high density lipoprotein binding to liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, C.A.; Lei, K.Y.; Marchello, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    In copper-deficient rats, the observed hyperlipoproteinemia was mainly due to the elevation in high density lipoproteins (HDL). This study was designed to determine whether an impairment in the binding of HDL to liver membrane is responsible for the hyperlipoproteinemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 treatments, namely copper (Cu) deficient and adequate (less than 1 and 8 mg Cu/kg of diet). After 8 weeks, plasma, heart and liver tissues were obtained. Reduction in liver Cu content and elevation in heart to body weight ratio and plasma cholesterol confirmed that rats fed the test diet were Cu-deficient. Plasma HDL isolated from both Cu-deficient and control rats were iodinated and bound to liver membranes prepared from rats of each treatment. Binding of /sup 125/I-HDL was competitively inhibited by unlabelled rat HDL from both treatments, but not by human LDL. Scatchard analysis of specific binding data showed that maximal /sup 125/I-HDL binding (per mg membrane protein) to membranes prepared from Cu-deficient rats was not lower than controls. Furthermore, the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from deficient rats specifically bound to liver membranes prepared from either treatment was not less than the amount of /sup 125/I-HDL from control rats bound to the same membranes. The data suggest that the hyperlipoproteinemia in Cu-deficient rats may not have resulted from a decrease in the number of hepatic HDL binding sites.

  19. Effects of high density lipoprotein subfractions on cholesterol homeostasis in human fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oram, J F

    1983-01-01

    Ultracentrifugally isolated high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles of d greater than 1.125 g/ml promote net transport of cholesterol from cultured cells. Consequently, when cultured human fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells were incubated with HDL3 (d = 1.125-1.21 g/ml) and "very high" density lipoprotein (VHDL, d = 1.21-1.25 g/ml), low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity was induced and the rate of LDL degradation by the cells was increased. Enhancement of LDL degradation by HDL3 and VHDL was sustained over incubation periods of 5 days at medium LDL concentrations greater than needed to saturate the LDL receptors. Even during these long-term incubations with LDL, HDL3 and VHDL caused marked reductions in cellular cholesterol content. Thus, an increase in the rate of cholesterol transport from cells may lead to a steady-state decrease in cellular cholesterol content and a sustained increase in the rate of clearance of LDL from the extracellular fluid. In contrast to the effects of HDL3 and VHDL, the major subclasses of HDL2 (HDL2b, d = 1.063-1.100 g/ml; HDL2a, d = 1.100-1.125 g/ml) did not promote net cholesterol transport from cells. Moreover, by apparent direct blockage of the effects that HDL3 and VHDL had on cholesterol transport, HDL2 reversed the increased rate of LDL degradation induced by HDL3 and VHDL. These results suggest that the relative proportion of HDL subfractions in the extracellular fluid may be an important determinant of both the rate of cholesterol transport from cells and the rate of receptor-mediated catabolism of LDL. PMID:6312947

  20. Native low density lipoprotein promotes lipid raft formation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JIAN; PING, LING-YAN; DUONG, DUC M.; GAO, XIAO-YAN; HE, CHUN-YAN; WEI, LEI; WU, JUN-ZHU

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has an important role in atherogenesis; however, the mechanisms underlying cell-mediated LDL oxidation remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether native-LDL induced lipid raft formation, in order to gain further insight into LDL oxidation. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that lipid rafts were aggregated or clustered in the membrane, which were colocalized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon native LDL stimulation; however, in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), LDL-stimulated aggregation, translocation, and colocalization of lipid rafts components was abolished.. In addition, lipid raft disruptors MβCD and filipin decreased malondialdehyde expression levels. Density gradient centrifugation coupled to label-free quantitative proteomic analysis identified 1,449 individual proteins, of which 203 were significantly upregulated following native-LDL stimulation. Functional classification of the proteins identified in the lipid rafts revealed that the expression levels of translocation proteins were upregulated. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that native-LDL induced lipid raft clustering in macrophages, and the expression levels of several proteins were altered in the stimulated macrophages, which provided novel insights into the mechanism underlying LDL oxidation. PMID:26781977

  1. Cholesteryl Ester Hydroperoxides Are Biologically Active Components of Minimally Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein*S?

    PubMed Central

    Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Almazan, Felicidad; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Miller, Yury I.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) occurs in vivo and significantly contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. An important mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo is its modification with 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). We have developed a model of minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) in which native LDL is modified by cells expressing 12/15LO. This mmLDL activates macrophages inducing membrane ruffling and cell spreading, activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we found that many of the biological activities of mmLDL were associated with cholesteryl ester (CE) hydroperoxides and were diminished by ebselen, a reducing agent. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of many mono- and polyoxygenated CE species in mmLDL but not in native LDL. Nonpolar lipid extracts of mmLDL activated macrophages, although to a lesser degree than intact mmLDL. The macrophage responses were also induced by LDL directly modified with immobilized 12/15LO, and the nonpolar lipids extracted from 12/15LO-modified LDL contained a similar set of oxidized CE. Cholesteryl arachidonate modified with 12/15LO also activated macrophages and contained a similar collection of oxidized CE molecules. Remarkably, many of these oxidized CE were found in the extracts of atherosclerotic lesions isolated from hyperlipidemic apoE/ mice. These results suggest that CE hydroperoxides constitute a class of biologically active components of mmLDL that may be relevant to proinflammatory activation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:18263582

  2. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Methods Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Results Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). Conclusions HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin. PMID:24161017

  3. Effect of a Moderate Fat Diet With and Without Avocados on Lipoprotein Particle Number, Size and Subclasses in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Bordi, Peter L.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hill, Alison M.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Avocados are a nutrient‐dense source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) that can be used to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) in a diet to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C). Well‐controlled studies are lacking on the effect of avocado consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Results A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted with 45 overweight or obese participants with baseline LDL‐C in the 25th to 90th percentile. Three cholesterol‐lowering diets (6% to 7% SFA) were fed (5 weeks each): a lower‐fat diet (LF: 24% fat); 2 moderate‐fat diets (34% fat) provided similar foods and were matched for macronutrients and fatty acids: the avocado diet (AV) included one fresh Hass avocado (136 g) per day, and the moderate‐fat diet (MF) mainly used high oleic acid oils to match the fatty acid content of one avocado. Compared with baseline, the reduction in LDL‐C and non‐high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the AV diet (−13.5 mg/dL, −14.6 mg/dL) was greater (P<0.05) than the MF (−8.3 mg/dL, −8.7 mg/dL) and LF (−7.4 mg/dL, −4.8 mg/dL) diets. Furthermore, only the AV diet significantly decreased LDL particle number (LDL‐P, −80.1 nmol/L, P=0.0001), small dense LDL cholesterol (LDL3+4, −4.1 mg/dL, P=0.04), and the ratio of LDL/HDL (−6.6%, P<0.0001) from baseline. Conclusions Inclusion of one avocado per day as part of a moderate‐fat, cholesterol‐lowering diet has additional LDL‐C, LDL‐P, and non‐HDL‐C lowering effects, especially for small, dense LDL. Our results demonstrate that avocados have beneficial effects on cardio‐metabolic risk factors that extend beyond their heart‐healthy fatty acid profile. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01235832. PMID:25567051

  4. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, A.; Hu, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed. PMID:26692765

  5. Low High-Density Lipoprotein and Risk of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A; Hu, P P

    2015-01-01

    Low HDL is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. This paper reviews our current understanding of HDL, HDL structure and function, HDL subclasses, the relationship of low HDL with myocardial infarction, HDL targeted therapy, and clinical trials and studies. Furthermore potential new agents, such as alirocumab (praluent) and evolocumab (repatha) are discussed. PMID:26692765

  6. Carbon disulfide modification and impaired catabolism of low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Laurman, W; Salmon, S; Mazire, C; Mazire, J C; Auclair, M; Theron, L; Santus, R

    1989-08-01

    Carbon disulfide interacts in vitro with low density lipoprotein (LDL), resulting in an increased electrophoretic mobility of the particle, due to a decrease in free amino groups of apolipoprotein B-100. The processing of carbon disulfide-modified LDL through the apo B/E receptor pathway of cultured human fibroblasts is decreased as compared to that of native LDL, depending on the level of modification. Carbon disulfide-modified LDL is recognized and degraded by the scavenger pathway of macrophages, but to a lesser extent than acetylated LDL. Carbon disulfide modification decreases the ability of the LDL to down-regulate sterol synthesis and to stimulate cholesterol esterification in fibroblasts. Carbon disulfide-modified LDL markedly stimulates cholesteryl ester formation in macrophages, albeit to a lesser extent than acetylated LDL. These results indicate that after carbon disulfide modification the LDL catabolism is shifted to the scavenger pathway, and are consistent with the fact that carbon disulfide intoxication accelerates the appearance of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:2783203

  7. High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Increasing Therapy: The Unmet Cardiovascular Need

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Morello, Alberto; Ciccarelli, Michele; Golino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive strategies are now available to reduce LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that drug therapy ultimately leads to a regression of the angiographic lesions but also results in a reduction in cardiovascular events. The dramatic failure of clinical trials evaluating the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CEPT) inhibitors, torcetrapib and dalcetrapib, has led to considerable doubt about the value of the current strategy to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. These clinical results, as well as animal studies, have revealed the complexity of HDL metabolism, assessing a more important role of functional quality compared to circulating quantity of HDL. As a result, HDL-based therapeutic interventions that maintain or enhance HDL functionality, such as improving its main property, the reverse cholesterol transport, require closer investigation. In this review, we will discuss HDL metabolism and function, clinical-trial data available for HDL-raising agents, and potential strategies for future HDL-based therapies. PMID:26535185

  8. Aging affects high-density lipoprotein composition and function?

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Michael; Trieb, Markus; Konya, Viktoria; Wadsack, Christian; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Most coronary deaths occur in patients older than 65years. Age associated alterations in the composition and function of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) may contribute to cardiovascular mortality. The effect of advanced age on the composition and function of HDL is not well understood. HDL was isolated from healthy young and elderly subjects. HDL composition, cellular cholesterol efflux/uptake, anti-oxidant properties and paraoxonase activity were assessed. We observed a 3-fold increase of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, an increased content of complement C3 and proteins involved in endopeptidase/protease inhibition in HDL of elderly subjects, whereas levels of apolipoprotein E were significantly decreased. HDL from elderly subjects contained less cholesterol but increased sphingomyelin. Most importantly, HDL from elderly subjects showed defective antioxidant properties, lower paraoxonase 1 activity and was more rapidly taken up by macrophages, whereas cholesterol efflux capability was not altered. These findings suggest that aging alters HDL composition, resulting in functional impairment that may contribute to the onset/progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23792422

  9. Ethanol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cluette, J.E.; Mulligan, J.J.; Noring, R.; Doyle, K.; Hojnacki, J.

    1984-05-01

    Male squirrel monkeys fed ethanol at variable doses were used to assess whether alcohol enhances de novo synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in vivo. Monkeys were divided into three groups: 1) controls fed isocaloric liquid diet; 2) low ethanol monkeys fed liquid diet with vodka substituted isocalorically for carbohydrate at 12% of calories; and 3) High Ethanol animals fed diet plus vodka at 24% of calories. High Ethanol primates had significantly higher levels of HDL nonesterified cholesterol than Control and Low Ethanol animals while serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase was similar for the three treatments. There were no significant differences between the groups in HDL cholesteryl ester mass or specific activity following intravenous injection of labeled mevalonolactone. By contrast, High Ethanol monkeys had significantly greater HDL nonesterified cholesterol specific activity with approximately 60% of the radioactivity distributed in the HDL/sub 3/ subfraction. This report provides the first experimental evidence that ethanol at 24% of calories induces elevations in HDL cholesterol in primates through enhanced de novo synthesis without adverse effects on liver function.

  10. Cigarette smoking impairs hepatic uptake of high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, J J; Cluette, J E; Kew, R R; Stack, D J; Hojnacki, J L

    1983-05-16

    The effect of chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke on hepatic uptake of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in White Carneau pigeons was examined. Four treatment groups included: 1) Shelf Control birds fed a chow diet and retained in their cages; 2) Sham pigeons fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet and exposed to fresh air by a smoking machine; 3) Low nicotine-low carbon monoxide (LoLo) animals also fed the cholesterol diet and exposed to low concentrations of these cigarette smoke products; and 4) High nicotine-high carbon monoxide (HiHi) birds fed the cholesterol diet and subjected to high concentrations of these components. Livers from both smoke exposed groups contained significantly more triglyceride than those from Sham animals while livers from HiHi birds alone had elevated concentrations of protein. Liver slices from LoLo and HiHi pigeons incorporated significantly less HDL 3H free and esterified cholesterol and HDL 14C apoprotein from media during in vitro incubation than livers from Sham birds. Impaired hepatic uptake of HDL suggests a permanent alteration in liver function resulting from chronic exposure to tobacco smoke and may represent one mechanism by which cigarette smoking attenuates HDL's anti-atherogenic properties. PMID:6847683

  11. Acrolein Impairs the Cholesterol Transport Functions of High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Alexandra C.; Holme, Rebecca L.; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. PMID:25849485

  12. Targeting high-density lipoproteins: update on a promising therapy.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Cline; Martinez, Laurent O; Ferrires, Jean; Elbaz, Meyer; Genoux, Annelise; Perret, Bertrand

    2013-11-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the atheroprotective roles of high density lipoproteins (HDL), so that HDL is established as an independent negative risk factor. The protective effect of HDL against atherosclerosis is mainly attributed to their capacity to bring peripheral excess cholesterol back to the liver for further elimination into the bile. In addition, HDL can exert other protective functions on the vascular wall, through their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic and cytoprotective properties. HDL-targeted therapy is thus an innovative approach against cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis. These pleiotropic atheroprotective properties of HDL have led experts to believe that "HDL-related therapies" represent the most promising next step in fighting against atherosclerosis. However, because of the heterogeneity of HDL functions, targeting HDL is not a simple task and HDL therapies that lower cardiovascular risk are NOT yet available. In this paper, an overview is presented about the therapeutic strategies currently under consideration to raise HDL levels and/or functions. Recently, clinical trials of drugs targeting HDL-C levels have disappointingly failed, suggesting that HDL functions through specific mechanisms should be targeted rather than increasing per se HDL levels. PMID:24074699

  13. Dietary fish protein modulates high density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein lipase activity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, N; Deshaies, Y; Jacques, H

    1992-08-01

    To explore the pathways by which fish protein feeding influences HDL metabolism, postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase activities were measured in rabbits fed fish protein or soybean protein combined with corn oil or coconut oil in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. In addition to greater serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, the elevated HDL cholesterol concentration caused by feeding fish protein, compared with soybean protein, was accompanied by lower VLDL triglycerides and parallel higher lipoprotein lipase activity in fish protein-fed rabbits. These results suggest an enhanced assembly of circulating HDL through promoted lipoprotein lipase activity in rabbits fed fish protein. Moreover, dietary proteins and lipids interacted with one another to alter HDL triglycerides and liver cholesterol concentrations. Diet-induced changes in lipoprotein lipase activity were, however, not related to insulinemia, which was unaltered by purified diet feeding. The present results suggest that fish protein may affect HDL metabolism through the modulation of lipoprotein lipase activity in rabbits. PMID:1640268

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis is dependent on uptake and degradation of human low density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Human plasma low density lipoprotein uptake by the urogenital pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis, was examined. Rapid binding and internalization of 125I-labeled low density lipoproteins by live T. vaginalis was observed at 37 degrees C. Data showing parasite degradation of the internalized apoproteins and lipid accumulation following low density lipoprotein uptake was obtained. Acquisition of low density lipoproteins was by a trichomonad surface protein that possessed a molecular weight of greater than 250,000. The receptor is specific for apolipoprotein CIII, a component of high, low, and very low density lipoprotein subfractions. Low density lipoproteins in a semi-defined medium of trypticase, nucleic acid precursors, vitamins, and maltose promoted T. vaginalis growth and multiplication at rates and levels equal to the yeast extract-trypticase-serum complex medium routinely used for culture of trichomonads. HeLa cell membranes as a source of lipids were unable to sustain T. vaginalis organisms. These data demonstrate host lipoprotein internalization by T. vaginalis via a specific uptake mechanism. PMID:6333482

  15. Identifying the predominant peak diameter of high-density and low-density lipoproteins by electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M; Nichols, A V; Vranizan, K M; Wood, P D

    1990-06-01

    Particle size distributions of high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins, obtained by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, exhibit apparent predominant and minor peaks within characteristic subpopulation migration intervals. In the present report, we show that identification of such peaks as predominant or minor depends on whether the particle size distribution is analyzed according to migration distance or particle size. The predominant HDL peak on the migration distance scale is frequently not the predominant HDL peak when the distribution is transformed to the particle size scale. The potential physiologic importance of correct identification of the predominant HDL peak within a gradient gel electrophoresis profile is suggested by our cross-sectional study of 97 men, in which diameters associated with the predominant peak, determined using migration distance and particle size scales, were correlated with plasma lipoprotein and lipid parameters. Plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I and B correlated more strongly with the predominant peak obtained using the particle size scale than the migration distance scale. The mathematical transformation from migration distance to particle diameter scale had less effect on the LDL distribution. The additional computational effort required to transform the HDL-distribution into the particle size scale appears warranted given the substantial changes it produces in the gradient gel electrophoresis profile and the strengthening of correlations with parameters relevant to lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:2373962

  16. Role of lipoprotein lipase in the regulation of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein metabolism. Studies in normal and lipoprotein lipase-inhibited monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I J; Blaner, W S; Vanni, T M; Moukides, M; Ramakrishnan, R

    1990-01-01

    Mechanisms that might be responsible for the low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) associated with hypertriglyceridemia were studied in an animal model. Specific monoclonal antibodies were infused into female cynomolgus monkeys to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate-limiting enzyme for triglyceride catabolism. LPL inhibition produced marked and sustained hypertriglyceridemia, with plasma triglyceride levels of 633-1240 mg/dl. HDL protein and cholesterol and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) AI levels decreased; HDL triglyceride (TG) levels increased. The fractional catabolic rate of homologous monkey HDL apolipoproteins injected into LPL-inhibited animals (n = 7) was more than double that of normal animals (0.094 +/- 0.010 vs. 0.037 +/- 0.001 pools of HDL protein removed per hour, average +/- SEM). The fractional catabolic rate of low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein did not differ between the two groups of animals. Using HDL apolipoproteins labeled with tyramine-cellobiose, the tissues responsible for this increased HDL apolipoprotein catabolism were explored. A greater proportion of HDL apolipoprotein degradation occurred in the kidneys of hypertriglyceridemic than normal animals; the proportions in liver were the same in normal and LPL-inhibited monkeys. Hypertriglyceridemia due to LPL deficiency is associated with low levels of circulating HDL cholesterol and apo AI. This is due, in part, to increased fractional catabolism of apo AI. Our studies suggest that variations in the rate of LPL-mediated lipolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins may lead to differences in HDL apolipoprotein fractional catabolic rate. Images PMID:2117022

  17. Green tea catechins prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their accumulation in low-density lipoprotein particles in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress. PMID:26773777

  18. Is the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein lipids different than the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein lipids?

    PubMed

    Thomas, M J; Chen, Q; Zabalawi, M; Anderson, R; Wilson, M; Weinberg, R; Sorci-Thomas, M G; Rudel, L L

    2001-02-13

    This article gives detailed insight into the kinetics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) oxidation catalyzed by azobis(2-amidinopropane).dihydrochloride (ABAP) or by copper. ABAP initialized oxidation of human HDL 3-4 times faster than non-human primate HDL with a similar composition. The oxidizability of non-human primate HDL was 1000 times lower than the oxidizability calculated from rate constants derived from liposome oxidation, suggesting that there is a slow step in HDL oxidation not present in liposomes. Saturable binding of copper to HDL was a significant feature of copper-catalyzed oxidation. Binding constants (K(m)) for non-human primate HDL were 2-3-fold lower than those for human HDL. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of non-human primate HDL was slower than that of human HDL, but human HDL(2) and HDL(3) oxidized at about the same rate. Overall, the kinetics describing the oxidation of HDL were mechanistically similar to those reported for LDL, suggesting that HDL lipids were as easily oxidized as LDL lipids and that HDL will be easily oxidized in vivo when exposed to agents that oxidize LDL. PMID:11327832

  19. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to atherosclerosis and that it has the potential to remove cholesterol from macrophages in the body.

  20. Biodegradable synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marrache, Sean; Dhar, Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains one of the most common causes of death in the United States and throughout the world because of the lack of early detection. Macrophage apoptosis is a major contributor to the instability of atherosclerotic lesions. Development of an apoptosis targeted high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticle (NP) to carry contrast agents for early detection of vulnerable plaques and the initiation of preventative therapies that exploit the vascular protective effects of HDL can be attractive for atherosclerosis. Here, we report the construction of a synthetic, biodegradable HDL-NP platform for detection of vulnerable plaques by targeting the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential that occurs during apoptosis. This HDL mimic contains a core of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), cholesteryl oleate, and a phospholipid bilayer coat that is decorated with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. The lipid layer provides the surface for adsorption of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic 4F peptide, and the core contains diagnostically active quantum dots (QDs) for optical imaging. In vitro uptake, detection of apoptosis, and cholesterol binding studies indicated promising detection ability and therapeutic potential of TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs. In vitro studies indicated the potential of these NPs in reverse cholesterol transport. In vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics indicated favorable tissue distribution, controlled pharmacokinetic parameters, and significant triglyceride reduction for i.v.-injected TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs in rats. These HDL NPs demonstrate excellent biocompatibility, stability, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic properties, which prove to be promising for future translation in early plaque diagnosis and might find applications to prevent vulnerable plaque progression. PMID:23671083

  1. Biodegradable synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marrache, Sean; Dhar, Shanta

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerosis remains one of the most common causes of death in the United States and throughout the world because of the lack of early detection. Macrophage apoptosis is a major contributor to the instability of atherosclerotic lesions. Development of an apoptosis targeted high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticle (NP) to carry contrast agents for early detection of vulnerable plaques and the initiation of preventative therapies that exploit the vascular protective effects of HDL can be attractive for atherosclerosis. Here, we report the construction of a synthetic, biodegradable HDL-NP platform for detection of vulnerable plaques by targeting the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential that occurs during apoptosis. This HDL mimic contains a core of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), cholesteryl oleate, and a phospholipid bilayer coat that is decorated with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. The lipid layer provides the surface for adsorption of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic 4F peptide, and the core contains diagnostically active quantum dots (QDs) for optical imaging. In vitro uptake, detection of apoptosis, and cholesterol binding studies indicated promising detection ability and therapeutic potential of TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs. In vitro studies indicated the potential of these NPs in reverse cholesterol transport. In vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics indicated favorable tissue distribution, controlled pharmacokinetic parameters, and significant triglyceride reduction for i.v.-injected TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs in rats. These HDL NPs demonstrate excellent biocompatibility, stability, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic properties, which prove to be promising for future translation in early plaque diagnosis and might find applications to prevent vulnerable plaque progression. PMID:23671083

  2. High-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis: Roles of lipid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2014-01-01

    Various previous studies have found a negative correlation between the risk of cardiovascular events and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. The reverse cholesterol transport, a pathway of cholesterol from peripheral tissue to liver which has several potent antiatherogenic properties. For instance, the particles of HDL mediate to transport cholesterol from cells in arterial tissues, particularly from atherosclerotic plaques, to the liver. Both ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 are membrane cholesterol transporters and have been implicated in mediating cholesterol effluxes from cells in the presence of HDL and apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein constituent of HDL. Previous studies demonstrated that ABCA1 and ABCG1 or the interaction between ABCA1 and ABCG1 exerted antiatherosclerotic effects. As a therapeutic approach for increasing HDL cholesterol levels, much focus has been placed on increasing HDL cholesterol levels as well as enhancing HDL biochemical functions. HDL therapies that use injections of reconstituted HDL, apoA-I mimetics, or full-length apoA-I have shown dramatic effectiveness. In particular, a novel apoA-I mimetic peptide, Fukuoka University ApoA-I Mimetic Peptide, effectively removes cholesterol via specific ABCA1 and other transporters, such as ABCG1, and has an antiatherosclerotic effect by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without changing circulating HDL cholesterol levels. Thus, HDL-targeting therapy has significant atheroprotective potential, as it uses lipid transporter-targeting agents, and may prove to be a therapeutic tool for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25349649

  3. Itinerary of high density lipoproteins in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Perisa, Damir; Rohrer, Lucia; Kaech, Andres; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2016-02-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein component apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have multiple anti-atherogenic functions. Some of them are exerted within the vessel wall, so that HDL needs to pass the endothelial barrier. To elucidate their itinerary through endothelial cells (ECs), we labelled ApoA-I and HDL either fluorescently or with 1.4nm nanogold and investigated their cellular localization by using immunofluorescent microscopy (IFM) and electron microscopy (EM). HDL as well as ApoA-I is taken up by ECs into the same route of intracellular trafficking. Time kinetics and pulse chase experiments revealed that HDL is trafficked through different vesicles. HDL partially co-localized with LDL, albumin, and transferrin. HDL did not co-localize with clathrin and caveolin-1. Fluorescent HDL was recovered at small proportions in early endosomes and endosome to trans-golgi network vesicles but not at all in recycling endosomes, in late endosomes or lysosomes. EM identified HDL mainly in large filled vesicles which however upon IFM did not colocalize with markers of multivesicular bodies or autophagosomes. The uptake or cellular distribution of HDL was altered upon pharmacological interference with cytochalasine D, colchicine and dynasore. Blockage of fluid phase uptake with Amiloride or EIPA did not reduce the uptake of HDL. Neither did we observe any co-localization of HDL with dextran as the marker of fluid phase uptake. In conclusion, HDL and ApoA-I are internalized and trafficked by endothelial cells through a non-classical endocytic route. PMID:26577406

  4. Synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists induce high-density lipoprotein-mediated transhepatic cholesterol efflux in mice and monkeys and prevent atherosclerosis in cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgenic low-density lipoprotein receptor (-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Hambruch, Eva; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Hahn, Ulrike; Matysik, Silke; Boettcher, Alfred; Perovi?-Ottstadt, Sanja; Schlter, Thomas; Kinzel, Olaf; Krol, Helen Desiree; Deuschle, Ulrich; Burnet, Michael; Levi, Moshe; Schmitz, Gerd; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kremoser, Claus

    2012-12-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor, plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol and more specifically high-density lipoprotein (HDL) homeostasis. Activation of FXR is reported to lead to both pro- and anti-atherosclerotic effects. In the present study we analyzed the impact of different FXR agonists on cholesterol homeostasis, plasma lipoprotein profiles, and transhepatic cholesterol efflux in C57BL/6J mice and cynomolgus monkeys and atherosclerosis development in cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgenic (CETPtg) low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) mice. In C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet the synthetic FXR agonists isopropyl 3-(3,4-difluorobenzoyl)-1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydroazepino[4,5-b]indole-5-carboxylate (FXR-450) and 4-[2-[2-chloro-4-[[5-cyclopropyl-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]phenyl]cyclopropyl]benzoic acid (PX20606) demonstrated potent plasma cholesterol-lowering activity that affected all lipoprotein species, whereas 3-[2-[2-chloro-4-[[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]phenyl]ethenyl]benzoic acid (GW4064) and 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6-ECDCA) showed only limited effects. In FXR wild-type mice, but not FXR(-/-) mice, the more efficacious FXR agonists increased fecal cholesterol excretion and reduced intestinal cholesterol (re)uptake. In CETPtg-LDLR(-/-) mice PX20606 potently lowered total cholesterol and, despite the observed HDL cholesterol (HDLc) reduction, caused a highly significant decrease in atherosclerotic plaque size. In normolipidemic cynomolgus monkeys PX20606 and 6-ECDCA both reduced total cholesterol, and PX20606 specifically lowered HDL(2c) but not HDL(3c) or apolipoprotein A1. That pharmacological FXR activation specifically affects this cholesterol-rich HDL(2) subclass is a new and highly interesting finding and sheds new light on FXR-dependent HDLc lowering, which has been perceived as a major limitation for the clinical development of FXR agonists. PMID:22918042

  5. Increased Very Low Density Lipoprotein Secretion, Hepatic Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hee; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) not only affects regulation of carbohydrate metabolism, but all aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. IR is associated with increased secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and increased plasma triglycerides, as well as hepatic steatosis, despite the increased VLDL secretion. Here, we link IR with increased VLDL secretion and hepatic steatosis at both the physiologic and molecular levels. Increased VLDL secretion, together with the downstream effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein size is pro-atherogenic. Hepatic steatosis is a risk for steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Understanding the complex inter-relationship between IR and these abnormalities of liver lipid homeostasis may provide insights relevant to new therapies for these increasing clinical problems. PMID:21616678

  6. Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells Internalize High-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Srisen, Kaemisa; Rhrl, Clemens; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Ranftler, Carmen; Ellinger, Adolf; Pavelka, Margit; Neumller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL), and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate), cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of strings of pearl- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor 568treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal intraellular pathway and accumulated prominently in all parts of the Golgi apparatus and in lipid droplets. Subsequently, also the RER and mitochondria were involved. These studies demonstrated the different intracellular pathway of HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol and HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate by EPCs, with concomitant. PMID:24386159

  7. Diffusion of nitric oxide into low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Denicola, Ana; Batthyny, Carlos; Lissi, Eduardo; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero; Radi, Rafael

    2002-01-11

    A key early event in the development of atherosclerosis is the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via different mechanisms including free radical reactions with both protein and lipid components. Nitric oxide (( small middle dot)NO) is capable of inhibiting LDL oxidation by scavenging radical species involved in oxidative chain propagation reactions. Herein, the diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO into LDL is studied by fluorescence quenching of pyrene derivatives. Selected probes 1-(pyrenyl)methyltrimethylammonium (PMTMA) and 1-(pyrenyl)-methyl-3-(9-octadecenoyloxy)-22,23-bisnor-5-cholenate (PMChO) were chosen so that they could be incorporated at different depths of the LDL particle. Indeed, PMTMA and PMChO were located in the surface and core of LDL, respectively, as indicated by changes in fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quenching studies with water-soluble quenchers and the lifetime values (tau(o)) of the excited probes. The apparent second order rate quenching constants of ( small middle dot)NO (k(NO)) for both probes were 2.6-3.8 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) and 1.2 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) in solution and native LDL, respectively, indicating that there is no significant barrier to the diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO to the surface and core of LDL. Nitric oxide was also capable of diffusing through oxidized LDL. Considering the preferential partitioning of ( small middle dot)NO in apolar milieu (6-8 for n-octanol:water) and therefore a larger ( small middle dot)NO concentration in LDL with respect to the aqueous phase, a corrected k(NO) value of approximately 0.2 x 10(10) m(-1) s(-1) can be determined, which still is sufficiently large and consistent with a facile diffusion of ( small middle dot)NO through LDL. Applying the Einstein-Smoluchowsky treatment, the apparent diffusion coefficient (D(')NO) of ( small middle dot)NO in native LDL is on average 2 x 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), six times larger than that previously reported for erythrocyte plasma membrane. Thus, our observations support that ( small middle dot)NO readily traverses the LDL surface accessing the hydrophobic lipid core of the particle and affirm a role for ( small middle dot)NO as a major lipophilic antioxidant in LDL. PMID:11689557

  8. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-01-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in 13C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower 13C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT 3H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic 3H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated 3H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  9. Effect of proteolysis of low-density serum lipoproteins on their interaction with macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Karmanskii, I.M.; Kovaleva, G.G.; Viktorova, L.N.; Shpikiter, V.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously postulated, on the basis of changes observed in the structural stability of low-density lipoproteins during treatment with pepsin or aortic cathepsin, that enzymatic modifications may lead to potentiation of the atherogenic properties of the lipoproteins. They also reported that treatment of lipoproteins with trypsin causes an increase in their binding with aortic glycosaminoglycans and to increased degradation by fibroblasts of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia. Limited proteolysis of lipoproteins with pepsin facilitated their binding with fibronectin. In this paper the authors investigate the uptake and degradation of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages after their limited hydrolysis by pepsin, an analog of tissue cathepsin D. The lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of healthy blood donors by ultracentrifugation. Iodination of the proteins with I 125 was carried out by the iodine monochloride method. Uptake and retention of the labelled lipoprotein were measured with a gamma counter. The increased uptake of the proteins, partially hydrolized by pepsin, was accompanied by their more intense degradation by macrophages.

  10. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Imamura, H; Nagata, A; Oshikata, R; Yoshimura, Y; Miyamoto, N; Miyahara, K; Oda, K; Iide, K

    2013-05-01

    Many of the published data on the lipid profile of athletes is based on studies of endurance athletes. The data on soccer players are rare. The purpose of this study was to examine serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in collegiate soccer players. 31 well-trained male collegiate soccer players were divided into 2 groups: 16 defenders and 15 offenders. They were compared with 16 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The subjects were all non-smokers and were not taking any drug known to affect the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The offenders had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein2 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I than the defenders and controls, whereas the defenders had the significantly higher high-density lipoprotein2 cholesterol than the controls. Both groups of athletes had significantly higher lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the controls. The results indicate that favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile could be obtained by vigorous soccer training. PMID:23152129

  11. Synthesis and properties of the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor and a comparison with the low-density-lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D D; Forder, R A; Soutar, A K; Knight, B L

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor have been studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with human VLDL-receptor cDNA and compared with those of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expressed under the same conditions. Immunoblotting showed that the cells produced a mature VLDL receptor protein, of apparent Mr 123000 on non-reduced and 158000 on reduced gels, that was less extensively glycosylated than the LDL receptor. The VLDL receptor was more slowly processed than the LDL receptor, with only approx. 70% of the precursor being converted into the mature protein. Nevertheless, the majority of the receptor in the cells was in the mature form, and most of this was present on the cell surface. The human VLDL receptor bound rabbit very-low-density lipoprotein with beta electrophoretic mobility (betaVLDL), but not human LDL, and uptake through the receptor led to stimulation of oleate incorporation into cholesteryl esters. At 37 degrees C, the characteristics of VLDL-receptor-mediated uptake and degradation of betaVLDL were essentially the same as those mediated by the LDL receptor. However, the VLDL receptor apparently did not show the increase in affinity and decrease in binding of betaVLDL on cooling to 4 degrees C that was exhibited by the LDL receptor. Thus the overexpressed VLDL receptor in CHO cells appears to behave as a lipoprotein receptor with similar, but not identical, properties to the LDL receptor. PMID:9182693

  12. Effects of 1,2-cyclohexanedione modification on the metabolism of very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B: potential role of receptors in intermediate density lipoprotein catabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, C.J.; Boag, D.E.; Clegg, R.; Bedford, D.; Shepherd, J.

    1985-09-01

    The conversion of very low density (VLDL) to low density lipoproteins (LDL) is a two-step process. The first step is mediated by lipoprotein lipase, but the mechanism responsible for the second is obscure. In this study we examined the possible involvement of receptors at this stage. Apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins were separated into three fractions, VLDL (Sf 100-400), an intermediate fraction IDL (Sf 12-100), and LDL (Sf 0-12). Autologous 125I-labeled VLDL and 131I-labeled 1,2-cyclohexanedione-modified VLDL were injected into the plasma of four normal subjects and the rate of transfer of apoB radioactivity was followed through IDL to LDL. Modification did not affect VLDL to IDL conversion. Thereafter, however, the catabolism of modified apoB in IDL was retarded and its appearance in LDL was delayed. Hence, functional arginine residues (and by implication, receptors) are required in this process. Confirmation of this was obtained by injecting 125I-labeled IDL and 131I-labeled cyclohexanedione-treated IDL into two additional subjects. Again, IDL metabolism was delayed by approximately 50% as a result of the modification. These data are consistent with the view that receptors are involved in the metabolism of intermediate density lipoprotein.

  13. Lipoprotein binding and endosomal itinerary of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, H.; Takahashi, K.; Hamilton, R.L.; Havel, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The high affinity of {sup 45}Ca binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and the LDL-R-related protein (LRP) was utilized to study the subcellar distribution of these two proteins in rat liver. Like the LDL-R, LRP was manyfold enriched in rat liver endosomal membranes with a relative distribution in early and late endosomal compartments consistent with recycling between endosomes and the cell surface. The high concentration of LRP in hepatic endosomal membranes greatly facilitated demonstration of Ca-dependent binding of apolipoprotein E- and B-containing lipoproteins in ligand blots. LRP was severalfold more abundant than the LDL-R in hepatic parenchymal cells, showed extensive degradation in hepatic endosomes, and was found in high concentrations in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest a high a rate of synthesis of LRP that appeared to be unaffected by treatment of rats with estradiol. The repeating cysteine-rich A-motif found in the ligand-binding domain of LRP appeared to be responsible for Ca binding by LRP, LDL-R, and complement factor C9 and accounted for immunological cross-reactivity among these proteins. The data suggest an extensive proteolytic processing of this protein and are consistent with a functional role of LRP in lipoprotein metabolism.

  14. Enhanced delivery of lipophilic nutrients to the infant brain via high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Naberhuis, J K; Lai, C-S

    2015-11-01

    Lipoproteins are the primary carriers of lipophilic cognitive nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid, lutein, and ?-tocopherol within circulation. The critical roles these nutrients play in growth and development are well established, and as such, their efficient delivery to the infant brain is crucial. Given the selectivity of the blood brain barrier, the lipoprotein fraction primarily responsible for brain delivery of these nutrients must be determined so that efforts aimed at increasing brain nutrient uptake, via lipoprotein profile manipulation, can be appropriately focused. Based on the preclinical and clinical data reviewed here, we hypothesize that high density lipoprotein is the fraction chiefly responsible for delivery of docosahexaenoic acid, lutein, and ?-tocopherol to the infant brain. As high density lipoprotein levels tend to be lower in preterm, formula-fed infants as compared to their full-term, breast-fed counterparts, efforts aimed at increasing circulating high density lipoprotein levels, and subsequent delivery of cognitive lipophilic nutrients to the brain via manipulation of formula composition, may be most effective if targeted to this group. These efforts include (1) limiting the polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acid ratio; (2) increasing the casein: whey ratio; (3) altering the proportion of saturated fatty acids found in the sn-2 position of the parent triglyceride; (4) cholesterol supplementation; and (5) nucleotide supplementation. PMID:26323246

  15. Comparison of soymilk and probiotic soymilk effects on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Babashahi, Mina; Mirlohi, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Soy milk (SM) and its fermented products are identified as rich sources of bioactive compounds helping to manage and to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of SM and probiotic SM (PSM) consumption on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS Probiotic SM was prepared by fermentation of the plain SM with a native strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. 20 streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into two groups based on the type of administered SM (SM group and PSM group). The animals were fed with 1 ml/day of either soy or PSM for 21 days. The serum lipoprotein levels were analyzed at baseline and the end of the intervention period. RESULTS HDL-C increased significantly in PSM group. Furthermore, this group showed more percent of change in increased HDL-C in compression with SM group (P < 0.050). Regarding LDL-C level, rats fed with SM was not significantly different from the PSM group (P < 0.050); though, this biomarker was reduced in both group. CONCLUSION Probiotic SM could modulate blood lipoprotein levels. Thus, it may be considered in managing diabetes complications and atherosclerotic risks. PMID:26261455

  16. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:8263148

  17. Action of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase on model lipoproteins. Preparation and characterization of model nascent high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Van Winkle, W B; Pao, Q; Rohde, M; Gotto, A M

    1982-12-13

    Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of human plasma high density lipoprotein, is the primary activator of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. In vitro, the association of apolipoprotein A-I with physiological phosphatidylcholines can be catalyzed by mixing the protein and lipid with sodium cholate, which is removed by chromatography. The apolipoprotein A-I/phospholipid complex has the physical properties of an HDL, and when cholesterol is present the complex is a highly reactive substrate in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase-catalyzed reaction. The relative reactivity of this complex compared with a number of other lipid-protein complexes is presented and discussed. PMID:6817809

  18. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-03-02

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of (/sup 14/C)acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 ..mu..M. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 ..mu..M acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the /sup 3/H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Impaired trafficking of the very low density lipoprotein receptor caused by missense mutations associated with dysequilibrium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedath, Praseetha; Loregger, Anke; John, Anne; Bleijlevens, Boris; Al-Blooshi, Ali S; Al-Hosani, Ahmed H; Al-Nuaimi, Ahmed M; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Zelcer, Noam; Ali, Bassam R

    2014-12-01

    Dysequilibrium syndrome (DES, OMIM 224050) is a genetically heterogeneous condition that combines autosomal recessive non-progressive cerebellar ataxia with mental retardation. The subclass dysequilibrium syndrome type 1 (CAMRQ1) has been attributed to mutations in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). This receptor is involved in the Reelin signaling pathway that guides neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Three missense mutations (c.1459G>T; p.D487Y, c.1561G>C; p.D521H and c.2117G>T; p.C706F) have been previously identified in VLDLR gene in patients with DES. However, the functional implications of those mutations are not known and therefore we undertook detailed functional analysis to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying their pathogenicity. The mutations have been generated by site-directed mutagenesis and then expressed in cultured cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis have been employed to examine the subcellular localization and functional activities of the mutated proteins relative to wild type. Our results indicate that the three missense mutations lead to defective intracellular trafficking and ER retention of the mutant VLDLR protein. This trafficking impairment prevents the mutants from reaching the plasma membrane and binding exogenous Reelin, the initiating event in Reelin signaling. Collectively, our results provide evidence that ER quality control is involved in the functional inactivation and underlying pathogenicity of these DES-associated mutations in the VLDLR. PMID:25173816

  20. Interaction between high density and low density lipoproteins uptake and degradation by cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Miller, N E; Weinstein, D B; Carew, T E; Koschinsky, T; Steinberg, D

    1977-07-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) inhibited the binding (trypsin-releasable radioactivity), internalization (cell-associated radioactivity after trypsinization), and degradation (TCA-soluble non-iodide radioactivity) of (125)I-low density lipoprotein ((125)I-LDL) by cultured normal human fibroblasts. At HDL:LDL molar ratios of 25:1 (protein ratios about 5:1), these parameters were reduced by about 25%. Unlabeled LDL was about 25 times more effective in reducing (125)I-LDL binding, implying that if HDL and LDL bind at common sites the affinity of HDL for these sites is very low or that the interaction is on some other basis. The fractional reduction in (125)I-LDL binding at a given HDL: (125)I-LDL ratio was independent of (125)I-LDL concentration and occurred equally with fibroblasts from a subject with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Reciprocally, the binding, internalization, and degradation of (125)I-HDL were reduced by LDL. Preincubation of fibroblasts with HDL (or LDL) reduced the subsequent binding of (125)I-LDL (or (125)I-HDL) during a second incubation. In other studies HDL reduced the net increase in cell cholesterol content induced by incubation with LDL. HDL alone had no net effect on cell cholesterol content. These findings suggest that HDL reduces both the high affinity and the low affinity binding of LDL to human fibroblasts and that this in turn reduces the internalization and degradation of LDL. The effect of HDL on the LDL-induced changes in cell cholesterol content could be in part on this basis and in part on the basis of an HDL-stimulated release of cholesterol from the cells. These effects of HDL in vitro may be relevant to the negative correlations reported from in vivo studies between plasma HDL concentration and both body cholesterol pool size and the prevalence of clinically manifest atherosclerosis but further studies will be needed to establish this. PMID:194923

  1. Surface Density-Induced Pleating of a Lipid Monolayer Drives Nascent High-Density Lipoprotein Assembly.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Catte, Andrea; Manchekar, Medha; Datta, Geeta; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Robin; Li, Ling; Patterson, James C; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Oram, Jack F; Ren, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is coupled to the transmembrane protein, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which transports phospholipid (PL) from the inner to the outer membrane monolayer. Using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we show that increased outer lipid monolayer surface density, driven by excess PL or membrane insertion of amphipathic helices, results in pleating of the outer monolayer to form membrane-attached discoidal bilayers. Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I accelerates and stabilizes the pleats. In the absence of apoA-I, pleats collapse to form vesicles. These results mimic cells overexpressing ABCA1 that, in the absence of apoA-I, form and release vesicles. We conclude that the basic driving force for nascent discoidal HDL assembly is a PL pump-induced surface density increase that produces lipid monolayer pleating. We then argue that ABCA1 forms an extracellular reservoir containing an isolated pressurized lipid monolayer decoupled from the transbilayer density buffering of cholesterol. PMID:26095027

  2. Do free radicals play causal role in atherosclerosis? Low density lipoprotein oxidation and vitamin E revisited

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Etsuo

    2011-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Numerous in vitro and animal studies show that oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important initial event of atherosclerosis. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation efficiently in vitro, however, human clinical trials with vitamin E have not yielded positive results. The mixed results for vitamin E effect may be ascribed primarily to the two factors. Firstly low density lipoprotein oxidation proceeds by multiple pathways mediated not only by free radicals but also by other non-radical oxidants and vitamin E is effective only against free radical mediated oxidation. Secondly, in contrast to animal experiments, vitamin E is given at the latter stage where oxidation is no more important. Free radicals must play causal role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and vitamin E should be effective if given at right time to right subjects. PMID:21297905

  3. Composition of human low density lipoprotein: effects of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Karpe, F; Tornvall, P; Olivecrona, T; Steiner, G; Carlson, L A; Hamsten, A

    1993-01-01

    A preponderance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles has been linked to increased risk of myocardial infarction, and a dense and protein-rich LDL has proved to be a characteristic of patients with manifest coronary heart disease (CHD). The present study focused on metabolic determinants of the LDL subfraction distribution with the emphasis placed on alimentary lipaemia. The relations of plasma levels and composition of light (1.019 < d < 1.040 kg/l) and dense (1.040 < d < 1.063 kg/l) LDL subfractions to postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), postheparin plasma lipase activities and the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were studied in 32 men with angiographically ascertained premature coronary atherosclerosis (age 48.8 +/- 3.2 years) and in 10 age matched healthy control men. LDL subfractions were separated by equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation of fasting plasma drawn before participants were subjected to an oral fat tolerance test of a mixed meal type. The response of TGRL to the oral fat load was determined by measuring plasma triglycerides, and the apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and apo B-100 content of Sf 60-400 and Sf 20-60 lipoprotein fractions. At a second visit plasma samples were taken for determination of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities and for measurement of CETP activity. Hypertriglyceridaemic patients had a preponderance of dense LDL particles compared with normotriglyceridaemic patients and controls. The magnitude of the response of TGRL to the oral fat load showed a positive association with the dense LDL apo B concentration (r = 0.32-0.52, P < 0.05), whereas the LPL activity correlated positively with the free (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) and esterified cholesterol (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and apo B (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) content of the light LDL fraction. The HL activity was found to be inversely associated with the plasma level of light LDL triglycerides (r = -0.38, P < 0.05). In contrast, no relations were noted between CETP activity and plasma concentrations of LDL constituents. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the proportion of total LDL apo B contained in the dense LDL subfraction (% dense LDL apo B) used as the dependent variable indicated that the combined effect of LPL activity and postprandial plasma levels of TGRL (areas under the curve for plasma triglycerides or Sf 60-400 apo B-48) accounted for around 50% of the variability in the distribution of LDL particles between light and dense subfractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8457249

  4. Structural and metabolic heterogeneity of plasma low density lipoproteins in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Marzetta, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a variety of precursor particles secreted by the liver could result in heterogeneity of LDL products in plasma, the metabolic fate of selected radiolabeled hepatic lipoproteins evaluated was determined in vivo. The hepatic lipoproteins evaluated were isolated from liver perfusate and were triglyceride-rich VLDL (d < 1.006 or d < 1.017) and phospholipid-rich LDL (1.017 < d < 1.049 or 1.030 < d < 1.063). Radiolabeled autologous plasma LDL were injected into recipient animals together with the radiolabeled hepatic lipoproteins. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel filtration were used to characterize the distribution of radiolabeled lipoproteins in the plasma at selected times after injection. A variety of hepatic lipoproteins were precursors to lipoproteins that resembled plasma LDL. Between 22 to 80% of the injected dose of radiolabeled hepatic lipoprotein apo B-100 was converted to plasma LDL-like particles, regardless of the type of hepatic lipoprotein injected. A kinetic model was generated to describe the metabolic behavior of hepatic VLDL-derived and plasma LDL-derived apo B-100 radioactivity. Both models required multiple metabolic pools to fit the data. Hepatic VLDL-derived apo B-100 radioactivity was metabolized rapidly into various kinds of LDL subfractions. This rapid conversion of hepatic VLDL apo B-100 to LDL apo B-100 may be analogous to the portion of plasma VLDL that gets converted to LDL without passing through the delipidation cascade that has been described in humans and has been termed direct LDL production.

  5. Familial correlations of HDL subclasses based on gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Vranizan, K M; Austin, M A; Krauss, R M

    1992-12-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the familial correlations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses for 150 offspring in 47 nuclear families. The absorbance of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2-7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8-8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2-8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8-9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7-12 nm). Parent-offspring correlations were computed for two different characterizations of the parents: 1) by sex (i.e., mother versus father) and 2) by their relative values (highest versus lowest HDL). Sibling resemblance was assessed by using the intraclass correlations coefficient. Family members were significantly related for the following subclasses: HDL3c (sibling and father-offspring), HDL3b (sibling), HDL3a (sibling and mother-offspring), HDL2a (mother-offspring), and HDL2b (sibling, father-offspring, and mother-offspring). The offsprings' HDL3c and HDL2b values were more strongly related to their fathers' than to their mothers' values, whereas their HDL2a levels were more strongly related to their mothers' than their fathers' values. In addition, fathers' HDL2b levels were inversely correlated with the offsprings' HDL3b. The parents' HDL subclass levels were more strongly related to subclass levels of their younger (< or = 20 years) than their older offspring. Among all subclasses, HDL2b showed the strongest parent-offspring relation, with the parents' HDL values accounting for over 30% of the variance in offsprings' HDL2b.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1450178

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of high-density lipoprotein HDL1 from rat plasma by gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, L T; Walker, L F; DuBien, L H; Getz, G S

    1979-01-01

    The lipoproteins isolated from rat plasma by flotation in the density range 1.019-1.063 g/ml were further characterized. Using rate zonal ultracentrifugation, we isolated two lipoproteins in almost equal proportions from this density range. Similar isolations may be accomplished with density gradients in a swinging-bucket rotor. On isopycnic-density-gradient ultracentrifugation one component banded at rho = 1.031 g/ml and the other at rho = 1.054 g/ml. More that 98% of the apoprotein of the lighter component was B protein, and hence this particle is LD (low-density) lipoprotein. Of the apoproteins of the rho = 1.054 g/ml particles, designated lipoprotein HDL1, over 60% was arginine-rich peptide, and the remainder was A-I, A-IV and C peptides. The molecular weight of these lipoproteins determined by agarose column chromatography was 2.36 x 10(6) for LD lipoprotein and 1.30 x 10(6) for lipoprotein HDL1. On electron microscopy the radius of LD lipoprotein was 14.0 nm and that of lipoprotein HDL1 was 10.0 nm, in contrast with molecular radii of 10.4 nm and 8.4 nm respectively determined from the gel-permeation-chromatography data. The lipid and phospholipid composition of both particles was determined. Lipoprotein HDL1 was notable for both the concentration of its esterified cholesterol, which was similar to that of LD lipoprotein, and the low triacylglycerol content, resembling that of HD lipoprotein. The possible origin of lipoprotein HDL1 is discussed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:230819

  7. Investigations on the transport and metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in African green monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Sorci-Thomas, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic fate of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters was studied in African green monkeys to determine the significance of the lipid transfer reaction on the catabolism of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters. A method of doubly labeling both moieties of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with (/sup 3/He)cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate was developed for the purpose of studying plasma cholesteryl ester metabolism in vivo. In these studies the total plasma (/sup 3/He)cholesterol turnover resulted in production rates, which ranged from 10-17 mg/kg day, similar to previously reported values in African green monkeys and in normal lipoproteinemic humans. In contrast to the production rates calculated from the decay of plasma /sup 3/He-radioactivity, the production rates calculated from lipoproteins labeled with cholesteryl (/sup 14/C)oleate were approximately 2-3 times greater. In addition to these studies, a plasma cholesteryl ester transacylation activity was demonstrated in vitro when HDL containing doubly labeled cholesteryl esters were incubated with fresh plasma. These results demonstrated that high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters undergo transacylation in vitro, resulting in release and reesterification of free (/sup 3/H)cholesterol.

  8. Surface properties of native human plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein models.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, J B; Pownall, H J

    1998-01-01

    Plasma lipoprotein surface properties are important but poorly understood determinants of lipoprotein catabolism. To elucidate the relation between surface properties and surface reactivity, the physical properties of surface monolayers of native lipoproteins and lipoprotein models were investigated by fluorescent probes of surface lipid fluidity, surface lateral diffusion, and interfacial polarity, and by their reactivity to Naja melanoleuca phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Native lipoproteins were human very low, low-, and subclass 3 high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, and HDL3); models were 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or its ether analog in single-bilayer vesicles, large and small microemulsions of POPC and triolein, and reassembled HDL (apolipoprotein A-I plus phospholipid). Among lipoproteins, surface lipid fluidity increased in the order HDL3 < LDL < VLDL, varying inversely with their (protein + cholesterol)/phospholipid ratios. Models resembled VLDL in fluidity. Both lateral mobility in the surface monolayer and polarity of the interfacial region were lower in native lipoproteins than in models. Among native lipoproteins and models, increased fluidity in the surface monolayer was associated with increased reactivity to PLA2. Addition of cholesterol (up to 20 mol%) to models had little effect on PLA2 activity, whereas the addition of apolipoprotein C-III stimulated it. Single-bilayer vesicles, phospholipid-triolein microemulsions, and VLDL have surface monolayers that are quantitatively similar, and distinct from those of LDL and HDL3. Surface property and enzymatic reactivity differences between lipoproteins and models were associated with differences in surface monolayer protein and cholesterol contents. Thus differences in the surface properties that regulate lipolytic reactivity are a predictable function of surface composition. PMID:9533698

  9. Fasting during Ramadan induces a marked increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Adlouni, A; Ghalim, N; Benslimane, A; Lecerf, J M; Saile, R

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time in a Moroccan population that fasting during Ramadan, the ninth lunar month of the Muslims' year, affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in a group of 32 healthy adult male volunteers. This investigation was conducted to study the changes in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and body weight during Ramadan. The results showed a significant decrease (7.9%, p < 0.001) in serum total cholesterol concentration during Ramadan as compared with the prefasting period. Also, we obtained a significant decrease of serum triglyceride concentration (30%, p < 0.001) during Ramadan fasting as compared to the period before Ramadan. The reduction of both serum triglycerides and total cholesterol was maintained 1 month after Ramadan. By the end of Ramadan, serum HDL cholesterol had markedly increased (14.3%, p < 0.001) and remained elevated 1 month after Ramadan in contrast to LDL cholesterol which showed a significant decrease (11.7%, p < 0.0001) also maintained 1 month after Ramadan. Mean body weight declined by 2.6% (p < 0.01) on day 29 of Ramadan, whereas during Ramadan, the diet pattern used by our subjects showed an increase of total energy intake due to carbohydrates (+ 1.4% of total energy), proteins (+ 0.4% of total energy) but not fat (-0.7% of total energy) compared to a usual diet used throughout the rest of the year. Moreover, the fat diet is high in monounsaturated (p < 0.05) and polyunsaturated fatty acid in contrast to saturated fatty acid which significantly (p < 0.05) decreased during Ramadan. These findings suggest that feeding behavior that occurs during Ramadan beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:9363296

  10. Genome-wide association studies identified novel loci for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its postprandial lipemic response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to low-density lipoprotein alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) t...

  11. BENEFITS OF REDUCING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATIONS TO <100 MG/DL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is an independent risk factor for premature coronary heart disease (CHD), with a value of $160 mg/dL designated as high-risk by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panels I and II. Goals of therapy for all patients...

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  13. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  14. ON THE CONFORMATIONAL INSTABILITY OF HUMAN SERUM LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE*

    PubMed Central

    Scanu, A.; Pollard, H.; Hirz, R.; Kothary, K.

    1969-01-01

    When examined by circular dichroism and ultraviolet spectroscopy, human serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its delipidated product, apo LDL, exhibited reversible thermal changes. The more marked temperature sensitivity of apo LDL as compared to LDL was taken to support a constraining role by lipids on the observed structural instability of the apoprotein. PMID:5253654

  15. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  16. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  17. In vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into high and low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Terpstra, A.H.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Herbert, P.N. )

    1989-11-01

    We have developed and validated a method for in vitro incorporation of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters into low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Radiolabeled cholesteryl esters dissolved in absolute ethanol were mixed with LDL or HDL in the presence of lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) as a source of core lipid transfer activity. The efficiency of incorporation was dependent on: (a) the core lipid transfer activity and quantity of LPDS, (b) the mass of added radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, (c) the length of incubation, and (d) the amount of acceptor lipoprotein cholesterol. The tracer incorporation was documented by repeat density gradient ultracentrifugation, agarose gel electrophoresis, and precipitation with heparin-MnCl2. The radiolabeling conditions did not affect the following properties of the lipoproteins: (1) chemical composition, (2) electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels, (3) hydrated density, (4) distribution of apoproteins on SDS gels, (5) plasma clearance rates, and (6) immunoprecipitability of HDL apoproteins A-I and A-II. Rat HDL containing radiolabeled cholesteryl esters incorporated in vitro had plasma disappearance rates identical to HDL radiolabeled in vivo.

  18. Distribution and Kinetics of Lipoprotein-Bound Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Levels, J. H. M.; Abraham, P. R.; van den Ende, A.; van Deventer, S. J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major glycolipid component of gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, is a potent endotoxin responsible for pathophysiological symptoms characteristic of infection. The observation that the majority of LPS is found in association with plasma lipoproteins has prompted the suggestion that sequestering of LPS by lipid particles may form an integral part of a humoral detoxification mechanism. Previous studies on the biological properties of isolated lipoproteins used differential ultracentrifugation to separate the major subclasses. To preserve the integrity of the lipoproteins, we have analyzed the LPS distribution, specificity, binding capacity, and kinetics of binding to lipoproteins in human whole blood or plasma by using high-performance gel permeation chromatography and fluorescent LPS of three different chemotypes. The average distribution of O111:B4, J5, or Re595 LPS in whole blood from 10 human volunteers was 60% (±8%) high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 25% (±7%) low-density lipoprotein, and 12% (±5%) very low density lipoprotein. The saturation capacity of lipoproteins for all three LPS chemotypes was in excess of 200 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis however, revealed a strict chemotype dependence. The binding of Re595 or J5 LPS was essentially complete within 10 min, and subsequent redistribution among the lipoprotein subclasses occurred to attain similar distributions as O111:B4 LPS at 40 min. We conclude that under simulated physiological conditions, the binding of LPS to lipoproteins is highly specific, HDL has the highest binding capacity for LPS, the saturation capacity of lipoproteins for endotoxin far exceeds the LPS concentrations measured in clinical situations, and the kinetics of LPS association with lipoproteins display chemotype-dependent differences. PMID:11292694

  19. Metabolism of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in human high-density lipoprotein: a mathematical approach for analysis of their specific activity decay curves

    SciTech Connect

    Atmeh, R.F.

    1987-12-01

    The differential rate equations describing the compartmental model of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were integrated by means of Laplace transforms and an exponential equation was obtained for each of the three compartments. These equations were used to fit the observed plasma decay data and give estimates for the rate constants of the system by means of a written computer program. Furthermore, these estimates were used to calculate the exponential constants of the integrated equations. Consequently, the amount of label in any of the intravascular, extravascular, and urine compartments can be calculated as a fraction of the original dose of label at any time point. This method was tested using data for the (AI)HDL subclass because it contains only apolipoprotein A-I as the major apolipoprotein and does not contain apolipoprotein A-II. The calculated plasma and urine radioactivity data were compared with the experimentally obtained data from two normolipoproteinemic subjects and found to be in good agreement. The significance of this method is its application to the analysis of the decay data of the individual apolipoproteins of (AI + AII) HDL subclass where the urinary radioactivity data resulting from the individual apolipoprotein breakdown on the native particle cannot be measured experimentally at present. Such data are essential for the detailed calculation of the kinetic parameters of these apolipoproteins.

  20. Intact human ceruloplasmin oxidatively modifies low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenwald, E; Chisolm, G M; Fox, P L

    1994-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin is a plasma protein that carries most of the copper found in the blood. Although its elevation after inflammation and trauma has led to its classification as an acute phase protein, its physiological role is uncertain. A frequently reported activity of ceruloplasmin is its ability to suppress oxidation of lipids. In light of the intense recent interest in the oxidation of plasma LDL, we investigated the effects of ceruloplasmin on the oxidation of this lipoprotein. In contrast to our expectations, highly purified, undegraded human ceruloplasmin enhanced rather than suppressed copper ion-mediated oxidation of LDL. Ceruloplasmin increased the oxidative modification of LDL as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances by at least 25-fold in 20 h, and increased electrophoretic mobility, conjugated dienes, and total lipid peroxides. In contrast, ceruloplasmin that was degraded to a complex containing 115- and 19-kD fragments inhibited cupric ion oxidation of LDL, as did commercial preparations, which were also degraded. However, the antioxidant capability of degraded ceruloplasmin in this system was similar to that of other proteins, including albumin. The copper in ceruloplasmin responsible for oxidant activity was not removed by ultrafiltration, indicating a tight association. Treatment of ceruloplasmin with Chelex-100 removed one of seven copper atoms per molecule and completely blocked oxidant activity. Restoration of the copper to ceruloplasmin also restored oxidant activity. These data indicate that ceruloplasmin, depending on the integrity of its structure and its bound copper, can exert a potent oxidant rather than antioxidant action on LDL. Our results invite speculation that ceruloplasmin may be in part responsible for oxidation of LDL in blood or in the arterial wall and may thus have a physiological role that is quite distinct from what is commonly believed. Images PMID:8163654

  1. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  2. Direct effects of fatty meals and adiposity on oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Alonso-Barreto, Arely S; Mendieta-Zern, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    High-fat intake and high adiposity contribute to hyperlipaemia. In a hyperlipaemic state, lipoproteins infiltrate arterial wall where they are modified and cause an immune response characteristic of atherosclerosis. A small fraction of modified lipoproteins including oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) returns to circulation. The present study tracked high-fat meals during four weeks as to find effects of sustained frequency change on adiposity and ox-LDL. The findings indicated that changes in frequency of consumption of high-fat eating episodes correlated directly with changes in adiposity and ox-LDL. Hence the number of fatty meals consumed by people with overweight or obesity in few weeks could affect the atherogenic process. PMID:25863985

  3. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.

    1999-07-20

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.

  4. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Orr, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separate LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described.

  5. A very-high-density lipoprotein with clotting ability from hemolymph of sand crayfish, Ibacus ciliatus.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, M; Ando, S

    1998-03-01

    A very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) with a density of 1.27-1.29 g/ml was the most abundant lipoprotein in the hemolymph of the sand crayfish Ibacus ciliatus. The VHDL isolated by a density gradient ultracentrifugation consisted of 94% protein and 6% lipid reflecting its high density, and phospholipid was a predominant lipid component. The VHDL had an apolipoprotein of molecular mass 195 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as follows: LQPGLEYQYRYNGRVAA. This sequence was similar to those of clotting proteins from the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus and the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Transglutaminase and Ca2+ also induced the VHDL to clot. Considering large amounts of VHDL in the hemolymph of sand crayfish, the VHDL not only functions as lipid carrier but plays an important role in the defense process of crustacea. PMID:9571775

  6. Modification of very low density lipoproteins leads to macrophage scavenger receptor uptake and cholesteryl ester deposition.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, T; Lopez, C; Bergstraesser, L

    1987-01-01

    Chemically modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized by the macrophage scavenger receptor and can lead to substantial cholesteryl ester accumulation in cultured macrophages. Uptake of modified lipoproteins in vivo could contribute to foam cell formation during generation of the atherosclerotic plaque lesion. In the present study, modification of human pre-beta migrating very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) by acetylation led to recognition by the macrophage scavenger receptor as demonstrated in cross-competition experiments with acetylated LDL (ALDL). Recognition by this alternative binding site was associated with increased cholesterol delivery to human macrophages as assessed by suppression of LDL receptor activity, stimulation of cholesterol esterification rates, and accumulation of intracellular cholesteryl ester. Subfractionation of acetylated very low density lipoprotein (AVLDL) by ultracentrifugation in a discontinuous NaCl gradient demonstrated that AVLDL subfractions were equally effective in competing for 125I-ALDL uptake by macrophages when compared on the basis of particle number. These results suggest that modification of VLDL with subsequent recognition by the macrophage scavenger receptor may be a mechanism by which VLDL particles participate in macrophage cholesteryl ester overload. PMID:3579725

  7. Marked increase in plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol after prolonged fasting during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Maislos, M; Khamaysi, N; Assali, A; Abou-Rabiah, Y; Zvili, I; Shany, S

    1993-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of the Ramadan fasting on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in normal individuals. Twenty-four healthy subjects were studied before the end of the Ramadan month (Ram) and for 1 mo thereafter. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) did not change. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was 30% higher (P < 0.005) at the end of Ram; apolipoprotein A-I also increased (P < 0.0001). Both the ratios of TC to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C (P < 0.001) decreased at Ram. There was a striking nonpharmacologic improvement in plasma HDL-C and ratios of TC to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C, which were most probably induced by eating one large evening meal a day. Further studies to determine the mechanism of this observation are underway. PMID:8480679

  8. Assembly and secretion of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, G F

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to water-soluble fuels such as glucose or ketone bodies, the use of lipids as an energy source for tissues has required the development of complex structures for their transport through the aqueous plasma. In the case of endogenously synthesized triacylglycerol this is achieved by the assembly and secretion of hepatic VLDL which provides the necessary stability in an aqueous medium. An essential component of this assembly process is apo B. Dietary changes which require an increase in hepatic VLDL secretion appear to be accompanied by increases in the availability of functional apo B. Interesting questions relate to: (a) the intracellular site(s) of triacylglycerol association with apo B, and (b) the mechanism(s) by which the availability of functional apo B at this site responds to metabolic and hormonal signals which reflect dietary status and, thus, the need to secrete triacylglycerol. As regards the latter, although in some cases changes in apo B synthesis occur in response to VLDL secretion hepatic apo B mRNA levels appear to be quite stable in vitro. Intracellular switching of apo B between the secretory and degradative pathways may be important in controlling VLDL assembly and post-translational modifications of the apoprotein may also play a role by influencing its ability to bind to triacylglycerol. Transport is not the only problem associated with the utilization of a concentrated energy source such as triacylglycerol and the complex problems of waste product disposal and recycling have to be dealt with. In the case of triacylglycerol, potentially toxic waste products include atherogenic remnants and LDL. The overall problem, then, in the long-term, involves the development of a 'safe' means of utilizing triacylglycerol and this requirement accounts for much of the complexity of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. In this area, the rat could teach the human a few tricks. One of these appears to be the utilization of hepatic apo B48 rather than apo B100 for VLDL assembly in response to increases in the extrahepatic utilization of hepatically synthesized triacylglycerol. Under these conditions, the remnants of hepatic triacylglycerol utilization by peripheral tissues are cleared from the plasma much more readily via a process which seems to involve the cycling of more triacylglycerol back to the liver than that which occurs in humans. The means by which this is achieved, though, are obscure and may involve a chylomicron remnant receptor, the nature of which, itself, remains controversial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2188646

  9. Low density lipoprotein uptake by an endothelial-smooth muscle cell bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.J.; Miguel, R.; Graham, D. )

    1991-03-01

    To study the interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the means by which such interaction may affect lipid permeability of the arterial wall, cell bilayers were established by use of a transwell culture system. After confluent growth of both cell types had been achieved, iodine 125 bound to low-density lipoprotein (10 ng protein/ml) was added to the media of the upper well. After a 3-hour incubation period, the iodine 125-bound low-density lipoprotein content of the upper and lower media demonstrated an impedance to lipoprotein movement across the endothelial cell monolayer as compared to the bare porous polycarbonate filter of the transwell (p less than 10(-6)). The presence of smooth muscle cells in the bottom well significantly enhanced the permeability of the endothelial cell layer (p less than 10(-60)). This effect remained unchanged over a 9-day time course. Membrane binding and cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein by endothelial cells was not altered by smooth muscle cells, indicating that this change in permeability could not be easily attributed to changes in receptor-mediated transport or transcytosis. Membrane binding (p less than 0.02) and cellular uptake (p less than 10(-6)) of low-density lipoprotein by smooth muscle cells in the bilayer, when adjusted for counts available in the smooth muscle cell media, were both reduced in the early incubation period as compared to isolated smooth muscle cells. The disproportionate reduction in uptake as compared to binding would suggest that this was not entirely a receptor-dependent process.

  10. [Beta amyloid in blood and cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, N V; Kudinov, A R; Berezov, T T

    1996-01-01

    Cerebrovascular and parenchymal amyloid deposits found in brains of Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal aging are mainly composed of aggregated amyloid beta protein (A beta), a unique peptide 39 to 44 amino acids long. A similar but soluble A beta (s A beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cell supernatants, indicating that it is a normal protein. We report here that s A beta in normal human plasma and CSF is complexed to high density lipoprotein (HDL) 3 and very high density lipoprotein (VHDL). Biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. Both tracer biotin-labeled A beta 1-40 and native s A beta were specifically recovered in HDL3 and VHDL as it was assessed in immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein depleted plasma. This fact prompted us to ascertain whether the interaction of s A beta with HDL does occur in normal human CSF in vivo. For this purpose normals human CSF was fractionated by means of sequential flotation ultracentrifugation. The presence of s A beta in the resulting lipoprotein fractions as well as in the lipoprotein depleted CSF was analysed by immunoblot analysis, electron and immune-electron microscopy and native size exclusion chromatography. Immunoblot analysis with 6E10 monoclonal anti-A beta antibodies revealed s A beta association with all HDL subspecies of CSF, primarily HDL3 and VHDL and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed an association of s A beta with CSF-HDL particles of 16.8 + 3.2 nm. Native size exclusion chromatography followed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies against A beta and different apoliproproteins indicated an association of s A beta with HDL complexes of approximately 200 kDa molecular weight. Soluble A beta association with HDL3 and VHDL may be involved in maintaining the solubility of A beta in biological fluids and points to a possible role of lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipid in the biology of aminoloidogenic peptides. PMID:9139461

  11. Detection of haptoglobin in the high-density lipoprotein and the very high-density lipoprotein fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Katoh, N; Nakagawa, H

    1999-02-01

    In addition to the lipoprotein-deficient d > 1.25 fraction, haptoglobin was detected in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fractions from sera of calves with experimental pneumonia and cows with naturally occurring fatty liver. It was not found in the chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein fractions. Washing of the HDL fraction did not decrease the haptoglobin concentration. Transferrin and immunoglobulin G were immunoblotted to examine the possibility of contamination of the lipoprotein fractions by the d > 1.25 fraction. The two serum proteins were detected only in the d > 1.25 fraction, not in any lipoprotein fractions. The distribution pattern of haptoglobin in the lipoprotein fractions was distinct from that of serum albumin. Concentrations of haptoglobin in the HDL fractions from pneumonic sera were largely proportional to those in whole sera. Cholesteryl ester concentrations were decreased in sera from calves with pneumonia, as in cows with fatty liver. A protein immunologically related to hemoglobin was also detected in particular in the VHDL fractions from sera of both groups. These results suggest that haptoglobin or a complex with the hemoglobin-like protein may have a role or roles related to the lipid metabolism. PMID:10081748

  12. Food intake and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels changes during ramadan fasting in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamine, Faiza; Bouguerra, Radhia; Jabrane, Jelidi; Marrakchi, Zinet; Ben Rayana, Mohamed Chiheb; Ben Slama, Claude; Gaigi, Sadok

    2006-10-01

    During the holy month of Ramadan, it is obligatory for all adult healthy Muslims to abstain from food, drink and smoking each day from dawn to sunset. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and the change of food consumption in healthy subjects. Thirty young healthy and normal weighted adults (9 males and 21 females) were evaluated during three periods: 3 weeks before Ramadan (T0); the 4th week of Ramadan (T1) and 3 weeks after the end of Ramadan (T2). Main Clinical and biological parameters investigated were: body weight, blood glucose, plasma triglycerides (TG), plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and. low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) Body weight, and blood glucose were unchanged. There was a significant increase of the mean daily caloric intake, the lipids intake particularly mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.001) and cholesterol intake (p < 0.001) during Ramadan with a decrease of the meal frequency. There was also a significant increase of plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. The most striking finding was a significant increase in the HDL-Cholesterol during Ramadan +20% (p < 0.02). This increase was lost after Ramadan. Fasting Ramadan affects beneficially serum lipoprotein metabolism in young adult healthy subjects with an increase of HDL-cholesterol. PMID:17193859

  13. Hepatic deficiency of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 reduces high density lipoprotein secretion and plasma levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Basford, Joshua E; Wancata, Lauren; Hofmann, Susanna M; Silva, R A Gangani D; Davidson, W Sean; Howles, Philip N; Hui, David Y

    2011-04-15

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is known to serve as a chylomicron remnant receptor in the liver responsible for the binding and plasma clearance of apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins. Previous in vitro studies have provided evidence to suggest that LRP1 expression may also influence high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The current study showed that liver-specific LRP1 knock-out (hLrp1(-/-)) mice displayed lower fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels when compared with hLrp1(+/+) mice. Lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase and hepatic lipase activities in plasma of hLrp1(-/-) mice were comparable with those observed in hLrp1(+/+) mice, indicating that hepatic LRP1 inactivation does not influence plasma HDL remodeling. Plasma clearance of HDL particles and HDL-associated cholesteryl esters was also similar between hLrp1(+/+) and hLrp1(-/-) mice. In contrast, HDL secretion from primary hepatocytes isolated from hLrp1(-/-) mice was significantly reduced when compared with that observed with hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed decreased surface localization of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) protein, but total cellular ABCA1 level was not changed in hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes. Finally, hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes displayed reduced binding capacity for extracellular cathepsin D, resulting in lower intracellular cathepsin D content and impairment of prosaposin activation, a process that is required for membrane translocation of ABCA1 to facilitate cholesterol efflux and HDL secretion. Taken together, these results documented that hepatic LRP1 participates in cellular activation of lysosomal enzymes and through this mechanism, indirectly modulates the production and plasma levels of HDL. PMID:21343303

  14. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18g of Suioh, raw sweet potato leaves. Suioh prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation. PMID:21562639

  15. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease: assessing the data from Framingham to the Veterans Affairs High--Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, W E

    2000-12-21

    The Framingham Heart Study found that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was the most potent lipid predictor of coronary artery disease risk in men and women >49 years of age. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS), in which subjects were randomized to treatment with lovastatin or placebo, also reported a striking benefit of treatment, particularly in patients with HDL-C < or =35 mg/dL at baseline. Treatment with lovastatin was associated with a remarkable 45% reduction in events for this group. The Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT) randomized subjects to gemfibrozil or placebo. A high proportion of enrolled subjects with low HDL-C also had characteristics of the dysmetabolic syndrome. HDL-C likewise increased by 6% on treatment, total cholesterol was reduced by 4% and triglycerides by 31%. There was no change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. These changes in lipid were associated with a cumulative 22% reduction in the trial primary endpoint of all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Additionally, significant reductions in secondary endpoints including death from coronary artery disease, nonfatal MI, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and carotid endarterectomy were associated with the increase in HDL-C. In VA-HIT, for every 1% increase in HDL-C, there was a 3% reduction in death or MI, a therapeutic benefit that eclipses the benefit associated with LDL-C reduction. PMID:11374850

  16. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis reduces low-density-lipoprotein apoprotein B production without decreasing very-low-density-lipoprotein apoprotein B synthesis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    La Ville, A; Moshy, R; Turner, P R; Miller, N E; Lewis, B

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the apoprotein B (apo B) of very-low-density (VLDL; d less than 1.006) and low-density (LDL; d 1.019-1.063) lipoproteins were studied in six rabbits by using radioiodinated homologous lipoproteins, before and during oral administration of mevinolin (5 mg/kg per day), a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (EC 1.1.1.34), to explore the mechanism by which the drug reduces LDL synthesis. Before treatment LDL-apo B production greatly exceeded VLDL-apo B production in all animals, indicating that a large proportion of plasma LDL was derived from a VLDL-independent pathway. Five animals responded to mevinolin with a fall in plasma cholesterol (mean change - 53%; P less than 0.01). This was associated with a 66% decrease in LDL-apo B synthesis (P less than 0.05). In contrast, VLDL-apo B synthesis was unaffected by mevinolin. Furthermore, in all but one animal the decrement in LDL-apo B synthesis was greater than the rate of VLDL-apo B synthesis before treatment, demonstrating that mevinolin had reduced the VLDL-independent production of LDL. PMID:6562889

  17. Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Associated with Poor Outcome after Angioplasty in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mosimann, Kathrin; Husmann, Marc; Thalhammer, Christoph; Wilkinson, Ian; Berneis, Kaspar; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In patients suffering from symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), percutaneous revascularization is the treatment of choice. However, restenosis may occur in 10 to 60% in the first year depending on a variety of factors. Small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events, but their role in the process of restenosis is not known. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the association of sdLDL particles with the outcome of balloon angioplasty in PAD. The composite primary endpoint was defined as improved walking distance and absence of restenosis. Methods Patients with angiographically documented PAD of the lower extremities who were scheduled for lower limb revascularization were consecutively recruited for the study. At baseline and at three month follow-up triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL size and subclasses and HDL cholesterol and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were measured. Three months after the intervention duplex sonography was performed to detect restenosis. Results Sixty-four patients (53% male) with a mean age of 68.69.9 years were included. The proportion of small- dense LDL particles (class III and IV) was significantly lower (33.111.0% vs. 39.412.1%, p?=?0.038) in patients who reached the primary end-point compared with those who did not. Patients with improved walking distance and without restenosis had a significantly higher LDL size at baseline (26.61.1 nm vs. 26.11.1 nm, p?=?0.046) and at follow-up (26.71.1 nm vs. 26.20.9 nm, p?=?0.044) than patients without improvement. Conclusions Small-dense LDL particles are associated with worse early outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization for symptomatic PAD. PMID:25265512

  18. Macrophage metalloproteinases degrade high-density-lipoprotein-associated apolipoprotein A-I at both the N- and C-termini.

    PubMed Central

    Eberini, Ivano; Calabresi, Laura; Wait, Robin; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Pirillo, Angela; Puglisi, Lina; Sirtori, Cesare R; Gianazza, Elisabetta

    2002-01-01

    Atheromatous plaques contain various cell types, including macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth-muscle cells. To investigate the possible interactions between secreted matrix metalloproteinases and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components, we tested the above cell types by culturing them for 24 h. HDL(3) (HDL subfractions with average sizes of between 8.44 nm for HDL(3A) and 7.62 nm for HDL(3C)) were then incubated in their cell-free conditioned media. Proteolytic degradation of apolipoprotein A-I was observed with macrophages, but not with endothelial-cell- or muscle-cell-conditioned supernatant. Absence of calcium or addition of EDTA to incubation media prevented all proteolytic processes. The identified apolipoprotein A-I fragments had sizes of 26, 22, 14 and 9 kDa. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS resolved the 26 and the 22 kDa components and identified peptides resulting from both N- and C-terminal cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I. The higher abundance of C- than N-terminally cleaved peptides agrees with data in the literature for a fully structured alpha-helix around Tyr(18) compared with an unstructured region around Gly(185) and Gly(186). The flexibility in the latter region of apolipoprotein A-I may explain its susceptibility to proteolysis. In our experimental set-up, HDL(3C) was more extensively degraded than the other HDL(3) subclasses (HDL(3A) and HDL(3B)). Proteolytic fragments produced by metalloproteinase action were shown by gel filtration and electrophoresis to be neither associated with lipids nor self-associated. PMID:11879189

  19. The association of very-low-density lipoprotein with ankle-brachial index in peritoneal dialysis patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) represents atherosclerotic disease and is a risk factor for death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, who tend to show an atherogenic lipid profile. In this study, we investigated the relationship between lipid profile and ankle-brachial index (ABI) as an index of atherosclerosis in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. Methods Thirty-five PD patients, whose serum LDL cholesterol level was controlled at less than 120mg/dl, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol level to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the mean size of lipoprotein particles were measured using an improved method, namely, high-performance gel permeation chromatography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was adjusted for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. Results The mean (standard deviation) age was 61.6 (10.5) years; PD vintage, 38.5 (28.1) months; ABI, 1.07 (0.22). A low ABI (0.9 or lower) was observed in 7 patients (low-ABI group). The low-ABI group showed significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the chylomicron fraction and large very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (Fractions 35) than the high-ABI group (ABI>0.9). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis showed that ABI was negatively associated with serum VLDL cholesterol level (parameter estimate=-0.00566, p=0.0074); the cholesterol proportions in large VLDLs (Fraction 4, parameter estimate=-3.82, p=0.038; Fraction 5, parameter estimate=-3.62, p=0.0039) and medium VLDL (Fraction 6, parameter estimate=-3.25, p=0.014); and the size of VLDL particles (parameter estimate=-0.0352, p=0.032). Conclusions This study showed that the characteristics of VLDL particles were associated with ABI among PD patients. Lowering serum VLDL level may be an effective therapy against atherosclerosis in PD patients after the control of serum LDL cholesterol level. PMID:24093487

  20. Functionalizing low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for in vivo near-infrared optical imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Ian R.; Chen, Juan; Li, Hui; Cao, Weiguo; Zheng, Gang

    2007-07-01

    Low density lipoproteins (LDL) have long been recognized as a potential delivery system for exogenous agents. Imaging agents or drugs can be attached to LDL through surface loading, protein loading or core loading methods. The LDL delivery system has received considerable attention particularly among cancer biologists as it was observed that numerous cancers over-express the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In this paper we investigate the utility of LDL to transport optical imaging contrast agents for caner detection. The method of loading fluorophores into the core of LDL is attractive as it behaves like an activatable contrast agent. Surface and protein labeled methods also prove to be effective strategies for tracing LDL nanoparticle activity. The strengths and limitations of the LDL carrier system are discussed and novel approaches for imaging cancer with LDL nanoparticles are highlighted.

  1. Scavenger receptor for malondialdehyde-modified high density lipoprotein on rat sinusoidal liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Horiuchi, S.; Takata, K.; Morino, Y.

    1986-05-29

    The presence of a membrane-associated receptor which mediates endocytic uptake of malondialydehyde-modified high density lipoprotein (MDA-HDL) on sinusoidal liver cells is reported. Binding of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL to the cells was followed by internalization and degradation in lysosomes. The binding and lysomal degradation of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL were effectively inhibited by unlabeled MDA-HDL and acetyl-HDL. However, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin or low density lipoprotein modified either by acetylation or malondialdehyde, ligands known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal liver cells, did not affect the binding of (/sup 175/I)MDA-HDL to the cells. These results indicate that a receptor for MDA-HDL is described as a distinct member among the scavenger receptors for chemically modified proteins.

  2. Macrophages can decrease the level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides in low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, A; Dean, R T; Jessup, W

    2000-01-21

    Murine and human macrophages rapidly decreased the level of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides in low density lipoprotein (LDL) when cultured in media non-permissive for LDL oxidation. This process was proportional to cell number but could not be attributed to the net lipoprotein uptake. Macrophage-mediated loss of lipid hydroperoxides in LDL appears to be metal ion-independent. Degradation of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxides was accompanied by accumulation of the corresponding hydroxide as the major product and cholesteryl keto-octadecadienoate as a minor product, although taken together these products could not completely account for the hydroperoxide consumption. Cell-conditioned medium possessed a similar capacity to remove lipid hydroperoxides as seen with cellular monolayers, suggesting that the activity is not an integral component of the cell but is secreted from it. The activity of cell-conditioned medium to lower the level of LDL lipid hydroperoxides is associated with its high molecular weight fraction and is modulated by the availability of free thiol groups. Cell-mediated loss of LDL cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides is facilitated by the presence of alpha-tocopherol in the lipoprotein. Together with our earlier reports on the ability of macrophages to remove peroxides rapidly from oxidized amino acids, peptides, and proteins as well as to clear selectively cholesterol 7-beta-hydroperoxide, results presented in this paper provide evidence of a potential protective activity of the cell against further LDL oxidation by removing reactive peroxide groups in the lipoprotein. PMID:10636856

  3. A multiexon deletion in the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel`shtam, M.Yu.; Lipovetskii, B.M.; Shvartsman, A.L.; Gaitskhoki, V.S.

    1995-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a widespread human disease. FH is caused by a disturbance in the catabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which results from mutations in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR). The majority of mutations in the LDLR locus is represented by large-scale reorganizations in the above gene. In this study, we describe a novel 5 kb deletion, which eliminates exons 4 to 6 in the LDLR gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Interaction of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) with macrophages and their triboluminescence in hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Voziian, P A; Orel, V E; Barabo?, V A; Korniets, G V; Kholodova, Iu D

    1991-01-01

    Accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in peritoneal mice macrophages in the course of their interaction with lipoproteins of very low density (VLDL) is shown to grow considerably under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. A decrease of triboluminescence intensity characterizing the surface charge has been revealed at hypercholesterolemia both in VLDL and in the blood plasma. It is supposed that the triboluminescence method may be used for testing of the atherosclerotic process development. PMID:1949230

  5. Structure of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, F C; van het Schip, A D; Arnberg, A C; Wieringa, B; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-09-25

    We describe two cloned genomic DNA fragments, both bearing the entire apo very low density lipoprotein II gene. Electron microscopy and restriction enzyme mapping showed that this gene is split into at least four coding sequences by three or more intervening sequences. A very short exon at the 5'-end of the gene is separated by a 1.5-kilobase intron from the second exon, which codes for the AUG initiation codon of the mRNA. PMID:6270096

  6. Splicing pathways of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II (pre)messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Noteborn, M; Arnberg, A; de Jonge, M; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1986-01-01

    The precursor-mRNA transcribed from the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene was identified. This gene which is under full estrogen control and only expressed in the liver, possesses three introns. Splicing intermediates were characterized by hybridization with intron-specific probes, and by electron microscopy of R-loops. The introns appear to be excised in a non-obligatory order, but at different rates. PMID:3632793

  7. Plasma lipoprotein composition in alcoholic hepatitis: accumulation of apolipoprotein E-rich high density lipoprotein and preferential reappearance of "light'-HDL during partial recovery.

    PubMed

    Weidman, S W; Ragland, J B; Sabesin, S M

    1982-05-01

    Abnormal lipoproteins accumulate in the plasma of alcoholic hepatitis patients in association with a deficiency of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyl-transferase. Most of these abnormal lipoproteins are found in the d > 1.006 g/ml density fraction. To investigate the composition and morphology of the lipoproteins at various times during the illness in four patients, we have employed density gradient ultracentrifugation combined with analyses of gradient fractions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroimmunoassay, and electron microscopy. At the onset of the illness, plasma cholesteryl esters ranged from 19-34% of total cholesterol; high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apoA-I, the major HDL apoprotein, were <10% of normal; and most of the d > 1.006 g/ml triglycerides and phospholipids were found in the LDL density region. A linear correlation (r = 0.964, P < 0.001) was found between the d > 1.006 g/ml apoB concentration and the summation of the triglyceride and esterified cholesterol for that fraction, indicating a constant ratio of apoB to the summation of these two "core lipids". ApoA-I was primarily found in the fraction d > 1.18 g/ml (HDL(3) and VHDL) but not at all in the HDL(2) density range of the gradient. No cholesteryl esters were present in the apoA-I containing fractions. In contrast to normal, large amounts of apoE accumulated in lipoproteins isolated at d 1.055-1.114 g/ml. The apoE-rich fractions contained primarily phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol; they appeared by electron microscopy to be mixtures of spherical particles, vesicular particles, and chains of bilamellar discs. Analyses of the density gradient fractions by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions indicated that apoA-II levels and distribution paralleled apoA-I, not apoE, providing evidence against appreciable concentrations of apoE-apoA-II complexes. During partial recovery from alcoholic hepatitis in three patients, the d > 1.006 g/ml unesterified cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased, while esterified cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and apoA-I levels increased. The first HDL fractions to reappear were lipoproteins with HDL(2) density characteristics, as evidenced by simultaneous increases of apoA-I, apoA-II, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. Lipoproteins with HDL(3) density characteristics appeared later. Long-term (6-10 months) follow-up studies indicated a substantial elevation of HDL cholesterol and apoA-I in three of the four patients that appeared to have resulted from further increases in their HDL(2)-like subspecies. The above results illustrate the diversity of abnormal lipoproteins in alcoholic hepatitis and the ability of density gradient ultra-centrifugation combined with lipid and apolipoprotein quantitation, electron microscopy, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to partially resolve those lipoproteins in the d > 1.006 g/ml plasma fraction.-Weidman, S. W., J. B. Ragland, and S. M. Sabesin. Plasma lipoprotein composition in alcoholic hepatitis: accumulation of apolipoprotein E-rich high density lipoprotein and preferential reappearance of "light"-HDL during partial recovery. PMID:7097121

  8. Predicting the structure of apolipoprotein A-I in reconstituted high-density lipoprotein disks.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J C; Wriggers, W; Li, Z; Jonas, A; Schulten, K

    1997-01-01

    In reconstituted high-density lipoproteins, apolipoprotein A-I and phosphatidylcholines combine to form disks in which the amphipathic alpha-helices of apolipoprotein A-1 bind to the edge of a lipid bilayer core, shielding the hydrophic lipid tails from the aqueous environment. We have employed experimental data, sequence analysis, and molecular modeling to construct an atomic model of such a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein disk consisting of two apolipoprotein A-I proteins and 160 palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine lipids. The initial globular domain (1-47) of apolipoprotein A-I was excluded from the model, which was hydrated with an 8-A shell of water molecules. Molecular dynamics and simulated annealing were used to test the stability of the model. Both head-to-tail and head-to-head forms of a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein were simulated. In our simulations the protein contained and adhered to the lipid bilayer while providing good coverage of the lipid tails. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9370429

  9. Serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Badhu, B; Dulal, S; Baral, N; Lamsal, M; Shrestha, J K; Koirala, S

    2003-03-01

    Increased serum level of low-density lipoprotein is associated with coronary artery disease. There are, however, no reports on whether the same is true in hypertensive retinopathy. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to evaluate the serum level status of low-density lipoprotein in hypertensive retinopathy, including 30 randomly selected subjects with hypertensive retinopathy; age and gender matched 26 hypertensives without fundus changes. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were assessed in all subjects. Results showed statistically significant (p < 0.0196) higher serum levels of LDL-C in hypertensive patients with retinopathy (mean +/- SD = 2.45 +/- 1.76 mmol/l, SE = 0.33 and 95% CI = 1.79-3.11 vs mean +/- SD = 1.6 +/- 0.4 mmol/l, SE = 0.08 and 95% CI = 1.44-1.76). An increased serum level of LDL-C is associated with hypertensive retinopathy. PMID:12971535

  10. Practical technique to quantify small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol using dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trirongjitmoah, Suchin; Iinaga, Kazuya; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Chiba, Hitoshi; Sriyudthsak, Mana; Shimizu, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) cholesterol is clinically significant. We propose a practical technique to estimate the amount of sdLDL cholesterol using dynamic light scattering (DLS). An analytical solution in a closed form has newly been obtained to estimate the weight fraction of one species of scatterers in the DLS measurement of two species of scatterers. Using this solution, we can quantify the sdLDL cholesterol amount from the amounts of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which are commonly obtained through clinical tests. The accuracy of the proposed technique was confirmed experimentally using latex spheres with known size distributions. The applicability of the proposed technique was examined using samples of human blood serum. The possibility of estimating the sdLDL amount using the HDL data was demonstrated. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation of sdLDL amounts using DLS is feasible for point-of-care testing in clinical practice.

  11. Properties and metabolic fate of two very low density lipoprotein subfractions from rhesus monkey serum.

    PubMed

    Lusk, L; Chung, J; Scanu, A M

    1982-02-15

    Physical, chemical and physiological approaches were used to examine the properties of two very low density lipoproteins, VLDL-I (slow-beta), and VLDL-II (pre-beta), which were isolated by agarose column chromatography from the serum of rhesus monkeys fed either Purina Chow or one of four hyperlipidemic diets containing 0.5-20% cholesterol suspended in either coconut oil, peanut oil, mixed coconut oil and butter fat or lard. In the coconut oil-fed hyperlipidemic animals, the majority of the apolar lipids of VLDL-I was represented by cholesteryl esters. The small percentage of triacylglycerol (15%) had a fatty acid composition which resembled that of the fatty acid in each of the diets. In turn, VLDL-II had a triacylglycerol-rich core and differed from VLDL-I in apolipoprotein distribution (VLDL-I: low molecular weight apolipoprotein B, 36%; apolipoprotein E, 64%; and VLDL-II: high molecular weight apolipoprotein B, 38%; apolipoprotein E, 3%; and apolipoprotein C, 65%). Both VLDLs were hydrolyzed in vitro by milk lipoprotein lipase by first-order kinetics although VLDL-I exhibited a slightly slower reaction rate. When an oral dose of [3H]retinol was given to one of the animals, both VLDLs became labeled but the specific activity of VLDL-I was six times higher than that of VLDL-II and the other lipoproteins. We conclude that VLDL-I represents a cholesteryl ester-rich lipoprotein probably of intestinal origin, whereas VLDL-II may be a particle of hepatic derivation modified by its interaction with the other plasma lipoproteins. PMID:7066352

  12. VALUE OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) SUBPOPULATIONS IN PREDICTING RECURRENT CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS IN THE VETERANS AFFAIRS HDL INTERVENTION TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis whether determination of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations provides more power to predict recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, and stroke) than traditional risk factors in the Veterans Affairs ...

  13. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Bishnu H; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S; Blaha, Michael J; Michos, Erin D

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. PMID:24748800

  14. Molecular mechanisms of vascular effects of High-density lipoprotein: alterations in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Besler, Christian; Lscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, which has triggered the hypothesis that HDL, in contrast to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), acts as an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein. Moreover, experimental studies have identified potential anti-atherogenic properties of HDL, including promotion of macrophage cholesterol efflux and direct endothelial-protective effects of HDL, such as stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production and repair, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties. Studies in gene-targeted mice, however, have also indicated that increasing HDL-cholesterol plasma levels can either limit (e.g. apolipoprotein A-I) or accelerate (e.g. Scavenger receptor class B type I) atherosclerosis. Moreover, vascular effects of HDL have been observed to be heterogenous and are altered in patients with CAD or diabetes, a condition that has been termed HDL dysfunction. These alterations in biological functions of HDL may need to be taken into account for HDL-targeted therapies and considering raising of HDL-cholesterol levels alone is likely not sufficient in this respect. It will therefore be important to further determine, which biological functions of HDL are critical for its anti-atherosclerotic properties, as well as how these can be measured and targeted. PMID:22431312

  15. Unique features of high-density lipoproteins in the Japanese: in population and in genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:25849946

  16. Unique Features of High-Density Lipoproteins in the Japanese: In Population and in Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:25849946

  17. Single Step Reconstitution of Multifunctional High-Density Lipoprotein-Derived Nanomaterials Using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YongTae; Fay, Francois; Cormode, David P.; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Tang, Jun; Hennessy, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Mingming; Moore, Kathryn; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Fisher, Edward Allen; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that transports peripheral cholesterol to the liver. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) exhibits antiatherothrombotic properties and is being considered as a natural treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, HDL nanoparticle platforms have been created for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The current methods for HDL reconstitution involve lengthy procedures that are challenging to scale up. A central need in the synthesis of rHDL, and multifunctional nanomaterials in general, is to establish large-scale production of reproducible and homogeneous batches in a simple and efficient fashion. Here, we present a large-scale microfluidics-based manufacturing method for single-step synthesis of HDL-mimicking nanomaterials (µHDL). µHDL is shown to have the same properties (e.g., size, morphology, bioactivity) as conventionally reconstituted HDL and native HDL. In addition, we were able to incorporate simvastatin (a hydrophobic drug) into µHDL, as well as gold, iron oxide, quantum dot nanocrystals or fluorophores to enable its detection by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Our approach may contribute to effective development and optimization of lipoprotein-based nanomaterials for medical imaging and drug delivery. PMID:24079940

  18. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  19. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    PubMed

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-12-31

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect on the partitioning of CE between HDL and the water phase. However, BODIPY-CE was observed to diffuse more slowly and locate itself closer to the HDL-water interface than CE due to the BODIPY probe that is constrained to the surface region, and because the CE body in BODIPY-CE prefers to align itself away from the HDL surface. The implications as to the suitability of BODIPY to explore lipoprotein properties are discussed. PMID:26636881

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) in ovarian follicles of Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez, M S; Ronderos, J R; Rimoldi, O J; Brenner, R R

    2001-04-01

    The ability of Triatoma infestans ovarian follicles to synthesize a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) has been examined by immunohistochemical methods. This kind of lipoprotein can be envisaged as a storage hexameric protein present in the hemolymph of some insect species. VHDL immunoreactivity is observed in oocytes at different stages of maturation. The antigen is present in the oocyte cytoplasm as well as in the follicular epithelial cells. The immunopositive reaction in the apical surface of follicle cells suggests both a VHDL synthesis and a secretion process. Furthermore, VHDL seems to be stored into oocyte in yolk granules. On the contrary, no immunopositive reaction is observed in the intracellular spaces between follicle cells, suggesting that VHDL is not incorporated from hemolymph into the oocyte. PMID:11387873

  1. The HDL hypothesis: does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2010-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this “HDL hypothesis”. In vitro studies suggest that HDL has a wide range of anti-atherogenic properties but validation of these functions in humans is absent to date. A significant number of animal studies and clinical trials support an atheroprotective role for HDL; however, most of these findings were obtained in the context of marked changes in other plasma lipids. Finally, genetic studies in humans have not provided convincing evidence that HDL genes modulate cardiovascular risk. Thus, despite a wealth of information on this intriguing lipoprotein, future research remains essential to prove the HDL hypothesis correct. PMID:20371550

  2. Suppression by diets rich in fish oil of very low density lipoprotein production in man.

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, P J; Connor, W E; Reardon, M F; Connor, S; Wong, S; Boston, R

    1984-01-01

    The highly polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils lower the plasma triglyceride concentration. We have studied the effect of a diet rich in fish oil on the rate of production of the triglyceride-transporting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Seven subjects, five normal and two with hypertriglyceridemia received up to 30% of daily energy needs from a fish oil preparation that was rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids with five and six double bonds, respectively. Compared with a diet similarly enriched with safflower oil (in which the predominant fatty acid is the omega-6 linoleic acid, with two double bonds), the fish oil diet lowered VLDL lipids and B apoprotein concentrations profoundly. High density lipoprotein lipids and A1 apoprotein were also lowered, but the effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was inconsistent. The daily production or flux of VLDL apoprotein B, calculated from reinjected autologous 125I-labeled lipoprotein, was substantially less in six subjects studied after 3 wk of fish oil, compared with after safflower oil. This effect on flux was more consistent than that on the irreversible fractional removal rate, which was increased in the four normolipidemic but inconsistent in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This suggests that fish oil reduced primarily the production of VLDL. The daily production of VLDL triglyceride, calculated from the kinetics of the triglyceride specific radioactivity-time curves after [3H]glycerol was injected, also showed very substantial reductions in five subjects studied. The marked suppression in VLDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride formation was found not to be due to diminished plasma total free fatty acid or plasma eicosapentaenoic flux, calculated during constant infusions of [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid and [3H]oleic acid in four subjects. In two subjects there was presumptive evidence for substantial independent influx of LDL during the fish oil diet, based on the precursor-product relationship between the intermediate density lipoprotein and LDL apoprotein B specific radioactivity-time curves. PMID:6736254

  3. HIV/HCV coinfection ameliorates the atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    WHEELER, Amber L.; SCHERZER, Rebecca; LEE, Daniel; DELANEY, Joseph A. C.; BACCHETTI, Peter; SHLIPAK, Michael G.; SIDNEY, Stephen; GRUNFELD, Carl; TIEN, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher levels of small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The extent to which HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection are associated with abnormalities of lipoprotein subclasses is unknown. Methods Lipoprotein subclasses were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in plasma samples from 569 HIV-infected and 5948 control participants in the FRAM, CARDIA and MESA studies. Multivariable regression was used to estimate the association of HIV and HIV/HCV coinfection with lipoprotein measures with adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and waist-to-hip ratio. Results Relative to controls, small LDL levels were higher in HIV-monoinfected persons (+381 nmol/L, p<.0001), with no increase seen in HIV/HCV coinfection (−16.6 nmol/L). Levels of large LDL levels were lower (−196 nmol/L, p<.0001) and small HDL were higher (+8.2 μmol/L, p<.0001) in HIV-monoinfection with intermediate values seen in HIV/HCV-coinfection. Large HDL levels were higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected persons relative to controls (+1.70 μmol/L, p<.0001), whereas little difference was seen in HIV-monoinfected persons (+0.33, p=0.075). Within HIV-infected participants, HCV was associated independently with lower levels of small LDL (−329 nmol/L, p<.0001) and small HDL (−4.6 μmol/L, p<.0001), even after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion HIV-monoinfected participants had worse levels of atherogenic LDL lipoprotein subclasses compared with controls. HIV/HCV coinfection attenuates these changes, perhaps by altering hepatic factors affecting lipoprotein production and/or metabolism. The effect of HIV/HCV coinfection on atherosclerosis and the clinical consequences of low small subclasses remain to be determined. PMID:24136113

  4. Increased low density lipoprotein degradation in aorta of irradiated mice is inhibited by preenrichment of low density lipoprotein with alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Tribble, D L; Krauss, R M; Chu, B M; Gong, E L; Kullgren, B R; Nagy, J O; La Belle, M

    2000-10-01

    We previously reported that upper thoracic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) accelerates fatty streak formation in C57BL/6 mice and that such effects are inhibited by overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). Notably, IR-accelerated lesion formation is strictly dependent on a high fat diet (i.e., atherogenic lipoproteins) but does not involve alterations in circulating lipid or lipoprotein levels. We thus proposed that IR promotes changes in the artery wall that enhance the deposition of lipoprotein lipids. To address this hypothesis, we examined the effects of IR on aortic accumulation and degradation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Ten-week-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single (8-Gy) dose of (60)Co radiation to the upper thoracic area or were sham irradiated (controls) and were then placed on the high fat diet. Five days postexposure, the mice received either (125)I-labeled LDL ((125)I-LDL) (which was used to measure intact LDL) or (125)I-labeled tyramine cellobiose ((125)I-TC)-LDL (which was used to measure both intact and cell-degraded LDL) via tail vein injection. On the basis of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable counts in retroorbital blood samples, > or =95% of donor LDL was cleared within 24 h and there were no differences in time-averaged plasma concentrations of the two forms of LDL among irradiated and control mice. Aortic values increased markedly within the first hour and thereafter exhibited a slow increase up to 24 h. There were no differences between irradiated and control mice at 1 h, when values primarily reflected LDL entry, but a divergence was observed thereafter. At 24 h, (125)I-TC-associated counts were 1.8-fold higher in irradiated mice (P = 0.10). In contrast, (125)I-LDL-associated counts were 30% lower in irradiated mice (P< 0.05), suggesting that most of the retained (125)I-TC was associated with LDL degradation products. Consistent with the proposed involvement of oxidative or redox-regulated events, IR-induced LDL degradation was lower in SOD-transgenic than wild-type mice (P<0.05). The importance of LDL oxidation was suggested by observations that IR-induced LDL degradation was significantly reduced by preenriching LDL with alpha-tocopherol. On the basis of these results, we propose that IR elicits SOD-inhibitable changes in the artery wall that enhance LDL oxidation and degradation leading to the deposition of LDL-borne lipids. These studies provide additional support for the role of oxidation in lipoprotein lipid deposition and atherogenesis and suggest that IR promotes an arterial environment that stimulates this process in vivo. PMID:11013309

  5. Peroxidase-dependent metal-independent oxidation of low density lipoprotein in vitro: a model for in vivo oxidation?

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, E; Parthasarathy, S; Steinberg, D

    1993-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein is believed to be an important pathway by which the lipoprotein becomes atherogenic. The in vitro systems for oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein thus far described all appear to depend upon the presence in the medium of free transition metal ions (copper or iron). In vivo, on the other hand, these metals are present almost exclusively in tightly complexed forms that do not catalyze oxidative modification. The present studies describe oxidation of low density lipoprotein in a simple system that does not depend upon the presence of added free metal ions. It requires the presence of horseradish peroxidase and either hydrogen peroxide or lipid hydroperoxides. PMID:8327462

  6. Effect of Oxidation on the Structure of Human Low- and High-Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Santos, Priscila R.; Monteiro, Andrea M.; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a controlled study of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structural changes due to in vitro oxidation with copper ions. The changes were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques in the case of LDL and by SAXS, DLS, and Z-scan (ZS) techniques in the case of HDL. SAXS data were analyzed with a to our knowledge new deconvolution method. This method provides the electron density profile of the samples directly from the intensity scattering of the monomers. Results show that LDL particles oxidized for 18 h show significant structural changes when compared to nonoxidized particles. Changes were observed in the electrical density profile, in size polydispersity, and in the degree of flexibility of the APO-B protein on the particle. HDL optical results obtained with the ZS technique showed a decrease of the amplitude of the nonlinear optical signal as a function of oxidation time. In contrast to LDL results reported in the literature, the HDL ZS signal does not lead to a complete loss of nonlinear optical signal after 18 h of copper oxidation. Also, the SAXS results did not indicate significant structural changes due to oxidation of HDL particles, and DLS results showed that a small number of oligomers formed in the sample oxidized for 18 h. All experimental results for the HDL samples indicate that this lipoprotein is more resistant to the oxidation process than are LDL particles. PMID:24940777

  7. Cholesterol deposition in macrophages: foam cell formation mediated by cholesterol-enriched oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, P; Yu, H; Mao, F; Gutman, R L

    1997-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to mediate the transformation of macrophages to cholesterol-rich foam cells. Yet convincing evidence for this process is lacking in vitro. We suggest that oxidized LDL-mediated foam cell formation is not seen in vitro because the cholesteryl ester content of LDL particles (oxidized in the presence of transition metals) is dramatically reduced. Thus, if oxidized LDL could be cholesterol-enriched prior to its addition to macrophages, this lipoprotein would be made more capable of inducing the cellular deposition of cholesteryl esters. When we enriched cupric sulfate-oxidized LDL with cholesterol by incubation of this lipoprotein with unesterified cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes and added it to mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures, we found that: a) the enrichment of oxidized LDL with cholesterol did not alter the extent of oxidized LDL degradation; b) the cells accumulated massive amounts of cholesteryl ester (148 microg/mg cell protein) and unesterified cholesterol (260 microg/mg cell protein) after 24 h of incubation; and c) Sephacryl S-1000 chromatography of the cholesterol-enriched oxidized LDL verified the formation of large oxidized LDL-unesterified cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine complexes. These results demonstrate that oxidized LDL, when cholesterol-enriched, can mediate the formation of macrophage foam cells in culture PMID:9034204

  8. Postprandial Changes in High Density Lipoproteins in Rats Subjected to Gavage Administration of Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Beamonte, Roberto; Navarro, Mara A.; Acin, Sergio; Guilln, Natalia; Barranquero, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Surra, Joaqun; Osada, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed. Methods and Results To address these issues, rats were administered a bolus of 5-ml of extra-virgin olive oil and sacrificed 4 and 8 hours after feeding. In these animals, lipoproteins were analyzed and gene expressions of apolipoprotein and HDL enzymes were assessed in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver. Using this experimental design, total plasma and HDL phospholipids increased at the 8-hour-time-point due to increased sphingomyelin content. An increase in apolipoprotein A4 was also observed mainly in lipid-poor HDL. Increased expression of intestinal Apoa1, Apoa4 and Sgms1 mRNA was accompanied by hepatic decreases in the first two genes in liver. Hepatic expression of Abcg1, Apoa1bp, Apoa2, Apoe, Ptlp, Pon1 and Scarb1 decreased significantly following fat gavage, while no changes were observed for Abca1, Lcat or Pla2g7. Significant associations were also noted for hepatic expression of apolipoproteins and Pon1. Manipulation of postprandial triglycerides using an inhibitor of microsomal transfer protein -CP-346086- or of lipoprotein lipase tyloxapol- did not influence hepatic expression of Apoa1 or Apoa4 mRNA. Conclusion All these data indicate that dietary fat modifies the phospholipid composition of rat HDL, suggesting a mechanism of down-regulation of hepatic HDL when intestine is the main source of those particles and a coordinated regulation of hepatic components of these lipoproteins at the mRNA level, independently of plasma postprandial triglycerides. PMID:23383120

  9. Effects of cholesterol on thermal stability of discoidal high density lipoproteins[S

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Shobini; Benjwal, Sangeeta; Gantz, Donald L.; Gursky, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport in plasma involves variations in HDL cholesterol concentration. To understand physicochemical and functional implications of such variations, we analyzed stability of reconstituted HDL containing human apolipoproteins (apoA-I, apoA-II, or apoC-I), phosphatidylcholines varying in chain length (1218 carbons) and unsaturation (0 or 1), and 035 mol% cholesterol. Lipoprotein heat denaturation was monitored by circular dichroism for protein unfolding/dissociation and by light scattering for particle fusion. We found that cholesterol stabilizes relatively unstable complexes; for example, incorporation of 1030 mol% cholesterol in apoC-I:dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine complexes increased their kinetic stability by ??G* ? 1 kcal/mol. In more stable complexes containing larger proteins and/or longer-chain lipids, incorporation of 10% cholesterol did not significantly alter the disk stability; however, 15% or more cholesterol destabilized the apoA-I-containing complexes and led to vesicle formation. Thus, cholesterol tends to stabilize less stable lipoproteins, apparently by enhancing favorable packing interactions, but in more stable lipoproteins, where such interactions are already highly optimized, the stabilizing effect of cholesterol decreases and, eventually, becomes destabilizing. These results help uncouple the functional roles of particle stability and chain fluidity and suggest that structural disorder in HDL surface, rather than chain fluidity, is an important physicochemical determinant of HDL function.Jayaraman, S., S. Benjwal, D. L. Gantz, and O. Gursky. Effects of cholesterol on thermal stability of discoidal high density lipoproteins. J. Lipid Res. 2010. 51: 324333. PMID:19700415

  10. Lipid and apolipoprotein distribution as a function of density in equine plasma lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, D; Pastier, D; Hannan, Y; Petit, E; Ayrault-Jarrier, M; Nouvelot, A

    1989-01-01

    1. Equine lipoproteins were isolated from plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation and apolipoprotein composition determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 2. VLDL and IDL were present at low concentration (0.2 mg/ml). Two apoB components of Mr corresponding to human apoB-100 and one apoB-48-like component were represented in VLDL fraction. 3. LDL-1 and LDL-2 subfractions have displayed an almost equal concentration (0.4 mg/ml). Two apoB-100-like components were the major apolipoproteins in each fraction. Small amounts of apoB-48-like component were detectable in LDL-1 and LDL-2. 4. HDL-2 represented a major class of equine lipoproteins (1.8 mg/ml). ApoA-1-like component was the dominant protein in HDL-1, HDL-2 and HDL-3. Dimeric apoA-II-like components were slightly represented in HDL subfractions. 5. HDL-3 displayed the same apolipoprotein pattern as HDL-1 and HDL-2, but two further minor proteins of Mr 20,000 and 14,000 were detected. 6. VHDL represented a minor class of lipoprotein (0.2 mg/ml). ApoA-I-like component was the major apolipoprotein of VHDL. Small amounts of apoA-IV-like, apoE-like, and Mr 55,000 protein were detectable. 7. ApoC-like of Mr lower than 10,000 was represented in all equine lipoprotein classes. PMID:2776430

  11. High density lipoprotein plasma fractions inhibit aortic fatty streaks in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Galvez, A; Dische, R; Fuster, V

    1989-03-01

    The effects of in vivo administration of high density lipoprotein-very high density lipoprotein (HDL-VHDL) on the development of aortic fatty streaks were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The rabbits received a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks. During this period, the HDL-VHDL group was intravenously administered with 50 mg/week of homologous HDL-VHDL protein; the control group received normal saline (0.9% NaCl). HDL-VHDL fraction was obtained at density range 1.063 to 1.25 gm/ml by ultracentrifugation of normal rabbit plasma. Along the study, plasma lipid levels followed a similar profile in both groups. At the completion of the study, atherosclerotic-like lipid-rich lesions covered 37.9 +/- 6% (X +/- SEM) of the intimal aortic surface in the control group, and 14.9 +/- 2.1% in the treated group (p less than 0.001). The values of total and free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, and phospholipids deposited within vessel wall were significantly lower in the aortas of the HDL-VHDL treated group than those in the control group. Cholesterol accumulation in the livers was also significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in the treated group than in the control. We concluded that administration of homologous HDL-VHDL lipoprotein fraction to cholesterol-fed rabbits, dramatically inhibited the extent of aortic fatty streaks and lowered lipid deposition in the arterial wall and liver without modification of the plasma lipid levels. PMID:2927083

  12. Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2006-06-14

    This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

  13. Counterpoint: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Targets Are Not Needed in Lipid Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Ray, Kausik

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of accumulating evidence, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treat-to-goal approaches no longer seem to be the best way to optimize lipid-modifying therapy to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The potential for a net ASCVD risk reduction benefit is a more individualized approach to clinical decision making and may better inform patient preferences. However, risk estimation tools will need to be developed to facilitate more personalized CVD risk estimation in statin-treated patients. In the meantime, LDL-C thresholds rather than targets may aid in determining which patients might benefit from additional LDL-C-lowering therapy beyond statins. PMID:26988588

  14. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; Giles, Francis J.; Gordon, Leo I.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    Summary High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a diverse group of natural nanoparticles that are most well-known for their role in cholesterol transport. However, HDLs have diverse functions that provide significant opportunities for cancer therapy. Presented is a focused review of the ways that synthetic versions of HDL have been used as targeted therapies for cancer, and as vehicles for the delivery of diverse therapeutic cargo to cancer cells. As such, synthetic HDLs are likely to play a central role in the development of next generation cancer therapies. PMID:25487833

  15. Receptor-mediated delivery of photoprotective agents by low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, S.T.; Yang, Y.L.; Falck, J.R.; Anderson, R.G.W.

    1984-12-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been used to deliver toxic molecules to cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In these studies, the cholesteryl ester core of LDL was replaced with a lipophilic, toxic molecule. The authors report that photoprotective azo dyes can be stably incorporated into LDL, and that this reconstituted LDL protects cells from the photosensitizing action of pyrene methanol (PM) in a receptor-dependent process. The photoprotective action of the azo dye is due to its ability to scavenge singlet oxygen that is produced by the photosensitive agent in response to UV light.

  16. Association of a genetic polymorphism in human apolipoprotein B-100 with intermediate density lipoprotein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M T; Butler, R; Krauss, R M

    1991-09-01

    Immunochemical techniques have been used to identify five antigenic (Ag) sites on apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB), the major protein constituent of very low density (VLDL), intermediate density (IDL), and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Each Ag site results from allelic variation at a specific locus of the apoB gene. In the present study, we assessed whether variations in the five Ag loci were associated with concentrations of plasma lipids or lipoprotein fractions measured by analytical ultracentrifugation in a group of 44 healthy men. Pair-wise analyses of the Ag markers revealed that Ag(a1/d), in association with either Ag(x/y) or Ag(t/z), is significantly related to plasma IDL-mass concentrations. In this cohort we detected no significant associations of the Ag alleles (singly or in combination) with plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or mass of total VLDL or LDL. These results suggest that genetic variations in the apoB molecule may predispose to variations in concentrations of IDL that could have consequences for atherosclerotic risk. PMID:1773531

  17. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...

  18. Immunoglobulin subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L A; Sderstrm, R; Avanzini, A; Bengtsson, U; Bjrkander, J; Sderstrm, T

    1988-05-01

    IgG subclass deficiency was first noted in 1968. Subnormal levels of one or two, occasionally three IgG subclasses may be relatively common. It has not been determined, however, at what level below the normal range the IgG subclass deficiency is of clinical relevance. It remains important to clarify this point because certain subclass deficiencies may be without relevance of their own. Because patients with decreases of various IgG subclasses often present with a number of diseases, the low immunoglobulin levels may signify the presence of other abnormalities of more biologic significance. IgG subclass deficiency has been noted in about 25% of patients with well-defined food allergy and in patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus, Henoch-Schnlein's purpura, Bechterew's disease, intractable epilepsy of childhood, Friedreich's ataxia and autoimmune cytopenias. Most commonly they have increased frequency of infections especially in the respiratory tract, including sinusitis, otitis media and bronchopneumonia, but also osteomyelitis, meningitis, septicemia and various skin infections. Low levels of various subclasses have been noted in connection with other immunodeficiencies such as ataxia-telangiectasia. In common variable immunodeficiency there is an obvious imbalance in the IgG subclasses. Furthermore IgG subclass deficiency can be seen in relatives of patients with common variable immunodeficiency and in IgA deficiency. They also occur in relatives of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1 and C2 deficiency. In a few cases of subclass deficiency gene deletions have been shown. Subnormal levels of IgG subclasses make a remarkable change in sex distribution around puberty from 3/1 in boys and girls to the reverse sex ratio among adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3041356

  19. Uptake of chemically modified low density lipoproteins in vivo is mediated by specific endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Acetoacetylated (AcAc) and acetylated (Ac) low density lipoproteins (LDL) are rapidly cleared from the plasma (t1/2 approximately equal to 1 min). Because macrophages, Kupffer cells, and to a lesser extent, endothelial cells metabolize these modified lipoproteins in vitro, it was of interest to determine whether endothelial cells or macrophages could be responsible for the in vivo uptake of these lipoproteins. As previously reported, the liver is the predominant site of the uptake of AcAc LDL; however, we have found that the spleen, bone marrow, adrenal, and ovary also participate in this rapid clearance. A histological examination of tissue sections, undertaken after the administration of AcAc LDL or Ac LDL (labeled with either 125I or a fluorescent probe) to rats, dogs, or guinea pigs, was used to identify the specific cells binding and internalizing these lipoproteins in vivo. With both techniques, the sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and adrenal were labeled. Less labeling was noted in the ovarian endothelia. Uptake of AcAc LDL by endothelial cells of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. These data suggest uptake through coated pits. Uptake of AcAc LDL was not observed in the endothelia of arteries (including the coronaries and aorta), veins, or capillaries of the heart, testes, kidney, brain, adipose tissue, and duodenum. Kupffer cells accounted for a maximum of 14% of the 125I-labeled AcAc LDL taken up by the liver. Isolated sinusoidal endothelial cells from the rat liver displayed saturable, high affinity binding of AcAc LDL (Kd = 2.5 X 10(- 9) M at 4 degrees C), and were shown to degrade AcAc LDL 10 times more effectively than aortic endothelial cells. These data indicate that specific sinusoidal endothelial cells, not the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, are primarily responsible for the removal of these modified lipoproteins from the circulation in vivo. PMID:3965468

  20. Lower Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with Severe Dengue Outcome.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Hope H; Gordon, Aubree; Nuez, Andrea; Perez, Maria Angeles; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI) in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO) 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of dengue pathophysiology and should be explored as part of a prognostic biomarker panel for severe dengue. PMID:26334914

  1. Effects of Statins on High-Density Lipoproteins: A Potential Contribution to Cardiovascular Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to systematically review clinical trial data on the effects of statins on high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and to examine the possibility that this provides cardiovascular benefits in addition to those derived from reductions in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Methods The PubMed database was searched for publications describing clinical trials of atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. On the basis of predefined criteria, 103 were selected for review. Results Compared with placebo, statins raise HDL, measured as HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I); these elevations are maintained in the long-term. In hypercholesterolemia, HDL-C is raised by approximately 4% to 10%. The percentage changes are greater in patients with low baseline levels, including those with the common combination of high triglycerides (TG) and low HDL-C. These effects do not appear to be dose-related although there is evidence that, with the exception of atorvastatin, the changes in HDL-C are proportional to reductions in apo B-containing lipoproteins. The most likely explanation is a reduced rate of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated flow of cholesterol from HDL. There is some evidence that the statin effects on HDL reduce progression of atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular disease independently of reductions in LDL. Conclusion Statins cause modest increases in HDL-C and apo A-I probably mediated by reductions in CETP activity. It is plausible that such changes independently contribute to the cardiovascular benefits of the statin class but more studies are needed to further explore this possibility. PMID:18553127

  2. Lower Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with Severe Dengue Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Hope H.; Gordon, Aubree; Nuez, Andrea; Perez, Maria Angeles; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI) in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO) 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of dengue pathophysiology and should be explored as part of a prognostic biomarker panel for severe dengue. PMID:26334914

  3. Genetic risk scores associated with baseline lipoprotein subfraction concentrations do not associate with their responses to fenofibrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipoprotein subclass concentrations are modifiable markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Fenofibrate is known to show beneficial effects on lipoprotein subclasses, but little is known about the role of genetics in mediating the responses of lipoprotein subclasses to fenofibrate. A recent genomewid...

  4. Novel mutations of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in China patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liang-liang; Lin, Min-jie; Chen, Ya-qin; Huang, Hao; Peng, Dao-quan; Xia, Kun; Zhao, Shui-ping; Xiang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, associated with elevated level of serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), which can lead to premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have been identified to be the underlying cause of this disease. Genetic research of FH has already been extensively studied all over the world. However, reports of FH mutations in the Chinese population are still limited. In this paper, 20 unrelated FH families were enrolled to detect the candidate gene variants in Chinese FH population by DNA direct sequencing. We identified 12 LDLR variants in 13 FH probands. Importantly, we first reported two unique mutations (c.2000_2000 delG/p.C667LfsX6 and c.605T>C/p.F202S) in LDLR gene. Our discoveries expand the spectrum of LDLR mutations and contribute to the genetic diagnosis and counseling for FH patients. PMID:25846081

  5. Uptake and processing of remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins by rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.L.; Hradek, G.T.; Hornick, C.; Renaud, G.; Windler, E.E.; Havel, R.J.

    1984-11-01

    In the rat, chylomicron remnants and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants are taken up into the liver by high affinity processes and appear to undergo degradation by lysosomes. The relationship of this catabolic process to the known pathways of uptake and degradation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and the involvement of nonparenchymal cells are addressed in these studies. The authors have utilized both light and electron microscopic radioautography to determine whether the pathway of intracellular transport and catabolism resembles that established for LDL in hepatocytes. Radioiodinated plasma VLDL remnants and lymph chylomicron remnants were injected into femoral veins of rats and the livers were fixed by perfusion 3 to 30 minutes later. Quantitative light microscopic radioautography showed little or no accumulation of grains over Kupffer cells. Electromicroscopic radioautography confirmed these observations and, in addition, demonstrated that very few grains were associated with endothelial cells. The processing of the remnant particles closely resembled that of LDL. Following an initial association of grains with the parenchymal cell plasma membrane, frequently in regions in close proximity to clathrin-coated endocytic pits, the grains were found in endocytic vesicles just beneath the plasma membrane. By 15 minutes the grains were found over multivesicular bodies located in the Golgi-lysosome region of the cell. Thirty minutes after injection, radioautographic grains began to be associated with secondary lysosomes.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Infection is Associated with Elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Elderly Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Jeon, Han Ho; Park, In Young; Choi, Jin Man; Kang, Ji Sun

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the lipid profile among elderly Koreans. A total of 462 subjects (mean age 66.2 ± 7.6 yr, 84% males) who underwent health check-up were investigated. Each subject underwent gastroduodenoscopy with gastric mucosal biopsy, and H. pylori infection was determined by histopathological examination using the updated Sydney System score. The presence of H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the elevated serum levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P < 0.05 for each) in univariate analysis. H. pylori infection was not associated with triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P > 0.05 for each). After controlling confounders, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of H. pylori infection for high LDL cholesterol level (> 140 mg/dL) was 3.113 (95% confidence interval, 1.364-7.018; P = 0.007). There were no significant associations between the presence of H. pylori infection and elevated total cholesterol levels (> 200 mg/dL) in this model (P = 0.586). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori infection is associated with the elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels in elderly Koreans, supporting the hypothesis that H. pylori plays a role in promoting atherosclerosis by modifying lipid metabolism. PMID:21532857

  7. alpha-tocopherol enrichment of high-density lipoproteins: stabilization of hydroperoxides produced during copper oxidation.

    PubMed

    Laureaux, C; Therond, P; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Troupel, S E; Legrand, A; Delattre, J

    1997-01-01

    In the aim to study the effect of an in vitro enrichment of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with alpha-tocopherol in alcoholic solution on a copper-induced peroxidation, we monitored several markers of lipid peroxidation (alpha-tocopherol consumption, formation of conjugated dienes and of fatty acid hydroperoxides, production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and the integrity of apolipoprotein A-I. High-density lipoproteins (1.063 < d < 1.21) with a mean of 0.58 alpha-tocopherol molecules per HDL particle were enriched with alpha-tocopherol in alcoholic solution to obtain an average of 3.7 and 21 alpha-tocopherol molecules per HDL particle. HDL oxidation with 5 microM CuSO4 at 37 degrees C resulted in the total disappearance of endogenous alpha-tocopherol after 2 h, but after 24 h about 19% of alpha-tocopherol remained in the most enriched HDL. In agreement with the tocopherol-mediated peroxidation, the formation of conjugated dienes and of fatty acid hydroperoxides was very fast and increased with alpha-tocopherol concentration, whereas TBARS production decreased. These results showed that alpha-tocopherol enrichment stabilized the production of hydroperoxides in HDL and decreased the formation of secondary oxidation products. These latter products are known for deleterious effects towards apolipoproteins. This could explain why we observed that the apolipoprotein A-I of the most enriched HDL was only slightly altered after incubation with CuSO4. PMID:8958143

  8. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-10-05

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from (/sup 14/C)acetate, cholesterol esterification from (/sup 14/C)oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from /sup 125/I-labeled (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell.

  9. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. PMID:25045281

  10. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin on High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Functionality, Lipoprotein Metabolism, and Mediators of Vascular Inflammation in Statin-Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rahul; Liu, Yifen; Kwok, See; Hama, Salam; France, Michael; Eatough, Ruth; Pemberton, Phil; Schofield, Jonathan; Siahmansur, Tarza J; Malik, Rayaz; Ammori, Basil A; Issa, Basil; Younis, Naveed; Donn, Rachelle; Stevens, Adam; Durrington, Paul; Soran, Handrean

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the influence of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRP) versus placebo on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant function, cholesterol efflux, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, and mediators of vascular inflammation associated with 15% increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Study patients had persistent dyslipidemia despite receiving high-dose statin treatment. Methods and Results In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we compared the effect of ERN/LRP with placebo in 27 statin-treated dyslipidemic patients who had not achieved National Cholesterol Education Program-ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We measured fasting lipid profile, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, small dense LDL apoB (sdLDL-apoB), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), glycated apoB (glyc-apoB), lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lysophosphatidyl choline (lyso-PC), macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP1), serum amyloid A (SAA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). We also examined the capacity of HDL to protect LDL from invitro oxidation and the percentage cholesterol efflux mediated by apoB depleted serum. ERN/LRP was associated with an 18% increase in HDL-C levels compared to placebo (1.55 versus 1.31mmol/L, P<0.0001). There were significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, total serum apoB, lipoprotein (a), CETP activity, oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, lyso-PC, MCP1, and SAA, but no significant changes in glyc-apoB or sdLDL-apoB concentration. There was a modest increase in cholesterol efflux function of HDL (19.5%, P=0.045), but no change in the antioxidant capacity of HDL in vitro or PON1 activity. Conclusions ERN/LRP reduces LDL-associated mediators of vascular inflammation, but has varied effects on HDL functionality and LDL quality, which may counter its HDL-C-raising effect. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01054508. PMID:26374297

  11. Characterization of high density lipoprotein binding to human adipocyte plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, B S; Rodrigues, P O; Salter, A M; Yip, B P; Despres, J P; Angel, A; Gregg, R E

    1985-01-01

    Freshly isolated human adipocytes showed specific uptake of 125I-labeled human high density lipoprotein (HDL2 and HDL3), a portion of which could be released by subsequent incubation with excess unlabeled ligand. To study the mechanism of HDL binding, sucrose gradient-purified adipocyte plasma membranes were incubated with radioiodinated lipoprotein particles under equilibrium conditions in the absence (total binding) or presence (nonspecific binding) of 100-fold excess unlabeled ligand. Specific binding of HDL2 and HDL3, calculated by subtracting nonspecific from total binding, was Ca++ independent, unaffected by EDTA, and not abolished by pronase treatment of the membranes. Modification of HDL3 by reductive methylation or cyclohexanedione treatment also failed to affect its binding to adipocyte plasma membranes. High salt concentration (200 mM NaCl) inhibited specific binding of HDL2 and HDL3 but had no effect on LDL binding. A significant portion of 125I-HDL2 or 125I-HDL3 binding was consistently inhibited by adding excess unlabeled LDL, but this inhibition was incomplete as compared with a similar molar excess of unlabeled HDL2 or HDL3. The role of apoproteins (apo) in HDL binding to adipocyte membranes was examined by comparing binding of HDL2 and HDL3 isolated from normal, abetalipoproteinemic (abeta) and apo E-deficient (apo E0) plasma. Specific binding was observed with all normal and mutant HDL particles. Furthermore, a significant portion (61-78%) of abeta-HDL2, apo E0-HDL2, and apo E0-HDL3 binding was inhibited by adding 100-fold excess of unlabeled low density lipoproteins (LDL). The cross-competition of LDL and HDL binding was confirmed by the ability of normal, abeta, and apo E0-HDL2 to completely inhibit 125I-LDL binding. These data suggest that HDL binding is independent of apo E and that the responsible apoprotein(s) of HDL complete with LDL-apo B for binding to the same or closely related site in the adipocyte plasma membrane. Normal and apo E0-HDL3 binding was also completely inhibited by normal HDL2, which suggested that HDL2 and HDL3 probably bind to the same site. Scatchard analysis of normal HDL2, normal HDL3, and apo E0-HDL3 binding data best fitted a one-component binding profile with similar equilibrium dissociation constants (40-96 nM). HDL3 binding was found to be effectively inhibited by anti-human apo AI or anti-human apo AII, but not by anti-human apo B antisera. This binding was also unaffected by monoclonal anti-human apo B or E antibodies known to inhibit binding of apo B or apo E containing lipoprotein to the LDL receptor of cultured fibroblasts. These findings, taken together, suggest that human fat cells possess HDL binding sites with apo AI and /or apo AII specificity. The significant but partial inhibition of HDL2 and HDL3 binding by LDL along with the complete inhibition of LDL binding by HDL2 and HDL3 tends to exclude a single binding site that interacts both lipoproteins and favors the interpretation that LDL and HDL particles bind to multiple recognition sites or to different conformation of the same lipoprotein binding domain on the human fat cell. Images PMID:2989332

  12. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  13. Direct measurement of nitric oxide and oxygen partitioning into liposomes and low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Mller, Matas; Botti, Horacio; Batthyany, Carlos; Rubbo, Homero; Radi, Rafael; Denicola, Ana

    2005-03-11

    Nitric oxide (*NO) has been proposed to play a relevant role in modulating oxidative reactions in lipophilic media like biomembranes and lipoproteins. Two factors that will regulate *NO reactivity in the lipid milieu are its diffusion and solubility, but there is no data concerning the actual diffusion (D) and partition coefficients (KP) of *NO in biologically relevant hydrophobic phases. Herein, a "equilibrium-shift" method was designed to directly determine the *NO and O2 partition coefficients in liposomes and low density lipoprotein (LDL) relative to water. It was found that *NO partitions 4.4- and 3.4-fold in liposomes and LDL, respectively, whereas O2 behaves similarly with values of 3.9 and 2.9, respectively. In addition, actual diffusion coefficients in these hydrophobic phases were determined using fluorescence quenching and found that *NO diffuses approximately 2 times slower than O2 in the core of LDL and 12 times slower than in buffer (DNOLDL=3.9 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1),DO2LDL=7.0 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1),DNObuffer=DO2buffer=4.5 x 10(-5) cm2 s(-1)). The influence of *NO and O2 partitioning and diffusion in membranes and lipoproteins on *NO reaction with lipid radicals and auto-oxidation is discussed. Particularly, the 3-4-fold increase in O2 and *NO concentration within biological hydrophobic phases provides quantitative support for the idea of an accelerated auto-oxidation of *NO in lipid-containing structures, turning them into sites of enhanced local production of oxidant and nitrosating species. PMID:15632138

  14. Structural Insights into High Density Lipoprotein: Old Models and New Facts

    PubMed Central

    Gogonea, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    The physiological link between circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and cardiovascular disease is well-documented, albeit its intricacies are not well-understood. An improved appreciation of HDL function and overall role in vascular health and disease requires at its foundation a better understanding of the lipoprotein's molecular structure, its formation, and its process of maturation through interactions with various plasma enzymes and cell receptors that intervene along the pathway of reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on summarizing recent developments in the field of lipid free apoA-I and HDL structure, with emphasis on new insights revealed by newly published nascent and spherical HDL models constructed by combining low resolution structures obtained from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation and geometrical constraints derived from hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX), crosslinking mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, and electron spin resonance. Recently published low resolution structures of nascent and spherical HDL obtained from SANS with contrast variation and isotopic labeling of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) will be critically reviewed and discussed in terms of how they accommodate existing biophysical structural data from alternative approaches. The new low resolution structures revealed and also provided some answers to long standing questions concerning lipid organization and particle maturation of lipoproteins. The review will discuss the merits of newly proposed SANS based all atom models for nascent and spherical HDL, and compare them with accepted models. Finally, naturally occurring and bioengineered mutations in apoA-I, and their impact on HDL phenotype, are reviewed and discuss together with new therapeutics employed for restoring HDL function. PMID:26793109

  15. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-01-22

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes or lipoproteins. PMID:26567339

  16. Adrenal Cell Aldosterone Production Is Stimulated by Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yewei; Rainey, William E.; Apolzan, John W.; Francone, Omar L.; Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are a class of large lipoprotein synthesized in the liver. The key function of VLDL, in vivo, is to carry triglyceride from the liver to adipose tissue. As a steroidogenic organ, the adrenal gland mainly uses lipoproteins as sources of cholesterol. Although VLDL receptors have been detected in the human adrenal, the function of VLDL in the adrenal gland remains unknown. Herein, we used primary cultures of human and bovine adrenal cells and the adrenocortical cell line H295R as models to determine the effects of VLDL on adrenal steroidogenesis. Our studies revealed that VLDL significantly increased aldosterone synthesis in all of the models tested. This increase was largely due to VLDL's stimulation of the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). VLDL increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Effects of VLDL on CYP11B2 transcript levels were not additive with angiotensin II or potassium but were additive with the cAMP pathway agonists ACTH and forskolin. Nifedipine completely inhibited the effects of VLDL on CYP11B2 mRNA, suggesting that calcium is the main signal transduction pathway used by VLDL in adrenal cells. Indeed, VLDL increased cytosolic free calcium levels. An in vivo study conducted in sucrose-fed rats showed a positive correlation between elevated triglyceride (VLDL) levels in plasma and CYP11B2 expression in the adrenal. In conclusion, we have shown that VLDL can stimulate aldosterone synthesis in adrenocortical cells by increasing StAR and CYP11B2 expression, an event likely mediated by a calcium-initiated signaling cascade. PMID:22186415

  17. Tissue sites of degradation of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-IV in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Van 't Hooft, F.M.; Van Tol, A.

    1986-05-01

    The in vivo metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL), labeled by incorporation of /sup 125/I-apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, was studied in the rat and compared with the metabolism of HDL labeled with 131I-apo A-I. The /sup 125/I-apo A-IV labeled HDL was obtained by adding small amounts of radioiodinated apo A-IV to rat serum, followed by separation of the different lipoprotein fractions by chromatography on 6% agarose columns in order to avoid stripping of apolipoproteins by ultracentrifugation. Under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, the /sup 125/I-apo A-IV remained an integral component of HDL and was not exchanged to other lipoproteins, including the free apo A-IV fraction. The serum half-life, measured at between 8 and 28 hours after intravenous injection of labeled HDL, was 8.5 +/- 0.5 hours for HDL apo A-IV and 10.2 +/- 0.7 hours for HDL apo A-I. The tissue sites of catabolism of HDL apo A-IV and HDL apo A-I were analyzed in the leupeptin-model. Only the kidneys and liver showed a significant leupeptin-dependent accumulation of radioactivity. At 4 hours after injection of 125I-apo A-IV/131I-apo A-I labeled HDL, 3.5% +/- 1.0% and 8.4% +/- 2.0% of HDL apo A-IV and 4.6% +/- 1.3% and 2.6% +/- 0.6% of the HDL apo A-I were accumulated in a leupeptin-dependent process in the kidneys and liver, respectively. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the renal localization of apo A-IV was intracellular and confined to the epithelial cells of the proximal tubuli.

  18. Atherogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-02-26

    There is increasing evidence that alterations in metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Particles with the characteristics of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants have been related to the extent and severity of atherosclerosis in humans and in animal models. These particles can be identified using ultracentrifugal procedures as small, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) with Svedberg flotation rates (Sf) of 12-60. Postprandial triglyceride levels also have been related to risk of coronary artery disease, consistent with a pathologic role for remnant lipoproteins. In studies in which measurements of lipoprotein subfractions have been carried out, levels of IDL have been more predictive than low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of atherosclerosis progression as assessed by coronary artery angiography or carotid artery ultrasonography. These findings suggest that a considerable portion of the coronary disease risk attributed to LDL may be accounted for by the IDL particles included in standard LDL measurements. Other metabolic changes associated with increased levels of plasma triglyceride may also adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include reductions in HDL-cholesterol and apoprotein A1, increased levels of small dense LDL particles, redistribution of apoC-III from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins, diminished insulin sensitivity, and procoagulant changes, including increased levels of the fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A predominance of small dense LDL (subclass pattern B) is a discrete marker for this cluster of interrelated abnormalities and is found in 40-50% of patients with coronary artery disease. Therapeutic interventions with favorable effects on components of this dysmetabolic profile appear to be of value in decreasing atherosclerosis risk in a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:9526808

  19. Retraction note: Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B

    2016-01-01

    In the article entitled, "Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease" which was published in Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 3129-3135, sections in the text have been directly copied from a previously published article, entitled, "Small high-density lipoprotein is associated with monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease", Krychtiuk KA, Kastl SP, Pfaffenberger S, Pongratz T, Hofbauer SL, Wonnerth A, Katsaros KM, Goliasch G, Gaspar L, Huber K, Maurer G, Dostal E, Oravec S, Wojta J, Speidl WS  in Atherosclerosis 2014 Dec;237(2):589-96. Thus owing to duplicity of text, the article is being retracted. Reference: 1. Shaoyan Jiang, Dan Li, Jian Li, Yi An Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease Medical Science Monitor 2015;21: 3129-3135 DOI 10.12659/MSM.894485. PMID:26853100

  20. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism; VLDL vs chylomicrons

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Nagamine, Takeaki; Inazu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ai, Masumi; Tanaka, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Since Zilversmit first proposed postprandial lipemia as the most common risk of cardiovascular disease, chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants have been thought to be the major lipoproteins which are increased in the postprandial hyperlipidemia. However, it has been shown over the last two decades that the major increase in the postprandial lipoproteins after food intake occurs in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants (apoB100 particles), not CM or CM remnants (apoB48 particles). This finding was obtained using the following three analytical methods; isolation of remnant-like lipoprotein particles (RLP) with specific antibodies, separation and detection of lipoprotein subclasses by gel permeation HPLC and determination of apoB48 in fractionated lipoproteins by a specific ELISA. The amount of the apoB48 particles in the postprandial RLP is significantly less than the apoB100 particles, and the particle sizes of apoB48 and apoB100 in RLP are very similar when analyzed by HPLC. Moreover, CM or CM remnants having a large amount of TG were not found in the postprandial RLP. Therefore, the major portion of the TG which is increased in the postprandial state is composed of VLDL remnants, which have been recognized as a significant risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:21531214

  1. [Cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins: critical review of the methods of analysis and personal data].

    PubMed

    Orso Giacone, G

    1982-01-01

    It is widely known that atherosclerosis through its complication, i.e. heart and brain infarction, is at the present the main cause of death. The atherosclerotic process has been shown in correlation with hyperlipemia especially as far as the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol level is concerned. A preminent role in removing cholesterol from tissues and arterial walls then in preventing atherosclerosis is played by a specific class of plasma lipoproteins, the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Since the HDL-colesterol level seems to have an inverse correlation with the atherosclerotic disease it is of primary importance to define a reliable and reproducible technique to measure it. One of the aims of this paper was to examine the different methods now available for such a determination. This analysis has underlined the discrepancy among the reference values reported in the literature. However, all the authors agree that only the simultaneous measurement of total and HDL-colesterol levels is of prognostic value. Personal studies are here reported on the relationship between total and HDL-colesterol levels and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The two mentioned laboratory analyses have been performed on blood samples from 250 between male and female human subjects of different age. The obtained results show that the highest HDL-colesterol concentrations determined by a lipoprotein precipitation procedure with dextran sulphate, are typical in the first ten years of life both in male and in female, while the lowest levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol have been evintiated during the fifth decade of life, when the total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular complications rich the highest values. In a following set of investigations, the already examined blood parameters together with the risk factor values have been examined in two groups of subjects, the first one represented by adult healthy persons the second one by patients of similar age from a cardiovascular division. The mean levels of total colesterol have been shown similar in both the experimental groups, while plasma HDL-cholesterol is significantly higher in the healthy group. This discrepancy is the cause of definitively higher risk factors in the hospitalized patients. In conclusion, the reported data furtherly stress that the total cholesterol values do not give "per se" any indication of atherogenic risk. They are useful only when examined together with the HDL-cholesterol levels. From that the opportunity to always include the determination of plasma HDL-cholesterol screening lipemic profiles. PMID:7137764

  2. Low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) interacts with a GTP-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Goretzki, L; Mueller, B M

    1998-01-01

    The low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) binds and internalizes numerous ligands, including lipoproteins, proteinase-inhibitor complexes and others. We have shown previously that LRP-mediated ligand internalization is dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Here, we investigated whether ligation of LRP increases the intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity via a stimulatory GTP-binding protein. Treatment of LRP-expressing cell lines with the LRP ligands lactoferrin or urokinase-type plasminogen activator caused a significant elevation in cAMP and stimulated PKA activity in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of the 39 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP), an antagonist for ligand interactions with LRP, blocked the lactoferrin-induced increase in PKA activity, demonstrating a requirement for ligand binding to LRP. Incubation of cell membrane fractions with lactoferrin increased GTPase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and treatment with LRP ligands suppressed cholera-toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of the Gsalpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein. Affinity precipitation of LRP with RAP resulted in co-precipitation of two isoforms of Gsalpha from detergent extracts. We thus conclude that LRP is a signalling receptor that associates directly with a stimulatory heterotrimeric G-protein and activates a downstream PKA-dependent pathway. PMID:9820815

  3. Suppression of endothelial cell apoptosis by high density lipoproteins (HDL) and HDL-associated lysosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Nofer, J R; Levkau, B; Wolinska, I; Junker, R; Fobker, M; von Eckardstein, A; Seedorf, U; Assmann, G

    2001-09-14

    Apoptotic cell death following injury of vascular endothelium is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this report, we demonstrate that high density lipoproteins (HDL), a major anti-atherogenic lipoprotein fraction, protect endothelial cells against growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. HDL blocked the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), generation of reactive oxygen species, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. As a consequence, HDL prevented activation of caspases 9 and 3 and apoptotic alterations of the plasma membrane such as increase of permeability and translocation of phosphatidylserine. Treatment of endothelial cells with HDL induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an ubiquitous transducer of anti-apoptotic signals, and led to phosphorylation of BAD, a major Akt substrate. Suppression of Akt activity both by wortmannin and LY-294002 or by a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of HDL. Two bioactive lysosphingolipids present in HDL particles, sphingosylphosphorylcholine and lysosulfatide, fully mimicked the survival effect of HDL by blocking the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and potently activating Akt. In conclusion, the present study identifies HDL as a carrier of endogenous endothelial survival factors and suggests that inhibition of endothelial apoptosis by HDL-associated lysosphingolipids may represent an important and novel aspect of the anti-atherogenic activity of HDL. PMID:11432865

  4. High-density lipoprotein associated with secondary vitellogenesis in the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, G; Chayoth, R; Abdu, U; Khalaila, I; Sagi, A

    2000-11-01

    The high-density lipoproteins LPI and LPII were isolated from the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by gradient ultracentrifugation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both lipoproteins contained a carotenoid moiety. LPI is comprised of a single polypeptide with an approximate molecular mass of 96 kDa. LPII was composed of two similar native components, LPIIa and LPIIb, both having polypeptides of 80 and 177 kDa. Both under natural conditions and after endocrine manipulations, LPI was present in males and in females, regardless of the female reproductive stage. LPII was present only in secondary-vitellogenic females, but not during the winter reproductive arrest period. LPII was also absent from young females that had received androgenic gland implants. LPII also appeared in the hemolymph of intersex individuals from which the androgenic gland had been removed. It is therefore suggested that LPII serves as a marker indicating the onset of secondary vitellogenesis in C. quad'iariicarintus females. PMID:11126772

  5. Optical Characterization of Europium Tetracycline Complex in the presence of Low Density Lipoprotein and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Silva, Flvia Rodrigues; Monteiro, Andrea Moreira; Neto, Antnio M. Figueiredo; Gidlund, Magnus A.; Gomes, Larcio; Junior, Nilson Dias Vieira; Courrol, Lilia Coronato

    2008-04-01

    Development of native Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) biosensors is of great importance in clinical analysis because the LDL concentration, which is the main carrier of cholesterol, in the plasma, is a fundamental parameter for the prevention and diagnosis of a number of clinical disorders such as heart disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The optical properties of the Europium-Tetracycline Complex (EuTc) were investigated for the solutions containing LDL in their compositions. In this paper we show an enhancement in the europium luminescence of EuTc complex in the presence of LDL. The time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experimental results of the pure EuTc sample and samples with LDL (EuTc:LDL) reveal an increase in the europium emission lifetime in the lipoprotein-doped samples with respect to the pure EuTc sample. A calibration curve, reasonably well described by a linear function between 0 and 3 mg/mL of LDL, was obtained. The obtained limit of detection was 0.23 mg/mL. Sixteen blood plasma samples all of them contend approximately 90 mg/dL of LDL were studied and the LDL concentrations were calculated with our method. The average LDL concentration obtained was 94 mg/dL. The results show that the EuTc complex can be used as a sensor to determine LDL with fast response, compact design, and reproducible results.

  6. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ?6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

  7. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein species, differing in surface charge, size and lipid and protein compositions. While HDL cholesterol (C) mass is a strong, graded and coherent biomarker of cardiovascular risk, genetic and clinical trial data suggest that the simple measurement of HDL-C may not be causal in preventing atherosclerosis nor reflect HDL functionality. Indeed, the measurement of HDL-C may be a biomarker of cardiovascular health. To assess the issue of HDL function as a potential therapeutic target, robust and simple analytical methods are required. The complex pleiotropic effects of HDL make the development of a single measurement challenging. Development of laboratory assays that accurately HDL function must be developed validated and brought to high-throughput for clinical purposes. This review discusses the limitations of current laboratory technologies for methods that separate and quantify HDL and potential application to predict CVD, with an emphasis on emergent approaches as potential biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26674734

  8. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein species, differing in surface charge, size and lipid and protein compositions. While HDL cholesterol (C) mass is a strong, graded and coherent biomarker of cardiovascular risk, genetic and clinical trial data suggest that the simple measurement of HDL-C may not be causal in preventing atherosclerosis nor reflect HDL functionality. Indeed, the measurement of HDL-C may be a biomarker of cardiovascular health. To assess the issue of HDL function as a potential therapeutic target, robust and simple analytical methods are required. The complex pleiotropic effects of HDL make the development of a single measurement challenging. Development of laboratory assays that accurately HDL function must be developed validated and brought to high-throughput for clinical purposes. This review discusses the limitations of current laboratory technologies for methods that separate and quantify HDL and potential application to predict CVD, with an emphasis on emergent approaches as potential biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26674734

  9. Lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase induces estradiol esterification in high-density lipoprotein, increasing its antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Höckerstedt, Anna; Jauhiainen, Matti; Tikkanen, Matti J

    2004-10-01

    Endogenous estrogens protect against atherosclerosis, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation. To act as antioxidants, estrogens reportedly need to be converted to lipophilic estrogen fatty acyl esters in a reaction catalyzed by lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). To demonstrate directly that estradiol (E2) esters formed by LCAT and incorporated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increase its antioxidant potential, we investigated the copper-induced oxidation of purified HDL after incubations of: 1) HDL alone; 2) HDL in the presence of exogenous E2; 3) HDL in the presence of exogenous LCAT; 4) HDL in the presence of both E2 and LCAT; and 5) HDL in the presence of E2, LCAT, and the LCAT inhibitor DTNB. We used this in vitro model system with supraphysiological concentrations of E2 and purified LCAT to produce E2 ester-containing HDL particles for studies of oxidation resistance. The lag time of HDL oxidation significantly increased with increasing contents of HDL-associated E2 esters. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the role of LCAT in E2 esterification and its involvement in antioxidant protection of HDL. Elucidation of the possible in vivo role of HDL-associated estrogen esters requires further critical studies including experiments with physiological hormone concentrations. PMID:15472210

  10. Gold Nanocrystal Labeling Allows Low Density Lipoprotein Imaging From The Subcellular To Macroscopic Level

    PubMed Central

    Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL with a range of diagnostically active nanocrystals or hydrophobic agents. We performed focused experiments on LDL labeled with gold nanocrystals (Au-LDL). The labeling procedure had minimal effect on LDL size, morphology or composition. Biological function was found to be maintained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Tumor bearing mice were injected intravenously with LDL, DiR-LDL, Au-LDL or a gold-loaded nanoemulsion. LDL accumulation in the tumors was detected with whole body imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT), spectral CT and fluorescence imaging. Cellular localization was studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence techniques. In conclusion, this LDL labeling procedure should permit the study of lipoprotein biointeractions in unprecedented detail. PMID:24127782

  11. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein: An Innovative Target for Proteomics and Lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Ramos, Eduardo; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Rojas, Joselyn; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is regarded as an important protective factor against cardiovascular disease, with abundant evidence of an inverse relationship between its serum levels and risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as various antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, observations of hereditary syndromes featuring scant HDL-C concentration in absence of premature atherosclerotic disease suggest HDL-C levels may not be the best predictor of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, the beneficial effects of HDL may not depend solely on their concentration, but also on their quality. Distinct subfractions of this lipoprotein appear to be constituted by specific protein-lipid conglomerates necessary for different physiologic and pathophysiologic functions. However, in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment, diverse components of the HDL proteome and lipid core suffer alterations, which propel a shift towards a dysfunctional state, where HDL-C becomes proatherogenic, prooxidant, and proinflammatory. This heterogeneity highlights the need for further specialized molecular studies in this aspect, in order to achieve a better understanding of this dysfunctional state; with an emphasis on the potential role for proteomics and lipidomics as valuable methods in the search of novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634153

  12. Underappreciated opportunities for high-density lipoprotein particles in risk stratification and potential targets of therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Davidson, Michael H; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Burkle, Jaime; Pourfarzib, Ray

    2015-02-01

    The inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease risk is well established. As a result, in recent years there have been significant resources focused on identifying therapies that raise HDL-C and ultimately reduce cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, a number of trials aimed at increasing HDL-C have failed to show improved outcomes, and hence, have cast doubt on the importance of HDL-C as a therapeutic target. HDL-C, however, is only one measure of HDL. HDL levels can also been estimated by quantifying apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels using enzyme immunoassay or by measuring HDL particle number (HDL-P) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) or ion mobility. While these surrogate measures are correlated, they are not comparable. Lipoprotein-altering therapies have been shown to have different effects on HDL-C, apoA-I and HDL-P and several studies have demonstrated that HDL-P is a stronger predictor of coronary heart disease risk than HDL-C and/or apoA-I. This paper will review available evidence supporting the use of HDL-P as the biomarker of choice to assess the contribution of HDL to cardiovascular risk and as the primary goal of HDL-raising therapies. PMID:25702642

  13. Effect of chronic renal failure on high-density lipoprotein kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Fuh, M.M.; Lee, C.M.; Jeng, C.Y.; Shen, D.C.; Shieh, S.M.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentration and high density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were determined in control subjects and patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Results demonstrated that plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in patients with CRF, associated with a significant increase in plasma VLDL-cholesterol (P less than 0.002) and a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. The rate of removal of {sup 125}I-apoAI/HDL from plasma was slower (P less than 0.001) in the patients with CRF, resulting in an increase in the residence time of {sup 125}I-apoAI/HDL (P less than 0.001) and a decrease in the fractional catabolic rate (P less than 0.001). Since plasma apoAI concentration was lower in patients with CRF, total apoAI/HDL synthetic rate was also significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased. These data provide support for the view that low plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients with CRF are related to decreases in the synthetic rate of apoAI/HDL.

  14. Metabolic imaging with gallium-68- and indium-111-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Daugherty, A.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) labeled with either gallium-68 ({sup 68}Ga) or indium-111 ({sup 111}In) was evaluated as a potential PET or SPECT radiopharmaceutical for determination of hepatic lipoprotein metabolism in rabbits. Gallium-68 or {sup 111}In was linked to LDL via diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with a 25-70% radiochemical yield. Studies in vivo that compared {sup 68}Ga- or {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL with dilactitol-({sup 125}I)-tyramine LDL and 131I-LDL showed that both {sup 68}Ga- and {sup 111}In-labeled LDL behaved as residualizing radiotracers. Localization of radioactivity within the liver of normal rabbits was visualized clearly with ({sup 68}Ga)DTPA-LDL by PET and with ({sup 111}In)DTPA-LDL by gamma scintigraphy. Significant differences were observed in hepatic uptake of normal compared with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in which low-capacity LDL receptor-mediated catabolism was saturated. Gallium-68 and {sup 111}In-DTPA-LDL are attractive radiopharmaceuticals for noninvasive delineation of tissue LDL metabolism under normal and pathophysiologic conditions.

  15. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using {sup 14}C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter.

  16. Variability in alpha-tocopherol antioxidant activity in the core and surface layers of low- and high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, R; Cervato, G; Cestaro, B

    1999-01-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol enrichment of low- and high-density lipoproteins on Cu(2+)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in the hydrophobic core and in the hydrophilic envelope of lipoproteins was investigated by using two pyrene derivatives, namely, cholesteryl pyrenyl hexanoate (P6Chol) and pyrene dodecanoyl sulfatide (P12CS). The progressive decrease in fluorescence of P6Chol was used to monitor lipid peroxidation in the core of LDL and HDL, whereas that of P12CS was used to follow lipid peroxidation in the envelope of both lipoproteins. alpha-Tocopherol enrichment of LDL and HDL was obtained by incubating blood plasma at 37 degrees C with different concentrations of the vitamin (25-500 microM) before lipoprotein separation. The incorporation of alpha-tocopherol in LDL and HDL presents a progressive, time-dependent increase up to 200 microM alpha-tocopherol, then a plateau up to 500 microM. In the envelopes, the added tocopherol causes a great decrease in the rate of peroxidation and a dramatic increase in the latency phase in both lipoproteins. In the cores the lengthening of latency phase resulting from alpha-tocopherol enrichment was by far greater in LDL than in HDL, and the decrease in the rate of peroxidation in both lipoproteins was less than in the envelopes. PMID:10360240

  17. Onset of lipoprotein-supported steroidogenesis in differentiating granulosa cells of rats: cellular events involved in mediating FSH-enhanced uptake of low-density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Luteal cells use lipoproteins as the main source of cholesterol in steroidogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying hormonal control of lipoprotein uptake. Thus, the authors tested the hypothesis that FSH and androgens regulate low density lipoprotein (LDL)-supported steroidogenesis in maturing granulosa cells by affecting receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL at a cellular level. For this, immature ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with or without hormones, compactin (de novo synthesis inhibitor), or unlabeled or labeled (/sup 125/I or gold particles) LDL. Nonhormone-treated cultures produced little progestin; FSH and FSH/androstenedione stimulated steroid secretion. Progestin production by hormone-, but not nonhormone-, treated cultures was decreased by compactin, suggesting that de novo synthesis provided sterol for steroidogenesis. EM quantitation of cells exposed to gold-LDL at 37/sup 0/C revealed that, compared to nonhormone-treated cells, FSH-treated cells (1) bound and internalized more gold-LDL, (2) had a smaller percentage of gold-LDL at their surfaces, (3) displayed a faster apparent rate of LDL internalization and delivery to lysosomes, and (4) contained more gold-labeled lysosomes. Data from biochemical studies in which /sup 125/I-LDL was used supported the morphological findings. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FSH has important effects at the cellular level on LDL uptake, which seem to underlie the striking increase in progestin production accompanying granulosa cell differentiation.

  18. Z-Scan Analysis: a New Method to Determine the Oxidative State of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Association with Multiple Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Maria Camila Pruper; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Giampaoli, Viviane; da Conceição Quintaneiro Aubin, Elisete; de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Milena Maria; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2016-04-01

    The great atherogenic potential of oxidized low-density lipoprotein has been widely described in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the state of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human plasma measured by the Z-scan technique has an association with different cardiometabolic biomarkers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B, paraoxonase-1, and glucose were analyzed using standard commercial kits, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald equation. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect electronegative low-density lipoprotein. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein sizes were determined by Lipoprint® system. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the non-linear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solution. Principal component analysis and correlations were used respectively to resize the data from the sample and test association between the θ parameter, measured with the Z-scan technique, and the principal component. A total of 63 individuals, from both sexes, with mean age 52 years (±11), being overweight and having high levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were enrolled in this study. A positive correlation between the θ parameter and more anti-atherogenic pattern for cardiometabolic biomarkers together with a negative correlation for an atherogenic pattern was found. Regarding the parameters related with an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein profile, the θ parameter was negatively correlated with a more atherogenic pattern. By using Z-scan measurements, we were able to find an association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein state and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers in samples from individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Z-Scan Analysis: a New Method to Determine the Oxidative State of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Association with Multiple Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Maria Camila Pruper; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Giampaoli, Viviane; da Conceição Quintaneiro Aubin, Elisete; de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Milena Maria; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    The great atherogenic potential of oxidized low-density lipoprotein has been widely described in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the state of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human plasma measured by the Z-scan technique has an association with different cardiometabolic biomarkers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B, paraoxonase-1, and glucose were analyzed using standard commercial kits, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald equation. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect electronegative low-density lipoprotein. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein sizes were determined by Lipoprint® system. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the non-linear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solution. Principal component analysis and correlations were used respectively to resize the data from the sample and test association between the θ parameter, measured with the Z-scan technique, and the principal component. A total of 63 individuals, from both sexes, with mean age 52 years (±11), being overweight and having high levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were enrolled in this study. A positive correlation between the θ parameter and more anti-atherogenic pattern for cardiometabolic biomarkers together with a negative correlation for an atherogenic pattern was found. Regarding the parameters related with an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein profile, the θ parameter was negatively correlated with a more atherogenic pattern. By using Z-scan measurements, we were able to find an association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein state and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers in samples from individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. High systemic levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: fuel to the flames in inflammatory osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plays a role in the pathology of OA. Specifically, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which has been shown to play an essential role during development of atherosclerosis, could be involved in processes such as synovial inflammation, cartilage destruction and bone deformations. OxLDL can activate synovial cells such as macrophages, endothelial cells and synovial fibroblasts, resulting in release of growth factors, MMP and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this review article, we discuss the role of LDL and oxLDL in OA joint pathology and share our viewpoint of possible mechanisms by which these proteins could influence the development and progression of OA. The proposed theory could provide insight into the aetiopathology of OA and give rise to new potential treatments. PMID:26231344

  1. Soy constituents: modes of action in low-density lipoprotein management.

    PubMed

    van Ee, Jan H

    2009-04-01

    Reviewed here are the modes of action of soy components used as ingredients in foods, which can lower plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol, which are markers for the risk for atherosclerosis. Soy ingredients act via more than one mode of action including the following: LDL absorption suppression, cholesterol efflux stimulation, LDL resorption stimulation, LDL oxidation prevention, LDL particle size increase, cholesterol synthesis reduction, and bile secretion increase. Individual genetics, lifestyle, and nutrition habits alter LDL management and a better understanding of the various modes of actions of soy ingredients may facilitate the composition of effective ingredient cocktails. The optimization of food components offers further alternatives to LDL management to augment drug therapy for patients who are unable to reach their target LDL cholesterol levels or who are suffering from side effects or drug insensitivity. PMID:19335716

  2. Hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoprotein receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Da-wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are positively correlated with the risk of atherosclerosis. High plasma LDL concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolemia lead to build-up of LDL in the inner walls of the arteries, which becomes oxidized and promotes the formation of foam cells, consequently initiating atherosclerosis. Plasma LDL is mainly cleared through the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Mutations in the LDLR cause familiar hypercholesterolemia and increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The expression of LDLR is regulated at the transcriptional level via the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and at the posttranslational levels mainly through proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the studies of PCSK9. PMID:26445568

  3. Interactions of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite with low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andrs; Botti, Horacio; Batthyny, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (*NO) is a free radical species that diffuses and concentrates in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to serve as a potent inhibitor of lipid oxidation processes. Peroxynitrite (PN), the product of the diffusion-limited reaction between *NO and superoxide (O2*-) represents a relevant mediator of oxidative modifications in LDL. The focus of this review is the analysis of interactions between *NO and PN and its secondary reactions with oxygen radicals on LDL oxidation, which are relevant in the development of the early steps as well as progression of atherosclerosis. We propose that the balance between rates of PN and *NO production, which greatly depends on oxidative stress processes within the vascular wall, will critically determine the final extent of oxidative LDL modifications leading or not to scavenger receptor-mediated LDL uptake and foam cell formation. PMID:12033442

  4. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-?B transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. PMID:26348774

  5. Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein in mononuclear cells detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Tami N.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Tittel, Frank K.; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Jacques, Steven L.; Henry, Philip D.

    1995-05-01

    Hyperlipidemic states are associated with focal accumulations in arterial walls of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) and monocyte-derived liquid-laden macrophages, biochemical and cellular hallmarks of atheromatous lesions. Mechanisms underlying the generation and cellular uptake of oxidized LDL are still incompletely understood. We have used laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor the formation, intracellular accumulation, and tissue distribution of oxidized LDL. Oxidatively modified LDL excited by a XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) exhibits unique spectral characteristics that distinguish it from native (non-oxidized) LDL. The same spectral characteristics were demonstrated in lipid-rich atheromatous lesions, macrophages after incubation with oxidized LDL, and peripheral blood monocytes from hyperlipidemic, but not normolipidemic subjects. Detection of oxidized LDL in peripheral blood monocytes and arterial tissue may provide information on the atherogenic activity of hyperlipidemic states and serve as a novel risk factor for the assessment of atherosclerosis.

  6. 5-Lipoxygenase is not essential in macrophage-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S

    1991-01-01

    The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be explained in terms of their activity as either aqueous- or lipid-peroxyl radical scavengers. Two potent 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors (MK 886 and Revlon 5901), which had no radical-scavenging properties, were unable to block LDL modification. It is concluded that 5-lipoxygenase is not essential for LDL oxidation by macrophages. PMID:1883327

  7. Native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins enhance superoxide production from diabetic rat glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Tan, M S; Guh, J Y; Tsai, J H; Lai, Y L

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in mediating diabetic complications, and patients with diabetic nephropathy frequently show increased levels of circulating and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In the present study, we measured the superoxide production of glomeruli isolated from poorly controlled diabetic (streptozotocin) rats sacrificed 1 week and 1, and 3 months after the induction of diabetes. The animals were stimulated with native and oxidized LDL isolated from normal humans with normolipidemia. The superoxide ion was measured by using a spectrophotometer. The results demonstrated that the poorly controlled diabetic rat glomeruli showed a significantly higher production of superoxide than normal glomeruli under basal conditions, and this production increased further with the progression of diabetes. Stimulation with either LDL or oxidized LDL enhanced superoxide production by diabetic glomeruli, with oxidized LDL being more potent than LDL. Our results suggest that oxidized LDL may play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through enhanced generation of oxygen free radicals. PMID:10765116

  8. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Lydia A

    2008-12-01

    Strong epidemiologic and experimental data suggest that increasing dietary fiber may help to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent studies have highlighted the role of dietary fiber, particularly water-soluble varieties, in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several types of soluble fiber, including psyllium, beta-glucan, pectin, and guar gum, have been shown to decrease LDL-C in well-controlled intervention studies, whereas the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol. These studies, along with recent analyses of ongoing prospective cohort studies, have provided new insights into the probable protective role of dietary fiber in the development of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18937894

  9. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant biflavonoids from Garcinia madruno.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison; Londoo, Julin; Bastida, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7''-O-(6''''-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new compound identified on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation induced with Cu?, was studied by means of a TBARS assay. The antioxidant potential of a biflavonoid fraction (BF) was also evaluated and correlated with its biflavonoid content. The flavanone-(3?8'')-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly more potent than quercetin, with a CE?? of 12.36 ?g/mL. Lipid peroxidation, was also significantly reduced in the presence of the BF (EC?? = 11.85 ?g/mL). These results suggest that the BF is an excellent antioxidant. PMID:23698056

  10. Mutations in ABC1 in Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Wilson, A; Marcil, M; Clee, S M; Zhang, L H; Roomp, K; van Dam, M; Yu, L; Brewer, C; Collins, J A; Molhuizen, H O; Loubser, O; Ouelette, B F; Fichter, K; Ashbourne-Excoffon, K J; Sensen, C W; Scherer, S; Mott, S; Denis, M; Martindale, D; Frohlich, J; Morgan, K; Koop, B; Pimstone, S; Kastelein, J J; Genest, J; Hayden, M R

    1999-08-01

    Genes have a major role in the control of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Here we have identified two Tangier disease (TD) families, confirmed 9q31 linkage and refined the disease locus to a limited genomic region containing the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC1). Familial HDL deficiency (FHA) is a more frequent cause of low HDL levels. On the basis of independent linkage and meiotic recombinants, we localized the FHA locus to the same genomic region as the TD locus. Mutations in ABC1 were detected in both TD and FHA, indicating that TD and FHA are allelic. This indicates that the protein encoded by ABC1 is a key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport, hence we have named it cholesterol efflux regulatory protein (CERP). PMID:10431236

  11. Anticipatory Role of High Density Lipoprotein and Endothelial Dysfunction: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Esin; Yılmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur; Ellidağ, Hamit Y

    2014-01-01

    High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been witnessed to possess a range of different functions that contribute to its atheroprotective effects. These functions are: the promotion of macrophage cholesterol efflux, reverse cholesterol transport, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-apoptotic, pro-fibrinolytic and anti-oxidative functions. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme esterase/homocysteinethiolactonase that contributes to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic capabilities of HDL. PON1 is directly involved in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis through the modulation of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of HDL on endothelial homeostasis, and also to describe the recently characterized molecular pathways involved. PMID:25598849

  12. Treating low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: what is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Mirella P.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, genetic and interventional studies have failed to consistently support this relationship. There is an increasing body of evidence that the function of HDL, including its antiatherogenic properties and its reverse cholesterol transport activity, has a greater impact on CVD risk compared with levels of HDL alone. Targeting HDL has become a growing interest. Nevertheless, raising HDL pharmacologically has failed to show a considerable, if any, impact on cardiovascular outcome. Efforts should focus on improving HDL quality in addition to raising HDL levels when developing new therapies. Ongoing and future research will help determine the most safe and effective approach to improve cardiovascular outcome and establish the safety, efficacy and impact on atherosclerosis of the emerging HDL-raising therapies. PMID:24696776

  13. Treating low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Hage, Mirella P; Azar, Sami T

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, genetic and interventional studies have failed to consistently support this relationship. There is an increasing body of evidence that the function of HDL, including its antiatherogenic properties and its reverse cholesterol transport activity, has a greater impact on CVD risk compared with levels of HDL alone. Targeting HDL has become a growing interest. Nevertheless, raising HDL pharmacologically has failed to show a considerable, if any, impact on cardiovascular outcome. Efforts should focus on improving HDL quality in addition to raising HDL levels when developing new therapies. Ongoing and future research will help determine the most safe and effective approach to improve cardiovascular outcome and establish the safety, efficacy and impact on atherosclerosis of the emerging HDL-raising therapies. PMID:24696776

  14. Roles of antibody against oxygenized low density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Daxin; He, Shenghu

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune inflammatory disease. Atherosclerosis and relevant disease are threatening human life and health. Oxygenized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a molecular basis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and able to induce inflammation, stimulate immune system and interfere with lipid metabolism in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Antibody against oxLDL has been an important molecule in the immune related pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In available studies on atherosclerosis, antibody against oxLDL has been a focus, but how oxLDL acts to affect the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, whether oxLDL is protective or detrimental, and whether oxLDL acts in different ways at different stages of atherosclerosis are still unclear. This paper focuses on the role of antibody against oxLDL in the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, and summarizes the advances in this field, aiming to provide new clue and new methods for the therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:26550105

  15. A disposable electrochemical sensor based on protein G for High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) detection.

    PubMed

    Chammem, H; Hafaid, I; Bohli, N; Garcia, A; Meilhac, O; Abdelghani, A; Mora, L

    2015-11-01

    In this work, two biosensors were developed for the detection of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) particles, which are biomarkers inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk and which represent therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis. The electrochemical properties of the grafted antibody on interdigitated gold electrode were achieved by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The used deposition method was based on oriented antibody Anti-ApoA1 with an intermediate thin layer of protein G. The developed biosensor was able to detect both native plasma HDL and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles respectively with the detection limit of 50n g/mL and 1 ng/mL, respectively. Dynamic contact angle and atomic force microscopy were used. The developed biosensors are able to differentiate the HDL particles according to their differences in size and interactions with the immobilized antibody. PMID:26452849

  16. High-Density Lipoprotein - A Hero, a Mirage, or a Witness?

    PubMed

    Sviridov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Negative relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a firmly established medical fact, but attempts to reproduce protective properties of HDL by pharmacologically elevating HDL levels were mostly unsuccessful. This conundrum presents a fundamental question: were the approaches used to raise HDL flawed or the protective effects of HDL are an epiphenomenon? Recent attempts to elevate plasma HDL were universally based on reducing HDL catabolism by blocking reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Here, we argue that this mode of HDL elevation may be mechanistically different to natural mechanisms and thus be counterproductive. We further argue that independently of whether HDL is a driving force or a surrogate measure of the rate of RCT, approaches aimed at increasing HDL supply, rather than reducing its catabolism, would be most beneficial for speeding up RCT and improving protection against CVD. PMID:26664860

  17. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Related Proteins as Regulators of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Young, Kaylene M.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a highly organised structure. Many signalling systems work in concert to ensure that neural stem cells are appropriately directed to generate progenitor cells, which in turn mature into functional cell types including projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Herein we explore the role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, in particular family members LRP1 and LRP2, in regulating the behaviour of neural stem and progenitor cells during development and adulthood. The ability of LRP1 and LRP2 to bind a diverse and extensive range of ligands, regulate ligand endocytosis, recruit nonreceptor tyrosine kinases for direct signal transduction and signal in conjunction with other receptors, enables them to modulate many crucial neural cell functions. PMID:26949399

  18. Pharmacogenetics of paraoxonase activity: elucidating the role of high-density lipoprotein in disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-01-01

    PON1 is a key component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and is at least partially responsible for HDL's antioxidant/atheroprotective properties. PON1 is also associated with numerous human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. In addition, PON1 metabolizes a broad variety of substrates, including toxic organophosphorous compounds, statin adducts, glucocorticoids, the likely atherogenic l-homocysteine thiolactone and the quorum-sensing factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous cardiovascular and antidiabetic pharmacologic agents, dietary macronutrients, lifestyle factors and antioxidant supplements affect PON1 expression and enzyme activity levels. Owing to the importance of PON1 to HDL function and its individual association with diverse human diseases, pharmacogenomic interactions between PON1 and the various factors that alter its expression and activity may represent an important therapeutic target for future investigation. PMID:24024900

  19. Mutant oocytic low density lipoprotein receptor gene family member causes atherosclerosis and female sterility.

    PubMed Central

    Bujo, H; Yamamoto, T; Hayashi, K; Hermann, M; Nimpf, J; Schneider, W J

    1995-01-01

    The so-called very low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs) are related to the LDLR gene family. So far, naturally occurring mutations have only been described for the prototype LDLR; in humans, they cause familial hypercholesterolemia. Here we describe a naturally occurring mutation in a VLDLR that causes a dramatic abnormal phenotype. Hens of the mutant restricted-ovulator chicken strain carry a single mutation, lack functional oocyte receptors, are sterile, and display severe hyperlipidemia with associated premature atherosclerosis. The mutation converts a cysteine residue into a serine, resulting in an unpaired cysteine and greatly reduced expression of the mutant avian VLDLR on the oocyte surface. Extraoocytic cells in the mutant produce higher than normal amounts of a differentially spliced form of the receptor that is characteristic for somatic cells but absent from germ cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568242

  20. High density lipoprotein cholesterol: an evolving target of therapy in the management of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Navin K; Ashen, Dominique; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of John Gofman in the 1950s, our understanding of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its relationship to coronary heart disease (CHD) has grown substantially. Numerous clinical trials since the Framingham Study in 1977 have demonstrated an inverse relationship between HDL-C and one’s risk of developing CHD. Over the past two decades, preclinical research has gained further insight into the nature of HDL-C metabolism, specifically regarding the ability of HDL-C to promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Recent attempts to harness HDL’s ability to enhance RCT have revealed the complexity of HDL-C metabolism. This review provides a detailed update on HDL-C as an evolving therapeutic target in the management of cardiovascular disease. PMID:18629371

  1. The nucleotide sequence of the very low density lipoprotein II mRNA from chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, B; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an almost complete, double-stranded cDNA of chicken Very Low Density Lipoprotein II mRNA, carried in recombinant plasmid pVLDLII 3.33 (Wieringa et al., 1979, 7: 2147-2163) is presented. A stretch of 318 nucleotides codes for the pre-VLDLII polypeptide, which consists of a 24 amino acids signal and a 82 amino acids secreted protein. The coding stretch is flanked by 57 nucleotides in the 5'-leader sequence of the mRNA, and 258 nucleotides in the 3'-non-coding region. Hypothetical self-complementary structures of parts of the mRNA are presented. Images PMID:7012793

  2. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed Central

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. Images PMID:6856469

  3. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene.

    PubMed

    van het Schip, A D; Meijlink, F C; Strijker, R; Gruber, M; van Vliet, A J; van de Klundert, J A; Ab, G

    1983-05-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apoVLDL II) gene and the regions immediately flanking the gene was determined. Nuclease S1 mapping showed that transcription is initiated at two sites, about 11 bp apart, of which the one lying downstream is used preferentially. Comparison of the 2918-base pair gene sequence with the earlier determined cDNA sequence [Wieringa et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Research 9, 489-501] enabled us to identify the four exons which are 38 (or 49), 100, 160 and 358 bp long. One of the intron-exon junctions has an unusual sequence. In the 5' flanking region several palindromic sequences are observed. Sequences near the 5' and 3' ends show homologies with the ovalbumin gene. PMID:6856469

  4. Turnover products of the apo very low density lipoprotein II messenger RNA from chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Bakker, O; Arnberg, A C; Noteborn, M H; Winter, A J; Ab, G

    1988-11-11

    The mature apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apo VLDLII) mRNA appears in chicken liver within a few hours after estrogen administration. Apart from this mRNA species, shorter RNA molecules hybridizing to apo VLDLII sequences have been detected in rooster liver upon estrogen stimulation. These molecules are present in the non-polyadenylated fraction of the total cellular- and polysomal RNA. Northern blotting and electron microscopy of R-loops were employed to show that these shorter RNA molecules are truncated at their 3'-end. The 3'-termini were further characterized by nuclease S1 analyses, and are located predominantly in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. Using a secondary structure model (Shelness and Williams, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 8637-8646, 1985), we show that the 3' termini map mainly in unpaired regions of the structure. PMID:3194196

  5. Turnover products of the apo very low density lipoprotein II messenger RNA from chicken liver.

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, O; Arnberg, A C; Noteborn, M H; Winter, A J; Ab, G

    1988-01-01

    The mature apo Very Low Density Lipoprotein II (apo VLDLII) mRNA appears in chicken liver within a few hours after estrogen administration. Apart from this mRNA species, shorter RNA molecules hybridizing to apo VLDLII sequences have been detected in rooster liver upon estrogen stimulation. These molecules are present in the non-polyadenylated fraction of the total cellular- and polysomal RNA. Northern blotting and electron microscopy of R-loops were employed to show that these shorter RNA molecules are truncated at their 3'-end. The 3'-termini were further characterized by nuclease S1 analyses, and are located predominantly in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. Using a secondary structure model (Shelness and Williams, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 8637-8646, 1985), we show that the 3' termini map mainly in unpaired regions of the structure. Images PMID:3194196

  6. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering therapies: what is on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Gadi, Ramprasad; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have been the cornerstone of lipid therapy to lower LDL-C for the past two decades, but despite significant clinical efficacy in a majority of patients, a large residual risk remains for the development of initial or recurrent atherosclerotic CVD. In addition, owing to the side-effects, a significant percentage of patients cannot tolerate any statin dose or a high enough statin dose. Thus, novel therapeutic agents are currently being developed to lower LDL-C levels further. This review will highlight these novel therapeutic agents including antisense oligonucleotides focused on apolipoprotein B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors. For each therapeutic class, an overview of mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic data, and efficacy/safety evidence will be discussed. PMID:25379719

  7. Purification and properties of a very high density lipoprotein from the hemolymph of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Shipman, B A; Ryan, R O; Schmidt, J O; Law, J H

    1987-04-01

    A larval-specific very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) has been isolated from the hemolymph of the honeybee Apis mellifera. VHDL was isolated by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. The purified protein is a dimer of Mr 160,000 apoproteins as shown by chemical cross-linking with dimethyl suberimidate. N-Terminal sequence analysis indicates that the two polypeptide chains are identical. The holoprotein contains 10% lipid by weight and 2.6% covalently bound carbohydrate. A native Mr 330,000 species was obtained by gel permeation chromatography. Antiserum directed against VHDL was used to show that VHDL is distinct from other hemolymph proteins and appears to constitute a novel lipoprotein of unknown function. However, the lipoprotein is present in high amounts in hemolymph only at the end of larval life, suggesting a potential role in lipid transport and/or storage protein metabolism during metamorphosis. PMID:3109474

  8. Apolipoprotein B100 quality control and the regulation of hepatic very low density lipoprotein secretion

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Eric; Lake, Elizabeth; McLeod, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the main protein component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is necessary for the assembly and secretion of these triglyceride (TG)-rich particles. Following release from the liver, VLDL is converted to low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the plasma and increased production of VLDL can therefore play a detrimental role in cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence has helped to establish VLDL assembly as a target for the treatment of dyslipidemias. Multiple factors are involved in the folding of the apoB protein and the formation of a secretion-competent VLDL particle. Failed VLDL assembly can initiate quality control mechanisms in the hepatocyte that target apoB for degradation. ApoB is a substrate for endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) by the ubiquitin proteasome system and for autophagy. Efficient targeting and disposal of apoB is a regulated process that modulates VLDL secretion and partitioning of TG. Emerging evidence suggests that significant overlap exists between these degradative pathways. For example, the insulin-mediated targeting of apoB to autophagy and postprandial activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) may employ the same cellular machinery and regulatory cues. Changes in the quality control mechanisms for apoB impact hepatic physiology and pathology states, including insulin resistance and fatty liver. Insulin signaling, lipid metabolism and the hepatic UPR may impact VLDL production, particularly during the postprandial state. In this review we summarize our current understanding of VLDL assembly, apoB degradation, quality control mechanisms and the role of these processes in liver physiology and in pathologic states. PMID:25013401

  9. Paradoxical Elevation of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Association with Lacunar-Type Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Gui-Lin; Tan, Yan; Fang, Min; Yang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Yan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels and the risk of lacunar infarction (LI) in a retrospective cohort study in China. Material/Methods We recruited 229 patients with obsolete brain infarctions single side (SOBI), 218 with obsolete brain infarctions bilateral sides (BOBI), 193 with both acute stroke and obsolete lacunar infarctions single side (AI&SOBI), 113 with both acute stroke and obsolete lacunar infarctions bilateral sides (AI&BOBI), and 203 without any infarctions (Control). Results 1) The plasma levels of HDLC in group BOBI, AI&SOBI, and AI&BOBI were higher than in the control group, and lower in group SOBI than in the control group (p<0.01). 2) The plasma levels of HDLC in group AI&SOBI were significantly higher than in group SOBI (p<0.01). 3) The plasma levels of HLDL were similar between group AI&SOBI and AI&BOBI. 4) There were significant relationships between HDLC and acute lacunar stroke, even after adjusting for these factors such as age, sex, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of diabetes (p=0.001). 4) Compared with the controls, the calculation of odds ratios indicated relative risk estimates of higher HDLC for acute lacunar stroke with obsolete lacunar infarction. Conclusions Elevated HDLC may be an independent predictor of recurrent stroke with obsolete lacunar infarctions single side in Chinese people, justifying clinical trials for secondary prevention of stroke by generally increasing HLDL level. According to the difference between single and bilateral side multiple silent lacunar infarcts, it is inferred that HDLC may increase the risk of atherothrombotic infarction but reduce the risk of cardioembolic infarction in the general Chinese population. PMID:26120926

  10. S-adenosylmethionine increases circulating very-low density lipoprotein clearance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Una, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mestre, Daniela; Fernandez-Ares, Larraitz; Fresnedo, Olatz; Fernandez-Ramos, David; Juan, Virginia Gutierrez-de; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C; Garcia-Monzon, Carmelo; Finnell, Richard H; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Buque, Xabier; Martinez-Chantar, M. Luz; Mato, Jose M.; Aspichueta, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Very-low density-lipoproteins (VLDL) export lipids from liver to peripheral tissues and are the precursors of low-density-lipoproteins. Low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) decrease triglyceride (TG) secretion in VLDL contributing to hepatosteatosis in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice but nothing is known about the effect of SAMe over circulating VLDL metabolism. Objective We wanted to investigate whether excess SAMe could disrupt VLDL plasma metabolism and unravel the mechanisms involved. Methods Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (KO), GNMT-PLIN2-KO and their respective wild types (WT) were used. A high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine deficient diet (MDD) was administrated to exacerbate or recover VLDL metabolism, respectively. Finally, 33 patients with nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD); 11 with hypertriglyceridemia and 22 with normal lipidemia were used in this study. Results We found that excess SAMe increases turnover of hepatic TG stores for secretion in VLDL in GNMT-KO mice, a model of NAFLD with high SAMe levels. The disrupted VLDL assembly resulted in the secretion of enlarged, phosphatidylethanolamine-poor, TG-and apoE-enriched VLDL-particles; special features that lead to increased VLDL clearance and decreased serum TG levels. Re-establishing normal SAMe levels restore VLDL secretion, features and metabolism. In NAFLD patients, serum TG levels are lower when hepatic GNMT-protein expression is decreased. Conclusion Excess hepatic SAMe levels disrupt VLDL assembly and features and increase circulating VLDL clearance which will cause increased VLDL-lipid supply to tissues and might contribute to the extrahepatic complications of NAFLD. Electronic word count: 235 PMID:25457203

  11. Chitin-glucan fiber effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bays, H E; Evans, J L; Maki, K C; Evans, M; Maquet, V; Cooper, R; Anderson, J W

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) may promote inflammation, and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and worsening complications of diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitin-glucan (CG), alone and in combination with a potentially anti-inflammatory olive oil (OO) extract, for reducing OxLDL in subjects with borderline to high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Subjects/methods: This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a novel, insoluble fiber derived from the Aspergillus niger mycelium, CG, evaluated 130 subjects free of diabetes mellitus with fasting LDL-C 3.37–4.92 mmol/l and glucose ⩽6.94 mmol/l. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CG (4.5 g/day; n=33), CG (1.5 g/day; n=32), CG (1.5 g/day) plus OO extract (135 mg/day; n=30), or matching placebo (n=35). Results: Administration of 4.5 g/day CG for 6 weeks significantly reduced OxLDL compared with placebo (P=0.035). At the end of study, CG was associated with lower LDL-C levels relative to placebo, although this difference was statistically significant only for the CG 1.5 g/day group (P=0.019). CG did not significantly affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin or F2-isoprostane levels. Adverse events did not substantively differ between treatments and placebo. Conclusions: In this 6-week study, CG (4.5 g/day) reduced OxLDL, an effect that might affect the risk for atherosclerosis. PMID:22948945

  12. Flow-cytometric determination of high-density-lipoprotein binding sites on human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, G.; Wulf, G.; Bruening, T.A.; Assmann, G.

    1987-12-01

    In this method, leukocytes were isolated from 6 mL of EDTA-blood by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC)-conjugated high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The receptor-bound conjugate particles were determined by fluorescent flow cytometry and compared with /sup 125/I-labeled HDL binding data for the same cells. Human granulocytes express the highest number of HDL binding sites (9.4 x 10(4)/cell), followed by monocytes (7.3 x 10(4)/cell) and lymphocytes (4.0 x 10(4)/cell). Compared with conventional analysis of binding of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL in tissue-culture dishes, the present determination revealed significantly lower values for nonspecific binding. In competition studies, the conjugate competes for the same binding sites as /sup 125/I-labeled HDL. With the use of tetranitromethane-treated HDL3, which fails to compete for the HDL receptor sites while nonspecific binding is not affected, we could clearly distinguish between 37 degrees C surface binding and specific 37 degrees C uptake of RITC-HDL3, confirming that the HDL receptor leads bound HDL particles into an intracellular pathway rather than acting as a docking type of receptor. Patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia showed a significantly higher number of HDL binding sites in the granulocyte population but normal in lymphocytes and monocytes, indicating increased uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, HDL binding was increased in all three cell types, indicating increased cholesterol uptake and increased cholesterol synthesis. The present method allows rapid determination of HDL binding sites in leukocytes from patients with various forms of hyper- and dyslipoproteinemias.

  13. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: current status and future strategies for management

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vibhuti; Sharma, Rakesh; Kumar, Ajoy; Deedwania, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the foremost cause of death and disability in the Western world, and it is rapidly becoming so in the developing nations. Even though the use of statin therapy aiming at the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has significantly reduced cardiovascular events and mortality, substantial residual cardiac events still occur in those being treated to the currently recommended targets. In fact, residual risk is also seen in those who are treated “aggressively” such as the “high risk” patients so defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Consequently, one must look for the predictors of risk beyond LDL reduction. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is the next frontier. The protectiveness of elevated HDL against atherosclerosis is well described in the literature. HDL subdues several atherogenic processes, such as oxidation, inflammation, cell proliferation and thrombosis. It also helps mobilize the excess LDL via reverse cholesterol transport. Low levels of HDL have been shown to be independent predictors of risk. Thus, therapies to raise the HDL hold promise for additional cardiac risk reduction. In this regard, several randomized trials have recently tested this hypothesis, especially in patients at high risk. In addition to the use of aggressive lifestyle modification, clinical outcomes have been measured following augmentation of HDL levels with various treatment modalities, including aggressive statin therapy, combination therapy with fibrates and niacin, and direct HDL-raising drug treatments. These data for low HDL as an independent risk factor and as the new treatment target are reviewed in this paper. PMID:21127701

  14. Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease: Role of High-density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Valentina; Yang, Haichun; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Although reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with lipid-lowering agents (statins) decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, a substantial residual risk (up to 70% of baseline) remains after treatment in most patient populations. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a potential contributor to residual risk, and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established risk factor for CVD. However, in contrast to conventional lipid-lowering therapies, recent studies show that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C levels do not bring about clinical benefits. These observations have given rise to the concept of dysfunctional HDL where increases in serum HDL-C may not be beneficial because HDL loss of function is not corrected by or even intensified by the therapy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases CVD risk, and patients whose CKD progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis are at the highest CVD risk of any patient type studied. The ESRD population is also unique in its lack of significant benefit from standard lipid-lowering interventions. Recent studies indicate that HDL-C levels do not predict CVD in the CKD population. Moreover, CKD profoundly alters metabolism and composition of HDL particles and impairs their protective effects on functions such as cellular cholesterol efflux, endothelial protection, and control of inflammation and oxidation. Thus, CKD-induced perturbations in HDL may contribute to the excess CVD in CKD patients. Understanding the mechanisms of vascular protection in renal disease can present new therapeutic targets for intervention in this population. PMID:26009251

  15. Trypanosome Lytic Factor, an Antimicrobial High-Density Lipoprotein, Ameliorates Leishmania Infection

    PubMed Central

    Samanovic, Marie; Molina-Portela, Maria Pilar; Chessler, Anne-Danielle C.; Burleigh, Barbara A.; Raper, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF) is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system. PMID:19165337

  16. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich nascent rat hepatic high density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, K.E.; Marsh, J.B. )

    1989-07-01

    Nascent high density lipoprotein (HDL) and nascent very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were isolated from rat livers that had been perfused with (3H)glycerol to label the triglyceride. When injected into intact rats, the labeled HDL-triglyceride disappeared as rapidly as the VLDL-triglyceride, with only 10% of the injected label remaining in the plasma after 30 min. The protein moiety of nascent HDL was labeled with (35S)methionine in a similar fashion and the labeled nascent HDL was separated into nonretained (NR) and retained (R) fractions by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. When injected into rats, 55% of the injected label in nascent fraction NR and 72% of that in nascent fraction R was recovered from plasma at 30 min, compared to only 10% of the triglyceride label from unfractionated nascent HDL, indicating dissociation of triglyceride and apolipoprotein clearance. The plasma decay curves for both triglyceride and protein were biexponential. By 5 min, 15% of the 35S label remaining in plasma represented apoE and apoC that had been transferred from nascent HDL fractions NR and R to the d less than 1.063 g/ml fraction of plasma. Plasma HDL was labeled in vivo with (35S)methionine, separated into fractions NR and R, and the clearance of the two plasma HDL fractions was compared with that of the corresponding nascent HDL fractions. Except for a faster rate of removal of the nascent HDL fractions during the first 5 min, the serum decay curves were very similar.

  17. Metabolic fate of sphingomyelin of high-density lipoprotein in rat plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bentejac, M.; Bugaut, M.; Delachambre, M.C.; Lecerf, J. )

    1990-10-01

    The metabolic fate of high density lipoprotein (HDL) sphingomyelin in plasma was studied in rats over a 24-hr period after injection of HDL containing sphingomyelin which was {sup 14}C-labeled in the stearic (18:0) or lignoceric acid (24:0) moiety and {sup 3}H-labeled in the choline methyl groups. Decay of label in plasma followed three phases. The first two phases were similar for both isotopes and both types of sphingomyelin (t1/2 approximately 10 and 110 min). However, during the third phase (from 10 hr after injection), {sup 3}H label disappeared more slowly than {sup 14}C label from 18:0 sphingomyelin, whereas the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio remained relatively constant when 24:0 sphingomyelin was used. Intact, doubly-labeled 18:0 sphingomyelin disappeared from HDL rapidly (t1/2 = 38 min) by tissue uptake and by transfer to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL contained up to 12% of the sphingomyelin 1 hr after injection. This is the first demonstration of a transfer in vivo of sphingomyelin from HDL to VLDL. A similarly rapid transfer was also observed in vitro. Some nontritiated, ({sup 14}C)18:0 or ({sup 14}C)24:0 sphingomyelin was redistributed more slowly into HDL. Doubly-labeled phosphatidylcholine appeared in VLDL and HDL within 1 hr after injection and reached 1.8 and 2.1% of the injected {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H in VLDL at 1 hr, and 4.8 and 6.9% in HDL at 3 hr, respectively.

  18. Characterization of lipid composition and high-density lipoprotein function in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral regimens.

    PubMed

    Munger, Alana M; Chow, Dominic C; Playford, Martin P; Parikh, Nisha I; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A; Nakamoto, Beau K; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2015-02-01

    There is an increase in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in individuals infected with HIV that may be due to inflammatory lipid modulation not captured by traditional lipid measures. The objective of this study was to perform advanced lipoprotein phenotyping inclusive of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity and lipoprotein particle concentration and size in a well-phenotyped group of 118 patients infected with HIV. We used simple and multivariable analyses to determine the associations between advanced lipoprotein parameters and known cardiometabolic risk factors. Participants were on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had benign traditional lipid panels [median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides of 178?mg/dl, 108?mg/dl, 44?mg/dl, and 122.5?mg/dl, respectively]. However, advanced lipoprotein phenotyping demonstrated an elevation of LDL particle number (median of 1,233?nmol/liter) and a decrease in LDL size (median of 20.4?nm), along with a decrease in protective, large HDL particles (median of 3.15??mol/liter) and reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in comparison to controls of other studies. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with HDL levels (?=0.395, p<0.001), small LDL particle concentration (?=-0.198, p=0.031), insulin sensitivity by the Matsuda index (?=0.218, p=0.029), and the Framingham Risk Score (?=-0.184, p=0.046). We demonstrate an atherogenic lipoprotein profile by NMR spectroscopy and HDL efflux measurement in a group of HIV-infected patients on stable ART with normal lipid panels. PMID:25416403

  19. Characterization of Lipid Composition and High-Density Lipoprotein Function in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Alana M.; Chow, Dominic C.; Playford, Martin P.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar A.; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is an increase in the cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in individuals infected with HIV that may be due to inflammatory lipid modulation not captured by traditional lipid measures. The objective of this study was to perform advanced lipoprotein phenotyping inclusive of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity and lipoprotein particle concentration and size in a well-phenotyped group of 118 patients infected with HIV. We used simple and multivariable analyses to determine the associations between advanced lipoprotein parameters and known cardiometabolic risk factors. Participants were on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had benign traditional lipid panels [median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides of 178?mg/dl, 108?mg/dl, 44?mg/dl, and 122.5?mg/dl, respectively]. However, advanced lipoprotein phenotyping demonstrated an elevation of LDL particle number (median of 1,233?nmol/liter) and a decrease in LDL size (median of 20.4?nm), along with a decrease in protective, large HDL particles (median of 3.15??mol/liter) and reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in comparison to controls of other studies. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with HDL levels (?=0.395, p<0.001), small LDL particle concentration (?=0.198, p=0.031), insulin sensitivity by the Matsuda index (?=0.218, p=0.029), and the Framingham Risk Score (?=0.184, p=0.046). We demonstrate an atherogenic lipoprotein profile by NMR spectroscopy and HDL efflux measurement in a group of HIV-infected patients on stable ART with normal lipid panels. PMID:25416403

  20. Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus, low density lipoproteins, response to pravastatin and coronary heart disease: results from PROSPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caucasian carriers of the T allele at R46L in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) locus have been reported to have 15% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) levels and 47% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Our objective was to examine two PCSK9 single nucle...

  1. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  2. Compositional or charge density modification of the endothelial glycocalyx accelerates flow-dependent concentration polarization of low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongyan; Fan, Yubo; Sun, Anqiang; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-01

    We hypothesized that diminished endothelial glycocalyx (GCX) at atherosclerotic lesion-prone sites accelerates flow-dependent concentration polarization of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) at the luminal surface, and in turn contributes to vulnerability of these sites to atherosclerosis. A parallel plate flow chamber was applied to expose cultured endothelial monolayers to three different levels of shear stress (3, 12, 20 dyn/cm(2)). Heparinase III (Hep.III) was employed to degrade heparan sulfate proteoglycans selectively and 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid-buffered physiological salt solutions (MOPS-PSS) were used at either normal ionic strength (Normal-MOPS), low ionic strength (LO-MOPS) or high ionic strength (HI-MOPS) to modify the effective charge density of the endothelial GCX. Water filtration velocity (V(w)) across the endothelial monolayer, the luminal concentration of LDLs (C(w)) and the uptake of LDLs by endothelial cells were measured and compared among the following five groups of cells: (1) Control; (2) Hep.III treatment; (3) LO-MOPS; (4) Normal-MOPS; and (5) HI-MOPS. The results obtained substantiated the aforementioned hypothesis and demonstrated that compositional or charge density modification of the endothelial GCX facilitated water filtration across the endothelium, enhanced the accumulation of LDLs on the luminal surface and increased the uptake of LDLs by endothelial cells, therefore contributing to atherogenesis. PMID:21659384

  3. Chloroquine increases low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma in systemic lupus patients.

    PubMed

    Sachet, J C; Borba, E F; Bonf, E; Vinagre, C G C; Silva, V M; Maranho, R C

    2007-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) pathway in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients taking chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) was evaluated through the kinetic behavior of a radioactive cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that resembles the LDL lipidic structure. LDE was labeled with (14)C-cholesteryl ester ((14)C-CE), then IV injected in inactive female SLE patients: 10 taking CDP (CDP), 10 without therapy (NO THERAPY); and 10 normal subjects (CONTROL). Groups were age-matched and followed rigorous selection criteria of conditions that interfere in the lipid profile. Blood samples were collected in pre-established intervals after infusion for radioactivity measurement. Fasting lipoproteins were determined in the beginning of kinetic studies. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of (14)C-CE was significantly different in the three groups (P = 0.03). In fact, a greater FCR of (14)C-CE was observed in CDP compared to NO THERAPY (0.076 +/- 0.037 versus 0.046 +/- 0.021 h(-1); P < 0.05) and to CONTROL (0.0516 +/- 0.0125 h(-1); P < 0.05). Accordingly, a significant lower total and LDL cholesterol were observed in CDP (156 +/- 16 and 88 +/- 16 mg/dl) compared to NO THERAPY (174 +/- 15 and 108 +/- 17 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and to CONTROL (200 +/- 24 and 118 +/- 23 mg/dl; P < 0.05). In contrast, no difference in (FCR) of (14)C-CE of NO THERAPY and CONTROL groups was observed. This is the first in vivo demonstration that LDE removal by LDL receptor from plasma is increased in SLE patients taking CDP with a consequent beneficial decrease in LDL-c levels. PMID:17439934

  4. Cholesterol-Dependent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Exploits the Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qingming; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and trafficking are tightly regulated. Certain bacteria, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, also require cholesterol; it is unknown, however, how this cholesterol-dependent obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes interacts with the host cell cholesterol regulatory pathway to acquire cholesterol. Here, we report that total host cell cholesterol increased >2-fold during A. phagocytophilum infection in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Cellular free cholesterol was enriched in A. phagocytophilum inclusions as detected by filipin staining. We determined that A. phagocytophilum requires cholesterol derived from low-density lipoprotein (LDL), because its replication was significantly inhibited by depleting the growth medium of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins, by blocking LDL uptake with a monoclonal antibody against LDL receptor (LDLR), or by treating the host cells with inhibitors that block LDL-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes or lysosomes. However, de novo cholesterol biosynthesis is not required, since inhibition of the biosynthesis pathway did not inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled LDL was enhanced in infected cells, and LDLR expression was up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. A. phagocytophilum infection stabilized LDLR mRNA through the 3′ UTR region, but not through activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) was up-regulated by A. phagocytophilum infection, and inhibition of its upstream kinase, MEK, by a specific inhibitor or siRNA knockdown, reduced A. phagocytophilum infection. Up-regulation of LDLR mRNA by A. phagocytophilum was also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor; however, it was unclear whether ERK activation is required for LDLR mRNA up-regulation by A. phagocytophilum. These data reveal that A. phagocytophilum exploits the host LDL uptake pathway and LDLR mRNA regulatory system to accumulate cholesterol in inclusions to facilitate its replication. PMID:19283084

  5. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  6. Lipoprotein receptors in copper-deficient rats: in vitro binding of high-density lipoprotein subfractions to liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine whether the elevated plasma and HDL cholesterol levels observed in copper-deficient rats could be explained by the interaction of /sup 125/I-HDL subfractions with liver membrane preparations in vitro. Rats from all studies were randomly divided into two dietary treatments, copper-deficient and adequate (0.7 mg and 8.0 mg Cukg diet, respectively). Total binding data and computer derived estimates (K/sub d/ and B/sub max/) were used to compare differences between treatments. Binding data from all experiments conformed to a one-site model. In all cases, binding was saturable and EDTA and pronase insensitive. Treatment differences were observed in Study I (/sup 125/I-apo E-free HDL binding to crude liver membranes). Significantly lower total binding and B/sub max/ were observed when lipoproteins and membranes from copper-deficient animals were used in the assay. Competition experiments from Studies II and III demonstrate that the different HDL subfractions competed effectively with one another for binding sites, indicating that apo E is not a determinant in binding of rat /sup 125/I-HDL subfractions to purified liver plasma membranes

  7. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Study Makes High-Density Lipoprotein a Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Yuh; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Shih-Yi

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipid and protein complex that consists of apolipoproteins and lower level HDL-associated enzymes. HDL dysfunction is a factor in atherosclerosis and decreases patient survival. Mass spectrometry- (MS-) based proteomics provides a high throughput approach for analyzing the composition and modifications of complex HDL proteins in diseases. HDL can be separated according to size, surface charge, electronegativity, or apoprotein composition. MS-based proteomics on subfractionated HDL then allows investigation of lipoprotein roles in diseases. Herein, we review recent developments in MS-based quantitative proteomic techniques, HDL proteomics and lipoprotein modifications in diseases, and HDL subfractionation studies. We also discuss future directions and perspectives in MS-based proteomics on HDL. PMID:26090384

  8. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  9. Quantitative studies of transfer in vivo of low density, Sf 12-60, and Sf 60-400 lipoproteins between plasma and arterial intima in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, M.; Wootton, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Baskerville, P.; Lumley, J.S.; La Ville, A.E.; Quiney, J.; Lewis, B. )

    1991-05-01

    To assess the potential of various plasma lipoprotein classes to contribute to the lipid content of the arterial intima, influx and efflux of these plasma lipoprotein fractions into and from the intima of human carotid arteries were measured in vivo. While low density lipoprotein (LDL) is known to transfer from plasma into the arterial wall, there is less information on the atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of intermediate density (Sf 12-60) or of very low density (Sf 60-400). Aliquots of the same lipoprotein (LDL, Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles, or Sf 60-400 lipoprotein particles) iodinated with iodine-125 and iodine-131 were injected intravenously 18-29 hours and 3-6 hours, respectively, before elective surgical removal of atheromatous arterial tissue, and the intimal clearance of lipoproteins, lipoprotein influx, and fractional loss of newly entered lipoproteins were calculated. Intimal clearance of Sf 60-400 particles was not detectable (less than 0.3 microliter x hr-1 x cm-2), whereas the average value for both LDL and Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles was 0.9 microliter x hr-1 x cm-2. Since the fractional loss of newly entered LDL and Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles was also similar, the results suggest similar modes of entry and exit for these two particles. However, due to lower plasma concentrations of Sf 12-60 lipoproteins as compared with LDL, the mass influx of cholesterol in the Sf 12-60 particles was on the order of one 10th of that in LDL, and that of apolipoprotein B was about one 20th.

  10. Effect of gender, age, and lipid status on low density lipoprotein subfraction distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J R; Campos, H; Ordovas, J M; Peterson, J; Wilson, P W; Schaefer, E J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of low molecular weight low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in plasma has been associated with premature coronary artery disease. In this study we have examined factors affecting LDL subfraction distribution as determined by 2% to 16% polyacrylamide-agarose gradient gel electrophoresis of whole plasma in a normal, primarily middle-aged, population of adult male and female participants (n = 280, ages 25 to 75 years) in the Framingham Offspring Study. Seven major LDL bands (LDL-1 to LDL-7) were observed in different individuals, with most subjects having either one or two major bands. The presence of low molecular weight LDL (LDL-4 to LDL-7) in plasma as the predominant LDL type was significantly more common in men than in women (43.5% versus 14.8%, p less than 0.001). The presence of low molecular weight LDL was correlated (p less than 0.01) with increased age, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (in women only), and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, as well as with decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apo A-I levels. Approximately 69% of the variability in LDL subfractions could be accounted for by alterations in plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels. These data are consistent with the concept that LDL subfraction distribution is influenced by gender and plasma lipoprotein levels and can be determined readily by the use of whole plasma. PMID:3675308

  11. Studies on the production of low density lipoproteins by perfused livers from nonhuman primates. Effect of dietary cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F L; St Clair, R W; Rudel, L L

    1983-01-01

    Nonhuman primates consuming diets containing cholesterol develop coronary artery atherosclerosis that we have found to be highly correlated with an increase in the size and cholesteryl ester content of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL). The present studies were designed to determine whether the enlarged plasma LDL are produced directly by the liver of cholesterol-fed monkeys. African green monkeys were fed a diet containing 40% of calories as butter fat and either 0.16 mg cholesterol/kcal (control diet) or 0.78 mg cholesterol/kcal (test diet). The livers of these monkeys were perfused by recirculation with a lipoprotein-free medium for 4 h. The rate of accumulation of perfusate cholesterol was linear and greater in liver perfusates from test diet-fed vs. control diet-fed monkeys and was positively correlated with both the plasma cholesterol concentration and LDL size in the donor animal. All perfusate d less than 1.063 g/ml lipoprotein subfractions from livers of test diet-fed monkeys were enriched in cholesteryl ester severalfold over the corresponding subfractions from control diet-fed monkeys and contained only the larger form of apolipoprotein B typical of plasma LDL. However, the perfusate lipoproteins in the LDL density range did not have an average size or composition typical of LDL from plasma. Rather, they were relatively enriched in phospholipid and unesterified cholesterol and were deficient in cholesteryl esters. In addition, perfusate high density lipoproteins were discoidal particles. These data show that the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was essentially inactive in these perfusates and, as a result, the dietary cholesterol-induced enrichment of perfusate d less than 1.063 g/ml lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters probably resulted from increased hepatic secretion of cholesteryl esters and not from modification of lipoproteins by LCAT during recirculating perfusion. In spite of this increase, enlarged cholesteryl ester-rich LDL were not found in the perfusate, suggesting that large molecular weight plasma LDL are not directly secreted by the liver but instead probably result from further intravascular metabolism of cholesteryl ester-enriched hepatic precursor lipoproteins. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6874948

  12. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Innerarity, T.L.; Weisgraber, K.H.; Arnold, K.S.; Mahley, R.W.; Krauss, R.M.; Vega, G.L.; Grundy, S.M.

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity. Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with /sup 125/I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated wit an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients.

  13. Purification and properties of the very high density lipoprotein from the hemolymph of adult Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Soulages, J L; Gonzlez, S M; Peluffo, R O; Brenner, R R

    1989-06-01

    The very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) of Triatoma infestans hemolymph from adult males has been isolated and purified by two-step density gradient ultracentrifugation. It appears to be homogeneous as judged by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The content of VHDL in hemolymph was estimated to be 8 mg protein/ml. The purified protein has a molecular weight (Mr) of 450,000, is composed of six subunits of Mr approximately equal to 77,000, and possesses a high content of aromatic amino acids. This protein is glycosylated and contains 3% of lipids by weight with a remarkable amount of free fatty acids (25% of total lipids). The T. infestans VHDL has a different lipid and amino acid composition from lipophorin. The lipid composition and the spectroscopic studies using cis-parinaric acid indicated a high fatty acid binding affinity. It has nine binding sites per mol of VHDL. Competence studies revealed that VHDL has its highest affinity for the binding of palmitic acid followed by stearic and arachidonic acids. PMID:2677201

  14. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship

    PubMed Central

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-01-01

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  15. Bone and high-density lipoprotein: The beginning of a beautiful friendship.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Dionysios J; Blair, Harry C

    2016-02-18

    There is a tight link between bone and lipid metabolic pathways. In this vein, several studies focused on the exploration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the pathobiology of bone diseases, with emphasis to the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis, the most common bone pathologies. Indeed, epidemiological and in vitro data have connected reduced HDL levels or dysfunctional HDL with cartilage destruction and OA development. Recent studies uncovered functional links between HDL and OA fueling the interesting hypothesis that OA could be a chronic element of the metabolic syndrome. Other studies have linked HDL to bone mineral density. Even though at epidemiological levels the results are conflicting, studies in animals as well as in vitro experiments have shown that HDL facilitates osteoblastogensis and bone synthesis and most probably affects osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast bone resorption. Notably, reduced HDL levels result in increased bone marrow adiposity affecting bone cells function. Unveiling the mechanisms that connect HDL and bone/cartilage homeostasis may contribute to the design of novel therapeutic agents for the improvement of bone and cartilage quality and thus for the treatment of related pathological conditions. PMID:26925377

  16. Correlations of plasma lipoproteins with LDL subfractions by particle size in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Vranizan, K M; Krauss, R M

    1992-05-01

    Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been used to identify major LDL subclasses that are influenced by genetic and other factors. In the present paper, this technique has been extended by measuring absorbance of lipid- or protein-stained gels as an index of concentration at intervals of 0.05 nm across the entire LDL particle size range (21.8-30 nm) in moderately overweight men (n = 115) and women (n = 78). When LDL absorbance levels were correlated with other lipoprotein variables, we found that the strengths of the correlations with each of triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo) B, high density lipoprotein (HDL)2, and apoA-I achieve relative maximum values for two regions within the small LDL range (21-26 nm), one within LDL-IVB (22-23.2 nm) and a second within LDL-III (24.2-25.5 nm). We also found that the increase in LDL accompanying higher triglyceride levels occurs below 25.5 nm in men and between 24.5 and 26.5 nm in women, suggesting either that triglycerides are related to different LDL subclasses in men and women, or that particle sizes of metabolically homologous LDL subclasses may differ in men and women. As compared to analytic ultracentrifuge measurements, gradient gel measurements of LDL absorbance by the procedure described here provide greater resolution of LDL subclasses but less precision in estimating LDL levels. PMID:1619368

  17. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  18. [A history and review of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and their contribution to the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of high density lipoprotein].

    PubMed

    Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. PMID:24094503

  19. Triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins: rationale for lipid management.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M

    1998-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated a relation between plasma triglyceride levels and risk of coronary artery disease and an amplification of risk with combined elevations of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In patients with coronary disease, angiographic progression and clinical events have been correlated with concentrations of smaller very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), consistent with evidence for enhanced atherogenicity of lipolytic products of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, including postprandial lipoproteins. IDL levels also have been shown to be strongly and independently predictive of progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, a measure of early atherogenesis that is related to coronary disease risk. Although there is evidence that these triglyceride-rich lipoprotein species may have direct atherogenic effects, other lipoprotein changes associated with altered triglyceride metabolism may be of particular importance in the development of coronary artery disease. These include reductions in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increases in small, dense LDL particles (LDL subclass pattern B). Because of the strong interrelations among elevated triglyceride, reduced HDL, and small dense LDL, it is difficult to use statistical techniques to determine the independent contributions of these traits to coronary disease risk. Based on their biologic properties, it is likely that each are involved in multiple steps of the disease process. Moreover, this cluster of lipoprotein changes is associated with other conditions that can promote vascular disease, including increases in coagulation factors and reduced insulin sensitivity. Analyses from intervention trials in patients with coronary disease have indicated that measurement of plasma triglyceride and LDL particle distributions can be of value in predicting the benefits of specific lipid-altering therapies on disease progression. PMID:9707269

  20. Effect of improving glycemic control on low-density lipoprotein particle size in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wgner, Ana Mara; Jorba, Oscar; Rigla, Mercedes; Bonet, Rosa; de Leiva, Alberto; Ordez-Llanos, Jordi; Prez, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The current study sought to assess the effect of improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes on the components of diabetic dyslipidemia, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size. A total of 33 type 2 diabetic patients (48.5% women, age 59.6 +/- 11.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.9 +/- 4.9, diabetes duration 6 [0 to 40] years, 40.7% on insulin) were seen at the hospital because of poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)] 10.33% +/- 1.89%). Triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc, Friedewald/ ultracentrifugation), high-density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (HDLc, direct method), apolipoproteins AI (apoAI) and B (apoB) (immunoturbidimetry), and LDL size (gradient gel electrophoresis) were measured at baseline and after improvement in glycemic control (decrease >/= 1 percentage point in HbA(1c) and final HbA(1c)

  1. Clinical significance of preoperative serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Que, Yi; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Liting; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yongming; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    The prognostic value of lipid profile remains unclear in soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of the present study was to validate the prognostic value of preoperative plasma lipid profile (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], cholesterol, and triglycerides) levels on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients undergoing extensive and radical surgical resection.The preoperative plasma lipid profile levels of 234 STS patients, who were operated on between 2000 with 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were calculated for DFS and OS.In univariate analysis, a decreased HDL-C level was significantly associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.405; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.445-8.021, P?=?0.005) and remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 5.615; 95% CI, 1.243-25.378, P?=?0.025). Patients with HDL-C?

  2. Association Between Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Paul; Lee, Duk-Hee; Steffes, Michael; Gross, Myron; Jacobs, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Context Experimental data support the hypothesis that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. Objective To establish the relation of oxidized LDL with metabolic syndrome in the general community. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a population-based, prospective, observational study. We studied 1889 participants who were between the ages of 18 and 30 years at the time of recruitment in 1985 and 1986 and living in 1 of 4 US metropolitan areas (41% African American; 56% women) and were seen both at year 15 (20002001, ages 3345 years) and year 20 examinations (20052006). Main Outcome Measure The longitudinal association of oxidized LDL and incident metabolic syndrome. Oxidized LDL was measured with a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Results Incident metabolic syndrome was diagnosed at the year 20 follow-up in 12.9% (243 of 1889) of participants who did not have metabolic syndrome at the 15-year followup. The odds ratios (ORs) for incident metabolic syndrome after 5 years' follow-up and adjusted for age, sex, race, study center, cigarette smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and LDL cholesterol levels by quintiles of oxidized LDL were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13.8) for the second quintile (55.469.1 U/L); 2.4 (95% CI, 1.34.3) for the third quintile (69.281.2 U/L); 2.8 (95% CI, 1.55.1) for the fourth quintile (81.397.3 U/L); and 3.5(95%CI, 1.96.6) for the fifth quintile (?97.4 U/L). The adjusted ORs for incidence of dichotomous components of metabolic syndrome in the highest vs the lowest quintile of oxidized LDL were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.23.6) for abdominal obesity, 2.4 (95% CI, 1.53.8) for high fasting glucose, and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.14.0) for high triglycerides. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with incident metabolic syndrome or with any of its components in the fully adjusted model containing oxidized LDL. Conclusion Higher concentration of oxidized LDL was associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome overall, as well as its components of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18492970

  3. Determining a new formula for calculating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: data mining approach

    PubMed Central

    Dansethakul, Prabhop; Thapanathamchai, Lalin; Saichanma, Sarawut; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Pidetcha, Phannee

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a risk factor of coronary heart diseases. The estimation of LDL-C (LDL-Cal) level was performed using Friedewald's equation for triglyceride (TG) level less than 400 mg/dL. Therefore, the aim of this study is to generate a new formula for LDL-Cal and validate the correlation coefficient between LDL-Cal and LDL-C directly measured (LDL-Direct). A data set of 1786 individuals receiving annual medical check-ups from the Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Thailand in 2008 was used in this study. Lipid profiles including total cholesterol (TC), TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C were determined using Roche/Hitachi modular system analyzer. The estimated LDL-C was obtained using Friedewald's equation and the homogenous enzymatic method. The level of TG was divided into 6 groups (TG<200, <300, <400, <500, <600 and < 1000 mg/dL) for constructing the LDL-Cal formula. The pace regression model was used to construct the candidate formula for the LDL-Cal and determine the correlation coefficient (r) with the LDL-Direct. The candidate LDL-Cal formula was generated for 6 groups of TG levels that displayed well correlation between LDL-Cal and LDL-Direct. Interestingly, The TG level was less than 1000 mg/dL, the regression model was able to generate the equation as shown as strong r of 0.9769 with LDL-Direct. Furthermore, external data set (n = 666) with TG measurement (36-1480 mg/dL) was used to validate new formula which displayed high r of 0.971 between LDL-Cal and LDL-direct. This study explored a new formula for LDL-Cal which exhibited higher r of 0.9769 and far beyond the limitation of TG more than 1000 mg/dL and potential used for estimating LDL-C in routine clinical laboratories. PMID:26600746

  4. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7802646

  5. The very-high-density lipoprotein fraction of rabbit plasma is rich in tissue-derived cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nanjee, M N; Miller, N E

    1991-11-01

    When plasma from rabbits, which several weeks earlier had been infused with [3H]cholesterol, was subjected to equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation, the specific radioactivity of cholesterol in the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fraction (d 1.22-1.32 g/ml) was three to 8-fold greater (mean, 5.5-fold; P less than 0.001) than that in high-density lipoproteins (HDL; d 1.06-1.21 g/ml). On size exclusion chromatography of plasma, no increase in specific radioactivity was seen in particles smaller than HDL. These findings suggest that those apolipoprotein-lipid complexes that dissociate from HDL during ultracentrifugation to form the VHDL fraction contain proportionately more tissue-derived cholesterol than do those that are more tightly bound to HDL. PMID:1932106

  6. The mechanism of oxidation-induced low-density lipoprotein aggregation: an analogy to colloidal aggregation and beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Lin, B

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease initiated by lipoprotein aggregation and deposition in artery walls. In this study, the de novo low-density lipoprotein aggregation process was examined. Nine major intermediates were identified in two stages of the aggregation process. In the aggregation stage, low-density lipoprotein molecules aggregate and form nucleation units. The nucleation units chain together and form linear aggregates. The linear aggregates branch and interact with one another, forming fractals. In the fusion stage, spatially adjacent nucleation units in the fractal fuse into curved membrane surfaces, which, in turn, fuse into multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles. Alternatively, some adjacent nucleation units in the fractals assemble in a straight line and form rods. Subsequently, the rods flatten out into rough and then into smooth ribbons. Occasionally, tubular membrane vesicles are formed from the fractals. The aggregation stage seems to be analogous to colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. The fusion stage seems to be characteristic of the lipid-rich lipoproteins and is beyond colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:11566810

  7. Thyroid hormone increases plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and plasma high-density lipoprotein removal rate in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Berti, J A; Amaral, M E; Boschero, A C; Nunes, V S; Harada, L M; Castilho, L N; Oliveira, H C

    2001-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction produces multiple alterations in plasma lipoprotein levels, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and hepatic lipase (HL) are important proteins that modulate the metabolism of HDL. Thus, the effect of thyroid hormone on the activities of CETP and of HL was investigated using hypothyroid and hyperthyroid CETP transgenic (Tg) and nontransgenic (nTg) mice. Hyperthyroid Tg mice plasma lipoprotein (LP) profile analysis showed a significant increase in the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction (P <.001) and decrease in the HDL fraction (P <.005), whereas in the hypothyroid Tg mice an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed (P <.02). CETP activity was measured as the transfer of (14)C-cholesteryl ester (CE) from labeled HDL to LDL by an isotopic assay indicative of mass. Hyperthyroid Tg mice had twice as much plasma CETP activity as compared with their controls, while in hypothyroid Tg mice plasma CETP activity did not change. The role of CETP in determining the changes in LP profile of hyperthyroid animals was confirmed by showing that nTg wild-type hyperthyroid and euthyroid mice exhibited the same percent cholesterol distribution in LP. Postheparin HL activity measured in hyperthyroid Tg mice was significantly reduced (P <.05). (3)H-cholesteryl oleoyl ether ((3)H-Cet)-HDL plasma fractional removal rate (FRR) was approximately 2-fold faster in the hyperthyroid Tg mice than in controls, but was not modified in hypothyroid animals. Tissue uptake of (3)H-Cet was examined in 10 tissue samples: levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscle and decreased in small intestine in hyperthyroid Tg mice, and decreased in the small intestine of hypothyroid Tg mice. In conclusion, the excess of thyroid hormone accelerates HDL metabolism in CETP transgenic mice mainly due to an increase in plasma CETP activity and independently from the HL activity. Hypothyroid status did not change CETP activity and HDL metabolism. PMID:11319713

  8. High-density lipoprotein inversely relates to its specific autoantibody favoring oxidation in thrombotic primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ames, P R J; Matsuura, E; Batuca, J R; Ciampa, A; Lopez, L L; Ferrara, F; Iannaccone, L; Alves, J Delgado

    2010-05-01

    Abnormalities of the lipid profile partly explain the atherogenic tendency of systemic lupus erythematosus but the picture is unclear in thrombotic primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). Herein we compare the lipid profile, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (CHO), apolipoprotein A (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglycerides (TRY)), anti-lipoprotein antibodies, beta-2-glycoprotein I complexed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-ss(2)GPI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from thrombotic PAPS (n = 34), thrombotic patients with inherited thrombophilia (IT; n = 36), subjects persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, n = 18) with no underlying autoimmune or non-autoimmune disorders and healthy controls (n = 28) and determined the reciprocal effects of anti-lipoprotein antibodies, the lipid profile, oxLDL-ss(2)GPI and CRP. Average concentrations of HDL (p < 0.0001), LDL (p < 0.0001), CHO (p = 0.0002), ApoA-I (p = 0.002) were lower in PAPS whereas average TRY was higher (p = 0.01) than other groups. Moreover, the aPL and PAPS group showed higher levels of IgG anti-HDL (p = 0.01) and IgG anti-ApoA-I (p < 0.0001) whereas the PAPS group showed greater average oxLDL-ss(2)GPI (p = 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.003). Within the PAPS group, IgG anti-HDL correlated negatively to HDL (p = 0.004) and was an independent predictor of oxLDL-ss2GPI (p = 0.009). HDL and ApoA-I correlated negatively with CRP (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). IgG anti-HDL may hamper the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of HDL favoring low-grade inflammation and enhanced oxidation in thrombotic PAPS. PMID:20064910

  9. Increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ghaneei, Azam; Yassini, Sara; Ghanei, Mohammad Ebrahim; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum levels of oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (oxLDL) have been found in type 2 and in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has common features with type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxLDL in women with GDM compared to normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety-two subjects were randomly allocated to either GDM (n=46) or control (n=46) groups matched for age, body mass index and parity from March 2013 to March 2014. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria at 24-26 weeks of gestation. OxLDL was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for analyzing the data by using SPSS version 17. Results: Compared to the controls, significantly higher oxLDL levels were found in the GDM group (17.16 3.71 U/L vs. 8.77 1.84 U/L, respectively, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between oxLDL and age and BMI of the patients in the groups. Conclusion: Our study found significant increase of oxLDL in GDM emphasizing the role of short-term hyperglycemia in the formation of oxLDL during GDM. The importance of aptly diagnosis of GDM in maternal health may also be concluded. PMID:26494989

  10. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-vila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fit, M; Covas, M I; Muoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssnen, K; Zunft, H J; Lpez-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2) ?=?0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8?ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3?ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p <0.05) compared with lowpolyphenolic content olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection. PMID:25425119

  11. Correlation between high density lipoprotein and monocyte subpopulations among stable coronary atherosclerotic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hai; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xue-Jun; Liang, Jian-Guang; Liu, Jia-Chao

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous molecular particle whose function is unclear in atherosclerosis at present. Studies show that small HDL functional imbalance may exist in Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CAD) patients. Monocyte is considered to play an important role in atherosclerosis, in accordance with the expression of superficial CD14 and CD16, it can be divided into three subpopulations. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between HDL and monocyte subpopulations among CAD patients. We report 90 cases of stable CAD patients and define the monocyte subpopulations as classical monocyte (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocyte (CD14+CD16+; IM), and non-classical monocyte (CD14+CD16++; NCM); HDL group is measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that the small HDL in blood serum has a correlation with proinflammatory NCM in circulation but a negative correction with CM and no relationship with diabetes, saccharify hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history and taking dose of statins drugs and severity of disease. In conclusion, this study primarily confirms that micromolecule HDL level correlates with the increase of non-classical monocyte subpopulations and decrease of classical monocyte quantity. Thus demonstrates the proinflammatory correlation between micromolecule HDL and internal immunity in the development of stable atherosclerosis. PMID:26629252

  12. Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kohei; Tanaka, Yohei; Endang, Hanani; Umar, Mansur; Satake, Toshiko

    2004-09-22

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the genesis of arteriosclerosis. The present study focused on the effects of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia on preventing arteriosclerosis. The MeOH extract and CHCl(3)-, EtOAc-, n-BuOH-, and H(2)O-soluble phases derived from the fruits of M. citrifolia were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on copper-induced LDL oxidation by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method. The MeOH extract and EtOAc-soluble phase showed 88 and 96% inhibition, respectively. Six lignans were isolated by repeated column chromatography from the EtOAc-soluble phase. These compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis to be 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), americanol A (2), americanin A (3), americanoic acid A (4), morindolin (5), and isoprincepin (6), of which 4 and 5 are novel compounds. These compounds inhibited copper-induced LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. 1, 2, 5, and 6 exhibited remarkably strong activities, which were the same or better than that of the known antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. The IC(50) values for 1, 2, 5, and 6 were 1.057, 2.447, 2.020, and 1.362 microM, respectively. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. PMID:15366830

  13. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential. PMID:26578342

  14. Cyclosporin A does not increase the oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, S; Li, D J; Vazquez, M; Jialal, I

    1999-04-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity in renal transplant recipients. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the progression of atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients have not been elucidated. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive agent used post-transplant and may contribute to increased oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL). There is a paucity of data testing the effect of CsA on LDL oxidation. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the effect of in vitro enrichment of LDL with CsA on LDL oxidation. LDL oxidation in presence of different concentrations of CsA was tested using metal-dependent (copper), metal-independent (AAPH) and cell-mediated (macrophages) oxidation systems. In all 3 systems, CsA had no significant effect on LDL oxidation. Also, pre-incubation of LDL with CsA did not affect LDL oxidation and LDL alpha tocopherol levels. Thus, the results of our studies with CsA indicate that it is not a direct pro-oxidant. PMID:10232852

  15. Low-density lipoprotein activates the small GTPases Rap1 and Ral in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Hackeng, C M; Franke, B; Relou, I A; Gorter, G; Bos, J L; van Rijn , H J; Akkerman, J W

    2000-01-01

    Physiological concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) sensitize blood platelets to alpha-thrombin- and collagen-induced secretion, and after prolonged contact trigger secretion independent of other agonists. Here we report that LDL activates the small GTPases Rap1 and Ral but not Ras, as assessed by specific precipitation of the GTP-bound enzymes. In unstirred suspensions, the inhibitor SB203580 blocks Rap1 activation by 60-70%, suggesting activation via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and a second, unidentified route. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) and the thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor (SQ30741) induce complete inhibition, indicating that Rap1 activation is the result of TxA(2) formation. Stirring reveals a second, TxA(2)-independent Rap1 activation, which correlates quantitatively with a slow induction of dense granule secretion. Both pathways are unaffected by inhibitors of ligand binding to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). The results suggest that Rap1 and Ral, but not Ras, may take part in signalling routes initiated by LDL that initially enhance the sensitivity of platelets to other agonists and later trigger LDL-dependent secretion. PMID:10861233

  16. The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid generates irreversible high-density lipoprotein receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Veronika; Ljubojevic, Senka; Haybaeck, Johannes; Holzer, Michael; El-Gamal, Dalia; Schicho, Rudolf; Pieske, Burkert; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) have been described in several chronic inflammatory diseases, like chronic renal insufficiency, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Recent findings revealed that AOPPs are inhibitors of the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-BI). Here we investigated what oxidation induced structural alterations convert plasma albumin into an HDL-receptor inhibitor. Approach and Results Exposure of albumin to the physiological oxidant, hypochlorous acid, generated high affinity SR-BI ligands. Protection of albumin lysine-residues prior exposure to hypochlorous acid as well as regeneration of N-chloramines after oxidation of albumin completely prevented binding of oxidized albumin to SR-BI, indicating that modification of albumin lysine-residues is required to generate SR-BI ligands. Of particular interest, N-chloramines within oxidized albumin promoted irreversible binding to SR-BI, resulting in permanent receptor blockade. We observed that the SR-BI inhibitory activity of albumin isolated from chronic kidney disease patients correlated with the content of the myeloperoxidase-specific oxidation product 3-chlorotyrosine and was associated with alterations in the composition of HDL. Conclusion Given that several potential atheroprotective activities of HDL are mediated by SR-BI, the present results raise the possibility that oxidized plasma albumin, through permanent SR-BI blockade, contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23493288

  17. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30?min after injection, reached the peak in 3?hours, and became undetectable in 12?hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6?hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR(-/-) mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  18. A rare polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) gene that affects mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Sun, X-M; Soutar, A K

    2007-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is usually caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDLR) that impair clearance of LDL from the circulation. The increased risk of premature coronary heart disease associated with FH can be reduced by dietary advice and treatment with lipid-lowering drug therapy, but it is important to identify affected individuals at an early stage. Several programmes for genetic diagnosis of FH that rely on identifying nucleotide substitutions in genomic DNA have been initiated, but the validity of these is dependent on distinguishing between a silent nucleotide variant and a mutation that affects LDL-receptor function. Here we describe a single nucleotide substitution in the coding region of exon 9 of LDLR that is an apparently silent polymorphism: CGG (Arg406) to AGG (Arg). Analysis of mRNA from the patient's cells showed that the mutation introduces a new splice site that is used to the exclusion of the natural splice site and causes a deletion of 31 bp from the mRNA, predicted to introduce premature termination four codons after R406. This finding emphasizes the caution needed in genetic diagnosis of FH based on genomic DNA sequence alone. PMID:17335829

  19. High Density Lipoproteins for the Systemic Delivery of short interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful mechanism for gene silencing with the potential to greatly impact the development of new therapies for many human diseases. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may be the ideal molecules for therapeutic RNAi. However, therapeutic siRNAs face significant challenges that must be overcome prior to widespread clinical use. Many efforts have been made to overcome the hurdles associated with systemic administration of siRNA; however, current approaches are still limited. As such, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies for siRNA delivery that have the potential to impact a broad spectrum of systemic diseases. Areas covered This review focuses on the promise of siRNA therapies and highlights current siRNA delivery methods. With an eye toward new strategies, this review first introduces high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their natural functions, and then transitions into how HDLs may provide significant opportunities as next generation siRNA delivery vehicles. Importantly, this review describes how synthetic HDLs leverage the natural ability of HDL to stabilize and deliver siRNAs. Expert Opinion HDLs are natural nanoparticles that are critical to understanding the systemic delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, like siRNA. Methods to synthesize biomimetic HDLs are being explored and data demonstrate that this type of delivery vehicle may be highly beneficial for targeted and efficacious systemic delivery of siRNAs. PMID:24313310

  20. Oxidation-induced aggregation of rabbit low-density lipoprotein by azo initiator.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Y; Cynshi, O; Takashima, Y; Suzuki, T; Ohba, Y; Kodama, T

    1994-05-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been considered as an important step in the early pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the oxidative modification of LDL by a water-soluble azo-initiator AAPH (2,2,-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane).2HCl) and analyzed the uptake of AAPH-oxidized LDL with mouse peritoneal macrophages. Oxidative modification of LDL by AAPH was similar to the modification induced by copper in regard to the degree of oxidation and formation of aggregated LDL. The aggregated oxidized (AO-) LDL was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and compared with the monomeric oxidized (MO-) LDL to make clear their characterization. The results of binding, cell association, and degradation with macrophages indicated that both AO- and MO-LDL were bound and endocytosed by macrophages. The cross competition experiment showed that nonreciprocal competition existed among MO-LDL, AO-LDL, and monomeric acetylated (MAc-) LDL. By the sterol accumulation experiment in macrophages with the various types of modified LDL, the cellular sterol accumulation was shown as the following order, AO-LDL > MAc-LDL > MO-LDL. These results indicated that the oxidation by AAPH can induce the aggregation of LDL and that the AO-LDL contribute to lipid accumulation into macrophages more than the MO-LDL. PMID:8179337

  1. Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific binding to the low-density lipoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Choi, Hyung Won; Ryan, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family and functions in plasma cholesterol homeostasis. A fluorescence-based assay has been employed in molecular studies of receptor-ligand interactions. Competition experiments revealed isoform specific differences in binding of lipid-associated apoE N terminal (NT) domain to a recombinant soluble LDLR (sLDLR). In a similar manner, lipid associated, but not lipid-free, full-length apoE3 showed binding activity to sLDLR. The molecular chaperone, Receptor Associated Protein, inhibited apoE3-NT-phospholipid complex binding to sLDLR. Kinetic studies of apoE3-NT-phospholipid complex interaction with sLDLR revealed time dependent effects of apoE-NT isoform binding to sLDLR. The results reveal a discerning method for study of the molecular basis of ligand interactions that likely influence receptor function in maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:17923100

  2. High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, Koji . E-mail: mkoji@kms.ac.jp; Imachi, Hitomi; Cao, Wenming; Yu, Xiao; Li, Junhua; Yoshida, Kazuya; Ahmed, Rania A.M.; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Ishida, Toshihiko; Wong, Norman C.W.

    2006-05-26

    The entry of cholesterol contained within high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into adrenocortical cells is mediated by a human homologue of SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII Analogous-1 (CLA-1) and thus augmenting their growth. To address the role of CLA-1, we created a mutant mCLA that lacked the C-terminal tail. HDL CE selective uptake by cells carrying the mCLA-1 receptor was fully active and equivalent to those transfected with full-length CLA-1 (fCLA-1). Expression of mCLA inhibited the proliferation of an adrenocortical cell line and the incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine into the cells. This effect was sensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Our transcriptional studies revealed that the inhibitory action of mCLA required the transcriptional factor AP-1 and the effect of HDL on AP-1 activation was also abrogated by wortmannin. These findings raise the possibility that the inhibitors of the effects of HDL may be of therapeutic value for adrenocortical tumor.

  3. In vivo metabolism of I-123 labeled semisynthetic low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, P.V.

    1990-12-01

    We previously observed that small model beta-strand peptides (MBPs) selectively bind to human low density lipoprotein (hLDL) in vitro, and that some MBPs can be labeled with I-123-tyramine cellobiose (I-123-TyC). We hypothesized that metabolism of semisynthetic hLDL should mimic that of covalently labeled native hLDL, and planned to evaluate the biodistribution in rabbits of semisynthetic hLDL; to determine effects of prior oxidation and acetylation of the adsorbing hLDL on binding of MBPs and upon biodistribution of semisynthetic particles; and to begin biodistribution studies with semisynthetic hLDL in human subjects, with the eventual goal of application to experimental and clinical nuclear imaging studies. We have synthesized a radioiodotyrosine-containing MBP, designated betay, as a more suitable adsorbant to hLDL thanradioiodine-TyC-MBP, and optimized conditions for preparing radioiodine-betaY:hLDL. In rabbits both betaY and betaY:hLDL complexes were cleared from the bloodstream much more rapidly than radioiodine-TyC-hLDL or In-111-hLDL, and betaY in either form showed a biodistribution pattern different from that of directly radiolabeled hLDL. Even though radioiodine-betaY can be quickly and easily produced, we conclude that neither betaY alone nor semisynthetic betaY:hLDL particles are likely to prove useful as tracers of hLDL metabolism in vivo.

  4. Sphingomyelin in High-Density Lipoproteins: Structural Role and Biological Function

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Beamonte, Roberto; Lou-Bonafonte, Jose M.; Martnez-Gracia, Mara V.; Osada, Jess

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are an inverse risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and sphingomyelin (SM) is the second most abundant phospholipid component and the major sphingolipid in HDL. Considering the marked presence of SM, the present review has focused on the current knowledge about this phospholipid by addressing its variable distribution among HDL lipoparticles, how they acquire this phospholipid, and the important role that SM plays in regulating their fluidity and cholesterol efflux from different cells. In addition, plasma enzymes involved in HDL metabolism such as lecithincholesterol acyltransferase or phospholipid transfer protein are inhibited by HDL SM content. Likewise, HDL SM levels are influenced by dietary maneuvers (source of protein or fat), drugs (statins or diuretics) and modified in diseases such as diabetes, renal failure or NiemannPick disease. Furthermore, increased levels of HDL SM have been shown to be an inverse risk factor for coronary heart disease. The complexity of SM species, described using new lipidomic methodologies, and their distribution in different HDL particles under many experimental conditions are promising avenues for further research in the future. PMID:23571495

  5. Structure-based Design Targeted at LOX-1, a Receptor for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Gokulan, Kuppan; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Varughese, Kottayil I.

    2015-11-01

    Atherosclerosis related cardiovascular diseases continue to be the primary cause of mortality in developed countries. The elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is generally considered to be the driver of atherosclerosis, but recent years have seen a shift in this perception in that the vascular plaque buildup is mainly caused by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) rather than native-LDL. The scavenger receptor LOX-1 found in endothelial cells binds and internalizes ox-LDL which leads to the initiation of plaque formation in arteries. Using virtual screening techniques, we identified a few potential small molecule inhibitors of LOX-1 and tested their inhibitory potential using differential scanning fluorimetry and various cellular assays. Two of these molecules significantly reduced the uptake of ox-LDL by human endothelial cells, LOX-1 transcription and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs in human endothelial cells. In addition, these molecules suppressed ox-LDL-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion onto human endothelial cells demonstrating their therapeutic potential.

  6. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  7. Atherogenic concentrations of low-density lipoprotein enhance endothelial cell generation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid products.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, K. A.; Wong, P. Y.; Stemerman, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of protracted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) exposure on endothelial cell (EC) epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) generation, human umbilical vein ECs were incubated in atherogenic concentrations of LDL (240 mg cholesterol per deciliter) (LDL-EC). After 4 days' incubation with LDL, EC were stimulated with human thrombin in the presence of 1-[14C]-arachidonic acid. Substantially more EET products were generated by LDL-ECs than by cells not exposed to high levels of LDL (C-EC). Thrombin stimulation caused LDL-EC to produce five- to eightfold more in 14,15-EET, 11,12-EET, 8,9-EET, and 5,6-EET, with 14,15-EET as the major product. This is the first demonstration, to date, that EETs can be induced in EC. Metapyrone (SKF-525A) markedly inhibited EC EET generation, indicating a role for the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system in human EC arachidonic acid metabolism. One EET product, 14,15-EET, has been found to be chemotactic and to promote adhesion of U937 cells, a human monocytic lymphoma cell line, to EC. Thus, protracted exposure to atherogenic LDL concentrations increases the generation of chemotactic and adhesion factors (ie, 14,15-EET) after thrombin stimulation, possibly through the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system. PMID:2356865

  8. Effects of Myeloperoxidase-Induced Oxidation on Antiatherogenic Functions of High-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Takahiro; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Yano, Kouji; Usami, Yoko; Miyazaki, Akari; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis; these effects include reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant ability, and anti-inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions generates tyrosyl radicals in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules, inducing the formation of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers through the tyrosine-tyrosine bond in HDL. Functional characterization of HDL oxidized by MPO could provide useful information about the significance of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers measurement. We investigated the effects of MPO-induced oxidation on the antiatherogenic functions of HDL as described above. The antioxidant ability of HDL, estimated as the effect on LDL oxidation induced by copper sulfate, was not significantly affected after MPO oxidation. HDL reduced THP-1 monocyte migration by suppressing the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MPO-oxidized HDL also showed inhibition of THP-1 chemotaxis, but the extent of inhibition was significantly attenuated compared to intact HDL. MPO treatment did not affect the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from [3H]-cholesterol-laden macrophages derived from THP-1 cells. The principal effect of MPO oxidation on the antiatherogenic potential of HDL would be the reduction of anti-inflammatory ability, suggesting that measurement of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers might be useful to estimate anti-inflammatory ability of HDL. PMID:26257958

  9. Betanin inhibits the myeloperoxidase/nitrite-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Mario; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-03-01

    Production of nitrogen dioxide by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the presence of nitrite is now considered a key step in the pathophysiology of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. This study shows that betanin, a phytochemical of the betalain class, inhibits the production of lipid hydroperoxides in human LDL submitted to a MPO/nitrite-induced oxidation. Kinetic measurements including time-course of particle oxidation and betanin consumption, either in the presence or in the absence of nitrite, suggest that the antioxidant effect is possibly the result of various actions. Betanin scavenges the initiator radical nitrogen dioxide and can also act as a lipoperoxyl radical-scavenger. In addition, unidentified oxidation product(s) of betanin by MPO/nitrite inhibit(s) the MPO/nitrite-induced LDL oxidation as effectively as the parent compound. In the light of betanin bioavailability and post-absorbtion distribution in humans, present findings may suggest favourable in vivo activity of this phytochemical. PMID:17364963

  10. Correlation Between High-Density Lipoprotein and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Li, Dan; Li, Jian; An, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) consists of heterogeneous particles with a variety of structures and functions. Its role in atherosclerosis has been gradually recognized. Studies have shown dysfunction of small HDL in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes play an important role in atherosclerosis, which can be divided into 3 subgroups based on the expression of surface markers CD14 and CD16. This study aimed to investigate the association between HDL and monocyte subsets in CAD patients. Material/Methods A total of 90 patients with stable CAD were selected in this study. Monocytes were divided into classical monocytes (CM, CD14++CD16?), intermediate monocytes (IM, CD14++CD16+), and non-classical monocytes (NCM, CD14+CD16++). HDL components in serum were determined by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (detected by Quantimetrix HDL Lipoprint system, referring to HDL subfractions analysis: A new laboratory diagnostic assay for patients with cardiovascular diseases and dyslipoproteinemia). Results Serum level of small HDL was positively correlated with circulating proinflammatory NCM (r=0.30; p=0.004), negatively correlated with CM, and not correlated with IM. We also found that disease severity was not associated with diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, smoking history, or statin dosage. Conclusions Our study confirmed that small HDL level is associated with an increase in NCM and a decrease in CM, suggesting the proinflammatory relationship between small HDL and intrinsic immune function during the progression of stable CAD. PMID:26474031

  11. Involvement of second messengers in regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Auwerx, J.H. . ECHEM Labs.); Chait, A.; Wolfbauer, G.; Deeb, S.S. . Dept. of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Transcription of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in the human monocytic leukemic cell line THP-1 and in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep-G2 is regulated by second messengers of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-Ca/sup 2+/, and cyclic AMP pathways. Exogeneous phospholipase C (which releases DAG and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), PKC activators (phorbol esters and DAG), Ca/sup 2+/ ionophores, and a cyclic AMP analog all transiently induced accumulation of LDL-R mRNA. The effects of these three signal-transducing pathways were to a large extend additive. Furthermore, PKC stimulation effected an increase in LDL binding, which suggested that the increase in LDL-R mRNA resulted in an increase in functional cell surface receptor activity. These results suggest that uptake of cholesterol by these cells is under control of both intracellular cholesterol levels and external signals.

  12. ATM protects against oxidative stress induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Semlitsch, Michaela; Shackelford, Rodney E.; Zirkl, Sandra; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Chronic oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The rare autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia secondary to Purkinje cell death, immunodeficiency, and increased cancer incidence. ATM, the protein mutated in A-T, plays a key role in cellular DNA-damage responses. A-T cells show poor cellular anti-oxidant defences and increased oxidant sensitivity compared to normal cells, and ATM functions, in part, as an oxidative stress sensor. The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its uptake by macrophages is an initiating step in the development of atherosclerosis. We demonstrate that oxLDL activates ATM and downstream p21 expression in normal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In ATM-deficient fibroblasts oxLDL induces DNA double-strand breaks, micronuclei formation and causes chromosome breaks. Furthermore, oxLDL decreases cell viability and inhibits colony formation in A-T fibroblasts more effectively as compared to normal controls. Formation of oxLDL-induced reactive oxygen species is significantly higher in A-T, than normal fibroblasts. Last, pre-treatment of cells with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of transcription factor nuclear factor ?B, reduces oxLDL-induced reactive oxygen species formation. Our data indicates that ATM functions in the defence against oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:21669554

  13. Mechanisms of oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins under conditions of oxidative and carbonyl stress.

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Kapel'ko, V I; Shepel'kova, G S; Shumaev, K B; Panasenko, O M; Konovalova, G G; Belenkov, Yu N

    2007-10-01

    Low-molecular-weight aldehydes (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone) generated on autooxidation of glucose under conditions of carbonyl stress react much more actively with amino groups of L-lysine and epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues of apoprotein B-100 in human blood plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) than their structural analogs (malonic dialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal) resulting on free radical oxidation of lipids under conditions of oxidative stress. Glyoxal-modified LDL aggregate in the incubation medium with a significantly higher rate than LDL modified by MDA, and MDA-modified LDL are markedly more poorly absorbed by cultured human macrophages and significantly more slowly eliminated from the rat bloodstream upon intravenous injection. Studies on kinetics of free radical oxidation of rat liver membrane phospholipids have shown that ubiquinol Q(10) is the most active lipid-soluble natural antioxidant, and suppression of ubiquinol Q(10) biosynthesis by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) is accompanied by intensification of lipid peroxidation in rat liver biomembranes and in LDL of human blood plasma. Injection of ubiquinone Q(10) protects the human blood plasma LDL against oxidation and prevents oxidative stress-induced damages to rat myocardium. A unified molecular mechanism of atherogenic action of carbonyl-modified LDL in disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is discussed. PMID:18021066

  14. Uptake and Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Gopinath S.; Kirk, Natalie M.; Ackart, David F.; Obregn-Henao, Andrs; Shanley, Crystal A.; Orme, Ian M.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    The typical host response to infection of humans and some animals by M. tuberculosis is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generating inflammatory cells into discrete granulomas, which frequently develop central caseous necrosis. In previous studies we showed that infection of immunologically nave guinea pigs with M. tuberculosis leads to localized and systemic oxidative stress that results in a significant depletion of serum total antioxidant capacity and the accumulation of malondialdehyde, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation. Here we show that in addition, the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo resulted in the accumulation of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) in pulmonary and extrapulmonary granulomas, serum and lung macrophages collected by bronchoalveolar lavage. Macrophages from immunologically nave guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis also had increased surface expression of the type 1 scavenger receptors CD36 and LOX1, which facilitate the uptake of oxidized host macromolecules including OxLDL. Vaccination of guinea pigs with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) prior to aerosol challenge reduced the bacterial burden as well as the intracellular accumulation of OxLDL and the expression of macrophage CD36 and LOX1. In vitro loading of guinea pig lung macrophages with OxLDL resulted in enhanced replication of bacilli compared to macrophages loaded with non-oxidized LDL. Overall, this study provides additional evidence of oxidative stress in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs and the potential role OxLDL laden macrophages have in supporting intracellular bacilli survival and persistence. PMID:22493658

  15. In vitro oxidative footprinting provides insight into apolipoprotein B-100 structure in low density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Cai, Yang; Tarr, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major cholesterol carrier in human blood. Oxidations of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100, LDL protein) could be pro-atherogenic and play critical roles in early stages of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The structure of apo B-100 is still poorly understood, partially due to its size (550 KDa, 4563 amino acids). To gain an insight into LDL structure, we mapped the regions of apo B-100 in human LDL which were prone to oxidation using peroxynitrite and hypochlorite as probes. In this study, LDL was incubated with various concentrations of peroxynitrite and sodium hypochlorite in bicarbonate buffer. The LDL protein apo B-100 was delipidated, denatured, alkylated and subjected to tryptic digestion. Tryptic peptides were analyzed employing liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Database search was performed against the apo B-100 database (P04114) using “SEQUEST” algorithm to identify peroxynitrite and hypochlorite mediated oxidations markers nitrotyrosine, nitrotryptophan, hydroxy-tryptophan and 3-chlorotyrosine. Several site specific oxidations were identified in apo B-100 after treatment of intact LDL particles with the oxidants. We hypothesize that these regions could be accessible to oxidant and critical for early events in atherosclerotic plaque deposition. PMID:25176030

  16. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanoparticles as Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Foit, Linda; Angeloni, Nicholas L.; Giles, Francis J.; Gordon, Leo I.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are diverse natural nanoparticles that carry cholesterol and are best known for the role that they play in cardiovascular disease. However, due to their unique targeting capabilities, diverse molecular cargo, and natural functions beyond cholesterol transport, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that HDLs are critical to cancer development and progression. Accordingly, this chapter highlights ongoing research focused on the connections between HDL and cancer in order to design new drugs and targeted drug delivery vehicles. Research is focused on synthesizing biomimetic HDL-like nanoparticles (NP) that can be loaded with diverse therapeutic cargo (e.g. chemotherapies, nucleic acids, proteins) and specifically targeted to cancer cells. Beyond drug delivery, new data is emerging that HDL-like NPs may be therapeutically active in certain tumor types, for example B cell lymphoma. Overall, HDL-like NPs are becoming increasingly appreciated as targeted, biocompatible, and efficient therapies for cancer, and may soon become indispensable agents in the cancer therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25895867

  17. Roles of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 in tumors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Peipei; Liao, Zhichao; Ren, Zhiwu; Zhao, Jun; Song, Fengju; Wang, Guowen; Chen, Kexin; Yang, Jilong

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1, also known as CD91), a multifunctional endocytic and cell signaling receptor, is widely expressed on the surface of multiple cell types such as hepatocytes, fibroblasts, neurons, astrocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and malignant cells. Emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that LRP1 is critically involved in many processes that drive tumorigenesis and tumor progression. For example, LRP1 not only promotes tumor cell migration and invasion by regulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression and functions but also inhibits cell apoptosis by regulating the insulin receptor, the serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway, and the expression of Caspase-3. LRP1-mediated phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and c-jun N-terminal kinase are also involved in tumor cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, LRP1 has been shown to be down-regulated by microRNA-205 and methylation of LRP1 CpG islands. Furthermore, a novel fusion gene, LRP1-SNRNP25, promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration. Only by understanding the mechanisms of these effects can we develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cancers mediated by LRP1. PMID:26738504

  18. A Statin-Loaded Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticle Inhibits Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Duivenvoorden, Raphal; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show this effect is mediated through inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions where they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally we demonstrate that a three-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a one-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation. PMID:24445279

  19. High-density lipoproteins reduce palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Frank; Trimpert, Christiane; Peng, Jun; Eckerle, Lars G; Staudt, Alexander; Warstat, Katrin; Felix, Stephan B; Pieske, Burkert; Tschpe, Carsten; Van Linthout, Sophie

    2015-10-16

    Palmitate has been implicated in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis via reducing the activity of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We sought to evaluate whether high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), known for their cardioprotective features and their potential to increase AMPK activity, can reduce palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and whether this effect is AMPK-dependent. Therefore, cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult Wistar rat hearts via perfusion on a Langendorff-apparatus and cultured in free fatty acid-free BSA control medium or 0.5mM palmitate medium in the presence or absence of HDL (5?g protein/ml) with or without 0.1?M of the AMPK-inhibitor compound S for the analysis of Annexin V/propidium, genes involved in apoptosis and fatty acid oxidation, and cardiomyocyte contractility. We found that HDLs decreased palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis as indicated by a reduction in Annexin V-positive cardiomyocytes and an increase in Bcl-2 versus Bax ratio. Concomitantly, HDLs increased the palmitate-impaired expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, HDLs improved the palmitate-impaired cardiomyocyte contractility. All effects were mediated in an AMPK-dependent manner, concluding that HDLs reduce palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, resulting in improved cardiomyocyte contractility through a mechanism involving AMPK. PMID:26362182

  20. Tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel using low density lipoprotein-mimetic solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Youngwook; Bae, Ki Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Lee, Jung Hee; Park, Keunchil

    2015-04-01

    Water-insoluble anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, present severe clinical side effects when administered to patients, primarily associated with the toxicity of reagents used to solubilize the drugs. In efforts to develop alternative formulations of water-insoluble anticancer drugs suitable for intravenous administration, we developed biocompatible anticancer therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), mimicking the structure and composition of natural particles, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel. These therapeutic nanoparticles contained water-insoluble paclitaxel in the core with tumor-targeting ligand covalently conjugated on the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified surface (targeted PtSLNs). In preclinical human cancer xenograft mouse model studies, the paclitaxel-containing tumor-targeting SLNs exhibited pronounced in vivo stability and enhanced biocompatibility. Furthermore, these SLNs had superior antitumor activity to in-class nanoparticular therapeutics in clinical use (Taxol and Genexol-PM) and yielded long-term complete responses. The in vivo targeted antitumor activities of the SLN formulations in a mouse tumor model suggest that LDL-mimetic SLN formulations can be utilized as a biocompatible, tumor-targeting platform for the delivery of various anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25686010

  1. The role of lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in vascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel James; Seese, Rachel; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Ajjan, Ramzi

    2014-11-01

    The lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a vascular scavenger receptor that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic disease, which remains the main cause of mortality in the Western population. Recent evidence indicates that targeting LOX-1 represents a credible strategy for the management vascular disease and the current review explores the role of this molecule in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis. LOX-1-mediated pro-atherogenic effects can be inhibited by anti-LOX-1 monoclonal antibodies and procyanidins, whereas downregulation of LOX-1 expression has been achieved by antisense oligonucleotides and a specific pyrrole-imidazole polyamide. Furthermore, LOX-1 can be utilised for plaque imaging using monoclonal antibodies and even the selective delivery of anti-atherosclerotic agents employing immunoliposome techniques. Also, plasma levels of the circulating soluble form of LOX-1 levels are elevated in atherosclerosis and therefore may constitute an additional diagnostic biomarker of vascular pathology. PMID:25216847

  2. High Density Lipoprotein: A Novel Target for Anti-Restenosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Restenosis is an integral pathological process central to the recurrent vessel narrowing after interventional procedures. Although the mechanisms for restenosis are diverse in different pathological conditions, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and myofibroblasts transition have been thought to play crucial role in the development of restenosis. Indeed, there is an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, relatively studies on the direct assessment of HDL effect on restenosis are limited. In addition to involvement in the cholesterol reverse transport (RCT), many vascular protective effects of HDL, including protection of endothelium, anti-inflammation, anti-thrombus actions, inhibition of SMC proliferation, and regulation by adventitial effects may contribute to the inhibition of restenosis, though the exact relationships between HDL and restenosis remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the vascular protective effects of HDL, emphasizing the potential role of HDL in intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, which may provide novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for anti-restenosis. PMID:25043950

  3. Effect of Foreign Surface Pacification with Albumin, Aprotinin, Propofol, and High-density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Eustace; Warwick, Richard; Sastry, Priya; Poullis, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Foreign surface pacification may significantly reduce the detrimental effects of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. To date, albumin is the only intervention consistently shown to be beneficial. The cationic physical properties of aprotinin and the known negative charge on the plastic CPB circuit mean that aprotinin binds to the CPB circuit and membrane oxygenator. A previously validated model involving a parallel plate glass slide technique was used. The effects of albumin, aprotinin, propofol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were assessed by the ability to inhibit platelet adhesion to the glass slide surface. The experiment was repeated with collagen-coated glass slides to reproduce the clinical effect of endothelial denudation. The interventions were repeated on membrane oxygenators that are used for CPB. Aprotinin resulted in a minimal reduction in platelet adhesion to uncoated or collagen-coated glass slides. HDL significantly reduced platelet adhesiveness to uncoated or collagen-coated glass slides. Human albumin solution (HAS) and propofol produced an intermediary inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion on both collagen-coated and uncoated glass slides. The same effect was seen with membrane oxygenators that are used during CPB. HDL produced a significant reduction of neutrophil activation when used to coat a membrane oxygenator. Foreign surface pacification with HDL may have beneficial effects as assessed by platelet adhesiveness in a parallel plate assay. Aprotinin had minimal effect, and propofol had an intermediate effect. The same results were obtained using membrane oxygenators, confirming the validity of the parallel plate technique as clinically valid. PMID:19361025

  4. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy. PMID:19942609

  5. Anti-psoriatic treatment extends beyond the skin: Recovering of high-density lipoprotein function

    PubMed Central

    Marsche, Gunther; Holzer, Michael; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a consistent association of psoriasis with systemic metabolic disorders including an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Psoriasis is accompanied by systemic inflammation and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Recent studies provided clear evidence that psoriasis affects HDL composition and function. HDL isolated from psoriatic patients showed a significantly impaired capability to mobilize cholesterol from macrophages, a crucial step in reverse cholesterol transport and markedly lower paraoxonase activity, a protein that co-transports with HDL in serum with well-known anti-atherogenic properties. Of particular interest, successful anti-psoriatic therapy significantly improved HDL composition and function independently of serum HDL-cholesterol levels. These novel findings suggest that the conventional approaches of evaluating cardiovascular risk in psoriasis may be in need of refinement. As these data argue for a loss of beneficial activities of HDL in psoriatic patients, altered HDL functionality should be considered when evaluating the lipid status of patients. PMID:24980461

  6. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by monoclonal antibody inhibition of PCSK9.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan A; Raal, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Published phase I and II trials with two fully human monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9 have provided comprehensive evidence that inhibiting PCSK9 is a very effective method to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In all populations studied so far, whether on statins or LDL-C-reducing diet alone, with or without a genetic defect in the LDL receptor, and in subjects intolerant to statins, the LDL-C reductions have been large and consistent. Even the most efficacious statin, rosuvastatin, at its highest dose has not achieved such reductions. The clinical trials have established that monoclonal antibody therapy targeted to PCSK9 may be administered subcutaneously every two or four weeks. Current data suggest these drugs will provide an effective therapeutic option for LDL-C reduction and that, if proven safe in phase III trials, they will be as important to LDL-C control, and likely to cardiovascular disease risk reduction, as statins have been over the past three decades. PMID:24422577

  7. How Do PCSK9 Inhibitors Stack Up to Statins for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Marj P

    2015-11-01

    Despite advances in the approach toward treating hypercholesterolemia and widespread access to statin medications, not all people are able to reach target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Some of the reasons include the inability to tolerate statin therapy, LDL-C levels that remain high even in the presence of statin therapy, and a familial disorder that is characterized by extremely high levels of LDL-C. A new therapeutic class, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, represents a novel and promising approach to reducing LDL-C levels using a mechanism at the LDL receptor level. The recent approval of the first 2 PCSK9 inhibitors and the anticipated approval of the third agent in this class within approximately 1 year may provide clinicians powerful new weapons to lower LDL-C levels in patients who are not satisfactorily managed with statins. However, the results of long-term studies of the ability of these new medications to influence cardiovascular outcomes will not be known for several years. PMID:26702335

  8. How Do PCSK9 Inhibitors Stack Up to Statins for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Marj P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the approach toward treating hypercholesterolemia and widespread access to statin medications, not all people are able to reach target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Some of the reasons include the inability to tolerate statin therapy, LDL-C levels that remain high even in the presence of statin therapy, and a familial disorder that is characterized by extremely high levels of LDL-C. A new therapeutic class, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, represents a novel and promising approach to reducing LDL-C levels using a mechanism at the LDL receptor level. The recent approval of the first 2 PCSK9 inhibitors and the anticipated approval of the third agent in this class within approximately 1 year may provide clinicians powerful new weapons to lower LDL-C levels in patients who are not satisfactorily managed with statins. However, the results of long-term studies of the ability of these new medications to influence cardiovascular outcomes will not be known for several years. PMID:26702335

  9. Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxidation of low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wander, R C; Du, S H; Thomas, D R

    1998-08-01

    Enrichment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with long-chain fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) found in fish oil, is thought to increase its oxidative susceptibility although such an increase has not been clearly demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition and fatty acid concentration of LDL obtained from postmenopausal women given a supplement of fish oil and relate these values to its oxidative susceptibility. Fish oil supplementation significantly increased LDL concentration of EPA (P = 0.0001) and DHA (P = 0.0001) and decreased that of linoleic acid P = 0.006). The concentration of free cholesterol, cholesterol ester, phospholipids and protein was unchanged while triglyceride concentration increased 8% (P = 0.02). Cu2+-mediated oxidation resulted in a shorter lag time, slower oxidation rate and similar concentrations of conjugated dienes of EPA/DHA-enriched LDL than EPA/DHA-unenriched LDL. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the primary predictor of oxidative susceptibility of LDL was linoleic acid, even after enrichment with EPA and DHA. The oxidation rate of EPA/DHA-unenriched LDL correlated with the cholesteryl ester concentration (P = 0.003) while that of EPA/DHA-enriched correlated with the concentration of phospholipids (P = 0.03). These data suggest that EPA/DHA-enriched LDL have decreased oxidative susceptibility and that surface lipids may mediate its rate of oxidation. PMID:9774178

  10. Fluvastatin reduces modification of low-density lipoprotein in hyperlipidemic rabbit loaded with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yu; Matsuno, Sachiko; Kagota, Satomi; Haginaka, Jun; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2002-02-01

    The in vivo antioxidant effect of fluvastain, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, was investigated using Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits subjected to nicotine-free cigarette smoke extracts as oxidative stress. Fluvastatin was given orally at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg per day for 5 months. The cigarette smoke extracts were prepared by bubbling the gas phase of smoke into phosphate-buffered saline and was injected daily into the rabbit ear vein. The rabbits chronically treated with the cigarette smoke extracts showed an increase in plasma lipid peroxide levels, estimated as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Oxidative modification of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was assessed by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis, LDL susceptibility to oxidation, LDL incorporation into macrophages and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in LDL. Treatment with fluvastatin significantly reduced these effects induced by the cigarette smoke extracts in a dose-related manner and exerted a cholesterol-lowering effect. At the end of the experiment, the cigarette smoke extracts caused accumulation of cholesteryl ester in the thoracic aorta, while fluvastatin significantly prevented this accumulation. These results indicate that fluvastatin can exert an antioxidant effect in vivo, with a strong effect on oxidative stress such as smoking, a major risk factor of atherosclerosis. PMID:11834252

  11. Polymorphisms in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Introno, Alessia; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna M; Capurso, Cristiano; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Sabrina A; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2005-03-01

    The +1073 C/T polymorphism of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (OLR1) gene has been reported to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, whereas for the +1071 T/A polymorphism no association was found. We genotyped 169 sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients and 264 sex- and age-matched nondemented controls from Southern Italy for OLR1 +1073 C/T and +1071 T/A polymorphisms and for apolipoprotein E and LBP-1c/CP2/LSF. We also performed haplotype analysis. For the +1073 C/T polymorphism, the C allele and the CC genotype have been associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease without apolipoprotein E or CP2 interaction. The two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium, with the haplotype T-C at significant increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in the whole sample and in elderly persons 70 years or older. In our population, the +1073 C/T OLR1 polymorphism exhibited a significant association with Alzheimer's disease, further supporting the role of OLR1 as a candidate risk gene for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15860461

  12. Alpha-2-macroglobulin gene, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 locus, and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colacicco, Anna Maria; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Kehoe, Patrick G; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Santamato, Andrea; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    A total sample of 169 AD patients, and 264 age- and sex-matched unrelated caregivers from Apulia, southern Italy, were genotypized for alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) Val1000/Ile single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs669), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and SNPs (+1073 and +1071) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (OLR1) gene on chromosome 12. A2M allele and genotype frequencies were similar between AD patients and controls, also after stratification for late onset (>/=70 years) and early onset (<70 years) or APOE varepsilon4 status. However, there was evidence in support of LD between the OLR1+1071, the OLR1+1073, and the rs669 SNPs, with T-C-A haplotype being associated with significant increased risk of AD in both the whole sample and when we stratified according to early and late onset AD subjects, with the allelic association with AD predominantly from the OLR1+1073 SNP, further supporting the role of OLR1 as a candidate risk gene for sporadic AD. PMID:18191876

  13. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; g?n j hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; lu shn) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H.sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  14. Novel fluorescently labeled peptide compounds for detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at high specificity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Oe, Keitaro; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    The probes for specific detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques are expected to be useful for the identification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for atherosclerosis. In this study, to develop a fluorescent peptide probe for specific detection of ox-LDL, we investigated the interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptides with ox-LDL using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two heptapeptides (KWYKDGD and KP6) coupled through the ?-amino group of K at the N-terminus to FITC in the presence/absence of 6-amino-n-caproic acid (AC) linker to FITC--(FITC-AC)KP6 and (FITC)KP6--both bound with high specificity to ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, a tetrapeptide (YKDG) labeled with FITC at the N-terminus and a pentapeptide (YKDGK) coupled through the ?-amino group of K at the C-terminus to FITC did not bind selectively to ox-LDL. Furthermore, (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 bound with high specificity to the protein in mouse plasma (probably ox-LDL fraction). These findings strongly suggest that (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 may be effective novel fluorescent probes for specific detection of ox-LDL. PMID:24717143

  15. Drinking deep seawater decreases serum total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhao-Yang; Yang, Feili Lo; Hsu, Hsin-Wen; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2012-06-01

    Drinking deep seawater (DSW) with high levels of magnesium (Mg) decreased serum lipids in animal studies. Therefore the effects of drinking DSW on blood lipids and its antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic subjects were investigated. DSW was first prepared by a process of filtration and reverse osmosis, and then the concentrated DSW with high levels of Mg was diluted as drinking DSW. Forty-two hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: reverse osmotic (RO) water, DSW (Mg: 395?mg/L, hardness 1410?ppm), and magnesium-chloride fortified (MCF) water (Mg: 386?mg/L, hardness 1430?ppm). The subjects drank 1050?mL of water daily for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected and analyzed on weeks 0, 3, and 6. Drinking DSW caused a decrease in blood total cholesterol levels and this effect was progressively enhanced with time. Serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was also decreased by DSW. Further, total cholesterol levels of subjects in the DSW group were significantly lower than those in the MCF water or RO water groups. Compared with week 0, the DSW group had higher blood Mg level on weeks 3 and 6, but the Mg levels were within the normal range in all three groups. DSW consumption also lowered thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values in serum. In conclusion, DSW was apparently effective in reducing blood total cholesterol and LDL-C, and also in decreasing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. PMID:22424458

  16. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induced inflammatory process during atherogenesis with aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, Anis; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Douziech, Nadine; Guérard, Karl-Philippe; Fülöp, Tamàs

    2005-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease developing through decades with two life-threatening complications: myocardial infarction and stroke. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) produced by oxidative modifications of LDL in the subendothelial space have been demonstrated to be critically involved in atherogenesis through their intensive pro-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was shown that oxLDL have an apoptosis-inducing effect in T cells depending on time and degree of oxidation. The goal of the current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptotic-inducing effects of oxLDL on T lymphocytes. T cells of young and elderly subjects were incubated for various periods of time with LDL oxidized to various degrees. The proliferation, the apoptosis, the MAPK ERK1/2 activation and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein family members were measured upon different LDL treatments. Thus, more the LDL are oxidized more they induce apoptosis and this effect is highly accentuated with aging. The oxLDL decrease the activation of the surviving molecule ERK1/2 and modulate the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 towards a pro-apoptotic profile, which is also accentuated with aging. These results partly explain why atherosclerosis is increasing with aging concomitantly to its complications.

  18. Enhanced Sphingomyelinase Activity Contributes to the Apoptotic Capacity of Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liang-Yin; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lu, Jonathan; Marathe, Gopal K; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Chan, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Chung-Ya; Tung, Yi-Ching; McIntyre, Thomas M; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-02-11

    Sphingomyelinase (SMase) catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to ceramide. In patients with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, circulating plasma ceramide levels are significantly higher than in normal individuals. Our data indicate that electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) shows SMase activity, which leads to increased ceramide levels that can produce pro-inflammatory effects and susceptibility to aggregation. According to sequence alignment and protein structure predictions, the putative catalytic site of SMase activity is in the α2 region of apoB-100. To identify specific post-translational modifications of apoB100 near the catalytic region, we performed data-independent, parallel-fragmentation liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS(E)), followed by data analysis with ProteinLynx GlobalServer v2.4. Results showed that the serine of apoB100 in electronegative LDL was highly O-glycosylated, including S(1732), S(1959), S(2378), S(2408), and S(2429). These findings may support the changing of the α-helix/β-pleated sheets ratio in protein structure analysis. Further study is necessary to confirm the activation of SMase activity by electronegative LDL. PMID:26766134

  19. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  20. Whole-cell analysis of low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages using STEM tomography.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W Gray; Kbel, Christian; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80 thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters. PMID:23383042

  1. Whole-Cell Analysis of Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages Using STEM Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W. Gray; Kbel, Christian; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80 thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters. PMID:23383042

  2. Ferritin protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Juckett, M. B.; Balla, J.; Balla, G.; Jessurun, J.; Jacob, H. S.; Vercellotti, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL), if it becomes oxidized, develops several unique properties including the capacity to provoke endothelial cytotoxicity via metal-catalyzed free radical-mediated mechanisms. As were previously have shown that iron-catalyzed oxidant injury to endothelial cells can be attenuated by the addition of exogenous iron chelators such as the lazaroids and deferoxamine, we have examined whether the endogenous iron chelator, ferritin, might provide protection from oxidized LDL. LDL oxidized by iron-containing hemin and H2O2 is toxic to endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Endothelial cell ferritin content is increased by pretreatment of cells with iron compounds or by the direct addition of exogenous apoferritin; ferritin-loaded cells are markedly resistant to the toxicity caused by oxidized LDL. Iron inactivation by ferritin depends on its ferroxidase activity. When a recombinant human ferritin heavy chain mutant, 222, which is devoid of ferroxidase activity, is added to endothelial cells, unlike the excellent protection afforded by the wild-type recombinant heavy chain, endothelial cells are not protected from oxidized LDL. To assess the in vivo relevance of our observation, we examined human coronary arteries of cardiac explants taken from patients with end-stage atherosclerosis. Large amounts of immunoreactive ferritin are focally detected in atherosclerotic lesions, specifically in the myofibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelium without a notable increase in Prussian blue-detectable iron. These findings suggest that ferritin may modulate vascular cell injury in vivo. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7677189

  3. Chitosan-modified carbon nanotubes-based platform for low-density lipoprotein detection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Nawab; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Onoda, M; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2014-10-01

    We have fabricated an immunosensor based on carbon nanotubes and chitosan (CNT-CH) composite for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules via electrochemical impedance technique. The CNT-CH composite deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass electrode has been used to covalently interact with anti-apolipoprotein B (antibody: AAB) via a co-entrapment method. The biofunctionalization of AAB on carboxylated CNT-CH surface has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic studies. The covalent functionalization of antibody on transducer surface reveals higher stability and reproducibility of the fabricated immunosensor. Electrochemical properties of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO electrode have been investigated using cyclic voltammetric and impedimetric techniques. The impedimetric response of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode shows a high sensitivity of 0.953 Ω/(mg/dL)/cm(2) in a detection range of 0-120 mg/dL and low detection limit of 12.5 mg/dL with a regression coefficient of 0.996. The observed low value of association constant (0.34 M(-1)s(-1)) indicates high affinity of AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode towards LDL molecules. This fabricated immunosensor allows quantitative estimation of LDL concentration with distinguishable variation in the impedance signal. PMID:25201210

  4. Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Demonstrates a Hepatocyte Phenotype in the Dog, but Is Nonspecific.

    PubMed

    Gow, Adam G; Muirhead, Rhona; Hay, David C; Argyle, David J

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake is one of a number of tests used to demonstrate hepatocyte-like function after stem cell differentiation. Use of two compounds, LDL and acetylated LDL (AcLDL), has been described despite each having different mechanisms of uptake. Three primary hepatocyte cultures and three sets of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) cultures, derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow, were harvested from dogs. Those cells were compared to commercially available human and mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs. LDL receptor expression was demonstrated by gene expression and immunofluorescence in all primary hepatocyte cultures, undifferentiated canine bone marrow MSCs and canine adipose MSCs. Undifferentiated human and mouse bone marrow MSCs also expressed the LDL receptor. In vitro, canine hepatocytes took up labeled LDL, but not AcLDL. All undifferentiated MSCs took up LDL, but not AcLDL. In conclusion, LDL and not AcLDL is a test of canine hepatocyte-like phenotype, but this is not tissue or species specific and, therefore, is not informative assay when testing proof of MSC to hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:26423241

  5. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  6. Uptake of low density lipoproteins by the hamster lung. Interactions with capillary endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Nistor, A.; Simionescu, M.

    1986-12-01

    The mechanism by which the circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to the lung surfactant cholesterol was investigated by perfusing the hamster lung in situ with LDL either radiolabeled or coupled to gold, or both. Part of (/sup 125/I)-LDL and (/sup 3/H)-cholesterol LDL were taken up by a specific process which was time- and concentration-dependent and reached saturation within 20 to 30 min of perfusion. Competition experiments and removal of receptor-bound LDL by heparin suggested that about 50% of LDL uptake is receptor-independent. Experiments using double labeled LDL showed a preferential uptake of /sup 3/H-cholesterol versus /sup 125/I by the lung both in situ and in vivo. LDL-gold particles (LDL-Au), recirculated through the isolated lung, bound to the endothelial luminal plasma membrane and to features potentially involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis (coated pits, coated vesicles, lysosomelike structures) and in transcytosis (plasmalemmal vesicles). The results suggest that LDL uptake by the lung takes place by both receptor-mediated and receptor-independent mechanisms. Cholesterol may be in part transferred to the lung without the apoprotein moiety; the alveolar capillary endothelium appears to be the first monitor of this complex process.

  7. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; ??? g?n j hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; ?? sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; ?? lu shn) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H.sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  8. Assessing the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins: an emerging concept in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Triolo, Michela; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P F; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2013-06-01

    Although plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, results from recent epidemiological, genetic and pharmacological intervention studies resulted in a shift of concept. Rather than HDL cholesterol mass levels, the functionality of HDL particles is increasingly regarded as potentially clinically important. This review provides an overview of four key functional properties of HDL, namely cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport; antioxidative activities; anti-inflammatory activities; and the ability of HDL to increase vascular nitric oxide production resulting in vasorelaxation. Currently available assays are put into context with different HDL isolation procedures yielding compositional heterogeneity of the particle. Gathered knowledge on the impact of different disease states on HDL function is discussed together with potential underlying causative factors modulating HDL functionalities. In addition, a perspective is provided regarding how a better understanding of the determinants of (dys)functional HDL might impact clinical practice and the future design of rational and specific therapeutic approaches targeting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:23734809

  9. Nuclear imaging analysis of human low-density lipoprotein biodistribution in rabbits and monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.V.; Fleming, R.M.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V. )

    1991-06-01

    We have evaluated the biodistribution of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) radiolabeled with 99mTc or with {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose in rabbits and in rhesus monkeys. Biodistribution was assessed after intravenous injection of radiolabeled LDL by quantitative analysis of scintigrams, counting of excreta, and counting of tissues at necropsy. Both rabbits and monkeys showed lower renal uptake ({sup 123}I:99mTc {approximately} 1:3, as regional percent injected activity corrected for physical decay) and excretion (1:2 to 1:4), but higher hepatic (1.5:1 to 2:1) and cardiac (1.7:1 to 4:1) uptake of {sup 123}I than of 99mTc. Adrenals were visualized in normolipemic animals with {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose-LDL but not with 99mTc-LDL. Hyperlipemic animals showed increased cardiac (up to six-fold) and decreased hepatic activity (by 50%-60%) of both radionuclides. We conclude that {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose-LDL is better suited than 99mTc-LDL for dynamic studies of LDL metabolism in vivo.

  10. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitrick, Russell; Gibson, Emily; Razzaghi, Hamid

    2009-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL), referred to as the ``good cholesterol'', carries free cholesterol to the liver to be filtered from the bloodstream and is important to our understanding of atherosclerosis. HDL is metabolized in part by the enzyme Endothelial Lipase (EL). With this project we will use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study the metabolism of HDL by EL comparing wild type with different genetic mutations. FCS is an advanced microscopy technique in which we record fluctuations in the fluorescence of dye-labeled molecules (in this case, HDL labeled with Nile Red) as they freely diffuse through a small focal volume. This data can be analyzed mathematically using the cross-correlation function, from which we can ultimately ascertain much information. In our case, we are interested in the diffusion coefficient which, via the Stokes-Einstein relation for a sphere, we can determine the size of HDL as it undergoes the process of metabolism. Preliminary results seem to indicate that the metabolic process occurs very quickly, that the final size of HDL depends primarily on the concentration of EL, and that the wild and mutant variants of EL have a similar effectiveness. In following experiments, we hope to investigate these relationships further.

  11. Macrophage uptake of low-density lipoprotein modified by 4-hydroxynonenal. An ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, H.F.; Cole, T.B. )

    1991-02-01

    We have documented the ultrastructural characteristics of the uptake and processing by mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an intermediate of lipid peroxidation. This was performed as part of a larger biochemical study assessing the role of LDL oxidation in lipid loading of macrophages during atherogenesis. Gold-labeled LDL that was modified with HNE leading to particle aggregation represented the morphologic probe used. When incubated with MPM, the probe became associated with short segments of cell membrane, probably derived from blebs or from lysed cells. At 37 degrees C there was a time-dependent increase in uptake by MPM, and at 4 hours the increase paralleled the degradation by MPM of 125I-labeled HNE-LDL-cAu. Clathrin-coated pits on the cell surface were consistently associated with probe. Uptake of probe appeared to occur via phagocytosis, because pseudopods frequently surrounded probe, and cytochalasin D quantitatively prevented probe uptake. A time-dependent increase was found in the number of gold particles per unit area within vacuoles, some of which were secondary lysosomes, based on acid phosphatase-positive staining. Thus, HNE-induced aggregation of LDL during oxidation, binding of aggregates to clathrin-coated pits on MPM, and subsequent phagocytosis may represent one of the ways lipid-laden foam cells are formed in vivo.

  12. Metabolism of low-density lipoprotein free cholesterol by human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.E.; Miida, Takashi; Fielding, C.J. )

    1991-09-03

    The metabolism of cholesterol derived from ({sup 3}H) cholesterol-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined in human blood plasma. LDL-derived free cholesterol first appeared in large {alpha}-migrating HDL (HDL{sub 2}) and was then transferred to small {alpha}-HDL (HDL{sub 3}) for esterification. The major part of such esters was retained within HDL of increasing size in the course of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity; the balance was recovered in LDL. Transfer of preformed cholesteryl esters within HDL contributed little to the labeled cholesteryl ester accumulating HDL{sub 2}. When cholesterol for esterification was derived instead from cell membranes, a significantly smaller proportion of this cholesteryl ester was subsequently recovered in LDL. These data suggest compartmentation of cholesteryl esters within plasma that have been formed from cell membrane or LDL free cholesterol, and the role for HDL{sub 2} as a relatively unreactive sink for LCAT-derived cholesteryl esters.

  13. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  14. Candidate genetic analysis of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and severity of coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suet Nee; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Todd, Josh; Lombardi, Raffaella; Willerson, James T; Gotto, Antonio M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Marian, AJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasma level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), a heritable trait, is an important determinant of susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Non-synonymous and regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in HDL-C synthesis and metabolism are likely to influence plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods We genotyped 784 unrelated Caucasian individuals from two sets of populations (Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study- LCAS, N = 333 and TexGen, N = 451) for 94 SNPs in 42 candidate genes by 5' nuclease assays. We tested the distribution of the phenotypes by the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. We used Box-Cox regression to analyze associations of the non-normally distributed phenotypes (plasma HDL-C and apo A-I levels) with the genotypes. We included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cigarette smoking as covariates. We calculated the q values as indicators of the false positive discovery rate (FDR). Results Plasma HDL-C levels were associated with sex (higher in females), BMI (inversely), smoking (lower in smokers), DM (lower in those with DM) and SNPs in APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL and LIPC (each q ≤0.01). Likewise, plasma apo A-I levels, available in the LCAS subset, were associated with SNPs in CETP, APOA5, and APOC2 as well as with BMI, sex and age (all q values ≤0.03). The APOA5 variant S19W was also associated with minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, a quantitative index of severity of coronary atherosclerosis (q = 0.018); mean number of coronary artery occlusions (p = 0.034) at the baseline and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as indicated by the loss of MLD. Conclusion Putatively functional variants of APOA2, APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL, LIPC and SOAT2 are independent genetic determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. The non-synonymous S19W SNP in APOA5 is also an independent determinant of plasma apo A-I level, severity of coronary atherosclerosis and its progression. PMID:19878569

  15. Mechanisms responsible for hepatic very low density lipoprotein-apoB100 overproduction in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overproduction of hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)1 particles is a major abnormality of lipoprotein dysregulation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to examine the mechanisms linking systemic/hepatic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and apolipoprotein (apo) B100-containing...

  16. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  17. ?-Tocopheryl hydroquinone is an efficient multifunctional inhibitor of radical-initiated oxidation of low density lipoprotein?lipids

    PubMed Central

    Neuil, Ji?; Witting, Paul K.; Stocker, Roland

    1997-01-01

    As the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids may be a key event in atherogenesis, there is interest in antioxidants as potential anti-atherogenic compounds. Here we report that ?-tocopheryl hydroquinone (?-TQH2) strongly inhibited or completely prevented the (per)oxidation of ubiquinol-10 (CoQ10H2), ?-tocopherol (?-TOH), and both surface and core lipids in LDL exposed to either aqueous or lipophilic peroxyl radicals, Cu2+, soybean lipoxygenase, or the transition metal-containing Hams F-10 medium in the absence or presence of human monocyte-derived macrophages. The antioxidant activity of ?-TQH2 was superior to that of several other lipophilic hydroquinones, including endogenous CoQ10H2, which is regarded as LDLs first line of antioxidant defence. At least three independent activities contributed to the antioxidant action of ?-TQH2. First, ?-TQH2 readily associated with LDL and instantaneously reduced the lipoproteins ubiquinone-10 to CoQ10H2, thereby maintaining this antioxidant in its active form. Second, ?-TQH2 directly intercepted aqueous peroxyl radicals, as indicated by the increased rate of its consumption with increasing rates of radical production, independent of LDLs content of CoQ10H2 and ?-TOH. Third, ?-TQH2 rapidly quenched ?-tocopheroxyl radical in oxidizing LDL, as demonstrated directly by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Similar antioxidant activities were also seen when ?-TQH2 was added to high-density lipoprotein or the protein-free Intralipid, indicating that the potent antioxidant activity of ?-TQH2 was neither lipoprotein specific nor dependent on proteins. These results suggest that ?-TQH2 is a candidate for a therapeutic lipid-soluble antioxidant. As ?-tocopherylquinone is formed in vivo at sites of oxidative stress, including human atherosclerotic plaque, and biological systems exist that reduce the quinone to the hydroquinone, our results also suggest that ?-TQH2 could be a previously unrecognized natural antioxidant. PMID:9223282

  18. Retroendocytosis of high density lipoproteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Kambouris, A.M.; Roach, P.D.; Calvert, G.D.; Nestel, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    When human HepG2 hepatoma cells were pulsed with 125I-labeled high density lipoproteins (HDL) and chased in fresh medium, up to 65% of the radioactivity released was precipitable with trichloroacetic acid. Cell-internalized 125I-HDL contributed to the release of acid-precipitable material; when cells were treated with trypsin before the chase to remove 125I-HDL bound to the outer cell membrane, 50% of the released material was still acid-precipitable. Characterization of the radioactive material resecreted by trypsinized cells revealed the presence of particles that were similar in size and density to mature HDL and contained intact apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II. The release of internalized label occurred at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Monensin, which inhibits endosomal recycling of receptors, decreased the binding of 125I-HDL to cells by 75%, inhibited the release of internalized radioactivity as acid-precipitable material by 80%, and increased the release of acid-soluble material by 90%. In contrast, the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine increased the association of 125I-HDL to cells by 25%, inhibited the release of precipitable material by 10%, and inhibited the release of acid-soluble radioactivity by 80%. Pre-incubation with cholesterol caused a 50% increase in the specific binding, internalization, and resecretion of HDL label. Cholesterol affected the release of acid-precipitable label much more (+90%) than that of acid-soluble material (+20%). Taken together, these findings suggest that HepG2 cells can bind, internalize, and resecrete HDL by a retroendocytotic process. Furthermore, the results with cholesterol and monensin indicate that a regulated, recycling, receptor-like molecule is involved in the binding and intracellular routing of HDL.

  19. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein-Containing Circulating Immune Complexes as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis and Type 1 Diabetes Macrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Chistiakov, Dimitry A.

    2014-01-01

    In atherosclerosis; blood low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are subjected to multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications that increase their atherogenicity and induce immunogenicity. Modified LDL are capable of inducing vascular inflammation through activation of innate immunity; thus, contributing to the progression of atherogenesis. The immunogenicity of modified LDL results in induction of self-antibodies specific to a certain type of modified LDL. The antibodies react with modified LDL forming circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes exhibit prominent immunomodulatory properties that influence atherosclerotic inflammation. Compared to freely circulating modified LDL; modified LDL associated with the immune complexes have a more robust atherogenic and proinflammatory potential. Various lipid components of the immune complexes may serve not only as diagnostic but also as essential predictive markers of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that LDL-containing immune complexes can also serve as biomarker for macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25050779

  20. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Zhong, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2011-06-01

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  1. Localization of the gene for high-density lipoprotein binding protein (HDLBP) to human chromosome 2q37

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Y.R.; Klisak, I.; Sparkes, R.S.; Lusis, A.J.; Oram, J.

    1993-05-01

    The high-density lipoprotein binding protein (HDLbp) is a 110-kDa protein that specifically binds HDL molecules and may function in the removal of excess cellular cholesterol. As part of an effort to study the function of the protein and its possible role in cholesterol transport, the authors report the localization of the gene for HDLbp, designated HDLBP, to human chromosome 2q37 using analysis of somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Differential study of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in human high-density lipoproteins with lipid-specific fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Molotkovsky, J G; Manevich, Y M; Gerasimova, E N; Molotkovskaya, I M; Polessky, V A; Bergelson, L D

    1982-03-01

    Modified phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin containing an anthryl end group attached to one of the fatty acyl chains were used as fluorescent probes in an investigation of the molecular organization of human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Monolayer experiments and NMR measurements showed the anthryl-labeled lipids to mimic closely the corresponding host phospholipids, the fluorophores being located near to the terminal CH3 groups of the fatty acid residues. The above fluorescent phospholipid probes made it possible for the first time to study differentially the behaviour of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in HDL. The probes were shown to interact in a different way with the apoprotein tryptophans and to be non-randomly distributed at the surface of the globules. The probable sphingomyelin binding site of apolipoprotein A-I was defined. Evidence was obtained suggesting the existence in high-density lipoproteins of two slowly exchanging phospholipid pools: one strongly bound to apoproteins, and the other free or loosely bound. Fluorescence parameters characterizing the fluidity of HDL phospholipids and their interaction with the apoprotein tryptophans were found to correlate with the HDL cholesterol level. The possible significance of the obtained results for a better understanding of the relation of high-density lipoproteins to coronary heart diseases is discussed. PMID:7060592

  3. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714; Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  4. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients and IBC patient-derived cell lines. A more expansive study is needed to verify these observations.

  5. Electronegative Low-density Lipoprotein Increases Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Uremia Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, Guei-Jane; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Lee, An-Sean; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chun-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Yang, Chao-Yuh; Stancel, Nicole; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population, but its role in the development of CAD in uremia patients is unknown. L5 is the most electronegative subfraction of LDL isolated from human plasma. In this study, we examined the distribution of L5 (L5%) and its association with CAD risk in uremia patients. The LDL of 39 uremia patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 21 healthy controls was separated into 5 subfractions, L1–L5, with increasing electronegativity. We compared the distribution and composition of plasma L5 between uremia patients and controls, examined the association between plasma L5% and CAD risk in uremia patients, and studied the effects of L5 from uremia patients on endothelial function. Compared to controls, uremia patients had significantly increased L5% (P < 0.001) and L5 that was rich in apolipoprotein C3 and triglycerides. L5% was significantly higher in uremia patients with CAD (n = 10) than in those without CAD (n = 29) (P < 0.05). Independent of other major CAD risk factors, the adjusted odds ratio for CAD was 1.88 per percent increase in plasma L5% (95% CI, 1.01–3.53), with a near-linear dose–response relationship. Compared with controls, uremia patients had decreased flow-mediated vascular dilatation. In ex vivo studies with preconstricted rat thoracic aortic rings, L5 from uremia patients inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In cultured human endothelial cells, L5 inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and induced endothelial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that elevated plasma L5% may induce endothelial dysfunction and play an important role in the increased risk of CAD in uremia patients. PMID:26765403

  6. Low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 5 governs Wnt-mediated osteoarthritic cartilage destruction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Wnt ligands bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein (LRP) 5 or 6, triggering a cascade of downstream events that include β-catenin signaling. Here we explored the roles of LRP5 in interleukin 1β (IL-1β)- or Wnt-mediated osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage destruction in mice. Methods The expression levels of LRP5, type II collagen, and catabolic factors were determined in mouse articular chondrocytes, human OA cartilage, and mouse experimental OA cartilage. Experimental OA in wild-type, Lrp5 total knockout (Lrp5-/-) and chondrocyte-specific knockout (Lrp5fl/fl;Col2a1-cre) mice was caused by aging, destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), or intra-articular injection of collagenase. The role of LRP5 was confirmed in vitro by small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of Lrp5 or in Lrp5-/- cells treated with IL-1β or Wnt proteins. Results IL-1β treatment increased the expression of LRP5 (but not LRP6) via JNK and NF-κB signaling. LRP5 was upregulated in human and mouse OA cartilage, and Lrp5 deficiency in mice inhibited cartilage destruction. Treatment with IL-1β or Wnt decreased the level of Col2a1 and increased those of Mmp3 or Mmp13, whereas Lrp5 knockdown ameliorated these effects. In addition, we found that the functions of LRP5 in arthritic cartilage were subject to transcriptional activation by β-catenin. Moreover, Lrp5-/- and Lrp5fl/fl;Col2a1-cre mice exhibited decreased cartilage destruction (and related changes in gene expression) in response to experimental OA. Conclusions Our findings indicate that LRP5 (but not LRP6) plays an essential role in Wnt/β-catenin-signaling-mediated OA cartilage destruction in part by regulating the expression levels of type II collagen, MMP3, and MMP13. PMID:24479426

  7. Mimicry of High-Density Lipoprotein: Functional Peptide–Lipid Nanoparticles Based on Multivalent Peptide Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yannan; Imura, Tomohiro; Leman, Luke J.; Curtiss, Linda K.; Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach for engineering peptide–lipid nanoparticles that function similarly to high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Branched, multivalent constructs, bearing multiple 23- or 16-amino-acid peptides, were designed, synthesized and combined with phospholipids to produce nanometer-scale discoidal HDL-like particles. A variety of biophysical techniques were employed to characterize the constructs, including size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifuge sedimentation, circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles functioned in vitro (human and mouse plasma) and in vivo (mice) to rapidly remodel large native HDLs into small lipid-poor HDL particles, which are key acceptors of cholesterol in reverse cholesterol transport. Fluorescent labeling studies showed that the constituents of the nanoparticles readily distributed into native HDLs, such that the peptide constructs coexisted with apolipoprotein A-I, the main structural protein in HDLs. Importantly, nanolipid particles containing multivalent peptides promoted efficient cellular cholesterol efflux and were functionally superior to those derived from monomeric peptides. The multivalent peptide-lipid nanoparticles were also remarkably stable toward enzymatic digestion in vitro and displayed long half-lives and desirable pharmacokinetic profiles in mice, providing a real practical advantage over previously studied linear or tandem helical peptides. Encouragingly, a two-week exploratory efficacy study in a widely used animal model for atherosclerosis research (LDLr-null mice) using nanoparticles constructed from a trimeric peptide demonstrated an exceptional 50% reduction in the plasma total cholesterol levels compared to the control group. Altogether, the studies reported here point to an attractive avenue for designing synthetic, HDL-like nanoparticles, with potential for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:23978057

  8. The advantages of LDL (low density lipoproteins) in the cryopreservation of canine semen.

    PubMed

    Bencharif, D; Amirat, L; Anton, M; Schmitt, E; Desherces, S; Delhomme, G; Langlois, M-L; Barrire, P; Larrat, M; Tainturier, D

    2008-12-01

    A medium containing LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins, the cryoprotective component of chicken egg yolk) was compared with egg yolk for the preservation canine spermatozoa during the freeze-thaw process. Twenty sperm samples taken from 10 dogs were frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C in seven different media: one control medium containing 20% egg yolk, and six test media containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, and 10% LDL, respectively. Following thawing, sperm motility was assessed using a Hamilton-Thorne Sperm Analyser equipped with the CEROS 12 software. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was 55.3% in the 6% LDL medium (optimal concentration) compared with 27.7% in the egg yolk based medium (p<0.05). In comparison with the egg-yolk medium, the LDL medium also resulted in an improved preservation of spermatozoa during the freezing process (p<0.05) in terms of acrosomal integrity (FITC-PSA test), flagellar plasma membrane integrity (HOS test), and DNA integrity (Acridine Orange test). In addition, six Beagle bitches were inseminated twice, via the intra-uterine route, at an interval of 24h; 200x10(6) spermatozoa that had been previously frozen in the 6% LDL medium were used per insemination. All of the bitches became pregnant (gestation rate of 100%). In conclusion, the 6% LDL medium provides improved protection of the spermatozoa during the freeze-thaw process and a marked improvement in the motility parameters of canine spermatozoa in comparison with the control medium containing egg yolk alone. Finally, the use of LDL as a cryoprotectant for canine semen does not interfere with fertility. PMID:18817963

  9. Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Oxidant Function Predicts Poor Outcome in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schrutka, Lore; Goliasch, Georg; Meyer, Brigitte; Wurm, Raphael; Koller, Lorenz; Kriechbaumer, Lukas; Heinz, Gottfried; Pacher, Richard; Lang, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress affects clinical outcome in critically ill patients. Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles generally possess anti-oxidant capacities, deleterious properties of HDL have been described in acutely ill patients. The impact of anti-oxidant HDL capacities on clinical outcome in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore analyzed the predictive value of anti-oxidant HDL function on mortality in an unselected cohort of critically ill patients. Method We prospectively enrolled 270 consecutive patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU) and determined anti-oxidant HDL function using the HDL oxidant index (HOI). Based on their HOI, the study population was stratified into patients with impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and the residual study population. Results During a median follow-up time of 9.8 years (IQR: 9.2 to 10.0), 69% of patients died. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant and independent association between impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and short-term mortality with an adjusted HR of 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.24; p = 0.001) as well as 10-year mortality with an adj. HR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.02–1.40; p = 0.032) when compared to the residual study population. Anti-oxidant HDL function correlated with the amount of oxidative stress as determined by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (r = 0.38; p<0.001). Conclusion Impaired anti-oxidant HDL function represents a strong and independent predictor of 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality in critically ill patients. PMID:26978526

  10. Peroxynitrite-mediated alpha-tocopherol oxidation in low-density lipoprotein: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Botti, Horacio; Batthyny, Carlos; Trostchansky, Andrs; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero

    2004-01-15

    Previous reports proposed that peroxynitrite (ONOO-) oxidizes alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) through a two-electron concerted mechanism. In contrast, ONOO- oxidizes phenols via free radicals arising from peroxo bond homolysis. To understand the kinetics and mechanism of alpha-TOH and gamma-tocopherol (gamma-TOH) oxidation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (direct vs. radical), we exposed LDL to ONOO- added as a bolus or an infusion. Nitric oxide (.NO), ascorbate and CO2 were used as key biologically relevant modulators of ONOO- reactivity. Although approximately 80% alpha-TOH and gamma-TOH depletion occurred within 5 min of incubation of 0.8 microM LDL with a 60 microM bolus of ONOO-, an equimolar infusion of ONOO- over 60 min caused total consumption of both antioxidants. gamma-Tocopherol was preserved relative to alpha-TOH, probably due to gamma-tocopheroxyl radical recycling by alpha-TOH. alpha-TOH oxidation in LDL was first order in ONOO- with approximately 12% of ONOO- maximally available. Physiological concentrations of.NO and ascorbate spared both alpha-TOH and gamma-TOH through independent and additive mechanisms. High concentrations of.NO and ascorbate abolished alpha-TOH and gamma-TOH oxidation. Nitric oxide protection was more efficient for alpha-TOH in LDL than for ascorbate in solution, evidencing the kinetically highly favored reaction of lipid peroxyl radicals with.NO than with alpha-TOH as assessed by computer-assisted simulations. In addition, CO2 (1.2 mM) inhibited both alpha-TOH and lipid oxidation. These results demonstrate that ONOO- induces alpha-TOH oxidation in LDL through a one-electron free radical mechanism; thus the inhibitory actions of.NO and ascorbate may determine low alpha-tocopheryl quinone accumulation in tissues despite increased ONOO- generation. PMID:14744627

  11. Small high-density lipoprotein is associated with monocyte subsets in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Pongratz, Thomas; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Goliasch, Georg; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are heterogeneous in structure and function and the role of HDL subfractions in atherogenesis is not well understood. It has been suggested that small HDL may be dysfunctional in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes are considered to play a key role in atherosclerotic diseases. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three subtypes according to their surface expression of CD14 and CD16. Our aim was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with HDL subfractions in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods: We included 90 patients with angiographically stable CAD. Monocyte subsets were defined as classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+; IM) and non-classical monocytes (CD14+CD16++; NCM). HDL subfractions were measured by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Results: Serum levels of small HDL correlated with circulating pro-inflammatory NCM and showed an inverse relationship to circulating CM independently from other lipid parameters, risk factors, inflammatory parameters or statin treatment regime, respectively. IM were not associated with small HDL. In particular, patients with small HDL levels in the highest tertile showed dramatically increased levels of NCM (14.77% vs. 10.75% and 10.85%; p=0.006) and a decreased proportion of CM (79.37% vs. 83.76% and 83.96%; p=0.004) compared to patients in the two lower tertiles. In contrast, intermediate HDL, large HDL and total HDL were not associated with monocyte subset distribution. Conclusion: Small HDL levels are associated with pro-inflammatory NCM and inversely correlated with CM. This may suggest that small HDL could have dysfunctional anti-inflammatory properties in patients with established CAD. PMID:25463093

  12. Glycomic analysis of high density lipoprotein shows a highly sialylated particle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Lee, Hyeyoung; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Rivera, Nancy; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2014-02-01

    Many of the functional proteins and lipids in high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are potentially glycosylated, yet very little is known about the glycoconjugates of HDL. In this study, HDL was isolated from plasma by sequential micro-ultracentrifugation, followed by glycoprotein and glycolipid analysis. N-Glycans, glycopeptides, and gangliosides were extracted and purified followed by analysis with nano-HPLC Chip quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and MS/MS. HDL particles were found to be highly sialylated. Most of the N-glycans (?90%) from HDL glycoproteins were sialylated with one or two neuraminic acids (Neu5Ac). The most abundant N-glycan was a biantennary complex type glycan with two sialic acids (Hexose5HexNAc4Neu5Ac2) and was found in multiple glycoproteins using site-specific glycosylation analysis. The observed O-glycans were all sialylated, and most contained a core 1 structure with two Neu5Acs, including those that were associated with apolipoprotein CIII (ApoC-III) and fetuin A. GM3 (monosialoganglioside, NeuAc2-3Gal1-4Glc-Cer) and GD3 (disialoganglioside, NeuAc2-8NeuAc2-3Gal1-4Glc-Cer) were the major gangliosides in HDL. A 60% GM3 and 40% GD3 distribution was observed. Both GM3 and GD3 were composed of heterogeneous ceramide lipid tails, including d18:1/16:0 and d18:1/23:0. This report describes for the first time a glycomic approach for analyzing HDL, highlighting that HDL are highly sialylated particles. PMID:24417605

  13. High Density Lipoprotein StructureFunction and Role in Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Katz, Sissel

    2011-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) possesses important anti-atherogenic properties and this review addresses the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions. The structures and cholesterol transport abilities of HDL particles are determined by the properties of their exchangeable apolipoprotein (apo) components. ApoA-I and apoE, which are the best characterized in structural terms, contain a series of amphipathic ?-helical repeats. The helices located in the amino-terminal two-thirds of the molecule adopt a helix bundle structure while the carboxy-terminal segment forms a separately folded, relatively disorganized, domain. The latter domain initiates lipid binding and this interaction induces changes in conformation; the ?-helix content increases and the amino-terminal helix bundle can open subsequently. These conformational changes alter the abilities of apoA-I and apoE to function as ligands for their receptors. The apoA-I and apoE molecules possess detergent-like properties and they can solubilize vesicular phospholipid to create discoidal HDL particles with hydrodynamic diameters of ~10 nm. In the case of apoA-I, such a particle is stabilized by two protein molecules arranged in an anti-parallel, double-belt, conformation around the edge of the disc. The abilities of apoA-I and apoE to solubilize phospholipid and stabilize HDL particles enable these proteins to be partners with ABCA1 in mediating efflux of cellular phospholipid and cholesterol, and the biogenesis of HDL particles. ApoA-I-containing nascent HDL particles play a critical role in cholesterol transport in the circulation whereas apoE-containing HDL particles mediate cholesterol transport in the brain. The mechanisms by which HDL particles are remodeled by lipases and lipid transfer proteins, and interact with SR-BI to deliver cholesterol to cells, are reviewed. PMID:20213545

  14. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E.; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouseTM platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  15. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum, and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.

  16. Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Hamid; Streja, Elani; Kashyap, Moti L.; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) confers protection against atherosclerosis by several different mechanisms. Although in the general population, increasing levels of HDL are associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality, this association is not well known in patients with chronic disease states such as end-stage renal disease. We hypothesize that the association of serum HDL concentration and its ratio to total cholesterol with all-cause and CV mortality in hemodialysis patients is different from the general population. Methods A 3-year (July 2004 to June 2007) cohort of 33 109 chronic hemodialysis patients was studied in the USA in the dialysis clinics where lipid profile was measured in at least 50% of all outpatients of the clinic during a given calendar quarter. Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for demographics and casemix variables and cubic splines were plotted. Results Higher HDL concentrations up to 50 mg/dL were associated with better overall survival, while HDL at 60 mg/dL and above was associated with a rise in all-cause and CV mortality. All-cause and CV mortality hazard ratio was 1.28 (1.201.38) and 1.08 (1.011.16) for HDL <30 mg/dL and 1.05 (1.001.10) and 1.08 (1.001.16) for HDL ? 60 mg/dL, respectively (reference: HDL: 30<60 mg/dL). Conclusions In contrast to the general population, low total cholesterol to HDL ratio was associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis patients. A U-shaped association between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause and CV mortality exists in hemodialysis patients with HDL between 50 and <60 mg/dL exhibiting the best survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these seemingly paradoxical associations await further investigation. PMID:24574544

  17. Functionalized low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for in vivo enhancement of atherosclerosis on magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Andrew N; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ting; Ishikawa, Takashi; Zhang, Hualei; Oriana, Sean; Wang, Miao; Ricciotti, Emanuela; FitzGerald, Garret A; Zhou, Rong; Yamakoshi, Yoko

    2012-11-21

    To allow visualization of macrophage-rich and miniature-sized atheromas by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, we have converted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into MR-active nanoparticles via the intercalation of a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A) derivative and the subsequent coordination reaction with Gd(3+). After careful removal of nonchelated Gd(3+), an MR-active LDL (Gd(3+)-LDL) with a remarkably high payload of Gd(3+) (in excess of 200 Gd(3+) atoms per particle) and a high relaxivity (r(1) = 20.1 s(-1) mM(-1) per Gd(3+) or 4040 s(-1) mM(-1) per LDL) was obtained. Dynamic light-scattering photon correlation spectroscopy (DLS) and cryo transmission electron microscope (cryoTEM) images showed that Gd(3+)-LDL particles did not aggregate and remained of a similar size (25-30 nm) to native LDL. Intravenous injection of Gd(3+)-LDL into an atherosclerotic mouse model (ApoE(-/-)) resulted in an extremely high enhancement of the atheroma-bearing aortic walls at 48 h after injection. Free Gd(3+) dissociation from Gd(3+)-LDL was not detected over the imaging time window (96 h). Because autologous LDL can be isolated, modified, and returned to the same patient, our results suggest that MR-active LDL can potentially be used as a noninfectious and nonimmunogenic imaging probe for the enhancement of atheroplaques presumably via the uptake into macrophages inside the plaque. PMID:23075169

  18. L-propionyl carnitine protects erythrocytes and low density lipoproteins against peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, A; Conte, A; Ronca, G

    1994-01-01

    The effects of peroxidation on the erythrocytes of rats orally treated with L-propionyl carnitine for 15 days (50 mg/kg/day) were investigated. Peroxidation was produced by incubating the cells in the presence of the cytotoxic system: lactoperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide and iodide ions. Lysis of erythrocytes was evaluated by measuring the turbidity following the decrease in absorbance at 600 nm. The 50% of erythrocyte lysis of untreated animals was observed after 16 min and in about 30 min all the cells were lysed. With L-propionyl carnitine-treated rat erythrocytes the time at which 50% of lysis was observed increased to 23 min. L-propionyl carnitine also exerted its protective effect in vitro when incubated with untreated rat erythrocytes or human erythrocytes in the presence of the cytolytic system. The presence of L-propionyl carnitine in the incubation mixture markedly decreased the malonaldehyde formation. The protection was concentration-dependent. To establish if L-propionyl carnitine protects from oxygen reactive species or is able to stabilize the damaged membranes, a latent damage was produced by incubating the erythrocytes with the cytolytic system for a few minutes. The cells were then removed and suspended in buffered saline in the absence or in the presence of different L-propionyl carnitine concentrations. L-propionyl carnitine decreased the velocity of lysis of damaged erythrocytes. These data suggest that L-propionyl carnitine protects erythrocytes from oxygen reactive species and also stabilizes the damaged membrane probably by specific binding with protein and/or phospholipid domains. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) from human blood were peroxidized by exposure to Cu2+ ions in the presence of various L-propionyl carnitine concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7875055

  19. Dysregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor contributes to podocyte injuries in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Liu, Jing; Wu, Yu; Hu, Ze Bo; Liu, Liang; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2015-06-15

    Dyslipidemia plays crucial roles in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study investigated the effects of high glucose on lipid accumulation in podocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. Male db/m and db/db mice were fed a normal chow diet for 8 wk. Immortalised mouse podocytes were treated with or without high glucose for 24 h. The changes to the morphology and ultramicrostructures of the kidneys in mice were examined using pathological staining and electron microscopy. Intracellular lipid accumulation was evaluated by Oil Red O staining and a free cholesterol quantitative assay. The expressions of the molecules involved in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) pathway and podocyte injury were examined using immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot. There were increased levels of plasma lipid, serum creatinine, and proteinuria in db/db mice compared with db/m mice. Moreover, there was significant mesangial matrix expansion, basement membrane thickening, podocyte foot process effacement, and phenotypic alteration in the db/db group. Additionally, lipid accumulation in the kidneys of db/db mice was increased due to increased protein expressions of LDLr, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein, and SREBP-2. These effects were further confirmed by in vitro studies. Interestingly, the treatment with LDLr siRNA inhibited lipid accumulation in podocytes and decreased the protein expression of molecules associated with phenotypic alteration in podocytes. High glucose disrupted LDLr feedback regulation in podocytes, which may cause intracellular lipid accumulation and alteration of podocyte phenotype, thereby accelerating DN progression. PMID:25921580

  20. Low-Density-Lipoprotein Particle Size Predicts a Poor Outcome in Patients with Atherothrombotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Chang, Yoonkyung; Youn, Minjung; Shin, Min-Jeong; Jo, Inho; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size is considered to be one of the more important cardiovascular risk factors, and small LDL particles are known to have atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with stroke severity and functional outcome in patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Methods Between January 2009 and May 2011, 248 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction who were admitted to our hospital within 7 days after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. LDL particle size was measured using the nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis assay. Stroke severity was assessed by applying the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission. Functional outcome was investigated at 3 months after the index stroke using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and poor functional outcome was defined as an mRS score of ≥3. Results The LDL particle size in the 248 patients was 25.9±0.9 nm (mean±SD). LDL particle size was inversely correlated with the degree of cerebral artery stenosis (p=0.010). Multinomial multivariate logistic analysis revealed that after adjustment for age, sex, and variables with p<0.1 in univariate analysis, LDL particle size was independently and inversely associated with stroke severity (NIHSS score ≥5; reference, NIHSS score 0-2; odds ratio=0.38, p=0.028) and poor functional outcome (odds ratio=0.44, p=0.038). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that small LDL particles are independently correlated with stroke outcomes. LDL particle size is thus a potential biomarker for the prognosis of atherothrombotic stroke. PMID:25628741

  1. Accurate Quantification of High Density Lipoprotein Particle Concentration by Calibrated Ion Mobility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Patrick M.; Ronsein, Graziella E.; Monette, Jeffrey S.; Pamir, Nathalie; Wimberger, Jake; He, Yi; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Vaisar, Tomas; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is critical to develop new metrics to determine whether high density lipoprotein (HDL) is cardioprotective in humans. One promising approach is HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) the size and concentration of HDL in plasma or serum. However, the two methods currently used to determine HDL-P yield concentrations that differ more than 5-fold. We therefore developed and validated an improved approach to quantify HDL-P, termed calibrated ion mobility analysis (calibrated IMA). Methods HDL was isolated from plasma by ultracentrifugation, introduced into the gas phase with electrospray ionization, separated by size, and quantified by particle counting. A calibration curve constructed with purified proteins was used to correct for the ionization efficiency of HDL particles. Results The concentrations of gold nanoparticles and reconstituted HDLs measured by calibrated IMA were indistinguishable from concentrations determined by orthogonal methods. In plasma of control (n=40) and cerebrovascular disease (n=40) subjects, three subspecies of HDL were reproducibility measured, with an estimated total HDL-P of 13.42.4 M (meanSD). HDL-C accounted for 48% of the variance in HDL-P. HDL-P was significantly lower in subjects with cerebrovascular disease, and this difference remained significant after adjustment for HDL cholesterol levels. Conclusions Calibrated IMA accurately and reproducibly determined the concentration of gold nanoparticles and synthetic HDL, strongly suggesting the method could accurately quantify HDL particle concentration. Importantly, the estimated stoichiometry of apoA-I determined by calibrated IMA was 34 per HDL particle, in excellent agreement with current structural models. Furthermore, HDL-P associated with cardiovascular disease status in a clinical population independently of HDL cholesterol. PMID:25225166

  2. Increased degradation of low density lipoproteins by mononuclear leukocytes associated with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, F; Hurst, P G; McNamara, D J

    1990-12-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were isolated from patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 11) angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). LDL degradation rates in MNL were determined in vitro using both autologous and homologous LDL. The mean rate of LDL degradation was 1.7-fold higher in CAD-MNL than in control-MNL (P less than 0.05), independent of the LDL source. The increased LDL degradation rate in CAD-MNL appeared to be due to an increased receptor-mediated LDL degradation rate in CAD-MNL and not to an increased CAD-LDL interaction with the receptor since LDL isolated from patients with and without CAD had similar in vitro degradation rates in HL-60 cells and 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced HL-60 macrophages. An increased ratio of apo B to cholesterol, specifically apo B to cholesteryl ester, was observed in LDL isolated from patients with CAD. LDL particles isolated from CAD patients contained 14.8% less cholesteryl ester than LDL from control subjects (P less than 0.01). The data suggest that CAD patients have an increased plasma LDL particle number even though they have similar plasma LDL-cholesterol levels as compared to control subjects. These data indicate that CAD patients with normal plasma LDL cholesterol levels have two metabolic abnormalities: an altered LDL composition resulting in particles with reduced cholesteryl ester content and an increased LDL catabolism resulting in an increased influx of LDL cholesterol into MNL; both of which may play a role in the development of coronary heart disease. PMID:2102076

  3. CD36 binds oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) in a mechanism dependent upon fatty acid binding.

    PubMed

    Jay, Anthony G; Chen, Alexander N; Paz, Miguel A; Hung, Justin P; Hamilton, James A

    2015-02-20

    The association of unesterified fatty acid (FA) with the scavenger receptor CD36 has been actively researched, with focuses on FA and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. CD36 has been shown to bind FA, but this interaction has been poorly characterized to date. To gain new insights into the physiological relevance of binding of FA to CD36, we characterized FA binding to the ectodomain of CD36 by the biophysical method surface plasmon resonance. Five structurally distinct FAs (saturated, monounsaturated (cis and trans), polyunsaturated, and oxidized) were pulsed across surface plasmon resonance channels, generating association and dissociation binding curves. Except for the oxidized FA HODE, all FAs bound to CD36, with rapid association and dissociation kinetics similar to HSA. Next, to elucidate the role that each FA might play in CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, we used a fluorescent oxLDL (Dii-oxLDL) live cell assay with confocal microscopy imaging. CD36-mediated uptake in serum-free medium was very low but greatly increased when serum was present. The addition of exogenous FA in serum-free medium increased oxLDL binding and uptake to levels found with serum and affected CD36 plasma membrane distribution. Binding/uptake of oxLDL was dependent upon the FA dose, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which exhibited binding to CD36 but did not activate the uptake of oxLDL. HODE also did not affect oxLDL uptake. High affinity FA binding to CD36 and the effects of each FA on oxLDL uptake have important implications for protein conformation, binding of other ligands, functional properties of CD36, and high plasma FA levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25555908

  4. Mapping the Binding Region on the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor for Blood Coagulation Factor VIII*

    PubMed Central

    Kurasawa, James H.; Shestopal, Svetlana A.; Karnaukhova, Elena; Struble, Evi B.; Lee, Timothy K.; Sarafanov, Andrey G.

    2013-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was shown to mediate clearance of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) from the circulation. To elucidate the mechanism of interaction of LDLR and FVIII, our objective was to identify the region of the receptor necessary for binding FVIII. Using surface plasmon resonance, we found that LDLR exodomain and its cluster of complement-type repeats (CRs) bind FVIII in the same mode. This indicated that the LDLR site for FVIII is located within the LDLR cluster. Similar results were obtained for another ligand of LDLR, ?-2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein (RAP), a common ligand of receptors from the LDLR family. We further generated a set of recombinant fragments of the LDLR cluster and assessed their structural integrity by binding to RAP and by circular dichroism. A number of fragments overlapping CR.2-5 of the cluster were positive for binding RAP and FVIII. The specificity of these interactions was tested by site-directed mutagenesis of conserved tryptophans within the LDLR fragments. For FVIII, the specificity was also tested using a single-chain variable antibody fragment directed against the FVIII light chain as a competitor. Both cases resulted in decreased binding, thus confirming its specificity. The mutagenic study also showed an importance of the conserved tryptophans in LDLR for both ligands, and the competitive binding results showed an involvement of the light chain of FVIII in its interaction with LDLR. In conclusion, the region of CR.2-5 of LDLR was defined as the binding site for FVIII and RAP. PMID:23754288

  5. Influence of age on the metabolism of plasma low density lipoproteins in healthy males.

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, S; Eriksson, M; Vitols, S; Einarsson, K; Berglund, L; Angelin, B

    1991-01-01

    The plasma concentration of the atherogenic low density lipoproteins (LDL) increases with age. To clarify the mechanism of this change, we studied the kinetics of autologous 125I-LDL apolipoprotein B (apo B) in 41 normolipidemic, nonobese healthy males. For comparison, they were divided into three age groups: young, 21-39 yr (n = 18), middle-aged, 40-59 yr (n = 11), and old, 60-80 yr (n = 12). The levels of plasma LDL cholesterol and LDL apo B increased from respectively 3.4 +/- 0.1 (SEM) mmol/liter and 86 +/- 2 mg/dl in the young to 4.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/liter and 95 +/- 3 mg/dl in the old (P less than 0.01), and this increase was linked to a progressively decreased (r = -0.38, P less than 0.02) fractional catabolic rate of LDL apo B (0.348 +/- 0.010 pools per day in the young vs. 0.296 +/- 0.009 pools per day in the old, P less than 0.01). The production rate of LDL apo B did not differ significantly between the groups. The reduced fractional catabolic rate of LDL apo B in the old was not associated with a decrease in binding affinity of the LDL particle to its receptor, as judged from its ability to compete for 125I-LDL fibroblast binding. When hepatic LDL receptor expression was stimulated by cholestyramine treatment in six old males, their LDL apo B fractional catabolic rate increased to the levels observed in the young subjects. We conclude that the increase in LDL which normally occurs with age is explained by a reduced capacity for its removal, and hypothesize that this is mediated via a reduced hepatic LDL receptor expression. PMID:1991842

  6. Biophysical characterization of the interaction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with endotoxins.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Jrgens, Gudrun; Andr, Jrg; Lindner, Buko; Koch, Michel H J; Blume, Alfred; Garidel, Patrick

    2002-12-01

    The interaction of bacterial endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 'endotoxic principle' lipid A], with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from serum was investigated with a variety of physical techniques and biological assays. HDL exhibited an increase in the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature Tc and a rigidification of the acyl chains of the endotoxins as measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The functional groups of the endotoxins interacting with HDL are the phosphates and the diglucosamine backbone. The finding of phosphates as target groups is in accordance to measurements of the electrophoretic mobility showing that the zeta potential decreases from -50 to -60 mV to -20 mV at binding saturation. The importance of the sugar backbone as further target structure is in accordance with the remaining negative potential and competition experiments with polymyxin B (PMB) and phase transition data of the system PMB/dephosphorylated LPS. Furthermore, endotoxin binding to HDL influences the secondary structure of the latter manifesting in a change from a mixed alpha-helical/beta-sheet structure to a predominantly alpha-helical structure. The aggregate structure of the lipid A moiety of the endotoxins as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering shows a change of a unilamellar/inverted cubic into a multilamellar structure in the presence of HDL. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer data indicate an intercalation of pure HDL, and of [LPS]-[HDL] complexes into phospholipid liposomes. Furthermore, HDL may enhance the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein-induced intercalation of LPS into phospholipid liposomes. Parallel to these observations, the LPS-induced cytokine production of human mononuclear cells and the reactivity in the Limulus test are strongly reduced by the addition of HDL. These data allow to develop a model of the [endotoxin]/[HDL] interaction. PMID:12444987

  7. Does high-density lipoprotein protect vascular function in healthy pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wan N Wan; Caslake, Muriel J; Delles, Christian; Karlsson, Helen; Mulder, Monique T; Graham, Delyth; Freeman, Dilys J

    2016-04-01

    The maternal adaptation to pregnancy includes hyperlipidaemia, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. In non-pregnant individuals, these processes are usually associated with poor vascular function. However, maternal vascular function is enhanced in pregnancy. It is not understood how this is achieved in the face of the adverse metabolic and inflammatory environment. Research into cardiovascular disease demonstrates that plasma HDL (high-density lipoprotein), by merit of its functionality rather than its plasma concentration, exerts protective effects on the vascular endothelium. HDL has vasodilatory, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and can protect against endothelial cell damage. In pregnancy, the plasma HDL concentration starts to rise at 10 weeks of gestation, peaking at 20 weeks. The initial rise in plasma HDL occurs around the time of the establishment of the feto-placental circulation, a time when the trophoblast plugs in the maternal spiral arteries are released, generating oxidative stress. Thus there is the intriguing possibility that new HDL of improved function is synthesized around the time of the establishment of the feto-placental circulation. In obese pregnancy and, to a greater extent, in pre-eclampsia, plasma HDL levels are significantly decreased and maternal vascular function is reduced. Wire myography studies have shown an association between the plasma content of apolipoprotein AI, the major protein constituent of HDL, and blood vessel relaxation. These observations lead us to hypothesize that HDL concentration, and function, increases in pregnancy in order to protect the maternal vascular endothelium and that in pre-eclampsia this fails to occur. PMID:26888561

  8. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoproteins in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaseda, Ryohei; Jabs, Kathy; Hunley, Tracy E.; Jones, Deborah; Bian, Aihua; Allen, Ryan M.; Vickers, Kasey C.; Yancey, Patricia G.; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Kon, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to determine if chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurring in childhood impairs the normally vasoprotective functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Materials and Methods HDL were isolated from children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD), children with moderate CKD and controls with normal kidney function. Macrophage response to HDL was studied as expression of inflammatory markers (MCP-1, TNF-?, IL-1?) and chemotaxis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used for expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) and adhesion. Cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis of endothelial cells was measured by MTS/PMS reagent-based assay, flow cytometry, and ELISA. Cholesterol efflux was assessed by gas chromatographic measurements of cholesterol in macrophages exposed to HDL. Results Compared with HDLControl, HDLCKD and HDLESRD heightened the cytokine response and disrupted macrophage chemotaxis. HDLControl reduced endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, whereas HDLCKD and HDLESRD were less effective and showed reduced capacity to protect endothelial cells against monocyte adhesion. Compared with a dramatically enhanced endothelial proliferation following injurious stimulus by HDLControl, neither HDLCKD nor HDLESRD caused proliferative effects. HDL of all three groups were equally protective against apoptosis assessed by flow cytometry and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Compared to HDLControl, HDLCKD and HDLESRD trended toward reduced capacity as cholesterol acceptors. Conclusion CKD in children impairs HDL function. Even in the absence of long-standing and concomitant risk factors, CKD alters specific HDL functions linked to control of inflammation and endothelial responses. PMID:25467845

  9. Rotational and hinge dynamics of discoidal high density lipoproteins probed by interchain disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Songlin; Jones, Martin K; Segrest, Jere P

    2012-03-01

    To develop a detailed double belt model for discoidal HDL, we previously scored inter-helical salt bridges between all possible registries of two stacked antiparallel amphipathic helical rings of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The top score was the antiparallel apposition of helix 5 with 5 followed closely by appositions of helix 5 with 4 and helix 5 with 6. The rationale for the current study is that, for each of the optimal scores, a pair of identical residues can be identified in juxtaposition directly on the contact edge between the two antiparallel helical belts of apoA-I. Further, these residues are always in the '9th position' in one of the eighteen 11-mer repeats that make up the lipid-associating domain of apoA-I. To illustrate our terminology, 129j (LL5/5) refers to the juxtaposition of the C? atoms of G129 (in a '9th position') in the pairwise helix 5 domains. We reasoned that if identical residues in the double belt juxtapositions were mutated to a cysteine and kept under reducing conditions during disc formation, we would have a precise method for determining registration in discoidal HDL by formation of a disulfide-linked apoA-I homodimer. Using this approach, we conclude that 129j (LL5/5) is the major rotamer orientation for double belt HDL and propose that the small ubiquitous gap between the pairwise helix 5 portions of the double belt in larger HDL discoidal particles is significantly dynamic to hinge off the disc edge under certain conditions, e.g., in smaller particles or perhaps following binding of the enzyme LCAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in High Density Lipoprotein Formation and Metabolism: A Tribute to John F. Oram (1945-2010). PMID:22063273

  10. CD36 Binds Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in a Mechanism Dependent upon Fatty Acid Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Anthony G.; Chen, Alexander N.; Paz, Miguel A.; Hung, Justin P.; Hamilton, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The association of unesterified fatty acid (FA) with the scavenger receptor CD36 has been actively researched, with focuses on FA and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. CD36 has been shown to bind FA, but this interaction has been poorly characterized to date. To gain new insights into the physiological relevance of binding of FA to CD36, we characterized FA binding to the ectodomain of CD36 by the biophysical method surface plasmon resonance. Five structurally distinct FAs (saturated, monounsaturated (cis and trans), polyunsaturated, and oxidized) were pulsed across surface plasmon resonance channels, generating association and dissociation binding curves. Except for the oxidized FA HODE, all FAs bound to CD36, with rapid association and dissociation kinetics similar to HSA. Next, to elucidate the role that each FA might play in CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, we used a fluorescent oxLDL (Dii-oxLDL) live cell assay with confocal microscopy imaging. CD36-mediated uptake in serum-free medium was very low but greatly increased when serum was present. The addition of exogenous FA in serum-free medium increased oxLDL binding and uptake to levels found with serum and affected CD36 plasma membrane distribution. Binding/uptake of oxLDL was dependent upon the FA dose, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which exhibited binding to CD36 but did not activate the uptake of oxLDL. HODE also did not affect oxLDL uptake. High affinity FA binding to CD36 and the effects of each FA on oxLDL uptake have important implications for protein conformation, binding of other ligands, functional properties of CD36, and high plasma FA levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25555908

  11. Effect of uric acid and chemical analogues on oxidation of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlotte, V; Sevanian, A; Hochstein, P; Weithmann, K U

    1998-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is implicated in the early development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, attention has been focused toward the potential protective effects of uric acid and purine-based chemical analogues in copper-promoted oxidative changes to human LDL in vitro. Between 5-100 mumol/l uric acid protected LDL from oxidative degradation in a concentration dependent manner. However, 5 mumol/l were not capable of inhibiting the consumption of LDLs natural antioxidative components, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, but led to a more than two-fold prolongation, up to 3 h, of the lag phase before onset of polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) oxidation. 100 mumol/l uric acid, which is still below the human serum level of 300 mumol/l, reduced consumption of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene by about 50% and largely suppressed PUFA oxidation for up to 4 h. A more lipophilic series of methyl analogues of uric acid exhibited less activity. Neither 1,3-dimethyl uric acid, nor the 1,3,7- or 1,7- or 3,7-methylated compounds, all at 100 mumol/l, exceeded the antioxidative potential of 10 mumol/l uric acid. At concentrations up to 100 mumol/l xanthine and its analogues lacked virtually any protective effects toward the LDL constituents. In conclusion, the present study indicates that uric acid at concentrations similar to its physiological levels, and also related analogues are able to suppress oxidative degradation of LDL components. In view of the various mechanisms underlying atherogenesis in vivo, the protective effect in terms of modulating redox reactions and oxidative events in the blood or at the arterial wall appears of potential importance. PMID:9823550

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Ordovás, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not been evaluated for obesity in people. We examined whether dietary fats (eg., saturated, polyunsaturated) modulated the association of LRP1 variants with anthropometric traits. We studied a population-based sample of Puerto Ricans (n=920, aged 45–74 y) living in the Boston area. In multivariable linear regression models, we dichotomized saturated fat intake and found significant interaction terms between total saturated fatty acids and LRP1 rs1799986 genotype for BMI (P=0.006) and hip (P=0.002). High intake of saturated fat was associated with higher BMI (P=0.001), waist (P=0.008) and hip (P=0.003) in minor allele carriers (CT+TT) compared to CC participants. Further analysis of dichotomized individual saturated fatty acids revealed that interactions were strongest for two individual longer chain fatty acids. High intake of palmitic acid (C16:0; P=0.0007) and high stearic acid intake (C18:0; P=0.005) were associated with higher BMI in T carriers. Interactions were not detected for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Gene-diet interactions at the LRP1 locus support the hypothesis that susceptibility to weight gain based on saturated fatty acids is modified by genotype and possibly by chain length. These results may facilitate the development of a panel of genetic candidates for use in optimizing dietary recommendations for obesity management. PMID:23404896

  13. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-02-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouse(TM) platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  14. High density lipoprotein from patients with valvular heart disease uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Jun; Yuan, Hai-Yun; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Fu, Li; Lin, Ze-Bang; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Shen-Ming; Zhou, Li; Xu, Ying-Qi; Wang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Ou, Jing-Song

    2014-09-01

    Normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) protects vascular function; however these protective effects of HDL may absent in valvular heart disease (VHD). Because vascular function plays an important role in maintaining the circulation post-cardiac surgery and some patients are difficult to stabilize, we hypothesized that a deleterious vascular effect of HDL may contribute to vascular dysfunction in VHD patients following surgery. HDL was isolated from age-match 28 healthy subjects and 84 patients with VHD and during cardiac surgery. HDL pro-inflammation index was measured and the effects of HDL on vasodilation, protein interaction, generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide were determined. Patients with VHD received either simvastatin (20mg/d) or routine medications, and endothelial effects of HDL were characterized. HDL inflammation index significantly increased in VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery. HDL from VHD patients and post-cardiac surgery significantly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, inhibited both Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), NO production and increased eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation. Simvastatin therapy partially reduced HDL inflammation index, improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate eNOS and Akt phosphorylation at S1177, eNOS associated with HSP90, NO production, reduced eNOS phosphorylation at T495 and superoxide generation, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Our data demonstrated that HDL from VHD patients and cardiac surgery contributed to endothelial dysfunction through uncoupling of eNOS. This deleterious effect can be reversed by simvastatin, which improves the vasoprotective effects of HDL. Targeting HDL may be a therapeutic strategy for maintaining vascular function and improving the outcomes post-cardiac surgery. PMID:24887036

  15. Automated detection and tracking of individual and clustered cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, R N; Webb, W W

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a technique to detect, recognize, and track each individual low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) molecule and small receptor clusters on the surface of human skin fibroblasts. Molecular recognition and high precision (30 nm) simultaneous automatic tracking of all of the individual receptors in the cell surface population utilize quantitative time-lapse low light level digital video fluorescence microscopy analyzed by purpose-designed algorithms executed on an image processing work station. The LDL-Rs are labeled with the biologically active, fluorescent LDL derivative dil-LDL. Individual LDL-Rs and unresolved small clusters are identified by measuring the fluorescence power radiated by the sub-resolution fluorescent spots in the image; identification of single particles is ascertained by four independent techniques. An automated tracking routine was developed to track simultaneously, and without user intervention, a multitude of fluorescent particles through a sequence of hundreds of time-lapse image frames. The limitations on tracking precision were found to depend on the signal-to-noise ratio of the tracked particle image and mechanical drift of the microscope system. We describe the methods involved in (i) time-lapse acquisition of the low-light level images, (ii) simultaneous automated tracking of the fluorescent diffraction limited punctate images, (iii) localizing particles with high precision and limitations, and (iv) detecting and identifying single and clustered LDL-Rs. These methods are generally applicable and provide a powerful tool to visualize and measure dynamics and interactions of individual integral membrane proteins on living cell surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8061186

  16. Direct Measurement of the Structure of Reconstituted High-Density Lipoproteins by Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stephen C; Gillard, Baiba K; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2016-02-23

    Early forms of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), nascent HDL, are formed by the interaction of apolipoprotein AI with macrophage and hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter member 1. Various plasma activities convert nascent to mature HDL, comprising phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol, which are selectively removed by hepatic receptors. This process is important in reducing the cholesterol burden of arterial wall macrophages, an important cell type in all stages of atherosclerosis. Interaction of apolipoprotein AI with dimyristoyl (DM)PC forms reconstituted (r)HDL, which is a good model of nascent HDL. rHDL have been used as an antiathersclerosis therapy that enhances reverse cholesterol transport in humans and animal models. Thus, identification of the structure of rHDL would inform about that of nascent HDL and how rHDL improves reverse cholesterol transport in an atheroprotective way. Early studies of rHDL suggested a discoidal structure, which included pairs of antiparallel helices of apolipoprotein AI circumscribing a phospholipid bilayer. Another rHDL model based on small angle neutron scattering supported a double superhelical structure. Herein, we report a cryo-electron microscopy-based model of a large rHDL formed spontaneously from apolipoprotein AI, cholesterol, and excess DMPC and isolated to near homogeneity. After reconstruction we obtained an rHDL structure comprising DMPC, cholesterol, and apolipoprotein AI (423:74:1 mol/mol) forming a discoidal particle 360 in diameter and 45 thick; these dimensions are consistent with the stoichiometry of the particles. Given that cryo-electron microscopy directly observes projections of individual rHDL particles in different orientations, we can unambiguously state that rHDL particles are protein bounded discoidal bilayers. PMID:26743047

  17. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Yang, Zhang; Halim, Adnan; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Madsen, Thomas Daugbjerg; Seidah, Nabil G.; Bennett, Eric Paul; Levery, Steven B.; Clausen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is crucial for cholesterol homeostasis and deficiency in LDLR functions cause hypercholesterolemia. LDLR is a type I transmembrane protein that requires O-glycosylation for stable expression at the cell surface. It has previously been suggested that LDLR O-glycosylation is found N-terminal to the juxtamembrane region. Recently we identified O-glycosylation sites in the linker regions between the characteristic LDLR class A repeats in several LDLR-related receptors using the “SimpleCell” O-glycoproteome shotgun strategy. Herein, we have systematically characterized O-glycosylation sites on recombinant LDLR shed from HEK293 SimpleCells and CHO wild-type cells. We find that the short linker regions between LDLR class A repeats contain an evolutionarily conserved O-glycosylation site at position −1 of the first cysteine residue of most repeats, which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc transferases. Probing into which isoform(s) contributed to glycosylation of the linker regions of the LDLR class A repeats by in vitro enzyme assays suggested a major role of GalNAc-T11. This was supported by expression of LDLR in HEK293 cells, where knock-out of the GalNAc-T11 isoform resulted in the loss of glycosylation of three of four linker regions. PMID:24798328

  18. Relation between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease in asymptomatic men

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Troxler, R.G.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.; Clark, D.

    1981-11-01

    The well established inverse relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and the risk of coronary artery disease was tested in a cross-sectional group of 572 asymptomatic aircrew members who were being screened for risk of coronary artery disease. A battery of tests was performed, including determinations of fasting serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides and performance of a maximal symptom-limited exercise tolerance test. Of the 572 patients, 132 also had an abnormal S-T segment response to exercise testing or were otherwise believed to have an increased risk of organic heart disease and subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 16 men and minimal or subcritical coronary disease in 14; coronary angiograms were normal in the remaining 102 men. The remaining 440 men, who were believed to have a 1 percent chance of having coronary artery disease by sequential testing of risk factors and treadmill testing, had a mean cholesterol level of 213 mg/100 ml, a mean HDL cholesterol of 51 mg/100 ml and a mean cholesterol/HDL ratio of 4.4. The mean values of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly in men with normal angiographic finding and those with subcritical coronary disease. However, 14 of 16 men with coronary artery disease had a cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more whereas only 4 men with normal coronary arteries had a ratio of 6.0 or more. Of the classical coronary risk factors evaluated, the cholesterol/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more had the highest odds ratio (172:1). It appears that determination of HDL cholesterol level helps to identify asymptomatic persons with a greater risk of having coronary artery disease.

  19. Evaluation of high density lipoprotein as a circulating biomarker of Gaucher disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Philip; Yang, Ruhua; Liu, Jun; Pastores, Gregory M.; Mistry, Pramod K.

    2011-01-01

    Circulating biomarkers are important surrogates for monitoring disease activity in type I Gaucher disease (GD1). We and others have reported low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in GD1. We assessed HDL cholesterol as a biomarker of GD1, with respect to its correlation with indicators of disease severity and its response to imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). In 278 consecutively evaluated GD1 patients, we correlated HDL cholesterol, chitotriosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with indicators of disease severity. Additionally, we measured the response of these biomarkers to ERT. HDL cholesterol was negatively correlated with spleen volume, liver volume, and GD severity score index; the magnitude of this association of disease severity with HDL cholesterol was similar to that for ACE and for chitotriosidase. Within individual patients monitored over many years, there was a strikingly strong correlation of HDL with liver and spleen volumes; there was a similarly strong correlation of chitotriosidase and ACE with disease severity in individual patients monitored serially over many years (chitotriosidase r=0.96 to 0.98, ACE r =0.88 to 0.94, and HDL r=?0.84 to ?0.94, p<0.001). ERT for 3 years resulted in a striking increase of HDL while serum levels of chitotriosidase and ACE decreased. Our results reveal markedly low HDL cholesterol in untreated GD1, a correlation with indicators of disease severity in GD1, and a rise towards normal after ERT. These findings suggest HDL cholesterol merits inclusion within the biomarker basket for monitoring of patients with GD1. PMID:21290183

  20. Molecular hydrogen stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Guohua; Zong, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Yu, Yang; Yao, Shutong; Jiao, Peng; Tian, Hua; Zhai, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Tian, Shuyan; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wu, Yun; Sun, Xuejun; Qin, Shucun

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen (H(2)) attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. We aimed to examine the effects of H(2) on atherosclerotic plaque stability. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed an atherogenic diet were dosed daily with H(2) and/or simvastatin. In vitro studies were carried out in an oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL)-stimulated macrophage-derived foam cell model treated with or without H(2). H(2) or simvastatin significantly enhanced plaque stability by increasing levels of collagen, as well as reducing macrophage and lipid levels in plaques. The decreased numbers of dendritic cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells in plaques further supported the stabilizing effect of H(2) or simvastatin. Moreover, H(2) treatment decreased serum ox-LDL level and apoptosis in plaques with concomitant inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the aorta. In vitro, like the ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid, H(2) inhibited ox-LDL- or tunicamycin (an ERS inducer)-induced ERS response and cell apoptosis. In addition, like the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine, H(2) inhibited ox-LDL- or Cu(2+) (an ROS inducer)-induced reduction in cell viability and increase in cellular ROS. Also, H(2) increased Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor-2, an important factor in antioxidant signaling) activation and Nrf2 small interfering RNA abolished the protective effect of H(2) on ox-LDL-induced cellular ROS production. The inhibitory effects of H(2) on the apoptosis of macrophage-derived foam cells, which take effect by suppressing the activation of the ERS pathway and by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, might lead to an improvement in atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:26117323

  1. Lipoxygenase treatment render low-density lipoprotein susceptible to Cu2+-catalysed oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Lass, A; Belkner, J; Esterbauer, H; Kühn, H

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in foam-cell formation at all stages of atherosclerosis. Since transition metals and mammalian 15-lipoxygenases are capable of oxidizing LDL to its atherogenic form, a concerted action of these two catalysts in atherogenesis has been suggested. Cu2+-catalysed LDL oxidation is characterized by a kinetic lag period in which the lipophilic antioxidants are decomposed and by a complex mixture of unspecific oxidation products. We investigated the kinetics of the 15-lipoxygenase-catalysed oxygenation of LDL and found that the enzyme is capable of oxidizing LDL in the presence of the endogenous lipophilic antioxidants. In contrast with the Cu2+-catalysed reaction, no kinetic lag phase was detected. The pattern of products formed during short-term incubations was highly specific, with cholesterol-esterified (13S)-hydroperoxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadinoic acid being the major product. However, after long-term incubations the product pattern was less specific. Preincubation with 15-lipoxygenase rendered human LDL more susceptible to Cu2+-catalysed oxidation as indicated by a dramatic shortening of the lag period. Addition of Cu2+ to lipoxygenase-treated LDL led to a steep decline in its antioxidant content and to a greatly reduced lag period. Interestingly, if normalized to a comparable hydroperoxide content, autoxidation and addition of exogenous hydroperoxy fatty acids both failed to overcome the lag period. The local peroxide concentrations in various LDL subcompartments will be discussed as a possible reason for this unexpected behaviour. PMID:8670073

  2. Assessment of the Validity of the Double Superhelix Model for Reconstituted High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Martin K.; Zhang, Lei; Catte, Andrea; Li, Ling; Oda, Michael N.; Ren, Gang; Segrest, Jere P.

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, the standard model for high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles reconstituted from apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and phospholipid (apoA-I/HDL) has been a discoidal particle ?100 ? in diameter and the thickness of a phospholipid bilayer. Recently, Wu et al. (Wu, Z., Gogonea, V., Lee, X., Wagner, M. A., Li, X. M., Huang, Y., Undurti, A., May, R. P., Haertlein, M., Moulin, M., Gutsche, I., Zaccai, G., Didonato, J. A., and Hazen, S. L. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 3660536619) used small angle neutron scattering to develop a new model they termed double superhelix (DSH) apoA-I that is dramatically different from the standard model. Their model possesses an open helical shape that wraps around a prolate ellipsoidal type I hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase. Here, we used three independent approaches, molecular dynamics, EM tomography, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy (FRET) to assess the validity of the DSH model. (i) By using molecular dynamics, two different approaches, all-atom simulated annealing and coarse-grained simulation, show that initial ellipsoidal DSH particles rapidly collapse to discoidal bilayer structures. These results suggest that, compatible with current knowledge of lipid phase diagrams, apoA-I cannot stabilize hexagonal I phase particles of phospholipid. (ii) By using EM, two different approaches, negative stain and cryo-EM tomography, show that reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles are discoidal in shape. (iii) By using FRET, reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles show a 2834-? intermolecular separation between terminal domain residues 40 and 240, a distance that is incompatible with the dimensions of the DSH model. Therefore, we suggest that, although novel, the DSH model is energetically unfavorable and not likely to be correct. Rather, we conclude that all evidence supports the likelihood that reconstituted apoA-I/HDL particles, in general, are discoidal in shape. PMID:20974855

  3. Significance of low density lipoprotein production in the regulations of plasma cholesterol level in man.

    PubMed Central

    Kesaniemi, Y A; Grundy, S M

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether production or catabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major factor controlling LDL concentrations in subjects with plasma cholesterol levels from low-normal to mildly elevated, measurements of apoprotein of LDL (apoLDL) turnover were performed in 16 patients with various plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol balance studies were done simultaneously in 13 of these patients. Plasma concentrations of apoLDL and LDL-cholesterol were positively correlated with synthetic rates of apoLDL (r = 0.74, P less than 0.001; r = 0.50, P less than 0.05, respectively). No correlation was noted between the fractional catabolic rate for apoLDL and apoLDL levels (or LDL-cholesterol). For further analysis, the patients were divided into three groups with stepwise increases in apoLDL concentrations. When apoLDL levels rose significantly, from 83 +/- 5 SEM to 122 +/- 2 to 149 +/- 5 mg/dl, synthetic rates for apoLDL also increased significantly from 11.6 +/- 12. to 17.0 +/- 0.9 to 23.8 +/- 1.8 mg/d/kg ideal weight. In contrast, the fractional catabolic rate of apoLDL was not different among the three groups (0.32 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.29 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.03/d). No relation was noted between synthesis of total body cholesterol (or bile acids) and concentrations, production rates, or removal of apoLDL. Thus, concentrations of apoLDL and LDL-cholesterol in these subjects with plasma cholesterol levels from low-normal to mildly elevated were regulated mainly by synthetic rates of apoLDL and not by LDL catabolism. PMID:7085881

  4. Electronegative Low-density Lipoprotein Increases Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Uremia Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, Guei-Jane; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Lee, An-Sean; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chun-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Yang, Chao-Yuh; Stancel, Nicole; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population, but its role in the development of CAD in uremia patients is unknown. L5 is the most electronegative subfraction of LDL isolated from human plasma. In this study, we examined the distribution of L5 (L5%) and its association with CAD risk in uremia patients.The LDL of 39 uremia patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 21 healthy controls was separated into 5 subfractions, L1-L5, with increasing electronegativity. We compared the distribution and composition of plasma L5 between uremia patients and controls, examined the association between plasma L5% and CAD risk in uremia patients, and studied the effects of L5 from uremia patients on endothelial function.Compared to controls, uremia patients had significantly increased L5% (P?

  5. Association of lipoarabinomannan with high density lipoprotein in blood: Implications for diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakamuri, Rama Murthy; Price, Dominique N.; Lee, Myungsun; Cho, Sang Nae; Barry, Clifton E.; Via, Laura E.; Swanson, Basil I.; Mukundan, Harshini

    2013-02-14

    Understanding the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, and the bio-distribution of pathogen-associated molecules in the host is essential for the development of efficient methods of intervention. One of the key virulence factors in the pathology of tuberculosis infection is Lipoarabinomannan (LAM). Previously, we have demonstrated the reliable detection of LAM in urine from tuberculosis patients in a sandwich immunoassay format. We also applied an ultra-sensitive detection strategy developed for amphiphilic biomarkers, membrane insertion, to the detection of LAM with a limit of detection of 10 fM. Herein, we evaluate the application of membrane insertion to the detection of LAM in patient serum,more » and demonstrate that the circulating concentrations of ‘monomeric’ LAM in serum are very low, despite significantly higher concentrations in the urine. Using spiked samples, we demonstrate that this discrepancy is due to the association of LAM with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nanodiscs in human serum. Indeed, pull-down of HDL nanodiscs from human serum allows for the recovery of HDL-associated LAM. These studies suggest that LAM is likely associated with carrier molecules such as HDL in the blood of patients infected with tuberculosis. Furthermore, this phenomenon may not be limited to LAM in that many pathogen-associated molecular patterns like LAM are amphiphilic in nature and may also be associated with host lipid carriers. Such interactions are likely to affect host–pathogen interactions, pathogen bio-distribution and clearance in the host, and must be thoroughly understood for the effective design of vaccines and diagnostics.« less

  6. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

  7. Plasma Nitration of High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Kidney Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Bakillah, Ahmed; Tedla, Fasika; Ayoub, Isabelle; John, Devon; Norin, Allen J.; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Brown, Clinton

    2015-01-01

    Background. Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. Methods. Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation. Patients were excluded if they have history of diabetes, treatment with lipid-lowering medications or HIV protease inhibitors, prednisone dose > 15 mg/day, nephrotic range proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, or active inflammatory disease. Sera from 18 transplanted patients were analyzed. Four subjects were excluded due to insufficient data. Twelve and eight patients had creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL at 3 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Results. Nitrated apoA-I was significantly reduced at 12 months after transplantation (p = 0.039). The decrease in apoA-I nitration was associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (p = 0.047). In contrast to apoA-I, nitrated apoB was not affected after kidney transplantation. Conclusions. Patients with well-functioning grafts had significant reduction in nitrated apoA-I 12 months after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed in a large cohort to determine if nitrated apoA-I can be used as a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk stratification in chronic kidney disease. PMID:26648662

  8. High-density lipoproteins in the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. Part I. Epidemiological and family studies.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M

    1978-10-21

    It has recently been proposed that the concentration of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma bears a negative relationship to the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease. The biological and environmental factors affecting plasma HDL levels and the evidence pertaining to the proposed 'negative risk potential' of this lipoprotein are reviewed. HDL concentrations are low at birth, but rise rapidly in early infancy to adult or above-normal adult levels. This trend is influenced by biological factors such as sex and ethnicity and by a host of environmental variables. Despite methodological inadequacies in some studies, the epidemiological evidence consistently reflects an inverse relationship between the level of HDL in the plasma and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Investigations on families suffering from genetic dyslipoproteinaemias, characterized by reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) relative to HDL, suggest that the LDL:HDL ratio is itself an important determinant of atherosclerotic heart disease. The practical application of this information is limited by the lack of reliable reference ranges in various population groups and the absence of quantitative data regarding the 'negative risk potential' of any given concentration of plasma HDL in the presence of other positive and negative risk factors. PMID:217108

  9. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 190mgL(-1)and 1610 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting. PMID:21596155

  10. Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Children with Diabetes: Proposed Treatment Recommendations Based on Glycemic Control, Body Mass Index, Age, Sex, and Generally Accepted Cut Points.

    PubMed

    Schwab, K Otfried; Doerfer, Jrgen; Hungele, Andreas; Scheuing, Nicole; Krebs, Andreas; Dost, Axel; Rohrer, Tilman R; Hofer, Sabine; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-12-01

    Percentile-based non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed by glycemic control, weight, age, and sex of children with type 1 diabetes (n=26?358). Ten percent of all children and 25% of overweight adolescent girls require both immediate lipid-lowering medication and lifestyle changes to achieve non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <120mg/dL and cardiovascular risk reduction. PMID:26427965

  11. Lipoprotein apheresis.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Patrick M; Hemphill, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have early development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid level-lowering medications are not always successful in reducing increased low-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C) levels. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) therapy has proven its clinical benefit in reducing CVD events for patients with FH with hypercholesterolemia. LA reduces LDL-C levels by more than 60% in patients with FH and reduces CVD events. LA also reduces Lp(a) levels and CVD events. LA reduces inflammatory markers and blood viscosity. PMID:25939293

  12. Lipoprotein Apheresis.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Patrick M; Hemphill, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have early development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid level-lowering medications are not always successful in reducing increased low-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C) levels. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) therapy has proven its clinical benefit in reducing CVD events for patients with FH with hypercholesterolemia. LA reduces LDL-C levels by more than 60% in patients with FH and reduces CVD events. LA also reduces Lp(a) levels and CVD events. LA reduces inflammatory markers and blood viscosity. PMID:26892996

  13. Loci of catabolism of beta-very low density lipoprotein in vivo delineated with a residualizing label, SVI-dilactitol tyramine

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, A.; Thorpe, S.R.; Lange, L.G.; Sobel, B.E.; Schonfeld, G.

    1985-11-25

    beta-Very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) may be a major atherogenic lipoprotein, and knowledge of the sites of its catabolism should facilitate elucidation of mechanisms important in the regulation of its plasma concentrations. In this study, catabolic sites of beta-VLDL have been delineated in normolipidemic rabbits with a novel, radioiodinated, residualizing label, SVI-dilactitol tyramine ( SVI-DLT). Comparative studies of beta-VLDL and low density lipoprotein catabolism were performed with SVI-DLT conjugated to each lipoprotein and with lipoproteins iodine-labeled conventionally. Conjugation did not alter size distributions or charge characteristics of lipoprotein particles. The overall processing (binding and degradation) of lipoproteins by cultured rabbit skin fibroblasts was not influenced by SVI-DLT derivatization, suggesting that attachment of the label did not influence cell receptor-lipoprotein interactions. Furthermore, although degradation products of SVI-lipoproteins leaked out of the cells and into the medium, the degradation products of SVI-DLT lipoproteins were retained by the cells. The principal catabolic site of beta-VLDL in normolipidemic rabbits was found to be the liver with 54 +/- 4% of injected SVI retained in this organ 24 h after injection of SVI-DLT-beta-VLDL. When catabolism was normalized to tissue weight, the liver and adrenals were found to be approximately equally active in the metabolism of beta-VLDL. In agreement with results of other studies with residualizing labels, the principal organ of catabolism of SVI-DLT-LDL in vivo was the liver. The adrenals were the most highly catabolizing organ when results were normalized for tissue weight.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles To Treat Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Marina Giacoma

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs), natural nanoparticles that function as vehicles for cholesterol transport, have enhanced uptake by several human cancers. This uptake is mediated, in part, by the high affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B-1 (SR-B1). More specifically, studies show that the rate of cellular proliferation of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphocytes, is directly proportional to the amount of HDL-cholesterol available. Thus, targeting of HDL-cholesterol uptake by these cells could be an effective therapeutic approach that may have lower toxicity to healthy cells compared to conventional therapies. Biomimetic HDL can be synthesized using a gold nanoparticle template (HDL-AuNPs), which provides control over size, shape, and surface chemistry. Like their natural counterparts, HDL-AuNPs sequester cholesterol. However, since the gold nanoparticle replaces the cholesterol core of natural HDL, HDL-AuNPs inherently deliver less cholesterol. We show that HDL-AuNPs are able to induce dose dependent apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines and reduce tumor volume following systemic administration to mice bearing B cell lymphoma tumors. Furthermore, HDL-AuNPs are neither toxic to healthy human lymphocytes (SR-B1-), nor to hepatocytes and macrophages (SR-B1+), which are cells naturally encountered by HDLs. Manipulation of cholesterol flux and targeting of SR-B1 are responsible for the efficacy of HDL-AuNPs against B cell lymphoma. HDL-AuNPs could be used to treat B cell lymphomas and other diseases that involve pathologic accumulation of cholesterol. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) core HDLs (HDL-TiO 2 NPs) have been synthesized for high resolution cellular localization studies and for future use as a therapeutic and imaging agent. In initial studies, HDL-TiO(2 NPs display maximum uptake in B cell lymphoma cell lines. X-ray fluorescence microscopy studies show interaction between HDL-TiO2 NPs and cells 10 minutes after treatment and internalization after 1 hour. HDL-TiO2 NPs induce apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines. These results suggest that HDL-TiO2 NPs may be used as therapeutics for lymphoma and other cancers by inducing apoptosis through manipulation of cellular cholesterol flux.

  15. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australias Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 511641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n?=?3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P?

  16. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography profiles of human high-density lipoprotein phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chin-Pong; Lin, Ting-Yu; Chang, Chia-Liang; Yang, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Hua; Yu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Mine-Yine

    2011-05-01

    A simple and fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed to investigate phospholipids isolated from human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To optimize the MEKC conditions, several factors including bile salt concentration and organic modifier concentration in the separation buffer as well as temperature have been examined. The optimal separation buffer chosen was a mixture of 50 mM bile salts, 30% v/v 1-propanol and 10 mM sodium phosphate (pH 8.5). The applied voltage and temperature selected were 25 kV and 40C, respectively. Meanwhile, high-salt stacking has been performed for sample pre-concentration to enhance peak sensitivity. Several factors including organic modifier concentration and salt concentration in the sample matrix as well as sample injection time have been optimized. The optimal sample buffer selected was a mixture of 100 mM NaCl and 20% 1-propanol, and the optimal sample injection time selected was 32 s under a pressure of 0.5 psi. Several phospholipid standards including lysophosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl choline (PC), sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidic acid have been studied using the optimal MEKC method. The MEKC profile of the mixed phospholipid standards showed good separation and reproducibility. The linear ranges for PC and sphingomyelin were 0.025-1.2 and 0.025-2.0 mg/mL, respectively. The concentration limits of detection of PC and sphingomyelin were 0.0156 and 0.0199 mg/mL, respectively. Using phosphatidic acid as an internal standard, precision and accuracy have been measured for PC and sphingomyelin. The intraday and interday quantitative analysis showed good results. The new MEKC method has been used to characterize native, in vitro oxidized and glycated human HDL phospholipids within 16 min. At absorbance 200 nm, two similar peaks were observed for native and oxidized HDL phospholipids, but three peaks were observed for glycated HDL phospholipids. Interestingly, at absorbance 234 nm, distinctively different MEKC profiles were observed for the three HDL phospholipids. PMID:21500203

  17. Glycated phosphatidylethanolamine promotes macrophage uptake of low density lipoprotein and accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, A; Kuksis, A; Shaikh, N A

    1999-06-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be responsible for the increase in susceptibility to atherogenesis of diabetic individuals. Although the association of lipid glycation with this process has been investigated, the effect of specific lipid glycation products on LDL metabolism has not been addressed. This study reports that glucosylated phosphatidylethanolamine (Glc-PtdEtn), the major LDL lipid glycation product, promotes LDL uptake and cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation by THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of THP-1 macrophages at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml protein LDL specifically enriched (10 nmol/mg LDL protein) with synthetically prepared Glc-PtdEtn resulted in a significant increase in CE and TG accumulation when compared with LDL enriched in non-glucosylated PtdEtn. After a 24-h incubation with LDL containing Glc-PtdEtn, the macrophages contained 2-fold higher CE (10.11 +/- 1.54 micrograms/mg cell protein) and TG (285.32 +/- 4.38 micrograms/mg cell protein) compared with LDL specifically enriched in non-glucosylated PtdEtn (CE, 3.97 +/- 0.95, p < 0.01 and TG, 185.57 +/- 3.58 micrograms/mg cell protein, p < 0.01). The corresponding values obtained with LDL containing glycated protein and lipid were similar to those of LDL containing Glc-PtdEtn (CE, 11.9 +/- 1.35 and TG, 280.78 +/- 3.98 micrograms/mg cell protein). The accumulation of both neutral lipids was further significantly increased by incubating the macrophages with Glc-PtdEtn LDL exposed to copper oxidation. By utilizing the fluorescent probe, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3', 3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a 1.6-fold increase was seen in Glc-PtdEtn + LDL uptake when compared with control LDL. Competition studies revealed that acetylated LDL is not a good competitor for DiI Glc-PtdEtn LDL (5-6% inhibition), whereas glycated LDL gave an 80% inhibition, and LDL + Glc-PtdEtn gave 93% inhibition of uptake by macrophages. These results indicate that glucosylation of PtdEtn in LDL accounts for the entire effect of LDL glycation on macrophage uptake and CE and TG accumulation and, therefore, the increased atherogenic potential of LDL in hyperglycemia. PMID:10347212

  18. Increased resistance to oxidation of betalain-enriched human low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, L; Butera, D; D'Arpa, D; Di Gaudio, F; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2003-06-01

    Betalains are natural pigments recently considered as compounds with potential antioxidative properties. In this work, ex vivo plasma spiking of pure either betanin or indicaxanthin, followed by isolation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and measurement of its resistance to copper-induced oxidation, has been used to research if these betalains can bind to LDL and prevent oxidation of LDL lipids. When pooled human plasma from 10 healthy volunteers was incubated in the presence of 25-100 microM either betanin or indicaxanthin, incorporation of both compounds in LDL was observed, with a maximum binding of 0.52 +/- 0.08, and 0.51 +/- 0.06 nmoles of indicaxanthin and betanin, respectively, per mg LDL protein. Indicaxanthin-enriched and betanin-enriched LDL were more resistant than homologous native LDL to copper-induced oxidation, as assessed by the elongation of the induction period. The incorporated indicaxanthin, however, appeared twice as effective as betanin in increasing the length of the lag phase, while both compounds did not affect the propagation rate. Both betalains were consumed during the inhibition period of lipid oxidation, and delayed consumption of LDL-beta carotene. Indicaxanthin, but not betanin, prevented vitamin E consumption at the beginning of LDL oxidation, and prolonged the time of its utilization. The resistance of LDL to oxidation when vitamin E and indicaxanthin acted separately in a sequence, was lower than that measured when they were allowed to act in combination, indicating some synergistic interaction between the two molecules. No prooxidant effect over a large concentration range of either betanin or indicaxanthin was observed, when either betalain was added to the LDL system undergoing a copper-induced oxidation. These results show than indicaxanthin and betanin may bind to LDL, and are highly effective in preventing copper-induced lipid oxidation. Interaction with vitamin E appears to add a remarkable potential to indicaxanthin in the protection of LDL. Although molecular mechanisms remain uncompletely understood, various aspects of the action of betanin and indicaxanthin in preventing LDL lipid oxidation are discussed. PMID:12868496

  19. Different responses to oxidized low-density lipoproteins in human polarized macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake by macrophages plays an important role in foam cell formation. It has been suggested the presence of heterogeneous subsets of macrophage, such as M1 and M2, in human atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate which types of macrophages contribute to atherogenesis, we performed cDNA microarray analysis to determine oxLDL-induced transcriptional alterations of each subset of macrophages. Results Human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized toward the M1 or M2 subset, followed by treatment with oxLDL. Then gene expression levels during oxLDL treatment in each subset of macrophages were evaluated by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In terms of high-ranking upregulated genes and functional ontologies, the alterations during oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages were similar to those in nonpolarized macrophages (M0). Molecular network analysis showed that most of the molecules in the oxLDL-induced highest scoring molecular network of M1 macrophages were directly or indirectly related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed commonly upregulated genes in all subset of macrophages, some of which contained antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoter regions. A cluster of genes that were specifically upregulated in M1 macrophages included those encoding molecules related to nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-8 after oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages was markedly lower than those in M0 and M1 cells. HMOX1 gene expression levels were almost the same in all 3 subsets of macrophages even after oxLDL treatment. Conclusions The present study demonstrated transcriptional alterations in polarized macrophages during oxLDL treatment. The data suggested that oxLDL uptake may affect TGF-β1- and NF-κB-mediated functions of M1 macrophages, but not those of M0 or M2 macrophages. It is likely that M1 macrophages characteristically respond to oxLDL. PMID:21199582

  20. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Straka, Robert; Kammerer, Candace M.; Lee, Joseph H.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Christensen, Kaare; Newman, Anne B.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights into biological regulation of HDL metabolism in healthy-longevous subjects. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan on HDL using a mixed model approach to account for family structure using kinship coefficients. A total of 4114 subjects of European descent (480 families) were genotyped at ~2.3 million SNPs and ~38 million SNPs were imputed using the 1000 Genome Cosmopolitan reference panel in MACH. We identified novel variants near-NLRP1 (17p13) associated with an increase of HDL levels at genome-wide significant level (p < 5.0E-08). Additionally, several CETP (16q21) and ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1 (11q23.3) variants associated with HDL were found, replicating those previously reported in the literature. A possible regulatory variant upstream of NLRP1 that is associated with HDL in these elderly Long Life Family Study (LLFS) subjects may also contribute to their longevity and health. Our NLRP1 intergenic SNPs show a potential regulatory function in Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE); however, it is not clear whether they regulate NLRP1 or other more remote gene. NLRP1 plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis, and its inflammasome is critical for mediating innate immune responses. Nlrp1a (a mouse ortholog of human NLRP1) interacts with SREBP-1a (17p11) which has a fundamental role in lipid concentration and composition, and is involved in innate immune response in macrophages. The NLRP1 region is conserved in mammals, but also has evolved adaptively showing signals of positive selection in European populations that might confer an advantage. NLRP1 intergenic SNPs have also been associated with immunity/inflammasome disorders which highlights the biological importance of this chromosomal region. PMID:24917880

  1. Allele-specific expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, A.; Lussier-Cacan, S.; Roy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 60% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in French Canadians is due to a > 10 kb deletion of the promoter region of the gene encoding the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R), allowing determination of the influence of a single LDL-R allele on phenotypic expression of FH. Normal allele haplotypes of approximately 250 heterozygotes were determined with 7 RFLPs. In vitro maximal LDL-R activity of blood lymphocytes from a subset of approximately 150 heterozygotes, measured by immunocytofluorometry, was significantly higher (20 to 30%) in subjects with LDL-R normal allele haplotype G (n=11), and O (n=7) compared to the most frequent haplotype F (n=43), while no differences were observed among F, E (n=11), and the 2 other most prevalent haplotypes (n=43). LDL-R mRNA in these lymphocytes was significantly elevated 2.3-, 1.7-, and 1.8- fold, in G, O, and E, respectively, compared to F, while no significant differences were apparent between F and the other two most frequent haplotyes. Large interindividual variability in lymphocyte LDL-R mRNA levels and activity was observed even among subjects with the same LDL-R normal allele haplotype. However, maximally induced lymphocyte LDL-R mRNA levels correlated poorly with levels measured in freshly isolated cells (n=14). Relative to haplotype F (n=47 women (W), 39 men (M)), mean plasma LDL cholesterol levels adjusted for age and apolipoprotein E genotype were 5-10% lower in men and women with haplotypes G (n=16 W, 12 M) and O (n=8 W, 6 M), and 20% lower in 7 W with haplotype E. These results suggest that (1) normal LDL-R allele haplotype G and O may contain sequence variations which confer relatively high gene expression and (2) environmental and genetic influences other than the LDL-R gene contribute substantially to variability in LDL-R express