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  1. Periodontal effects and dental caries associated with smokeless tobacco use.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, J A; Burt, B A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been increasing in the United States with concomitant social, medical, legal, and regulatory ramifications. This paper examines the association between the use of smokeless tobacco and the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Existing literature consists primarily of case reports and cross-sectional studies among teenagers. The limited evidence suggests an association between smokeless tobacco use and gingival recession. There is insufficient evidence to support any associations between smokeless tobacco use and gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental caries. Methods to improve future epidemiologic research to examine possible associations between smokeless tobacco use and periodontal effects or dental caries are discussed. PMID:3101120

  2. Dental Caries and Periodontal Status of Mentally Handicapped Institutilized Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632

  3. Cranberry polyphenols: potential benefits for dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Grenier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, cranberries and their molecular components have received increasing attention from researchers in human health. In particular, the properties of the high-molecular-weight polyphenols isolated from cranberries have shown promise with regard to dental caries and periodontal disease. These potential anticaries agents inhibit the production of organic acids and the formation of biofilms by cariogenic bacteria. In addition, cranberry polyphenols may reduce the inflammatory response, as well as the production and activity of proteolytic enzymes contributing to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease. The polyphenols of cranberries also interfere with various activities (including formation of biofilm and adhesion) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis. This article summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the potential of cranberry polyphenols to prevent and/or treat diseases of the mouth. PMID:20943032

  4. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Kinney, John H.; Otis, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  5. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  6. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  7. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  8. Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Brazilian Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Andreia M. R.; Gomes, Lays N.; Silva, Clara Regina D.; de S. C. Soares, Renata; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.; Padilha, Wilton W. N.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09–1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69–0.97), caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03–1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80–0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76–0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75–0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  9. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area. PMID:26347009

  10. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area. PMID:26347009

  11. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  12. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  13. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  14. [Caries occurrence and periodontal condition in 100 dental students in their clinical semester. A clinical study].

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Jonas, I

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of caries and periodontal condition of 100 randomly selected clinical dental students (73 males, 27 females) in the age range of 22-37 years (means = 26.1 +/- 3.3 years). The statistical analysis revealed the following results: DMF-T Index (Klein & Palmer 1940) = 12.61 +/- 5.41 Plaque Index (Silness & Löe 1964) = 0.37 +/- 0.23 Gingiva Index (Löe & Silness 1963) = 0.39 +/- 0.20 Periodontal pocket depth = 1.65 +/- 0.27 mm. In relation to the results of other studies, clinical dental students had a decreased DMF-T Index and were in a better state of oral health and restaurations as compared to other groups of the same age. Female students had significantly less carious teeth, plaque and gingival disease than the male students. Increasing age had a highly significant correlation to DMF-T Index. Gingiva Index and pocket depth, whereas Plaque Index was correlated to a lesser degree. Plaque was confirmed as the essential factor of gingival disease. PMID:3273778

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL. PMID:26249603

  16. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  17. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  18. Correlation of Salivary pH, Incidence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Status in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, R.C. Jagat; Asifa, Nisha; Prabhu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many parts of the body. A number of oral diseases have been associated with diabetes mellitus with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary pH and incidence of dental caries and periodontal status in diabetes mellitus compared to that of the normal subjects. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 40 patients divided into 2 groups with group I comprising of 20 known diabetes mellitus patients and group II comprising of 20 non diabetic subjects as control group. The pH of the saliva was determined using a digital pH meter. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT and PDI indices respectively. Results There was a decrease in the mean salivary pH of 6.51 in the study group, compared to the normal mean salivary pH of 7.88 in the control group. The mean DMFT index was higher in the study group (8.10) when compared to that of control group (1.15). The mean PDI score was also higher in the study group (4.0) as compared to that of the control group (0.45). Conclusion The results of the present study concluded that there was a significant relationship between the diabetes mellitus and increased incidence of dental caries and periodontitis and there was also a significant reduction in the salivary pH in diabetes mellitus patients, compared to that of non diabetic subjects. PMID:27134992

  19. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  20. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  1. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  2. Mouthrinses and dental caries.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    Mouthrinsing for the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents was established as a mass prophylactic method in the 1960s and has shown average efficacy of caries reduction between 20-50%. Commonly, weekly or twice monthly rinsing procedures using neutral 0.2% NaF solutions have been used in schools or institutions in areas with low fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. Today, when dental caries has declined substantially in the western countries, and relatively few individuals are suffering from caries, the efficiency of large scale mouthrinsing is questioned and more individual approaches of caries prevention strategies are needed. For this reason individual caries risk assessments are necessary, utilising diagnostic tools with the aim of explaining the main causes of the caries disease. Therefore in high risk patients, daily mouthrinses using 0.05% NaF can be recommended combined with other selective preventive measures such as sugar restriction, improved oral hygiene, antibacterial treatments, and so forth. Mouthrinsing solutions have therefore been combined with antiplaque agents like chlorhexidine and other agents which can improve the caries preventive effect not only in high caries risk patients, including those with dry mouth problems and root caries. Other agents than sodium fluoride have been used, such as stannous and amine fluoride with proven clinical effects. However, although a series of new formulas of mouthrinses containing fluoride combined with different antiplaque agents have shown promising antibacterial and antiplaque efficacy, their long-term clinical effects are sparsely documented. Acute and chronic side effects from established and recommended mouthrinsing routines are extremely rare but ethanol containing products should not be recommended to children for long-term use or to individuals with alcohol problems. Patients with dry mouth problems should avoid mouthrinses containing high concentration of detergent

  3. Dental caries and pulpal disease.

    PubMed

    Zero, Domenick T; Zandona, Andrea Ferreira; Vail, Mychel Macapagal; Spolnik, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnostic process, from the first clinically evident stages of the caries process to development of pulpal pathosis. The caries diagnostic process includes 4 interconnected components-staging caries lesion severity, assessing caries lesion activity, and risk assessments at the patient and tooth surface level - which modify treatment decisions for the patient. Pulpal pathosis is diagnosed as reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis (asymptomatic), irreversible pulpitis (symptomatic), and pulp necrosis. Periapical disease is diagnosed as symptomatic apical periodontitis, asymptomatic apical periodontitis, acute apical abscess, and chronic apical abscess. Ultimately, the goal of any diagnosis should be to achieve better treatment decisions and health outcomes for the patient. PMID:21094717

  4. Recall compliance and incidence of dental caries among underserved children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ulysses; Hui, Brian K; Pourat, Nadereh

    2015-02-01

    Regular dental recall intervals are widely recommended by dentists in the U.S. to prevent caries and improve periodontal health. However, there is some debate on whether or not compliance with six-month or more frequent recall intervals results in reduced incidence of dental caries. This study examines whether compliance with regular recall and receipt of cleanings, exams and patient education reduces rates of new decay in underserved children and finds a positive impact. PMID:25868221

  5. Glucosyltransferase inactivation reduces dental caries.

    PubMed

    Devulapalle, K S; Mooser, G

    2001-02-01

    Dental caries has been an intractable disease in spite of intense dental research. The metabolic acids produced by mutans streptococci demineralize the tooth surface and lead to dental caries. The enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTF) produced by mutans streptococci is the key factor in this process. Oral bacterial GTFs use sucrose as a substrate in synthesis of either water-soluble or insoluble glucans. In this investigation, kinetic studies with divalent metal ions revealed their strong binding affinity to GTF. The metal ions also proved to be strong inhibitors of the enzyme. Here we describe a simple method of inactivating the enzyme that actively participates in dental caries by taking advantage of a Fenton reaction which requires metal ions such as iron or copper and peroxide. The hydroxyl radical ions produced via the Fenton reaction inactivate GTF, a factor in the production of dental caries. PMID:11332534

  6. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  7. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  8. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  9. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries.

    PubMed

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis. PMID:25447398

  10. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries

    PubMed Central

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis. PMID:25447398

  11. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age. PMID:12592918

  12. Is dental caries neglect?

    PubMed

    Stevens, C L

    2014-11-01

    The recent and widespread media interest highlighting the concerning number of children with poor oral health has, at last, put paediatric dentistry well and truly under the spotlight. Whether on the front page of the Sunday Times (http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/Sugar/article1433860.ece), on GDPUK forums or live Twitter feeds as ITV's The Dentists was broadcast, the whole nation has suddenly awoken to the realisation that tens of thousands of children are undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anaesthesia in the UK every year. This is of course, not a new phenomenon, so why the sudden interest? PMID:25377816

  13. On the initial propagation of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  14. On the initial propagation of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  15. Dental Caries Vaccine – A Possible Option?

    PubMed Central

    KT, Shanmugam; KMK, Masthan; N, Balachander; Jimson, Sudha; R, Sarangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an irreversible microbial disease of the calcified tissues of the teeth and it has a multifactorial origin. In India, the dental caries prevalence in 35-44 year olds was reported to be 80-95% in a DCI survey. Among the elderly in the 65-74 years age group, the DCI survey reported the caries prevalence to be about 70%, while the present survey reported it to be 51- 95% in various states. Surveys which were done on school children in India showed a carie prevalence of approximately 58%.Among the U.S. population, a survey showed an incidence of 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries and an incidence of 45.3% in children 23. In countries like Brazil and China, it is reaching epidemic proportions. Thus, more effective public-health measures are needed to combat dental caries. Mutans streptococci is one of the main microorganisms which are associated with the aetiology of dental caries. Preclinical studies of immunological interventions have shown that the disease can be interrupted. Clinical trials have indicated that a mucosal immune response to Streptococcus mutans crucial antigens can influence the pathogenesis of dental caries. The dental caries vaccine, when it is used in appropriate individuals at the appropriate time, can reduce the reemergence of the disease. PMID:23905153

  16. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  17. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  18. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  19. Inhibition of Experimental Dental Caries by Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Robert J.

    1972-01-01

    A variety of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents were tested for their ability to inhibit the development of dental caries in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving the drugs in a coarse-particle sucrose-containing diet. Drugs which inhibit gram-positive microorganisms were effective inhibitors of caries, whereas agents which are active solely against gram-negative bacteria did not inhibit caries development. In vivo efficacy of the agents tested generally, but not invariably, paralleled in vitro inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus mutans strain FA-1, an organism which was isolated from carious Sprague-Dawley rats and which is known to induce caries in gnotobiotic Sprague-Dawley rats. Caries was significantly inhibited when 1-ephenamine penicillin (20 units/mg) was administered intermittently in the diet, 1 day per week or 1 week of every 4 weeks, but protection against caries was greatest when the same amount of the drug was fed continuously. PMID:4670694

  20. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  1. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs. PMID:25115106

  2. Solving the etiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, Aurea; Mira, Alex

    2015-02-01

    For decades, the sugar-fermenting, acidogenic species Streptococcus mutans has been considered the main causative agent of dental caries and most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have been targeted toward this microorganism. However, recent DNA- and RNA-based studies from carious lesions have uncovered an extraordinarily diverse ecosystem where S. mutans accounts only a tiny fraction of the bacterial community. This supports the concept that consortia formed by multiple microorganisms act collectively, probably synergistically, to initiate and expand the cavity. Thus, antimicrobial therapies are not expected to be effective in the treatment of caries and other polymicrobial diseases that do not follow classical Koch's postulates. PMID:25435135

  3. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels <75 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, lower household education, not brushing twice daily, and yearly visits to the dentist. Similarly, multiple linear regression revealed that total dmft/DMFT caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L, not brushing twice daily, lower household education, and yearly visits to the dentist. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of Canadian children suggest that there is an association between caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries. PMID:26553883

  4. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  5. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    PubMed

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment. PMID:23484402

  6. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species. PMID:25966965

  7. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  8. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... or impacted teeth The presence and extent of dental caries (cavities) Bone damage (such as from periodontitis ) Abscessed ... Dental x-rays can reveal dental cavities (tooth decay) before they ... take yearly bitewings for the early development of cavities.

  9. Caries prevalence and restorative dental services in some Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Speake, J D

    1980-08-01

    Caries prevalence rates at eight and eleven years of age were estimated according to WHO criteria in six Pacific Island countries and territories during the period 1975 to 1977. The components of the dental caries index (DIMF(T)) on a country or territory basis were examined and the dental care index calculated. Factors influencing the delivery of dental services in the region are discussed. PMID:6934741

  10. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  11. Relation between pulpal neuropeptides and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlou Haghighi, Ali; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Shantiaee, Yazdan; Naseri, Mandana; Ahangari, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp has neural fibers that produce neuropeptides like Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The inflammation of dental pulp can lead to an increase amount of SP and CGRP release, especially in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, it can be assumed that neuropeptides have some role in the progression of inflammation of the dental pulp. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the presence and concentration of neuropeptides in dental pulps of carious teeth caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, pulpal tissues were collected from 40 teeth (20 carious and 20 intact). Pulpal samples were cultured for 72 hours. ELISA reader was used for the detection of SP and CGRP in supernatant fluids. Statistical analysis was made by Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests. RESULTS: SP and CGRP were present in 65% and 20% of inflamed pulpal samples, respectively and 40% and 5% of normal pulpal samples, respectively. Level of SP was significantly higher in inflamed pulp samples compared to intact pulps; however, there was no statistical difference when the other groups and neuropeptides were compared. The mean concentration of SP in normal pulps was 3.4 times greater than that of CGRP; interestingly in inflamed pulps the concentration of SP was 22.3 times greater than CGRP. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that in inflamed dental pulps, the concentration of SP is higher than CGRP. It can be hypothesized that CGRP has less effect on the inflammatory changes of dental pulps. PMID:24778684

  12. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:27305514

  13. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  14. Association between Dental Prosthesis and Periodontal Disease among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Dental Care Centre in Eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, M; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries and Periodontal diseases are the most prevalent oral health problems present globally. The distribution and severity of such oral health problems varies in different parts of the world and even in different regions of the same country. Nepal is one of the country with higher prevalence rate of these problems. These problems arise in association with multiple factors. Objective This study was carried out to describe the periodontal status and to analyse the association of periodontal disease with the wearing of fixed or removable partial dentures in a Nepalese population reporting to the College of Dental Surgery, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Method This study comprised of a sample of 200 adult individuals. All data were collected by performing clinical examinations in accordance with the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods Criteria. It included the Community Periodontal Index and dental prosthesis examination. Result A descriptive analysis was performed and odds ratio (1.048) and 95% confidence interval (1.001; 1.096) was found out. The mean age of the population participated in the study was 41.82 ± 14.80 years. A total of 93 (46.5%) males and 107 (53.5%) females participated in the study. Among these subjects, 100% presented some periodontal problems. The statistical analysis indicated that the probability of periodontal disease with regards to wearing partial dentures was not significant as suggested by the odds ratio (1.048). Conclusion There is no association of the wearing of dental prosthesis (RPD and/or FPD) with the periodontal disease and suggests a need for populations based oral health education programs, plaque control programs to reduce the incidence of periodontal disease. PMID:27180363

  15. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  16. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  17. Management of dental caries as an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Cantin, R

    1986-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that demineralizes tooth structure as a consequence of bacterial metabolism. Chemical suppression of bacteria, especially using stannous fluoride, is gaining popularity because of its practicality and clinical efficacy. PMID:3463581

  18. Effects of Early Dental Office Visits on Dental Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R. Gary; Preisser, John S.; Stearns, Sally C.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. Methods. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999–2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005–2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n = 11 394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Results. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81, 0.95; IRR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Conclusions. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years. PMID:24134364

  19. Changes in dental fluorosis and dental caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Swango, P A; Lininger, L L; Leske, G S; Green, E L; Haley, V B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries had changed in a fluoridated community and a nonfluoridated community since an earlier study conducted in 1986. METHODS: Dental fluorosis and dental caries data were collected on 7- to 14-year-old lifelong residents (n = 1493) of Newburgh and Kingston, NY. RESULTS: Estimated dental fluorosis prevalence rates were 19.6% in Newburgh and 11.7% in Kingston. The greatest disparity in caries scores was observed between poor and nonpoor children in nonfluoridated Kingston. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis has not declined in Newburgh and Kingston, whereas the prevalence of dental caries has continued to decline. PMID:9842391

  20. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANKTg and Opg−∕− mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development. PMID:26594180

  1. [[Streptococcus mutans Acquisition and Dental Caries Development in First-Born Children].

    PubMed

    Noce, Erica; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva Rosa, Odila Pereira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Bretz, Walter Antonio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the moment of streptococcus mutans (SM) acquisition, caries development and their associate variables along 23 months, in first-born children of low socioeconomic status families, starting at 7 months of age. METHOD: The sample was chosen based on highly SM-colonized mothers, including all members of 14 families living in the same houses. The study included 14 mothers, 14 fathers and 14 first-borns and 8 relatives (mostly grandparents). Initial clinical examinations and radiographs determined the caries indices and periodontal conditions of the adults. SM count in all adults was made in the first 2 visits. The children were examined for SM count, number of teeth and number of carious lesions, in 4 visits. RESULTS: SM prevalence was high in the adults, being absent in only one of the parents. SM was found in 1, 2, 3 and 10 children in the first, second, third and fourth visits. Dental caries was detected in only 3 children in the last visit (at 30 months), who presented significantly higher SM scores than the children without caries in the same visit. CONCLUSION: A low income social condition and mothers highly colonized by SM do not mean necessarily early SM colonization and high caries activity in children with oral homecare. Caries development is significantly associated with high SM scores in the children. PMID:22022218

  2. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. PMID:21726221

  3. Longitudinal study of dental caries, tooth mortality and interproximal bone loss in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    2001-02-01

    The investigation focused on longitudinal changes of oral health in a group of adults with intellectual disability. A number of 124 individuals, aged 21-40 yr in 1990, were followed during 8.5 yr. The incidence and prevalence of caries, incidence of tooth mortality, and interproximal bone loss were registered from clinical examinations and bite-wing radiographs. The subjects visited the dental clinic for preventive dental care on average every third month during the period. The caries incidence was low, on average 0.51 new lesions per yr. Persons with mild intellectual disability experienced more caries than other subjects. During the 8.5 yr, the subjects had lost on average 1.82 teeth, with periodontitis dominating as the reason for tooth mortality. Individuals who cooperated poorly with dental treatment had lost the most teeth. The average annual bone loss in all subjects was 0.03 mm. Subjects with Down syndrome had a higher bone loss compared to those with other diagnoses of intellectual disability. Thus, the major part of the persons with intellectual disability showed satisfactory oral health. However, subjects with poor ability to cooperate with dental treatment and subjects with Down syndrome showed an increased risk for impaired oral health. PMID:11330930

  4. Adolescents with high periodontal risk in Public Dental Service.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Leif; Adler, Lottie; Jonés, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of adolescents with high periodontal risk and to identify factors with influence on the decision to refer a patient to a specialist clinic of Periodontology, on compliance rate and on treatment outcome. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study on adolescents at age 13-17. In total, clinical examinations and risk evaluations according to caries- and periodontal risk were performed on 50347 adolescents in general dentistry at ages 13, 15 and 17 in 2007. Individuals with a high periodontal risk were included in the present investigation. A high periodontal risk was defined as presence of sites with periodontal pocket depths >6mm and loss of periodontal tissue support. Multiple logistic regression analyses were adopted to calculate the influence of the potential predictors on the investigated dependent variables. In total, 0.5% of the adolescents were found to have high periodontal risk. The diagnosis local periodontitis and the number of periodontal pockets with probing depths >6 mm were positively and significantly correlated to referral to a periodontist. Eighteen percent dropped out before the treatment was completed. Smokers had a significantly lower compliance than non-smokers. The success rate was significantly lower for individuals with many periodontal pockets and for those with the diagnosis local periodontitis. The prevalence of adolescents classified as having high periodontal risk was low. A large frequency of subjects dropped out before the periodontal treatment was completed, especially at the specialist clinics. PMID:24620506

  5. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  6. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. PMID:23810638

  7. Dental caries and dental registration status in nursery school children in Newry, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M; Kinirons, M J

    1995-04-01

    294 children aged 2-4 yr attending nursery schools in Northern Ireland were examined for dental caries and dental registration status under the capitation system in general dental practice. Their mean age was 3 yr 10 months. Sixty eight per cent were caries free, mean dmft was 1.10 and dt, mt and ft scores were 0.74, 0.28 and 0.09, respectively. With increasing age the prevalence of caries increased, though the very low care index (d/dmft) did improve in the older children. Seventy per cent reported being registered for dental care and their levels of dental caries were significantly higher than those who were not yet enrolled (P < 0.001). For those not enrolled for dental care the main perceived barriers to seeking care related to lack of symptoms (33.6%) and apathy (31.6%) while few reported fear as a barrier (4.5%). PMID:7781302

  8. The application of multilevel modelling to dental caries data.

    PubMed

    Burnside, G; Pine, C M; Williamson, P R

    2007-09-30

    Clinical studies of dental caries experience generate multiple outcome data for each participant, with information collected for each individual tooth surface. This paper investigates multilevel modelling as a method of analysis for dental caries data, allowing for full use of the data collected at surface level. Data from a clinical trial of a caries preventive agent in adolescents are modelled. The effect of tooth position within the mouth on the development of dental caries is investigated, with the results showing the importance of differentiating between the upper and lower arches, when modelling the probabilities of caries developing on teeth. Calculation of the intracluster correlation using the threshold model is suggested for use in multilevel logistic regression modelling of caries data. This model, which assumes that a dichotomous outcome is based on an underlying continuous variable with a threshold point where the outcome changes from zero to one, is identified to be appropriate for the analysis of caries which is a continuous process, but is only identified as present in a clinical trial when it has reached a certain level of severity. PMID:17340596

  9. Accuracy of dental radiographs for caries detection.

    PubMed

    Keenan, James R; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    0.43 (0.41/0.45) and the specificity was 0.97 (0.95/0.98) and 0.89 (0.88/0.90).With regard to the dentine lesions the sensitivities were 0.36 (0.24-0.49) for proximal to 0.56 (0.53-0.59) for occlusal lesions and specificities ranged between 0.87 (0.85-0.89) and 0.95 (0.94-0.96). No reports were found for cavitated occlusal lesions. For proximal lesions sensitivities were above 0.60 and sensitivities above 0.90. Diagnostic Odds Ratios (DOR) were >1 (indicates a useful test) and were higher in proximal than in occlusal lesions. The DOR calculated for proximal lesions in vitro studies was 16.0 (11.5/22.4) and DOR 7.5 (3.4/16.5) for clinical studies). Heterogeneity calculated using I(2) test was moderate: > 50-67%.ConclusionsCaries detection determined by dental radiographs is highly accurate for proximal lesions and dentine caries lesions. For initial carious lesions the test needs to be used with other more sensitive methods in populations that present with high caries risk. PMID:27339235

  10. Has dental caries prevalence some connection with caries index values in adults?

    PubMed

    Larmas, M

    2010-01-01

    DMF index values have been used for 70 years and were originally meant to describe both dental status and treatment need in elementary school children. Since then its application to caries experience and severity determination has expanded. Today, WHO has standardized its use in oral health surveys in describing past and present caries experience in adults and the elderly as well. This expansion to all age cohorts creates some problems if the index is limited to dental caries, which can be easily avoided when individual values are not combined. This has been performed in some of the 7,187 DMF index publications included in PubMed. The high number of scientific articles using this index underlines its leading role in the present epidemiological caries research. On the other hand, WHO uses different determinations for clinical dental caries and missing teeth in ICD-10, the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, which does not include dental restorations. Combining the individual parameters of Oral Health Surveys and diseases of ICD-10, and analyzing the mean value of each parameter separately, will give a precise picture of dental health at different ages. PMID:20130404

  11. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  12. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  13. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. PMID:25443675

  14. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity. PMID:24080530

  15. Frequency of radiographic caries examinations and development of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lith, A

    2001-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether a change in the threshold for surgical intervention in the caries process can be consistent with a stricter attitude towards the use of radiographic caries diagnosis. Bitewing radiographs of 3 groups of patients were retrospectively studied. Two groups comprised 229 patients, 18 years old at the end of the study in 1984. 102 had lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F84-group) and 127 in an area with 0.02 ppm fluoride content (O84-group). In the 3rd group 285 patients, 19 years old at the end of the study in 1993, lived in an area with 1.2 ppm water-fluoride content (F93-group). The latter patients were managed according to a restrictive attitude to surgical intervention and radiographic diagnosis of caries. The prevalence of patients and the frequency of tooth surfaces with caries was significantly lower in the fluoride groups than in the non-fluoride group. The correlation between patients' accumulated number of posterior proximal lesions and fillings at the last examination and the mean interval between their bitewing examinations was weak in all groups. The mean interval between examinations was significantly longer in the F93-group than in the other 2 groups. By applying an algorithm for individualisation of examination intervals these could be prolonged depending on the accepted risk for the development of inner dentin lesions. Future development of proximal dentin lesions was rather well predicted by means of past caries experience as demonstrated by ROC-analysis. The proportion of inner dentin lesions that were operatively treated was significantly higher in patients from the F93-group than in those from the other 2 groups in which a less strict attitude towards operative treatment was used. In the F93-group the average survival time of enamel and outer dentin lesions was 8.0 and 3.4 years, respectively, when right censored data were taken into account. In populations with low caries

  16. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  17. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries.

    PubMed Central

    Craelius, W

    1978-01-01

    The geographical distribution and other epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) are compared with those of dental caries. The rates of death due to MS in Australian states are linearly related to the numbers of decayed, missing, and filled (DMF) teeth found in individuals from those states (r=0.97, P less than 0.002). In the United States of America, a strong positive correlation (r=0.55, P less than 0.001) also exists between MS death rates and dental caries indices. The prevalence of MS in 45 countries or areas correlates well with the frequencies of DMF teeth among children of school age in those locations (r=0.78, P less than 0.001). The prevalence of MS also correlates well with the percentage of edentulous individuals in certain countries (r=0.99, P less than 0.001). A review of the literature shows that the risk for dental caries is lower among the following groups: the lower socioeconomic classes in the United States of America; Chinese immigrants to England compared with natives; blacks compared with whites; and males compared with females. The dental caries risk is higher during pregnancy and lactation. All these trends have been described for MS as well. It is suggested that dental caries may be a more accurate epidemiological model for MS than poliomyelitis. It is also suggested that MS and dental caries may share certain aetiological factors, two of which may be dietary excess of certain fats, and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:711974

  18. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  19. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  20. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  1. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  2. Treating dental caries as an infectious disease. Applying the medical model in practice to prevent dental caries.

    PubMed

    Limeback, H

    1996-01-01

    The above diagnostic and treatment principles may be self evident to most dental practitioners. To many, however, this treatment philosophy is a new one. Continuing dental education and quality assurance programs will play a significant role in helping dentists make the philosophical shift from a highly technical restorative approach to one that uses the medical model and treats dental caries as an infectious disease. While a total cure in humans suffering from dental disease may never be attainable, dental practitioners should soon be better able to direct more of their attention to the patients who already demonstrate a high incidence of dental decay and to those who are clearly at risk to develop future dental decay. PMID:9470624

  3. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  4. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  5. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians. PMID:10846267

  6. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p < 0.0001. The structural equation model fitted the raw data well (χ2 = 9.20, df = 8, p = 0.34). All components of DMFT were closely associated in equal strength to the unidimensional hypothetical latent variable of dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this

  7. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  8. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The response categories were: biological concept (53.6%), restrictive multifactorial concept (12.1%), comprehensive multifactorial concept (8.1%), transmissibility concept (15.8%), and other (10.4%). Differences in response category frequencies were seen between the class years (p<0.001). There was no consensus on the disease definition, although students predominantly had a biological concept of dental caries. PMID:24789294

  9. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  10. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity. PMID:17518963

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  12. A mathematical model for the progression of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, L Rene I; Rubinstein, J

    2014-12-01

    A model for the progression of dental caries is derived. The analysis starts at the microscopic reaction and diffusion process. The local equations are averaged to derive a set of macroscopic equations. The global system includes features such as anisotropic diffusion and local changes in the geometry due to the melting of the enamel. The equations are then solved numerically. The simulations highlight the effect of anisotropy. In addition, we draw conclusions on the progression rate of caries, and discuss them in light of a number of experiments. PMID:23803287

  13. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children. PMID:27223127

  14. Social indicators of dental caries among Sierra Leonean schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nörmark, S

    1993-06-01

    Most of the caries of African child populations is found in limited fractions of that population. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the caries situation of Sierra Leonean schoolchildren in relation to demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, in order to develop an appropriate index for prediction of caries. A total of 610 students from primary class 1 (mean age: 7 yr) and secondary form 1 (mean age 15 yr) were dentally examined by three examiners and interviewed by their teachers. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibilities were 82 and 70%, and interinterviewer reliability was 67-100% for the individual questions. Urban students had more caries than rural. In class 1, dmfs+DMFS was 4.1 and 1.8, respectively; in form 1, DMFS was 5.3 and 3.5. Two tribes (the Fulas and the Madingos) had higher caries means than the rest, especially in class 1, where dmfs+DMFS was 6.5 and 2.4, respectively. Form 1 students with literate parents had a higher caries mean, and class 1 pupils with defective school uniforms a lower mean. The apparently high-risk groups did not consume more sweet snacks or clean their teeth less frequently. There was clearly more caries among the quartiles of children with most visible plaque on molars, but all social and demographic subgroups had similar amounts of plaque. Multivariate analyses of class 1 children showed that pupils living in urban areas, Fulas and Madingos, and children wearing complete school uniforms had caries significantly more frequently, other factors being equal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8322004

  15. Influence of Different Intellectual Disability Levels on Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antônio Augusto Iponema; Della Bona, Álvaro; Trentin, Micheline Sandini

    2016-01-01

    Oral health care is fundamental to preserve the individual integrity and consequently influences the general health. This observational, cross-sectional and analytical study evaluated the oral condition of 129 intellectually disabled individuals from the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) in three southern Brazilian cities. Dental caries (DMFT and dmft indices) and periodontal disease (PSR index) were evaluated considering the intellectual disability level. A questionnaire on socioeconomic status (income and education level) and the last visit to a dentist was answered by the subjects' parents/guardians. The data were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α=0.05). The mean DMFT values were 2.27, 3.76 and 0.58 (p<0.05), and the mean dmft values were 1.48, 1.55 and 2.75, respectively for subjects with mild, moderate and severe disabilities. Regarding the PSR index, 43% of the subjects presented gingivitis without retention factor (no calculus or defective margins) with no significant differences among the three disability levels. Considering the population and the limitations of this study, the subjects presenting severe disabilities showed significantly lower mean DMFT values compared to other disability levels, probably because the caretakers are responsible for the oral hygiene of such subjects. PMID:27007346

  16. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  17. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development.

    PubMed

    De Soet, J J; van Gemert-Schriks, M C M; Laine, M L; van Amerongen, W E; Morré, S A; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of children. The acute phase proteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokine neopterin were chosen as parameters to monitor general health. Also, a polymorphism in the bacterial ligand CD14 (-260) was studied to investigate the relationship between genotype sensitivity for bacterial infections and AFF. In Suriname, children aged 6 years were recruited and enrolled into a dental care scheme, randomly assigned to 4 groups with different treatment strategies and monitored longitudinally. 348 children were included in the present study. Blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline and 1 year, and concentrations of serum AGP, CRP, neopterin, salivary Streptococcus mutans and CD14-260 C>T polymorphism were determined. There was no significant association between different treatment strategies and the serum parameters. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between AFF as the outcome variable and the CD14 genotype and the concentrations of CRP and of neopterin as factors (p < 0.05). A significant negative association was found between the CD14-260 TT and AFF (p = 0.035, OR = 3.3) for the whole population. For children who had 4 or more carious lesions at baseline, the significance increased (p = 0.005, OR = 4.8), suggesting that the CD14-260 TT genotype was protective for AFF as a consequence of dental caries. PMID:18701824

  18. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y; Campus, Guglielmo; Giuliana, Giovanna; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied fluoride has been widely researched as a means to reduce the risk of dental caries in conjunction with other treatment modalities (mechanical oral hygiene, dietary control, antimicrobial intervention, pit and fissure sealants). There is overwhelming evidence that reports not only the significance and importance of the use of fluoride as a caries-preventive agent, but also how safe fluoride application is when used appropriately, particularly in higher risk individuals and populations. This paper reviews the caries-protective benefits of topical fluoride application in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on the clinical efficacy and safety of the vehicles by which fluoride is topically delivered. Fluoride toothpaste represents today the most cost-effective fluoride-delivery system in the oral cavity and its use should be the centerpiece in all caries-preventive strategies. On the other hand, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes currently represent adjuncts to toothpaste use and should be targeted towards individuals and groups at high risk of caries. PMID:22632397

  19. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  20. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  1. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes. PMID:22796661

  2. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  3. Lactoferrin: A Roadmap to the Borderland between Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Fine, D H

    2015-06-01

    Lactoferrin is one of a number of multifunctional proteins that are present in or on all mucosal surfaces throughout the body. Levels of lactoferrin are consistently elevated in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, corneal disease, and periodontitis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lactoferrin have been shown to be present in individuals susceptible to Escherichia coli-induced travelers' diarrhea and in tear fluid derived from virally associated corneal disease. Here, we review data showing a lactoferrin SNP in amino acid position 29 in the antimicrobial region of lactoferrin that acts against caries associated bacteria. This SNP was initially discovered in African American subjects with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) who had proximal bone loss but minimal proximal caries. Results were confirmed in a genetic association study of children from Brazil with this same SNP who showed a reduced level of caries. In vitro data indicate that lactoferrin from whole saliva derived from subjects with this SNP, recombinant human lactoferrin containing this SNP, or an 11-mer peptide designed for this SNP kills mutans streptococci associated with caries by >1 log. In contrast, the SNP has minimal effect on Gram-negative species associated with periodontitis. Moreover, periodontally healthy subjects homozygous for this lysine (K) SNP have lactoferrin in their saliva that kills mutans streptococci and have reduced proximal decay. The review summarizes data supporting the ecologic plaque hypothesis and suggests that a genetic variant in lactoferrin with K in position 29 when found in saliva and crevice fluid can influence community biofilm composition. We propose that, for caries, this SNP is ethnicity independent and protective by directly killing caries-provoking bacteria (reducing proximal decay). However, the clinical effect of this SNP in LAP is ethnicity dependent, destructive (increases LAP incidence), and complex with

  4. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    In May 2012, cariologists, dentists, representatives of dental organizations, manufacturers, and third party payers from several countries, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to define a common mission; goals and strategic approaches for caries management in the 21th century. The workshop started with an address by Mr. Stanley Bergman, CEO of Henry Schein Inc. which focused on the imperative for change in academia, clinical practice, and public health. For decades, new scientific evidence on caries and how it should be managed have been discussed among experts in the field. However, there has been some limited change, except in some Scandinavian countries, in the models of caries management and reimbursement which have been heavily skewed toward 'drilling and filling'. There is no overall agreement on a caries' case definition or on when to surgically intervene. The participants in the workshop defined a new mission for all caries management approaches, both conventional and new. The mission of each system should be to preserve the tooth structure, and restore only when necessary. This mission marks a pivotal line for judging when to surgically intervene and when to arrest or remineralize early noncavitated lesions. Even when restorative care is necessary, the removal of hard tissues should be lesion-focused and aim to preserve, as much as possible, sound tooth structure. Continuing management of the etiological factors of caries and the use of science-based preventive regimens also will be required to prevent recurrence and re-restoration. These changes have been debated for over a decade. The Caries Management Pathways includes all systems and philosophies, conventional and new, of caries management that can be used or modified to achieve the new mission. The choice of which system to use to achieve the mission of caries management is left to the users and should be based on the science supporting each approach or philosophy, experience, utility, and ease of use

  5. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  6. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C; Marazita, Mary L; Sanders, Anne E; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R; Conomos, Matthew P; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A; Kerr, Kathleen F; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M; Beck, James D; Shaffer, John R

    2016-02-15

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20-53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10(-10)), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10(-8)) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata. PMID:26662797

  7. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  8. Referring periodontal patients: clinical decision making by dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen B; Burgardt, Grayson J; Rapley, John W; Bray, Kimberly K; Cobb, Charles M

    2014-03-01

    Referral of periodontal patients requires development of a complex set of decision making skills. This study was conducted to determine criteria used by dental and dental hygiene students regarding the referral of periodontal patients for specialty care. Using mixed methods, a thirteen-item survey was developed to elicit the students' perceptions of their knowledge, confidence regarding managing patients, and clinical reasoning related to periodontal patients. The instrument was administered during the summer prior to (T1) and at the end of the students' final year (T2) of training. Seventy-nine dental students (81 percent of total class) and thirty dental hygiene students (83 percent of total class) completed T1. At T2, forty-two dental (44 percent of total class) and twenty-six dental hygiene students (87 percent of total class) completed the questionnaire. While 90 percent of dental and 96 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported a willingness to refer patients with active disease to specialists, only 40 percent of dental and 36 percent of dental hygiene respondents reported confidence in diagnosing, treating, and appropriately referring such patients. The students' ability to recognize critical disease and risk factors influencing referral was good; however, clinical application of that knowledge indicated a gap between knowledge and applied reasoning. The students' attitudes about the importance of periodontal disease and their perceived competence to identify critical disease risk factors were not significantly related (p>0.05) to correct clinical decisions in the case scenarios. The study concludes that dental and dental hygiene curricula should emphasize both the acquisition and application of knowledge regarding criteria for referral of periodontal patients. PMID:24609346

  9. Microanalysis of dental caries using laser-scanned fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Paton, Barry E.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    It is well known that enamel and dentin fluoresce when illuminated by short-wavelength optical radiation. Fluorescence emission from carious and non-carious regions of teeth have been studied using a new experimental scanning technique for fluorescence analysis of dental sections. Scanning in 2 dimensions will allow surface maps of dental caries to be created. These surface images are then enhanced using the conventional and newer image processing techniques. Carious regions can be readily identified and contour maps can be used to graphically display the degree of damage on both surfaces and transverse sections. Numerous studies have shown that carious fluorescence is significantly different than non-carious regions. The scanning laser fluorescence spectrometer focuses light from a 25 mW He-Cd laser at 442 nm through an objective lens onto a cross-section area as small as 3 micrometers in diameter. Microtome prepared dental samples 100 micrometers thick are laid flat onto an optical bench perpendicular to the incident beam. The sample is moved under computer control in X & Y with an absolute precision of 0.1 micrometers . The backscattered light is both spatial and wavelength filtered before being measured on a long wavelength sensitized photomultiplier tube. High precision analysis of dental samples allow detailed maps of carious regions to be determined. Successive images allow time studies of caries growth and even the potential for remineralization studies of decalcified regions.

  10. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  11. Factors of deprivation associated with dental caries in young children.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, D; Holloway, P J

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on the communities in the Tameside and Glossop Health Authority district served by the five primary schools with the highest prevalences of dental caries among their 5-year-old children and contrasted with similar information from communities served by five schools whose 5-year-old pupils had the lowest prevalences of caries. Quantitative data were collected from a variety of sources including the health and education authorities, and qualitative information was gathered by interviewing health and education personnel with special knowledge of the primary and pre-school children involved. It was found that communities with a high caries activity among their primary school children had lower proportions of babies of normal birth weight and uptake of poliomyelitis vaccination, while more children were born to single parent families. They also had lower percentages of private housing, homes with a car and households in social classes 1 and 2. The high caries schools had more children receiving clothing allowances and free school meals. The communities they served had higher Townsend mean deprivation Z scores and lower percentages of crime rates per household. The high caries communities tended to bottle feed their babies, wean them earlier, use infant feeding bottles longer and give babies fruit juices more regularly. The parents in the high caries communities were reported to have higher proportions of social and financial problems, were less likely to form parent-teacher associations, their children had poorer attendance and punctuality records, worse behaviour and greater consumption of confectionery after school.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8044712

  12. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. PMID:23070755

  13. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  14. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. PMID:24860920

  15. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  16. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  17. Dental caries and the need for treatment among institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Vigild, M

    1989-04-01

    The main purpose for the study was to determine the occurrence of untreated dental decay, and to assess the expressed demand for operative caries therapy among dentate institutionalized elderly in Denmark. The study population comprised all dentate elderly in eight nursing homes (n = 126) and in five hospital long-term care facilities (n = 75). In both groups of elderly 70% had untreated decay. The mean number of surfaces with untreated decay among the elderly in nursing homes (NH) and in hospital long-term care facilities (LTC) was respectively 9.7 and 7.5. The predominant factors influencing the occurrence of untreated decay were the use of dental services and the degree of helplessness. Regular use of dental services reduced the amount of untreated decay among the NH elderly, and the totally helpless LTC elderly had more decay than those able to manage alone. Half of the NH residents who had decay did not want treatment or were not able to express their demand for treatment due to poor mental or physical health. The realistic need for traditional operative filling therapy is discussed and it is concluded that the goal of an oral health care program for NH elderly should be to meet not only the demand for such treatment but also the need for emergency treatment and non-operative caries treatment. PMID:2522034

  18. Dental caries and chemical warfare within the mouth.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang; Tsang, Phoebe; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia

    2005-12-01

    To date, it appears that the dentists' war against dental caries has no end in sight due to the fact that dentists lack any genuine offensive firepower. Make no mistake, the defense has drastically improved as dentists have shifted the focus more toward the preventive aspects of dental care. But defense by itself cannot defeat the enemy; at best, it can maintain the status quo. In order to defeat the enemy, one must study and understand the enemy, to know its strengths and weaknesses, and to strike at those points of vulnerability. The aim of this research is to identify and characterize genes that are responsible for observed virulence factors in Streptococcus mutans, which is the primary pathogen involved in the development of dental caries. Once there is a more defined understanding of the many virulence factors of S. mutans, there will be a much more valuable insight into its role in the ecology of the oral cavity. Eventually, this knowledge could enable dentists to convert the bacterial "weaponry" into its own arsenal, which could then be innovatively employed as preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to treat oral bacterial-related diseases. PMID:16454237

  19. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life. PMID:23318751

  20. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  1. [Helicobacter pylori in the development of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Moseeva, M V; Belova, E V; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2010-01-01

    It is shown, that in patients with erosive and ulcer defects of gastroduodenal zone at settling Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in an oral cavity in 100% of cases caries develops at intensity 13.6 +/- 1.4 teeth. Produced Hp protease and ammonia cause disintegration connected to protein silica acids and reduce activity lysocim, worsening, thus, fluid and protective properties of a saliva. In the subsequent infringement of autopurification of a teeth results in accumulation of a dental strike where protease activity conditionally pathogenic microflora conducts to depolymerization and demineralization enamels of a teeth. PMID:20496804

  2. Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rozier, R G

    2001-10-01

    This paper summarizes and rates the evidence for the effectiveness of methods available to dental professionals for their use in the primary prevention of dental caries. It reviews operator-applied therapeutic agents or materials and patient counseling. Evidence of effectiveness is extracted from published systematic reviews. A search for articles since publication of these reviews was done to provide updates, and a systematic review of the caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride varnish in primary teeth is provided. Good evidence is available for the effectiveness of fluoride gel and varnish, chlorhexidine gel, and sealant when used to prevent caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The evidence for effectiveness of fluoride varnish use in primary teeth, chlorhexidine varnish, and patient counseling is judged to be insufficient. Use of fluoride, chlorhexidine and sealant according to tested protocols and for the populations in which evidence of effect is available can be recommended. However, they may need to be used selectively. Estimates for the number of patients or tooth surfaces needed to treat to prevent a carious event suggest that the effects of these professional treatments are low in patients who are at reduced risk for dental caries. The literature on use of these preventive methods in individuals other than school-aged children needs expansion. PMID:11699978

  3. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  4. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride. PMID:26758380

  5. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  6. Oral Microbiome of Deep and Shallow Dental Pockets In Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiuchun; Rodriguez, Rafael; Trinh, My; Gunsolley, John; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We examined the subgingival bacterial biodiversity in untreated chronic periodontitis patients by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the oral microbiome in deep (diseased) and shallow (healthy) sites. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influences of smoking, race and dental caries on this relationship. A total of 88 subjects from two clinics were recruited. Paired subgingival plaque samples were taken from each subject, one from a probing site depth >5 mm (deep site) and the other from a probing site depth ≤3mm (shallow site). A universal primer set was designed to amplify the V4–V6 region for oral microbial 16S rRNA sequences. Differences in genera and species attributable to deep and shallow sites were determined by statistical analysis using a two-part model and false discovery rate. Fifty-one of 170 genera and 200 of 746 species were found significantly different in abundances between shallow and deep sites. Besides previously identified periodontal disease-associated bacterial species, additional species were found markedly changed in diseased sites. Cluster analysis revealed that the microbiome difference between deep and shallow sites was influenced by patient-level effects such as clinic location, race and smoking. The differences between clinic locations may be influenced by racial distribution, in that all of the African Americans subjects were seen at the same clinic. Our results suggested that there were influences from the microbiome for caries and periodontal disease and these influences are independent. PMID:23762384

  7. Oral microbiome of deep and shallow dental pockets in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiuchun; Rodriguez, Rafael; Trinh, My; Gunsolley, John; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We examined the subgingival bacterial biodiversity in untreated chronic periodontitis patients by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the oral microbiome in deep (diseased) and shallow (healthy) sites. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influences of smoking, race and dental caries on this relationship. A total of 88 subjects from two clinics were recruited. Paired subgingival plaque samples were taken from each subject, one from a probing site depth >5 mm (deep site) and the other from a probing site depth ≤3mm (shallow site). A universal primer set was designed to amplify the V4-V6 region for oral microbial 16S rRNA sequences. Differences in genera and species attributable to deep and shallow sites were determined by statistical analysis using a two-part model and false discovery rate. Fifty-one of 170 genera and 200 of 746 species were found significantly different in abundances between shallow and deep sites. Besides previously identified periodontal disease-associated bacterial species, additional species were found markedly changed in diseased sites. Cluster analysis revealed that the microbiome difference between deep and shallow sites was influenced by patient-level effects such as clinic location, race and smoking. The differences between clinic locations may be influenced by racial distribution, in that all of the African Americans subjects were seen at the same clinic. Our results suggested that there were influences from the microbiome for caries and periodontal disease and these influences are independent. PMID:23762384

  8. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  9. Dietary habits and dental caries in a population of Spanish schoolchildren with low levels of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564

  10. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats’ Dental Caries Progression

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, AR.; Kowsari-Isfahan, R.; Rezaiefar, M.; Razavi, M.; Zeighami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05). Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen. PMID:22924097

  11. The contribution of dietary factors to dental caries and disparities in caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars, is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (undernutrition or overnutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods, substituting instead high-energy, low-cost, nutrient-poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation, including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for early childhood caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents, and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods, to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  12. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for Early Childhood Caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in the Surgeon General's Report, Oral Health in America. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods in order to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  13. Effective periodontal disease control using dental hygiene chews.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; McGenity, Phil

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed dental hygiene chew for dogs, with and without a natural antimicrobial additive, compared with a reference diet. Efficacy was determined by measuring the severity of gingivitis and the accumulation of dental plaque and calculus in dogs after 4-weeks of being fed the different dietary regimens. Dogs fed a single daily dental chew had significantly less gingivitis (P = 0. 02), plaque (P = 0. 0004), and calculus (P = 0.0001) compared with dogs in the control group that were fed an identical diet but received no chews. The inclusion of the antimicrobial agent did not improve the efficacy of the product. The dental hygiene chews tested in this study have potential to help reduce the incidence of periodontal disease in dogs. PMID:15909452

  14. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  15. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  16. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  17. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    PubMed Central

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method of mouth rinsing and classical method of Gandusha. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 40 patients, 20 in each Group-1 and 2. Group -1 was given prepared Triphaladi mouthwash (mouth rinse) while Group-2 was given Triphaladi Kwath for Gandusha (retention). Results: The effect of treatment was assessed by subjective and objective parameters (like salivary pH, buffering capacity and microbial count). Triphaladi Gandusha (retention) in Group - 2 provided better results in the improvement of Ruja (toothache), Dantaharsha (tooth sensitivity), Sarambha (inflammation), pH of saliva, microbial count in salivary sample. And Triphaladi Mouthwash in Group - 1 provided better results in Srava (discharge), bad breath, pH of saliva and buffering capacity of salivary sample. There was no improvement in Chidrata (cavity formation), Krishnata (discoloration) and Chaladanta (mobility) with Triphaladi Gandusha and mouthwash. Conclusion: Study concluded that although both groups were effective, but Gandusha group patients’ got better relief in subjective symptoms compared to mouthwash group. PMID:25364198

  18. Dental caries status of inmates in central prison, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Benley; John, Joseph; Saravanan, S.; Arumugham, I. Meignana; Johny, Minimol K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To understand the dental health among prison inmates, we assessed the dental caries status of central prison inmates in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 inmates from three divisions of the central prison in Chennai were assessed by a single investigator for dental caries status based on World Health Organization specifications. Results: Among the inmates, 58.2% of males and 54.2% of females had decayed teeth. About 4.1% of males and 2.9% of females had filled teeth. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth index was 5.1 and 3.9 for female and male prisoners, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was highest among inmates younger than 24 years age. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a high proportion of prison inmates was affected by dental caries, which necessitates the need for initiating oral health promotion activities among prison inmates. PMID:26604596

  19. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaideep; Singh, Nitin; Kumar, Amit; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Agarwal, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the dental and periodontal health status of beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemic patients in Bilaspur, Chattishgarh, India. Materials & Methods: A total of 750 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups I (n=250), II (n=250) and III (n=250), ranging from 3-15 years. After performing a thourough general examination, including their demographic data, intraoral examination was done using Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth Index (DMFT Index), Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI). Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 17.5 version. Chi square test & student t test was used for the comparison of study and control groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, it was found that, prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases was significantly more in beta thalassemic patients followed by sickle cell anemic patients than control group. However, when group I (beta thalassemia) was compared with group II (sickle cell anemia), results were found to highly significant (P<0.001) only for decayed missing filled tooth. Conclusion: Appropriate dental and periodontal care improves a patient's quality of life. Preventive dental care is must for thalassemic and Sickle cell disease patients. How to cite this article: Singh J, Singh N, Kumar A, Kedia NB, Agarwal A. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):53-8. PMID:24324305

  20. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  1. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  2. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers. PMID:16108413

  3. Dental caries management at a rural district hospital in northern Rwanda: a neglected disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzabakiriho, B.; Amoroso, C. L.; Mpunga, T.; Odhiambo, J.; Mukashema, P.; Seymour, B. A.; Sindayigaya, J. de D.; Hedt-Gauthier, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: While some studies have reported the prevalence of dental caries in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about care-seeking behavior or how dental caries are managed, particularly at rural district hospitals. Objective: To describe the management of patients seeking care for dental caries at Butaro District Hospital (BDH) in rural Rwanda. Design: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in BDH, in northern Rwanda. A sample of 287 patient encounters for dental caries between January and December 2013 was randomly selected and stratified by age group (⩽5 years, 6–21 years and >21 years). We estimated the treatment received with 95% confidence intervals in each age group, and differences between age groups were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Nearly all patients (97.6%) underwent tooth extraction, and this did not vary significantly by age group (P = 0.558). In addition to dental caries, most patients also had chronic pulpitis (74.9%). Conclusion: Caries prevention and care should be prioritized through a developed community program on oral health. We recommend introducing advanced training, equipment and materials for dental caries management other than tooth extraction, and increasing the number of qualified dentists. PMID:26399283

  4. [Inequalities in distribution of dental caries in teenagers of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, 2004].

    PubMed

    Rihs, Lilian Berta; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Cypriano, Silvia; Abdalla, Nádja Moscoso

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this work was to know the dental caries prevalence and treatment need, besides the distribution of the dental caries in a population of 12 year-old teenagers with high incidence of dental caries. 309 adolescents of public schools of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, in 2004, were examined. They were selected by process systematic random and the exams followed the World Health Organization criteria. The percentile of school caries free was of 38.8%. Among the adolescents examined, 36.6% (n=113) presented dental caries. DMFT was of 2.50 (IC95%=2.07-2.93). The decayed component was the highest (61.0%). The coefficient of Gini was 0.602 and SiC value was of 5.97 (IC95%=5.32-6.62); in this group especially, 74.7% (n=74) presented dental caries activity in the moment of the exam. Thus, it can be concluded that the adolescents of this city presented low dental caries experience; however, their needs were not assisted, once most of DMFT was formed of the decayed component at 12 years old. In the group SiC, it was verified that this came quite high, being recommended actions addressed to this specific group of adolescents. PMID:20694339

  5. Impact of oral health behaviors on dental caries in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  6. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zifeng; Yu, Dongsheng; Luo, Wei; Yang, Jing; Lu, Jiaxuan; Gao, Shuo; Li, Wenqing; Zhao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3), 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0). The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC. PMID:25340906

  7. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  8. Dental Caries, and Supragingival Plaque and Calculus among Students, Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, L. C.; Kabulwa, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the students had experience of dental caries and those with caries were mostly females and of the younger age group. The low DMFT was contributed to the D-component, and molars were the tooth type most affected.The majority of students had supra-gingival plaque and calculus and more so in males than females. PMID:22461985

  9. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    2006-11-25

    The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231

  10. Genome-wide association Scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Methods Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Results Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling

  11. Discrimination of Dental Caries Using Colorimetric Characteristics of Fluorescence Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingguang; Zhu, Haihua; Xu, Ying; Lin, Bin; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of colorimetric parameters for the discrimination of the stages of dental caries based on a light-induced autofluorescence spectrum at a 405-nm excitation wavelength was investigated. The fluorescence spectra of 4 groups of tooth samples (10 sound, 10 early-stage decay, 14 established decay, and 10 severe decay), which were classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, were experimentally measured in vitro. The carious lesion samples had an additional fluorescence peak at around 627 nm. The mathematical relation of the fluorescence spectrum and human color perception was established and computed. With increasing severity, the fluorescence color changed from green to yellow according to the colorimetric parameters of the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity coordinates and dominant wavelengths. The results from a one-way ANOVA of the dominant wavelength showed a statistically significant difference among the 4 classified groups. The colorimetric parameters of the light-induced fluorescence spectrum can potentially be applied to evaluate the various carious levels. PMID:26112288

  12. Occlusal dental caries incidence and implications for sealant programs in a US college student population.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J W; Katz, R V

    1993-01-01

    Given the decline in dental caries incidence in preteens and young teenagers in the United States, a study of the incidence of dental caries in young adults (17-23 years) was conducted to provide a descriptive epidemiologic picture of this "new" natural history of dental caries in the late and post-teenage years. A retrospective study was performed analyzing the detailed dental records of the four-year college experience in the class of 1989, US Coast Guard Academy. Occlusal caries incidence, in the absence of associated proximal caries, was shown to be moderately common in molars (11.9%) and rare in premolars (0.8%). In contrast to previous studies' findings, demographic indicators, socioeconomic status indicators, and prior caries experience were poor predictors of occlusal caries incidence; targeting a universal sealant policy in this population therefore would be done best by tooth type rather than patient type. A preliminary cost-comparison model, projected over a 40-month period, suggests that the cost of initiating a universal molar sealant policy in this population would be 92 cents per year per student greater than the cost of restoring occlusal caries in the presence of sound proximal surfaces. This cost comparison suggests that it would be advantageous to initiate such a policy. PMID:8258782

  13. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  14. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  15. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part I. Caries status].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-04-01

    A misconception exists in the society regarding the caries frequency during pregnancy. The condition of the teeth of the child can be influenced by the state of the teeth and the oral hygiene habits of the mother. An examination was conducted among young women soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The number of the examined patients was 161, with the average age of 27.6 years. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth) index was 12.45, while the DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Filled Surfaces) index was 26.07 in the examined population. The DMFT index significantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, plaque index, probing pocket depth and bleeding on probing, while the DMFT index was not dependent on education level, profession and place of residency. There was no significant correlation between the number of previous pregnancy and the incidence of caries. PMID:15957501

  16. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  17. Susceptibility to dental caries and the salivary proline-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Levine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2-6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db) protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described. PMID:22190937

  18. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  19. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling. PMID:26900846

  20. From the art of filling teeth to the science of dental caries prevention: a personal review.

    PubMed

    Krasse, B

    1996-01-01

    The journey from the art of filling teeth to the science of prevention is reviewed. First, a private winding road is described that produced some new methods of value in risk assessment, treatment of the causes of dental caries, and prevention of the disease. The description illustrates the importance of monitoring the effects of different measures. Next, the new knowledge and methods that form the primary basis of prevention on a large scale are reviewed. They represent a golden era in caries research and form a solid ground for the prevention of dental caries and for the treatment of the causes of disease. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries has fallen not only among schoolchildren, but also among adults in developed countries. Improvement in dental health is due to the successful application of new knowledge-it has not happened by chance. New or improved opportunities for prevention could lead to a further reduction in dental caries. The problem is to find ways to stimulate both dentists and patients to use them. Finally, the next part of the journey is discussed. In some countries the journey probably will be an uphill struggle; in others, it could be fairly undulating, eventually leading to further declines in dental caries. PMID:9034973

  1. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  2. Ethical considerations of study participants in dental caries clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1976-03-01

    During the past 30 years there has been increasing concern for ethical considerations that pertain to the conduct of human biomedical research. Consequently, many national and international medical and dental organizations and agencies have developed regulations, policies or ethical guidelines for the protection of human subjects who take part in clinical investigations. In the United States, more than 500 research institutions have established permanent committees to review research in humans conducted by their institutions. Members of these committees must represent a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and concerns. Prospective study subjects must be able to make an informed decision on whether to participate in any study, without any element of force, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. Obtaining informed consent for studies of children, the mentally infirm, and persons with restricted civil freedom presents special problems. Ethical considerations also raise questions on appropriate designs for clinical studies, e.g. use of untreated controls. Dental studies, particularly those testing caries-preventive agents, raise special questions of design, informed consent, ethical procedures and the use of diagnostic radiographs. The director of a clinical study is responsible for the conduct of all personnel connected with the investigation. PMID:767047

  3. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  4. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Ayumi; NODA, Masafumi; MATOBA, Yasuyuki; KUMAGAI, Takanori; KOZAI, Katsuyuki; SUGIYAMA, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries. PMID:25918670

  5. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  6. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  7. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  8. Dental caries and dental anomalies in children treated by chemotherapy for malignant disease: a study in the north of England.

    PubMed

    Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R; Gordon, P H; Kernahan, J; Craft, A W

    1991-12-01

    Fifty-two children in remission from childhood cancer and 41 siblings underwent a full clinical and radiographic dental examination. All the children had received chemotherapy. The leukaemic patients had received radiotherapy also, but not involving the jaws. There was no significant difference in dental caries experience between the treated children and the siblings, but significantly more dental anomalies were detected radiographically in the treated group. PMID:1812966

  9. [Complete dental care of patients suffering from localized aggressive periodontitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2015-12-01

    A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected. PMID:26863818

  10. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  11. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  13. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  14. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected. Results 38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention. Conclusions We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage

  15. DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE IN 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hoffmann, Rosana H. S.; de Sousa, Maria da Luz R.; Wada, Ronaldo S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention. PMID:19089262

  16. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  17. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  18. Nisin inhibits dental caries-associated microorganism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Dong, Liping; Zhou, Lin; Tao, Rui; Ni, Longxing

    2010-11-01

    Nisin, produced by Lactococcus lactis, is an antibiotic peptide to effectively antagonize a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, and is widely used as a safe food antimicrobial agent. In the present study, we investigated whether nisin could be used as an effective antibiotic peptide against the nine common cariogenic microorganisms, and its antimicrobial activity could be affected by the ingredients of saliva in oral cavity. In the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) and spot-on-lawn assay, nisin displayed different MIC, MBC and antimicrobial activity against the nine tested strains. There was statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin against the different tested bacteria (p<0.05), but no statistical difference between the inhibitory zone diameters of nisin dissolved in PBS and saliva (p>0.05). Furthermore, morphology and membranes of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermenti and Lactobacillus acidophilus with nisin treatment were observed and showed different degrees of variation by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). Our findings suggested that nisin has considerable potential for prevention and treatment of dental caries. PMID:20688123

  19. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test) or regular (control) dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children) and control (44) groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1) weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006) (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51]) and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001) (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51]) compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01) (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82]) compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44) of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866 PMID:22928903

  20. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  1. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  2. Dental pulp stem cells. Biology and use for periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ashri, Nahid Y; Ajlan, Sumaiah A; Aldahmash, Abdullah M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  3. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  4. DENTAL CARIES AND RELATED ORAL HEALTH FACTORS AMONG 9 TO 18 MONTH OLD THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2015-07-01

    Dental caries can occur as soon as the first tooth erupts. We studied the caries prevalence and related risk factors among children aged 9-18 months in U Thong District, Suphan Buri Province, Thailand. A total of 151 children, whose primary caregivers were willing to participate in this study, were evaluated for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Questionnaires were given to the primary caregivers of the study subjects to ascertain their socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and child-feeding habits. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate bivariate outcome data. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables predictive of dental caries in the studied children. The prevalence of dental caries among the 151 subjects was 32.5%; 15.9% had at least one cavity (cavitated caries) and 16.6% had white lesions (non-cavitated caries). The mean dmfs score was 2.83 ± 6.48. Significant associations were seen between the dmfs score and the number of erupted teeth (p < 0.001) and toothpaste usage (p < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed four factors significantly associated with caries: number of erupted teeth, which had the highest Beta value (P = 0.35, p < 0.01), nighttime bottle feeding (P = 0.17, p < 0.05), frequency of drinking sweetened milk (P = 0.17-0.18, p < 0.05) and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth (P = 0.18, p < 0.05). Nighttime bottle feeding, frequency of drinking sweetened milk and falling asleep with a bottle in the mouth were important caries risk factors and the number of erupted teeth was a strong caries risk predictor. Dentists should educate caregivers about these risk factors. PMID:26867399

  5. Gender differences in practice patterns for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: Findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rouisse, Kathleen M.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A number of articles have addressed gender differences in the productivity of dentists, but little is known about differences in practice patterns for caries management. This study compared the use of a comprehensive range of specific diagnostic methods, preventive agents, and restorative decision making for caries management between male and female dentists who were members of The Dental Practice-Based Research Network(DPBRN). Methods This study surveyed general dentists who were members of DPBRN and who practiced within the United States. The survey asked about dentist, practice, and patient characteristics, as well as prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries. Differences in years since dental school graduation, practice model, full/part-time status, and practice owner/employee were adjusted in the statistical models, before making conclusions about gender differences. Results Three hundred ninety-three male (84%) and seventy-three female (16%) dentists participated. Female dentists recommended at-home fluoride to a significantly larger proportion of their patients, whereas males had a preference for using in-office fluoride treatments with pediatric patients. Female dentists also choose to restore interproximal lesions at a significantly later stage of development, preferring to use preventive therapy more often at earlier stages of dental caries. There were few differences in diagnostic methods, time spent on or charges for restorative dentistry, and busyness of their practices. Conclusion DPBRN female dentists differ from their male counterparts in some aspects of the prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries, even with significant covariates taken into account. Practice patterns of female dentists suggest a greater caries preventive treatment philosophy. PMID:21454850

  6. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24852763

  7. Dental Caries Prevalence and Tooth Loss in Chilean Adult Population: First National Dental Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Urzua, I.; Mendoza, C.; Arteaga, O.; Rodríguez, G.; Cabello, R.; Faleiros, S.; Carvajal, P.; Muñoz, A.; Espinoza, I.; Aranda, W.; Gamonal, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, tooth loss, and risk factors among adult population of Chile. Furthermore, age, gender, and behavioural specific differences in caries prevalence and tooth loss were examined. A national stratified multistage probabilistic sample design in two-age cohorts was applied to the Chilean population. A sample of 1553 adults, comprising 1088 individuals aged 35–44 and 465 senior individuals aged 65–74, were examined. The DMFT was evaluated following WHO recommendations using diagnostic criteria of caries lesions into dentin. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate models using logistic regression analyses. Results showed a mean DMFT of 15.06 in the 35–44-year-old group and of 21.57 in the 65–74 group. Factors related to tooth loss in the 35–44 group through univariate logistic regression were depression (OR 1.9 CI 95% 1.26–2.85), education level <12 years (OR 2.24 CI 95% 1.31–3.73), personal income (OR 1.51 CI 95% 1.04–2.19), and familiar income (OR 2.05 CI 95% 1.34–3.13), and through multivariate logistic regression in the same age group were depression (OR 1.93 CI 95% 1.24–3.0), education level <12 years (OR 1.94 CI 95% 1.2–3.14), and familiar income (OR 1.71 CI 95% 1.09–2.68). Factors related to tooth loss in the 65–74-year-old group through univariate logistic regression were education level <12 years (OR 2.54 CI 95% 1.3–4.96) and personal income (OR 1.66 CI 95% 1.05–2.63), and for multivariate logistic regression in the same age group, it was education level <12 years (OR 2.51 CI 95% 1.21–5.18). In conclusion, adult population in Chile showed a high prevalence of dental caries and tooth loss, as age, education level, personal and familiar incomes, and depression are being the main risk factors. PMID:23316234

  8. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

  9. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  10. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years.

    PubMed

    Goyal, A; Gauba, K; Chawla, H S; Kaur, M; Kapur, A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller's criteria (1966) and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 +/- 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 +/- 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 +/- 2.52 and 3.82 +/- 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children), lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98%) and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%). PMID:17951925

  11. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries. PMID:23743597

  12. Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1998-04-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

  13. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B O C; Feingold, E; Cooper, M; Vanyukov, M M; Maher, B S; Slayton, R L; Willing, M C; Reis, S E; McNeil, D W; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Levy, S M; Vieira, A R; Marazita, M L; Shaffer, J R

    2014-07-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. PMID:24810274

  14. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. PMID:22488298

  15. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome, Lifestyle, and Dental Caries in Japanese School Children.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroya; Sugihara, Naoki; Ukiya, Tokuko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Birkhed, Dowen; Hasegawa, Masaru; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The number of children with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has recently been increasing in Japan. Few studies have investigated the relationship between MetS and oral health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MetS, lifestyle, and oral health status in school children. Our goal is to utilize these results in health education aimed at preventing the onset of MetS in school children and adults. A total of 689 Japanese children (365 boys and 324 girls) aged between 10 and 13 years were examined and waist circumference (WC), ratio of WC to height, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride values determined together with oral health status, including dental caries experience (DMFT). The results revealed that 6.5% of the children fell under the health board recognized "MetS or high risk of MetS" (MetS/HR) classification. A total of 140 (20%) children had a high Streptococcus mutans count. The mean WC, FBS, and DMFT values were significantly greater in children with a high salivary S. mutans count (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significance association between MetS/HR, non-breakfast eaters (odds ratio (OR): 2.70), no regular exercise (OR: 2.60), and a high salivary S. mutans count (≥10(5) CFU/ml; OR: 2.18; p<0.05). The present results indicate that lifestyle and salivary S. mutans count could be useful in screening children for MetS/HR. These variables may be useful in targeting interventions aimed at preventing MetS in school children. PMID:26657522

  17. Molecular Analysis of the Microflora Associated with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Munson, M. A.; Banerjee, A.; Watson, T. F.; Wade, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO2 and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was also extracted directly from the samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with universal primers. PCR products were singularized by cloning, and the cloned inserts and cultured isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We identified 95 taxa among the 496 isolates and 1,577 clones sequenced; 44 taxa were detected by the molecular method alone; 31 taxa were previously undescribed. Only three taxa, Streptococcus mutans, Rothia dentocariosa, and an unnamed Propionibacterium sp., were found in all five samples. The predominant taxa by anaerobic cultivation were the novel Propionibacterium sp. (18%), Olsenella profusa (14%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). The predominant taxa in the molecular analysis were Streptococcus mutans (16%), Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (13%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). There was no significant difference between the compositions of the microflora in the middle and advancing front samples (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon matched pairs, signed ranks test). In conclusion, combined cultural and molecular analyses have shown that a diverse bacterial community is found in dentinal caries and that numerous novel taxa are present. PMID:15243054

  18. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  19. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  20. Multidimensional causal model of dental caries development in low-income preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Litt, M D; Reisine, S; Tinanoff, N

    1995-01-01

    Despite the decline in the incidence of dental caries in the United States over the past several years, the condition remains a significant problem for the nation's poor children. Efforts to identify the factors responsible for caries development in samples of children of low socioeconomic status have primarily focused on a limited number of variables, and those have been predominantly biological (mutans streptococci, for example). Resulting models of caries development have usually shown good sensitivity but poor specificity. They have had limited implications for treatment. In an effort to produce a comprehensive model of caries development, 184 low-income preschool children were clinically assessed for mutans streptococci and for decayed, missing, or filled surfaces of deciduous teeth twice, first at age 4 years (baseline) and again a year later (year 1 assessment). As the clinical assessments were being done, caretakers were being interviewed to obtain data from five domains: demographics, social status, dental health behaviors, cognitive factors such as self-efficacy (self-confidence) and controllability, and perceived life stress. Data were analyzed using a structural equations modeling approach in which variables from all domains, plus baseline decayed missing and filled surfaces and baseline mutants, were used together to create a model of caries development in the year 1 assessment. Results confirmed earlier work that suggested that caries development at a 1-year followup was strongly dependent on earlier caries development. Early caries development in this sample was determined in part by mutans levels and by dental health behaviors. These behaviors themselves were accounted for partly by a cognitive factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7480616

  1. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries. PMID:18367835

  2. Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa Fluoride Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Willing, M C; Marazita, M L; Wendell, S; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B; Smith, B; Busch, T; Lidral, A C; Levy, S M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common chronic childhood disease. Despite strong evidence of genetic components, there have been few studies of candidate genes and caries. In this analysis we tried to assess genetic and environmental factors contributing to childhood caries in the Iowa Fluoride Study. Environmental factors (age, sex, race, tooth-brushing frequencies and water fluoride level) and three dental caries scores (d(2)fs-total, d(2)fs-pit/fissure, and d(2)fs-smooth surface) were assessed in 575 unrelated children (mean age 5.2 years). Regression analyses were applied to assess environmental correlates. The Family-Based Association Test was used to test genetic associations for 23 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 7 caries candidate genes on 333 Caucasian parent-child trios. We evaluated the associations between caries status and the level of both single and multiple SNPs (haplotype) respectively. Permutation procedure was performed for correction of inflated type I errors due to multiple testing. Age, tooth-brushing frequency and water fluoride level were significantly correlated to at least one carious score. Caries on pit and fissure surfaces was substantially higher than on smooth surfaces (61 vs. 39%). SNPs in three genes (DSPP, KLK4 and AQP5) showed consistent associations with protection against caries. Of note, KLK4 and AQP5 were also highlighted by subsequent haplotype analysis. Our results support the concept that genes can modify the susceptibility of caries in children. Replication analysis in independent cohorts is highly needed in order to verify the validity of our findings. PMID:22508493

  3. Association between Dental Caries and Socioeconomic Factors in Schoolchildren - A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Janessa Luiza; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics. PMID:27007350

  4. Dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren: A comparison of 1988–1989 and 1998–2001 surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A.; Betancourt-Linares, Armando; Lezana-Fernández, Miguel Á.; Álvarez-Lucas, Carlos H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare two surveys across seven states for the prevalence of dental caries among Mexican schoolchildren. Study Design: Analysis of two cross-sectional surveys: Schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years of age were examined in the 1988–1989 survey and 6- to 10-year-old and 12-year-old students were included in the 1998–2001 survey. The baseline data of seven states were available for analysis. Representative probability samples were conducted statewide in both surveys. The World Health Organization (WHO) method was used to obtain the dental caries index (dmft, DMFT). At present, additional and more recent epidemiological data representative statewide in Mexico are unavailable. Results: The participants were 9798 schoolchildren in the 1988–1989 survey and 16882 schoolchildren in the 1998–2001 survey. The prevalence of caries in children ages 6 to 10 years was 86,6% in the first survey and 65,5% in the second survey, showing a 24,4% reduction. The primary teeth index in the first survey was dmft = 3,86 (IC95% 3,68 4,04) and in permanent teeth, it was DMFT = 1,03 (IC95% 0,95 1,11). In the second survey, the comparable values were dmft = 2,36 (IC95% 2,20 2,52) and DMFT = 0,35 (IC95% 0,29 0,40), corresponding to a reduction of 38,89% and 66,02% in the primary and permanent dentition, respectively. Treatment needs remain high: In the second survey, as 92,75% of the index DMFT was conformed as decayed teeth. Conclusion: Overall, we detected a downward trend in the dental caries indices, particularly in the permanent dentition. The increase in the availability of fluoride likely contributed to the observed decline in dental caries. Key words:Schoolchildren, dental caries, treatment needs, salt fluoridation, Mexico. PMID:22549683

  5. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  6. Reflectance, scattering, and laser induced fluorescence for the detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, Eleni; Makropoulou, Myrsini; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-10-01

    Directional dependence of reflected laser light and of the laser induced fluorescence signals performed both on the intact hard dental tissues, such as enamel, dentine, cementum and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). The laser induced fluorescence spectra were collected at different angles of observation and were correlated with the different scattering and reflectance properties of the hard dental samples

  7. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  8. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  9. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  10. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries on pit and fissure and smooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, J R; Wang, X; Desensi, R S; Wendell, S; Weyant, R J; Cuenco, K T; Crout, R; McNeil, D W; Marazita, M L

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h(2), i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h(2) = 19-53%; p < 0.001) and SMS (h(2) = 17-42%; p < 0.001). Heritability of caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p < 0.001), indicating that genetic factors may exert differential effects on caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  11. Dental caries detection by optical spectroscopy: a polarized Raman approach with fibre-optic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, A. C.-T.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Werner, J.; Hewko, M.; Sowa, M. G.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.

    2006-09-01

    Incipient dental caries lesions appear as white spots on the tooth surface; however, accurate detection of early approximal lesions is difficult due to limited sensitivity of dental radiography and other traditional diagnostic tools. A new fibre-optic coupled spectroscopic method based on polarized Raman spectroscopy (P-RS) with near-IR laser excitation is introduced which provides contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient caries. Changes in polarized Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Demineralization-induced morphological/orientational alteration of enamel crystallites is believed to be responsible for the reduction of Raman polarization anisotropy observed in the polarized Raman spectra of caries lesions. Supporting evidence obtained by polarized Raman spectral imaging is presented. A specially designed fibre-optic coupled setup for simultaneous measurement of parallel- and cross-polarized tooth Raman spectra is demonstrated in this study.

  12. Dental caries experience among indigenous children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Érica M; Cavalcanti, Laysa C; Firmino, Ramon T; Ribeiro, Gustavo L; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Menezes, Valdenice A

    2015-06-01

    Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P < 0.05). Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P < 0.001) and with children from villages at an intermediate distance and far from urban areas (P < 0.001). The indigenous subjects exhibited a high degree of caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. PMID:26062861

  13. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  14. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine.

  15. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  16. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  17. Prevalence of dental caries in 12-13-year-old Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Z; al-Hadi Hamasha, A

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the caries experience of 12-13-year-old 6th grade students in Jordan. A total of 694 students were selected randomly from a list of schools teaching 6th grade students in Irbid, Jordan. The data were collected by interview and clinical examination performed by two examiners. Dental examinations were done by using dental mirrors and probes under artificial light in classrooms and the diagnosis of dental caries was made by the criteria recommended by the World Health Organisation (1987). On average students had 24.4 sound teeth, 2.3 decayed teeth (D), 0.05 missing teeth (M) and 0.16 filled teeth (F). The mean DMFT index was 2.51. The D represents 92% of the DMF cases. Of the students examined 188 were caries free (27.1%). Of the 19,432 permanent teeth examined the highest frequency of dental caries (61%) and fillings (77%) was found in first molars, and these were the most commonly missing teeth (67%). Second molars and second premolars had the second and third highest frequencies respectively, whereas incisors and canines were the least affected teeth (< 2%). PMID:12061150

  18. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental caries and their determinants in adolescents in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Tsakos, Georgios; Millett, Christopher; Arora, Monika; Watt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether socioeconomic inequalities are correlated to dental caries experience and decayed teeth of Indian adolescents, and assess whether behavioural and psychosocial factors mediate this association. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1386 adolescents living in three diverse areas of New Delhi. Caries experience and number of decayed teeth were assessed clinically and a questionnaire was used to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial data. Zero Inflated Negative Binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between the outcomes (caries experience and decayed teeth) and area of residence, adjusting for covariates. Results Significant inequalities in caries experience and number of decayed teeth were observed. Odds of an adolescent being caries free decreased by 66% (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.49) and 70% (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.43) in adolescents living in resettlement communities or urban slums, respectively, when compared with the middle class group. No difference was observed among those with caries experience/decayed teeth. Adjusting for covariates did not affect the inequalities. Conclusions Area of residence appears to be a very strong and significant determinant for an adolescent to be caries/decay free in India. Psychosocial and behavioural factors do not mediate the association between area of residence and oral health. PMID:25500618

  20. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22–0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35–-0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  1. Association between Dental Caries and Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deps, Tahyna Duda; Angelo, Gabriela Lopes; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Borges-Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence of susceptibility to dental caries in the population with Down Syndrome (DS) is limited and conflicting, making it difficult to establish firm conclusions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to obtain scientific evidence of the possible association between dental caries and individuals with DS, compared to individuals without DS (control). An electronic search of five databases was performed, with no language or publication date restrictions. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers (Kappa = 0.83). The systematic review included 13 studies, while eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies are presumably all at risk of bias given their observational character. Two of these evaluated the presence or absence of caries in permanent and deciduous teeth, and six evaluated the mean DMFT index in permanent teeth. Combined odds ratios (OR), standard difference, standard error and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. The vast majority of the studies found that individuals from control groups had more carious lesions or caries experience than those with DS. The results were statistically significant in seven studies (p<0.05). Meta-analysis of two studies revealed that individuals with DS had a lower dental caries than those in the control group (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.22-0.57). In six studies, individuals with DS had a significantly lower mean DMFT index than individuals from the control group (Sd = -0.18; SE = 0.09; 95% CI = -0.35--0.02). The quality of the studies varied and in general had a high risk of bias. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals with DS have fewer dental caries than individuals without DS. PMID:26086498

  2. Are Pediatric Antibiotic Formulations Potentials Risk Factors for Dental Caries and Dental Erosion?

    PubMed Central

    Valinoti, Ana Carolina; da Costa Jr., Luiz Carlos; Farah, Adriana; Pereira de Sousa, Valéria; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most frequent parents’ concerns is that oral antibiotic formulations induce dental damage in their children’s. This study aimed to assess the cariogenic and erosive potentials of 29 pediatric antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Replicates of each antibiotic were analyzed for the concentration of sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and sorbitol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH was determined by digital pHmeter. Titratable acidity was determined in triplicate using the same pHmeter by gradual addition of 0.1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) until pH 7.0. Viscosity measurements were carried out using a viscosimeter. In order to rank the relative performance of each medicine, the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology was used. Results: Sucrose was present in most samples (n=24) with concentrations ranging from 26 to ≈ 100g% (w/w). Only one antibiotic contained sorbitol (66.9g%). Twenty seven antibiotics presented pH values ranging from 4.1 to 6.9 and most of them (n=15) showed the pH below the critical value for dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The values of titratable acidity and viscosity ranged from 0.26 to 40.48 ml and from 20 to 1780cP, respectively. DEA methodology showed that two medicines were distant from the performance frontier (Klaricid® 50mg and Zinnat® 250mg), which means that these medicines showed the worst performance and, therefore, greater potential for dissolution of dental enamel. Conclusion: Many antibiotics presented high concentration of sugars, high titratable acidity, pH below the critical value and high viscosity which can be considered risk factors for dental caries and erosion, when consumed frequently. PMID:27583053

  3. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype. PMID:25924601

  4. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  5. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  6. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  7. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  8. The Dynamic Behavior of the Early Dental Caries Lesion in Caries-active Adults and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J P; Amaechi, B T; Bader, J D; Shugars, D; Vollmer, W M; Chen, C; Gilbert, G H; Esterberg, E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the full range of behavior of the visible, non-cavitated, early caries lesion in caries-active adults with substantial fluoride exposure, and to consider implications. Methods The data were from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), collected annually for 33 months using condensed ICDAS caries threshold criteria. Individual tooth surfaces having a non-cavitated caries lesion were included and the Patterns of transition to each subsequent annual clinical examination to sound, non-cavitated or cavitated, filled or crowned were determined. The resulting sets of Patterns for an individual tooth surface, looking forward from its first appearance as a non-cavitated lesion, were combined into one of four behavior Profiles classified as Reversing, Stable, Oscillating or continuously Progressing, or were excluded if not part of the caries continuum. The distributions of Profile types were assessed using the Rao-Scott Chi square test, which adjusts for clustering of tooth surfaces within teeth. Results Inter-and intra-examiner Kappa scores demonstrated acceptable calibration at baseline and annually. 8084 tooth surfaces from 543 subjects were included. The distribution of Profile types differed significantly between coronal and root surfaces. Overall two-thirds of all coronal non-cavitated lesions were first seen at baseline, half Reversed, over a fifth were Stable, 15% Oscillated and only 8.3% progressed to cavitation, filled or crowned in 33 months or less. (6.3% consistently Progressed plus 2.0% inconsistently, a subset of Oscillating, which oscillated before progressing to cavitation). Approximal, smooth and occlusal coronal surfaces each were significantly different in their individual distributions of Profile types. Xylitol showed no significant and consistent effect on this distribution by tooth surface type. This was in keeping with the X-ACT Trial’s lack of effect of xylitol at the non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion thresholds combined

  9. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining NAg/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  10. Nanotechnology strategies for antibacterial and remineralizing composites and adhesives to tackle dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Ke; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-03-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease and an economic burden. Nanotechnology is promising to inhibit caries by controlling biofilm acids and enhancing remineralization. Nanoparticles of silver were incorporated into composites/adhesives, along with quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs), to combat biofilms. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) released calcium/phosphate ions, remineralized tooth-lesions and neutralized acids. By combining nanoparticles of silver/QAM/NACP, a new class of composites and adhesives with antibacterial and remineralization double benefits was developed. Various other nanoparticles including metal and oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO and TiO2, as well as polyethylenimine nanoparticles and their antibacterial capabilities in dental resins were also reviewed. These nanoparticles are promising for incorporation into dental composites/cements/sealants/bases/liners/adhesives. Therefore, nanotechnology has potential to significantly improve restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:25723095

  11. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  12. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. PMID:27053119

  13. Assessment of dental caries with optical coherence tomography: effect of ambient factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Higham, Susan M.; Jackson, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to produce longitudinal images of dental tissues. We investigated the influence on OCT system, of factors that could limit detection and quantitative monitoring of incipient caries. The effect of such factors as saliva, dental plaque, lesion staining, ambient lighting, and Dacron gauze (used to encourage plaque growth in in situ caries studies) on OCT imaging and analysis were determined during demineralization to produce early caries. The system can collect A-scans, B- scans (longitudinal images) and C-scans (en-face images). Caries lesions were shown as volumes of reduced reflectivity. A-scan, which showed the levels of reflectivity versus the depth of penetration into the tooth tissue, was used for the quantitative analysis of the reflectivity loss. The reflectivity of the tooth tissue decreased with demineralization. The percentage change in reflectivity of the tissue was quantified as a measure of the change in mineral status of the tissue following demineralization. Neither the presence of saliva, plaque, Dacron gauze, plaque/Dacron gauze, nor lesion staining nor the level of ambient lighting significantly affected OCT detection and analysis of an incipient caries.

  14. Immunization with purified protein antigens from Streptococcus mutans against dental caries in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Russell, M W; Caldwell, J; Smith, R

    1981-01-01

    Protein antigens I, I/II, II, and III were prepared from Streptococcus mutans (serotype c). Their immunogenicities and protective effects against dental caries were investigated in 40 rhesus monkeys kept entirely on a human-type diet, containing about 15% sucrose. Antigens I, I/II and, to a lesser extent, antigen II induced significant reductions in dental caries, as compared with sham-immunized monkeys. This was achieved with 1 or 2 doses of antigen, the first of which was administered with adjuvant (Freund incomplete adjuvant or aluminum hydroxide). There was no reduction in caries in monkeys immunized with antigen III. The reduction in caries in the animals immunized with antigens I or I/II was comparable to that in monkeys immunized with whole cells. Protection against caries was associated predominantly with serum and gingival crevicular fluid immunoglobulin G antibodies, which appeared to be directed against the antigen I determinant, but antibodies to antigen II, though not to antigen III, were also protective. PMID:7309233

  15. Diet and Dental Caries: The Pivotal Role of Free Sugars Reemphasized.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A; James, W P T

    2015-10-01

    The importance of sugars as a cause of caries is underemphasized and not prominent in preventive strategies. This is despite overwhelming evidence of its unique role in causing a worldwide caries epidemic. Why this neglect? One reason is that researchers mistakenly consider caries to be a multifactorial disease; they also concentrate mainly on mitigating factors, particularly fluoride. However, this is to misunderstand that the only cause of caries is dietary sugars. These provide a substrate for cariogenic oral bacteria to flourish and to generate enamel-demineralizing acids. Modifying factors such as fluoride and dental hygiene would not be needed if we tackled the single cause--sugars. In this article, we demonstrate the sensitivity of cariogenesis to even very low sugars intakes. Quantitative analyses show a log-linear dose-response relationship between the sucrose or its monosaccharide intakes and the progressive lifelong development of caries. This results in a substantial dental health burden throughout life. Processed starches have cariogenic potential when accompanying sucrose, but human studies do not provide unequivocal data of their cariogenicity. The long-standing failure to identify the need for drastic national reductions in sugars intakes reflects scientific confusion partly induced by pressure from major industrial sugar interests. PMID:26261186

  16. [The prophylactic aspects of dental caries in the antenatal period].

    PubMed

    Tumshevits, O N; Leont'ev, V K; Boginskaia, L M

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the contribution of stress exposures of pregnant women to the development of deciduous teeth caries in their children, the authors have analyzed the stomatological status of 320 infants with favorable and unfavorable antenatal period complicated by stress situations (that were detected with the help of questionnaires) in 3 regions of Moscow, where fluorine levels in potable water are different. The study has revealed that mother's emotional stress in the period of formation of deciduous teeth hard tissues in the fetus reduced infant teeth resistance to caries and lowered the prophylactic effect of fluorine. PMID:2251711

  17. [Dental caries in preschoolers living in a rural locality].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, N I; Ketsman, I N; Kolesnichenko, A V; Solon'ko, G M

    1990-01-01

    The examination has involved 211 children aged 3 to 6, whose mothers were exposed to pesticides when pregnant. Clinical examinations have shown a much higher incidence rate of caries and intensity of the teeth involvement in the children whose mothers were exposed to pesticides than in those whose mothers had no contacts with these chemicals. To prevent caries in children, one should persuade their mothers to breast-feed their babies during the first year. It is desirable that contacts with pesticides be ceased during pregnancy, i.e. that pregnant women be given other work; if that is impossible reliable protection means should be employed. PMID:2371736

  18. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries. PMID:19207877

  19. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  20. Digital Dental X-ray Database for Caries Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2016-06-01

    Standard database is the essential requirement to compare the performance of image analysis techniques. Hence the main issue in dental image analysis is the lack of available image database which is provided in this paper. Periapical dental X-ray images which are suitable for any analysis and approved by many dental experts are collected. This type of dental radiograph imaging is common and inexpensive, which is normally used for dental disease diagnosis and abnormalities detection. Database contains 120 various Periapical X-ray images from top to bottom jaw. Dental digital database is constructed to provide the source for researchers to use and compare the image analysis techniques and improve or manipulate the performance of each technique.

  1. Long-term adoption of caries management by risk assessment among dental students in a university clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. The authors extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries risk category. Additionally, patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy were identified. Results showed that the percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-08 to 92.8% in 2013-14. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year DDS program or in the final year of training. These results demonstrate that extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines at this dental school clinic. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. The eventual success of this program suggests that, in dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  2. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    PubMed Central

    BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; SILVA, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues; MAIA-JUNIOR, Adelson Francisco; CARVALHO, Fábio Silva; MERLINI, Sabrina; CALDANA, Magali Lourdes; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    Objective This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. Material and Methods The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. Results The means dft (standard deviation) and DMFT (standard deviation) for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12), 3.41 (2.69), 5.96 (4.19), 16.00 (7.30) and 25.96 (9.82). Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. Conclusion Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population. PMID:21085797

  3. The dental management of troublesome twos: renal tubular acidosis and rampant caries

    PubMed Central

    B, Sandhyarani; Huddar, Dayanand; Patil, Anil; Sankeshwari, Banashree

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis is a group of disorders in which there is metabolic acidosis due to defect in renal tubular acidification mechanism to maintain normal plasma bicarbonate and blood pH. Irrespective of organ system involved, oral cavity often reflects the disease occurring anywhere in the body. Thus congenital chronic renal diseases, causing acid–base disturbances affects development and structure of the teeth. Chronic renal tubular acidosis causes enamel defects, dental caries, oral candidiasis, angular cheilitis, etc. We hereby present an unusual case report of a 4-year-old boy suffering from renal tubular acidosis associated with rampant caries, whose full mouth rehabilitation has been done. PMID:23667245

  4. Office-Based Preventive Dental Program and Statewide Trends in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. METHODS: An ecologic study using panel data of 920 505 kindergarten students with 11 694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. RESULTS: Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, −0.40 to −0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, −0.55 to −0.09) decrease in dmft. CONCLUSIONS: IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina. PMID:24685954

  5. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  6. Effect of CPP-ACP Paste on Dental Caries in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Sitthisettapong, T.; Phantumvanit, P.; Huebner, C.; DeRouen, T.

    2012-01-01

    This clinical trial tested the effect of daily application of 10% w/v calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for 1 yr when added to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent dental caries in pre-school children. High-caries-risk children aged 2½ to 3½ yrs in a suburban area of central Thailand were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP (n = 150) or a placebo control (n = 146) in addition to fluoridated toothpaste. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was recorded at baseline, 6 mos, and 1 yr. At 1 yr, a significant increase in mean numbers of enamel and dentin caries lesions, as well as dmfs, was found in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups on these 3 outcome measures (p = 0.23, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively). The odds of enamel caries lesion transitions to a state of regression or stability, compared with progression from baseline, was also not different between groups [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.86, 1.17)]. This trial found that daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on school days for 1 yr, when added to regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste, had no significant added effect in preventing caries in the primary dentition of these pre-school children (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01 604109). PMID:22805294

  7. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on dental caries in primary teeth: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sitthisettapong, T; Phantumvanit, P; Huebner, C; Derouen, T

    2012-09-01

    This clinical trial tested the effect of daily application of 10% w/v calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for 1 yr when added to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste to prevent dental caries in pre-school children. High-caries-risk children aged 2½ to 3½ yrs in a suburban area of central Thailand were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP (n = 150) or a placebo control (n = 146) in addition to fluoridated toothpaste. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was recorded at baseline, 6 mos, and 1 yr. At 1 yr, a significant increase in mean numbers of enamel and dentin caries lesions, as well as dmfs, was found in both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between groups on these 3 outcome measures (p = 0.23, 0.84, and 0.91, respectively). The odds of enamel caries lesion transitions to a state of regression or stability, compared with progression from baseline, was also not different between groups [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.86, 1.17)]. This trial found that daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on school days for 1 yr, when added to regular toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste, had no significant added effect in preventing caries in the primary dentition of these pre-school children (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01 604109). PMID:22805294

  8. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Lactotransferrin Gene Promoter and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Brancher, João Armando; Pecharki, Giovana Daniela; Doetzer, Andrea Duarte; Medeiros, Kamilla Gabriella dos Santos; Cordeiro Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Regarding host aspects, there has been strong evidence for a genetic component in the etiology of caries. The salivary protein lactotransferrin (LTF) exhibits antibacterial activity, but there is no study investigating the association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of LTF gene with caries. The objective of this study was firstly to search the promoter region of the human LTF gene for variations and, if existent, to investigate the association of the identified polymorphisms with dental caries in 12-year-old students. From 687 unrelated, 12-year-old, both sex students, 50 individuals were selected and divided into two groups of extreme phenotypes according to caries experience: 25 students without (DMFT = 0) and 25 with caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4). The selection of individuals with extreme phenotypes augments the chances to find gene variations which could be associated with such phenotypes. LTF gene-putative promoter region (+39 to −1143) of the selected 50 individuals was analyzed by high-resolution melting technique. Fifteen students, 8 without (DMFT = 0) and 7 with caries experience (mean DMFT = 6.28), presented deviations of the pattern curve suggestive of gene variations and were sequenced. However, no polymorphisms were identified in the putative promoter region of the LTF gene. PMID:22190933

  9. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries. PMID:26346951

  10. The tobacco-using periodontal patient: role of the dental practitioner in tobacco cessation and periodontal disease management.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Couch, Elizabeth T; Ryder, Mark I

    2016-06-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco use has declined in some parts of the world, tobacco use remains a persistent and, in some cases, growing problem that will continue to be a fundamental challenge facing dental practitioners in the decades ahead. Dental practitioners have a unique opportunity and professional obligation to be a positive influence in reducing the economic and social burden inflicted by tobacco use on dental and general health. In this article, the current noninvasive, evidence-based approaches are presented for dental practitioners to help patients avoid initiating tobacco use, to encourage and assist patients in ceasing tobacco use and to address tobacco-induced damage to periodontal supporting tissues. PMID:27045430

  11. Clinical evaluation of salivary periodontal pathogen levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction in patients before dental implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Taichi; Yasuda, Masaaki; Kaneko, Hajime; Sasaki, Hodaka; Kato, Tetsuo; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Periodontal pathogens in dental plaque are the main causative agents of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. Detection of the presence of such periodontal pathogens early would serve as a useful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the periodontal pathogen levels in saliva were correlated with the periodontal status of patients receiving implant treatment. Materials and Methods A total of 291 patients visiting Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital were divided into four groups: a no-periodontitis (np) group, a mild-periodontitis (mip) group, a moderate-periodontitis (mop) group, and a severe-periodontitis (sp) group. The levels of the following five periodontal pathogens in saliva were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia. Results The levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly higher in mop group than in np group (P <  0.05). The levels of all periodontal pathogens tested except A. actinomycetemcomitans were significantly higher in sp group than in np group (P <  0.05). Conclusion The detection levels of the periodontal pathogens targeted in saliva samples were correlated with the periodontal status. This suggests that using saliva to screen for periodontopathic bacteria offers an easier-to-use clinical tool than the paper point method in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. PMID:23745964

  12. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M

    2013-03-01

    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests. PMID:23359102

  13. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  14. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. PMID:27458722

  15. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  16. Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices of Lock Factory Workers in Aligarh City

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. Materials and Methods: WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 46.5%. Almost half of the workers i.e., 456 (53.6%) used brush to clean their teeth. Majority of the subjects i.e., 784 (92.2%) cleaned their teeth once a day. It was found that 466 (54.8%) used toothpaste for maintaining oral hygiene. Almost half of the subjects consumed tobacco in form of gutkha, cigarette, and in multiple forms. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that dental caries and poor oral hygiene are major public health problems among the factory workers. Primary oral health-care programs like dental screening and oral health education at regular intervals should be made mandatory, which will help to prevent accumulation of health-care demands of the factory employees. PMID:26124601

  17. Maturation of Oral Microbiota in Children with or without Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Rönnlund, Agneta; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the oral microbiota in children from age 3 months to 3 years, and to determine the association of the presence of caries at 3 years of age. Methods and findings Oral biofilms and saliva were sampled from children at 3 months (n = 207) and 3 years (n = 155) of age, and dental caries was scored at 3 years of age. Oral microbiota was assessed by culturing of total lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, 454 pyrosequencing and HOMIM (Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray) microarray detection of more then 300 species/ phylotypes. Species richness and taxa diversity significantly increased from 3 months to 3 years. Three bacterial genera, present in all the 3-month-old infants, persisted at 3 years of age, whereas three other genera had disappeared by this age. A large number of new taxa were also observed in the 3-year-olds. The microbiota at 3 months of age, except for lactobacilli, was unrelated to caries development at a later age. In contrast, several taxa in the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds were linked with the presence or absence of caries. The main species/phylotypes associated with caries in 3-year-olds belonged to the Actinobaculum, Atopobium, Aggregatibacter, and Streptococcus genera, whereas those influencing the absence of caries belonged to the Actinomyces, Bergeyella, Campylobacter, Granulicatella, Kingella, Leptotrichia, and Streptococcus genera. Conclusions Thus, during the first years of life, species richness and taxa diversity in the mouth increase significantly. Besides the more prevalent colonization of lactobacilli, the composition of the overall microbiota at 3 months of age was unrelated to caries development at a later age. Several taxa within the oral biofilms of the 3-year-olds could be linked to the presence or absence of caries. PMID:26020247

  18. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  19. Assessment of the calibration of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among dental students at three dental schools.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brittany A; Luepke, Paul; Chaves, Eros; Maupome, Gerardo; Eckert, George J; Blanchard, Steven; John, Vanchit

    2015-01-01

    Calibration in diagnosis and treatment planning is difficult to achieve due to variations that exist in clinical interpretation. To determine if dental faculty members are consistent in teaching how to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, variations among dental students can be evaluated. A previous study reported high variability in diagnoses and treatment plans of periodontal cases at Indiana University School of Dentistry. This study aimed to build on that one by extending the research to two additional schools: Marquette University School of Dentistry and West Virginia University School of Dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning by 40 third- and fourth-year dental students were assessed at each of the schools. Students were asked to select the diagnosis and treatment plans on a questionnaire pertaining to 11 cases. Their responses were compared using chi-square tests, and multirater kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between classes and between schools. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effects of school, class year, prior experience, and GPA/class rank on correct responses. One case had a statistically significant difference in responses between third- and fourth-year dental students. Kappas for school agreement and class agreement were low. The students from Indiana University had higher diagnosis and treatment agreements than the Marquette University students, and the Marquette students fared better than the West Virginia University students. This study can help restructure future periodontal courses for a better understanding of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25576548

  20. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-01

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. PMID:25489996

  1. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats. PMID:23762876

  2. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries. PMID:24754799

  3. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  4. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. PMID:26927163

  5. How effective is ART in the management of dental caries?

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Holmgren, C J

    1999-12-01

    The ART approach involves excavating cavitated dentine caries with hand instruments, then restoring the cavity and sealing any associated fissures and pits with an adhesive restorative material, resulting in a sealant restoration. Until recently, ART has mainly been used under field conditions, and thus the adhesive restorative material used has been glass ionomer which does not require mixing machines and curing lights. Since the inception of ART, a growing number of studies world-wide have taken place. A total of four studies have reported 3-year survival percentages for one-surface ART restorations. The highest 3-year survival percentage in permanent teeth was 88%, which is comparable to the 85% survival of one-surface amalgam restorations placed under the same field conditions after 3 years. The outcomes depend to some extent on the material used, operator experience and presence of caries. The presence of caries as a reason for failure was higher in the early than in the most recent studies. Only one study has reported on the use of ART restorations in the deciduous dentition. It is concluded that: a very large proportion of dentine lesions in the permanent teeth can be treated using the ART approach; the 3-year survival rate of the more recently placed one-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth was higher than that of ART restorations placed in the beginning; the survival of one-surface ART restorations in the permanent dentition with newer glass ionomers is comparable to that of one-surface conventional restorations placed using amalgam in a comparable setting after 3 years; more studies of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings; ART should be considered a caries treatment modality that benefits people; and educational courses need to be organised before the approach is applied in the clinic. PMID:10600076

  6. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  7. Long-Term Adoption of Caries Management by Risk Assessment Among Dental Students in a University Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the long-term adoption of a risk-based caries management program at a university dental clinic. Methods We extracted data from electronic records of adult non-edentulous patients who underwent a comprehensive oral evaluation in the university predoctoral clinic, from July 2007 through June 2014 (N=21,984). Consistency with caries management guidelines was measured as the percentage of patients with caries risk designation (low, moderate, high, or extreme) and by the percentage of patients provided non-operative anti-caries agents within each designated caries-risk category. Additionally, we identified patient and provider characteristics associated with risk assessment completion and with provision of anti-caries therapy. Results The percentage of patients with documented caries risk grew steadily from 62.3% in 2007-2008 to 92.8% in 2013-2014. Overall, receipt of non-operative anti-caries agents increased with rising caries risk, from low (6.9%), moderate (14.1%), high (36.4%), to extreme (51.4%), but percentages were stable over the study period. Younger patients were more likely to have a completed risk assessment, and among high- and extreme-risk patients, delivery of anti-caries therapy was more common among patients who were younger, identified as Asian or Caucasian, received public dental benefits, or were seen by a student in the four-year doctoral program or in the final year of training. Conclusions Extensive compliance in documenting caries risk was achieved within a decade of implementing risk-based clinical guidelines. Caries risk was the most strongly associated of several factors related to delivery of non-operative therapy. In dental education, transition to a risk-based, prevention-focused curriculum may require a long-term commitment. PMID:25941147

  8. Dentists’ decisions to conduct caries risk assessment in a Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Riley, Joseph L; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1) To quantify the importance that dentists place on caries risk factors when developing a caries treatment plan, and 2) to test the hypothesis that the ratings of importance for specific factors are significantly associated with whether or not the dentist performs caries risk assessment (CRA). Methods This study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN), which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Participants (n=189) were asked to rate the importance of caries risk factors when developing a caries treatment plan in both adult and pediatric patients. Results Oral hygiene status was rated as the most important risk factor when developing a treatment plan in both adult and pediatric patients, whereas the use of fluorides was rated as the least important. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios for the decision to perform CRA in the adult patient for past caries experience and use of fluorides were 2.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.29) and 1.85 (95% CI: 1.12–3.04), respectively, whereas that for oral hygiene was 3.84 (95% CI: 1.15–12.79) and use of fluorides 1.79 (95% CI: 1.06–3.03) in the pediatric patient. Conclusions These results suggest that enhancing dentists’ concept of the importance of current use of fluorides when developing a treatment plan may increase the percentage of dentists who conduct CRA in both adult and pediatric patients (clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT01680848). PMID:25175077

  9. Noninvasive control of dental caries in children with active initial lesions. A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hausen, H; Seppa, L; Poutanen, R; Niinimaa, A; Lahti, S; Kärkkäinen, S; Pietilä, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether DMFS increment can be decreased among children with active initial caries by oral hygiene and dietary counseling and by using noninvasive preventive measures. Except for mentally disabled and handicapped children attending special schools, all 11- to 12-year-olds in Pori, Finland, with at least one active initial caries lesion were invited to participate in the study and were then randomized into two groups. Children in the experimental group (n = 250) were offered an individually designed patient-centered preventive program aimed at identifying and eliminating factors that had led to the presence of active caries. The program included counseling sessions with emphasis on enhancing use of the children's own resources in everyday life. Toothbrushes, fluoride toothpaste and fluoride and xylitol lozenges were distributed to the children. They also received applications of fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish. The children in the control group (n = 247) received basic prevention offered as standard in the public dental clinics in Pori. For both groups, the average follow-up period was 3.4 years. A community level program of oral health promotion was run in Pori throughout this period. Mean DMFS increments for the experimental and control groups were 2.56 (95% CI 2.07, 3.05) and 4.60 (3.99, 5.21), respectively (p < 0.0001): prevented fraction 44.3% (30.2%, 56.4%). The results show that by using a regimen that includes multiple measures for preventing dental decay, caries increment can be significantly reduced among caries-active children living in an area where the overall level of caries experience is low. PMID:17713339

  10. Statistical power of multilevel modelling in dental caries clinical trials: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Burnside, G; Pine, C M; Williamson, P R

    2014-01-01

    Outcome data from dental caries clinical trials have a naturally hierarchical structure, with surfaces clustered within teeth, clustered within individuals. Data are often aggregated into the DMF index for each individual, losing tooth- and surface-specific information. If these data are to be analysed by tooth or surface, allowing exploration of effects of interventions on different teeth and surfaces, appropriate methods must be used to adjust for the clustered nature of the data. Multilevel modelling allows analysis of clustered data using individual observations without aggregating data, and has been little used in the field of dental caries. A simulation study was conducted to investigate the performance of multilevel modelling methods and standard caries increment analysis. Data sets were simulated from a three-level binomial distribution based on analysis of a caries clinical trial in Scottish adolescents, with varying sample sizes, treatment effects and random tooth level effects based on trials reported in Cochrane reviews of topical fluoride, and analysed to compare the power of multilevel models and traditional analysis. 40,500 data sets were simulated. Analysis showed that estimated power for the traditional caries increment method was similar to that for multilevel modelling, with more variation in smaller data sets. Multilevel modelling may not allow significant reductions in the number of participants required in a caries clinical trial, compared to the use of traditional analyses, but investigators interested in exploring the effect of their intervention in more detail may wish to consider the application of multilevel modelling to their clinical trial data. PMID:24216573

  11. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Children who have severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) weigh significantly less than caries-free children. The association between S-ECC and weight suggests that its timely treatment at early stages may preserve general health, in addition to preventing pain and infection. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate whether children with untreated S-ECC had lower weight and height as compared with children with low caries and to evaluate whether full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC resulted in the phenomenon of catch-up growth. Materials and methods: The weight and height of children with noncontributory medical histories and S-ECC (3-6 years) were compared with caries-free children, before and 6 months after full mouth dental rehabilitation. Results: Prior to dental rehabilitation, children with S-ECC had significantly less weight and height than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.001). Following therapeutic intervention, the test group children exhibited catch-up growth in relation to weight, as there was no significant difference in the body weight of the test and control groups (p = 0.171). Conclusion: Comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation of children with S-ECC results in catch-up growth, thus improving the overall health of the child. How to cite this article: Sachdev J, Bansal K, Chopra R. Effect of Comprehensive Dental Rehabilitation on Growth Parameters in Pediatric Patients with Severe Early Childhood Caries. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):15-20. PMID:27274149

  12. Caries and dental fluorosis in a western Saharan population of refugee children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Montiel-Company, José María; Ruiz-Miravet, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis and dental caries among western Saharan refugee children. The western Saharan child population is characterized by adverse living conditions, an unbalanced diet, poor oral hygiene habits, and a concentration of fluoride in the drinking water of around 2 p.p.m. (2 mg l(-1)). A sample consisting of 360 children, 6-7 yr of age, and 212 children, 11-13 yr of age, was obtained from four refugee camps (Smara, Awsard, El-Aaiun, and 27-February) situated in the vicinity of Tindouf (southern Algeria). The children were examined using the World Health Organization criteria for caries diagnosis and Dean's index for fluorosis. The decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) score was 0.48 in the 6-7-yr-old children and 1.69 in the 11-13-yr-old children, with a caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 or decayed and filled primary teeth (dft) > 0) of 47.2% and 63.2%, respectively. Among the 6-7 yr-old children examined, 36.9% were free of fluorosis, 15.6% presented moderate fluorosis, and 7.8% presented severe fluorosis. Among 11-13 yr-old children, only 4.2% were free of fluorosis, 30.2% exhibited moderate fluorosis, and 27.4% presented severe fluorosis. The mean DMFT, decayed permanent teeth (DT), and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 and DMFT or dft > 0) scores were significantly higher among the children affected by severe fluorosis, suggesting that severe fluorosis might increase the susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:19049520

  13. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-01

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries. PMID:25498719

  14. [Atraumatic restorative treatment to control dental caries: history, characteristics, and contributions of the technique].

    PubMed

    Tascón, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents relevant scientific information on the history, characteristics, and contributions of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) for use in preventing and controlling dental caries. Within the area of oral public health, ART has been for years an economical, effective method for preventing and controlling caries in vulnerable populations. Among other things, ART reduces the stress and anxiety in patients that conventional restoration methods produce. This technique promises major benefits for Latin America. However, given its limitations with dental cavities on two or more surfaces, it is recommended that more research on this approach be encouraged, with the aim of improving the technique's effectiveness based on its characteristics, indications, and technical merits. PMID:15826387

  15. Early childhood caries and dental plaque among 1-3-year-olds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Simin Z; Virtanen, Jorma I; Vahid-Golpayegani, Mojtaba; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2006-12-01

    The association between plaque and caries in older children and adults has been poor, however, some studies show that there may be a relationship in younger children. The aim was to study the relationships between dental caries and dental plaque among 12-36-month-olds in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study among a stratified random sample of 504 children aged one to three years from 18 public health centres in Tehran. Mothers were interviewed about their child's date and order of birth, gender, primary caregiver, the mother's age and the educational level of both parents. Dental examination was carried out according to the WHO criteria. Early childhood caries (ECC) was defined as the presence of any dmf teeth. Dental plaque was visually inspected on the labial surfaces of upper central incisors. Data analysis included Chi-square test, t -test, anova and logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of ECC ranged from 3 to 33% depending on age group, with a mean dt of 1.1 for 26- to 36-month-olds. No gender-differences existed in ECC prevalence and mean dt. Dental plaque was visible on at least one index tooth for 65-75% of the children. Presence of ECC was related to the presence of dental plaque (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3) when controlling for background factors by means of logistic regression. The high occurrence of visible plaque and rather high ECC prevalence call for improvement in oral health promotion programs of the children. PMID:17183180

  16. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. Materials and Methods: One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. Results: A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints. PMID:27433061

  17. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  18. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  19. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  20. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  1. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care. PMID:21903524

  2. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar

  3. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-22

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  4. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures.

    PubMed

    Duijster, D; O'Malley, L; Elison, S; Van Loveren, C; Marcenes, W; Adair, P M; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has been given to the wider perspective of family functioning and family relationships on child oral health. For oral health researchers, exploration of this association requires the use of reliable, valid and appropriate assessment tools to measure family relationships. In order to promote methodologically sound research in oral health, this systematic review aims to provide a guide on self-report psychometric measures of family functioning that may be suitable to utilize when exploring childhood dental caries. This systematic review has identified 29 self-report measures of family functioning and evaluated them in terms of their psychometric support, constructs measured and potential utility for oral health research. The majority of the measures reported adequate levels of reliability and construct validity. Construct evaluation of the measures identified five core domains of family functioning, namely 'communication', 'cohesion/engagement', 'control', 'involvement' and 'authoritative/rigid parenting style'. The constructs were subsequently evaluated with respect to their potential relevance to child oral health. Herewith this review provides a framework to guide future research to explore family functioning in furthering our understanding of the development of childhood dental caries. PMID:24107605

  5. Photoacoustic Non-Destructive Evaluation and Imaging of Caries in Dental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 °C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

  6. Periodontal Health, Perceived Oral Health and Dental Care Utilization of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Inglehart, Marita R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the U.S. METHODS Data from the 1999–2004 NHANES were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50–85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes, while controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, non-smokers, have higher levels of education and income and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (p=0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.53–3.63), periodontitis (OR=1.82; 95% CI = 0.89–4.01) or poor self-perceived oral health (OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.61–1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. PMID:25648337

  7. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children Suffering From Epilepsy with and without Administration of Long Term Liquid Oral Medication

    PubMed Central

    Bhadravathi, Manjunath Chaluvaiah; Kumar, Adarsh; Narang, Ridhi; Gupta, Ambika; Singh, Harneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sucrose is added as sweetening agent in liquid oral medication (LOM) to mask the acrid taste of medicines which may be potentially cariogenic. Many children under long term LOM therapy for treatment of epilepsy may be susceptible to dental caries. Aim To assess and compare dental caries experience in children under long term liquid oral medication with those not under such medication among 2-12 years old children suffering from epilepsy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a total of 84 children aged 2–12 years, who were suffering from epilepsy receiving liquid oral medication for more than 3 months were selected (study group) and for comparison 106 children of similar age group and disease but on other forms of medication were included as control group. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT/DMFS (Decayed, Missing, Fillled Teeth / Surfaces), dmft/dft and dmfs/dfs indices. One-way ANOVA and t-test were used with p-value fixed at 0.05. Univariate logistic regression was applied. Results Children on LOM were at increased risk of dental caries than those with other forms of medications (OR: 2.55, 95% CI (2.37-4.15) p=0.000, HS). Caries prevalence was high in the study group (76.1%) when compared to control group (55.6%). Conclusion Long term use of liquid medicines containing sucrose is a risk factor for dental caries among children with epilepsy. PMID:27504416

  8. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  9. Clinical diagnosis of dental caries: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a broad international perspective on aspects of the RTI/UNC systematic review, to introduce relevant literature not cited, and to make recommendations for clinical practice education and research suggested by the evidence. Clinical caries diagnosis represents the foundation on which the answers to most of the consensus questions will be based. This paper highlights needs for being clear about definitions and nomenclature; understanding the importance of the concepts underlying the D1 and D3 diagnostic thresholds used widely within the RTI/UNC Review; and appreciating that the diagnostic challenge now faced by clinicians is significant and is becoming more complex as the presentation and distribution of the disease changes over time and the range of preventive and operative treatment options expands. A series of recommendations informed by the evidence are made, including a rather contentious issue for many clinicians concerning the lack of evidence supporting the continued use of a sharp explorer as a diagnostic tool for primary caries diagnosis. This practice should be discontinued as it may cause some harm to the patient and yet fails to provide a significant balancing diagnostic benefit. Finally, it is suggested that dentistry should learn from the developing evidence base in medicine on how best to disseminate the findings of reviews and promote appropriate changes in clinical practice. PMID:11699999

  10. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in

  11. Modifications of the dental pulp in marginal periodontitis. Electronomicroscopical contributions.

    PubMed

    Deva, V; Vătăman, Maria; Manolea, H

    2006-01-01

    Histological studies on teeth with marginal periodontitis, but without cavity lesions have shown a frequent apparition of modifications in the pulp tissue structure. In this study, by using the electron microscopy method, we have shown a series of interesting aspects of the intimate modifications that appear on the level of all components of the pulp tissue. The observations show that the degree of affecting can be correlated to the type of marginal periodontitis, and at the same time they contribute to a right evaluation of the defensive abilities of the pulp of the teeth with marginal periodontitis. PMID:16838061

  12. Relationship between dental caries status and anemia in children with severe early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ru-Shing; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Huang, Shun-Te

    2013-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (SECC) is a public health problem among preschool children. Malnutrition is a condition commonly prevalent in children with SECC. This study investigated the nutritional status among preschool children with SECC. Children with SECC (n = 101) aged 2-5 years from the Division of Pediatric Dentistry in an academic hospital in Southern Taiwan were recruited for our cross-sectional study. The nutritional status of the children was assessed based on anthropometric measurements and clinical tests. By applying the criteria established by the World Health Organization, we found that 9% and 46% of the children with SECC were diagnosed as being anemic and iron deficient, respectively. Using national standards for the body mass index, 30% of children with SECC were classified as underweight. The relationship between the caries status of the children and anemia was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). Our results show that SECC is strongly associated with anemia (7.25-fold), indicating that clinicians and dentists should provide treatment to improve both the oral hygiene and the nutritional status of children with SECC. PMID:23684139

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs <12th grade = 43.3, p = 0.001), gender (male = 27.3 vs female = 19.6, p = 0.04), age (≤15 years = 27.1 vs <15 years = 18.5, p = 0.02), presence of fissure sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001) and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02). When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents´educational level (<9th grade, OR = 1.56 CI95% = 1.05–2.54), gender (female, OR = 1.86 CI95% = 1.19–2.98), experience of dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39–0.97) and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19–0.65). Conclusions The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among

  14. Periodontal Specific Differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells into Osteoblast, Fibroblast, and Cementoblast.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, S; Chennazhi, K P; Arzate, Higinio; Jayachandran, P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-10-01

    The dental follicle is a source of dental follicle stem cells (DFCs), which have the potential to differentiate into the periodontal lineage. DFCs therefore are of value in dental tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth factor type and concentration on DFC differentiation into periodontal specific lineages. DFCs were isolated from the human dental follicle and characterized for the expression of mesenchymal markers. The cells were positive for CD-73, CD-44, and CD-90; and negative for CD-33, CD-34, and CD-45. The expression of CD-29 and CD-31 was almost negligible. The cells also expressed periodontal ligament and cementum markers such as periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and cementum protein-1 (CEMP-1), however, the expression of osteoblast markers was absent. Further, the DFCs were cultured in three different induction medium to analyze the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, and cementoblastic differentiation. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin staining, calcium quantification, collagen type-1 (Col-1), and osteopontin (OPN) expression confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of DFCs. DFCs cultured in recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) containing medium showed enhanced PLAP-1, FGF-2, and COL-1 expression with increasing concentration of rhFGF-2 which thereby confirmed periodontal ligament fibroblastic differentiation. Similarly, DFCs cultured in recombinant human cementum protein-1 (rhCEMP-1) containing medium showed enhanced bone sialoprotein-2 (BSP-2), CEMP-1, and COL-1 expression with respect to rhCEMP-1 which confirmed cementoblastic differentiation. The expression of osteoblast, fibroblast, and cementoblast-related genes of DFCs cultured in induction medium was enhanced in comparison to DFCs cultured in noninduction medium. Thus, growth factor-dependent differentiation of DFCs into periodontal specific lineages

  15. Diagnoses and treatment proposals in periodontal treatment. A comparison between dentists, dental hygienists and undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Leisnert, Leif; Axtelius, Björn; Johansson, Veronica; Wennerberg, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how professionals in Swedish dental care perform diagnostic procedures in general. Is there a common ground between dentists and dental hygienists concerning sharing different job assignments in an effective way? Are the methods of treatment used in accordance with degree of severity of the disease and to what extent is proposed treatment in accordance with the National Guidelines? A questionnaire consisting of three different patient cases with periodontal disease was sent to 804 private practitioners, 809 dentists in Dental Public Service, 802 dental hygienists and 40 dental students on their final semester at the Dental School in Malmö. The questionnaire was completed by 1,103 respondents (47%). A majority of all practitioner groups (94%) found that a relatively healthy patient had disease, the risk for developing further disease was deemed none too low by 97%, but 91% wanted to give preventive care. A vast majority suggested more dental care to healthy patients as compared to patients with severe periodontal disease. In Conclusion the two groups, i.e. dentists and dental hygienists, did not to a sufficiently high degree share views on diagnosis and treatment, in order to optimize the resources in dentistry. The delivery of dental care was not in line with the severity of disease and too much attention was paid to the needs of relatively healthy persons. To change this pattern, the incentives in and structure of the national assurance system could be adapted. Furthermore, the knowledge basis for periodontal diagnosis and treatment needs, with special reference to the National Guidelines, should to a higher degree be shared by all caregivers. PMID:26529834

  16. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic

    PubMed Central

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G.; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a “V”-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  17. Similarity of the effects of erythritol and xylitol on some risk factors of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K; Saag, M; Isotupa, K P; Olak, J; Nõmmela, R; Söderling, E; Mäkinen, P-L

    2005-01-01

    Several sugar alcohols (polyols) have been promoted as potential sugar substitutes in caries limitation. However, differences in the effects of simple alditol-type sugar alcohol homologues on dental plaque have not been compared in clinical tests. The effects of 6-month use of erythritol (a sugar alcohol of the tetritol type), xylitol (a pentitol) and D-glucitol (sorbitol, a hexitol) were investigated in a cohort of 136 teenage subjects assigned to the respective polyol groups or to an untreated control group (n = 30-36 per group). The daily use of the polyols was 7.0 g in the form of chewable tablets, supplemented by twice-a-day use of a dentifrice containing those polyols. The use of erythritol and xylitol was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001 in most cases) in the plaque and saliva levels of mutans streptococci. The amount of dental plaque was also significantly reduced in subjects receiving erythritol and xylitol. Such effects were not observed in other experimental groups. Chemical analyses showed D-glucitol to be a normal finding in dental plaque while xylitol was less consistently detected. Erythritol was detected in measurable amounts only in the plaque of subjects receiving this polyol. Erythritol and xylitol may exert similar effects on some risk factors of dental caries, although the biochemical mechanism of the effects may differ. These in vivo studies were supported by cultivation experiments in which xylitol, and especially erythritol, inhibited the growth of several strains of mutans streptococci. PMID:15914983

  18. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic.

    PubMed

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a "V"-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  19. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  20. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  1. The effect of hexetidine spray on dental plaque following periodontal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bokor, M

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 0.2% hexetidine spray, used as a supplement to regular oral hygiene measures, on dental plaque and gingival condition following periodontal surgery. This study was carried out on 38 patients who required 2 episodes of periodontal surgery. Examinations regarding dental plaque were performed at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, while the condition of the gingiva were examined at 0 and 28 days. Dental plaque was assessed by the Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein index; the gingival condition was evaluated using the gingival index of Löe-Silness and the papilla bleeding index. In a double-blind cross-over study of 28 days duration, significant reduction in plaque accumulation and an improvement in wound healing were demonstrated for the test spray compared to the placebo. PMID:8997651

  2. Pediatricians’ assessments of caries risk and need for a dental evaluation in preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk-based prioritization of dental referrals during well-child visits might improve dental access for infants and toddlers. This study identifies pediatrician-assessed risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC) and their association with the need for a dentist’s evaluation. Methods A priority oral health risk assessment and referral tool (PORRT) for children < 36 months was developed collaboratively by physicians and dentists and used by 10 pediatricians during well-child visits. PORRT documented behavioral, clinical, and child health risks for ECC. Pediatricians also assessed overall ECC risk on an 11-point scale and determined the need for a dental evaluation. Logistic regression models calculated the odds for evaluation need for each risk factor and according to a 3-level risk classification. Results In total 1,288 PORRT forms were completed; 6.8% of children were identified as needing a dentist evaluation. Behavioral risk factors were prevalent but not strong predictors of the need for an evaluation. The child’s overall caries risk was the strongest predictor of the need for an evaluation. Cavitated (OR = 17.5; 95% CI = 8.08, 37.97) and non-cavitated (OR = 6.9; 95% CI = 4.47, 10.82) lesions were the strongest predictors when the caries risk scale was excluded from the analysis. Few patients (6.3%) were classified as high risk, but their probability of needing an evaluation was only 0.36. Conclusions Low referral rates for children with disease and prior to disease onset but at elevated risk, indicate interventions are needed to help improve the dental referral rates of physicians. PMID:22559270

  3. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  4. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  5. Influence of the ICDAS e-learning program for occlusal caries detection on dental students.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Michele B; Lima, Luciana Monti; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Eckert, George J; Zandoná, Andrea G Ferreira; de Cássia Loiola Cordeiro, Rita

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ICDAS training in a group of dental students for occlusal caries detection in permanent teeth. Premolars and molars (N=104) with occlusal surfaces varying from ICDAS scores 0 to 6 were cleaned, one occlusal site per tooth was selected, and a photograph taken to identify the site. Eight senior dental students examined the teeth twice with a one-week interval between examinations during each of two phases: before and after the ICDAS e-learning program. Teeth were histologically assessed for caries extension. Intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and interexaminer repeatability were high, both before (0.75 and 0.72, respectively) and after e-learning (0.82 and 0.78, respectively). The ICDAS scores decreased significantly from before to after e-learning (p=0.0001). Correlation between ICDAS scores and histology scores was moderate (0.57 before e-learning and 0.61 after). Although the ROC curve shows an improvement in the use of the ICDAS scoring after e-learning, the difference was not significant (p=0.10). Specificity of the ICDAS scores significantly improved after e-learning (77 percent vs. 36 percent), and sensitivity was reduced slightly after e-learning (87 percent vs. 92 percent). The ICDAS e-learning program improved the performance of the diagnostic skills of the investigated students for the detection of occlusal caries lesions. PMID:20679455

  6. Holes in teeth - Dental caries in Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Ganslmeier, Robert; Siebert, Angelina; Friederich, Susanne; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W

    2016-01-01

    This study provides diachronic insight into the epidemiology of carious defects in teeth of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Central Germany over a period of 4000 years. The data were retrieved from skeletal remains uncovered at 21 sites throughout the Middle Elbe-Saale region (MES), comprising a total of 494 individuals with preserved teeth. The data generated were examined for age- and sex-related differences in order to gain information about the dietary habits and socio-economic structures of the period with the goal of identifying potential diachronic changes. The results indicated that dietary habits changed over the course of the Neolithic period: the prevalence of caries significantly decreased between the Early and Late Neolithic. The adults from the Early Neolithic sample, particularly those from the LBK bore the highest rate of caries. This highlights the essential importance of cereals in the diet of the early farmers in the Middle Elbe-Saale region. As time went on, meat and dairy products became more and more important, which had a positive impact on dental health. The data also show sex-specific differences: women were more often affected by caries than men and female jaws also generally exhibited greater numbers of carious teeth than their male counterparts. Dental health is a reflection of both biological factors and of economic and sociocultural structures. PMID:25765291

  7. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  8. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  9. Dental trauma involving root fracture and periodontal ligament injury: a 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Pedrini, Denise; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Monteiro de Castro, José Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the cases of traumatic dental injuries involving root fracture and/or periodontal ligament injury (except avulsion) treated at the Discipline of Integrated Clinic, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil, from January 1992 to December 2002. Clinical and radiographic records from 161 patients with 287 traumatized teeth that had sustained root fracture and/or injuries to the periodontal ligament were examined. The results of this survey revealed that subluxation (25.09%) was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury, followed by extrusive luxation (19.86%). There was a predominance of young male patients and most of them did not present systemic alterations. Among the etiologic factors, the most frequent causes were falls and bicycle accidents. Injuries on extraoral soft tissues were mostly laceration and abrasion, while gingival and lip mucosa lacerations prevailed on intraoral soft tissues injuries. Radiographically, the most common finding was an increase of the periodontal ligament space. The most commonly performed treatment was root canal therapy. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that traumatic dental injuries occur more frequently in young male individuals, due to falls and bicycle accidents. Subluxation was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury. Root canal therapy was the type of treatment most commonly planned and performed. PMID:18949308

  10. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  11. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient. PMID:25179920

  12. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance. PMID:26298801

  13. Evaluation of dental enamel caries assessment using Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Marly Araújo; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; de L Campello, Sergio; Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leônidas; Karlsson, Lena

    2016-06-01

    An in vitro study of morphological alterations between sound dental structure and artificially induced white spot lesions in human teeth, was performed through the loss of fluorescence by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) and the alterations of the light attenuation coefficient by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). To analyze the OCT images using a commercially available system, a special algorithm was applied, whereas the QLF images were analyzed using the software available in the commercial system employed. When analyzing the sound region against white spot lesions region by QLF, a reduction in the fluorescence intensity was observed, whilst an increase of light attenuation by the OCT system occurred. Comparison of the percentage of alteration between optical properties of sound and artificial enamel caries regions showed that OCT processed images through the attenuation of light enhanced the tooth optical alterations more than fluorescence detected by QLF System. QLF versus OCT imaging of enamel caries: a photonics assessment. PMID:26351155

  14. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  15. Oral health of adolescents--it's more than dental caries.

    PubMed

    Percy, Melanie S

    2008-01-01

    Of all the health issues common to adolescents, oral health has not seemed to receive much attention. However, just as "eyes are the windows to the soul," the oral health of an adolescent can be a reliable and expedient indicator of general health. Lesions discovered during an oral exam can indicate systemic problems that may not otherwise be disclosed during the health history. Tobacco use, sexually transmitted infections, and type II diabetes can manifest in the mouth, and many of these lesions mimic other illnesses. It is essential that nurses who work with adolescents be aware of possible differential diagnoses beyond the typical canker sores, herpes simplex type I, and periodontal disease so commonly seen. Adolescents rarely enter the healthcare system, but school and camp nurses and nurse practitioners have access to teens on a regular basis. They can screen adolescents for oral health problems and teach them practices that may prevent health problems with lifetime consequences. Capitalizing on this opportunity to educate adolescents can be critical to their long-term health. PMID:18158524

  16. Diabetes an inducing factor for dental caries: A case control analysis in Jammu

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Iqbal; Singh, Paramjeet; Singh, Amarpreet; Singh, Tara; Kour, Robindera

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disease and it has emerged as a major health-care problem. There are more chances of dentinal caries among diabetics than nondiabetics. DM is responsible for causing ascendancy in the proportion and activity of saliva that impacts the oral health. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the impact of various factors present in saliva on tooth decay amid type-II DM in Jammu. Materials and Methods: The subjects in our analysis comprises of 50 patients with type-II DM and 50 controls within the age group of 30–60 years. Diabetic status was assessed by estimating random blood glucose levels. Dental findings were recorded using modified World Health Organization (WHO) Oral health survey-basic method 2013. Salivary samples from all the subjects were collected and sent to the laboratory for interpretation of pH, flow rate, and salivary calcium. The analysis of salivary components decayed tooth was carried using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation test. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: The results have shown a significantly lower values of salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels in diabetics than in nondiabetics. Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, the results indicated that patients with type-II DM have high rate of dental caries and are at high risk of caries development. The decline in the salivary components will reduce capability of supporting the mineral compartment of tooth structure to resist the demineralization process by cariogenic potentials thereby creating a favorable environment for caries progression. PMID:27114951

  17. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100μM of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at λ = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  18. Clinical validation of the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Isaacs, Roger L.; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea G.; Ando, Masatoshi; Gonzalez, Carlos; Mau, Melissa S.; Kelly, Sue A.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1999-05-01

    A clinical investigation was conducted in children to validate the use of fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries. A total of 150 children were examined for the presence of dental caries at baseline and at 4-month intervals for one year using conventional visual-tactile with and without a dental explorer, electrical conductivity and light fluorescence methods on the occlusal, buccal and lingual tooth surfaces. Interproximal tooth surfaces were examined using conventional film and direct digital radiography at baseline and 12 months. Validation of the clinical methods was performed by the histologic examination of exfoliated primary teeth. The results indicate that visual-tactile examinations with an explorer detected more carious lesions than similar examinations without an explorer. The use of quantitative light fluorescence permitted the detection of a substantially greater number of enamel lesions or demineralized areas than the conventional visual-tactile-radiographic diagnostic procedure. Further, the use of the quantitative light fluorescence permitted the monitoring of both the progression of regression of early carious lesions.

  19. Dental Caries Scenario Among 5, 12 and 15-Year-old Children in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Materials and Methods Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. Results The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. Conclusion More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community. PMID:26393229

  20. [Evaluation of the incidence of dental caries in patients with Down syndrome after their insertion in a preventive program].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire de; Marta, Sara Nader

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of dental caries by means of the CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes in patients with Down syndrome regularly enrolled in a preventive program. Twenty four Down syndrome patients of both sexes age range of one to 48 years were examined. The prevalence (initial experimental situation) and incidence (final experimental situation) of dental caries were verified using of the initial and final CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes of the participants. From 24 individual examined, 10 (42.0%) were free of caries. The prevalence of dental caries showed values of CPO-D= 2.33; CPO-S= 3.60; ceo-d= 1.75 e ceo-s= 2.80; while the incidence of caries showed values of 2.33; 3.80; 1.10 e 1.90, respectively. Down syndrome individuals evaluated in this study presented low level of caries and small incidence of new lesions, emphasizing the importance of the maintenance of these patients at preventive programs. PMID:21049166

  1. Acidogenicity and acidurance of dental plaque and saliva sediment from adults in relation to caries activity and chlorhexidine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Georgios, Andreadis; Vassiliki, Topitsoglou; Sotirios, Kalfas

    2015-01-01

    Background The ecological plaque hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of caries implies a microbial shift towards a more aciduric dental plaque microbiota, due to a frequent carbohydrate intake. Acid tolerance has been suggested as an important property of the caries-associated bacteria and several in vitro studies with mixed cultures indicated that a low pH rather than the carbohydrate availability is responsible for microbiota shifts associated with the development of dental caries. Objective To examine 1) the acidogenic potential (amount lactate produced per mg plaque and minute, at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5) and the aciduric potential (acidogenic potential at pH 5.5/acidogenic potential at pH 7.0) of dental plaque and salivary sediment taken from caries-active or caries-free adults, and 2) the effect of a short-term chlorhexidine treatment on these potentials. Design Dental plaque and saliva sediment samples were taken from caries-free and caries-active subjects and suspended in Ringer's solution containing 1% sucrose and buffered with 0.5 M 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), pH 7.0, or 3-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES), pH 5.5. After incubation at 37°C for 10–20 min, the concentration of lactic acid in the suspension was determined by an enzymatic assay. The acid production of dental plaque was also determined after a period of mouth rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Results Both dental plaque and salivary sediment from caries-free subjects exhibited significantly lower acidogenic potentials at both pHs compared to caries-active volunteers. The opposite was observed with the aciduric potential. Chlorhexidine treatment significantly reduced all three potentials but had no effect on the relative proportion of bacteria grown on acidic agar. Conclusions Caries-active adults have an oral microbiota characterised by an increased catabolic velocity for sugar. The increase is more pronounced at neutral than acidic pH. Exposure to chlorhexidine, through

  2. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  4. Regenerative potential of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells harvested from high caries patient's teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramesh; Gopal, Sushruth; Masood, Huda; Vivek, Purushottam; Deb, Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp are known to contains stem cells or dentinogenic progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. Dental pulp Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential or multilineage differentiations. This potential for tissue regeneration has become the current basis for dental pulp stem cell banking. Here, we have attempted to develop a protocol for harvesting stem cells from patients with High Caries tooth, which are most often electively discarded. We have characterized the stem cells with mesenchymal stem cell markers and have compared their potential to grow in culture, doubling times, and differentiate into different lineages, with normal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We observed that the MSCs from dental pulp grew faster, with lower doubling time, and had equal efficiency in differentiating to various lineages, when subjected to standard directed differentiation protocols. This paper establishes that discarded High Carries Tooth can be a good source for regenerative medicine and also could be a potential source for MSCs and dental pulp MSC banking. PMID:24459811

  5. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child's caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. PMID:25154834

  6. Effects of Enamel Fluorosis and Dental Caries on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Onoriobe, U.; Rozier, R.G.; Cantrell, J.; King, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean’s index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p < .001), ECOHIS (B = 0.252, p ≤ .001), and FIS (B = 0.096, p ≤ .01) scores in ordinary least squares regression models. A child’s caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact. PMID:25154834

  7. A review of the role of solar ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D in reducing risk of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large geographical variations in dental health and tooth loss among US adolescents and young adults have been reported since the mid-1800s. Studies in the 1920s and 1930s noted that vitamin D and ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance reduced caries formation, the proposed mechanism being improved calcium absorption and metabolism. This paper reviews the history of studies of dental caries with respect to vitamin D, geographical location and available solar UVB doses. In addition, data on mean dental health rank by state for US servicemen from three periods, 1918, 1934 and 1943, were used in regression analyses with respect to summertime solar UVB doses and an index for mottled enamel, a proxy for natural fluoridation of drinking water, for 1935. There was a significant inverse correlation for dental health rank with respect to solar UVB from doses of 4.0 to 6.5 kJ/m2 with little change thereafter. Adding data for mottled enamel rates for the states with UvB doses <6.6 kJ/m2 improved the adjusted R2 from 0.45 to 0.52. The mechanism whereby UVB reduces risk of dental caries is likely through production of vitamin D, followed by induction of cathelicidin and defensins, which have antimicrobial properties. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at or above 30–40 ng/ml should significantly reduce the formation of dental caries. It is unfortunate that the UVB and vitamin D findings were not given more consideration in the 1950s as a way to reduce the risk of dental caries when water fluoridation was being proposed. PMID:22110779

  8. The role of fluoride tablets in the prophylaxis of dental caries. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tomasin, Lisa; Pusinanti, Luca; Zerman, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Doing a meta-analysis to answer the question: “Does fluoride tablets prevent dental caries among children and adolescents?” Materials and methods A review of the literature is performed using the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, NHS Evidence Oral Health, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Metalib. The keywords used are dental fluoride, fluoride tablets. The studies analyzed was limited to English language with free abstract. For the studies selection was taken into consideration the criteria proposed by the Cochrane Oral Health Group. Results Few studies with good quality were identified in general. Only 3 out of 779 studies were acceptable. Conclusions Evident disagreements among the results show that there’s a limited effectiveness on fluoride tablets. PMID:26161245

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans a major periodontal pathogen using polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Anil; Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S.; Paul, Santhosh T.; Kakanur, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the present scenario, we are made available with chemomechanical caries removal system containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for the ease in the excavation of infected dentine. The additive action for these agents is providing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: This study was undertaken for assessing the action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected for cultivation of the periodontal pathogen from the clinical periodontal pockets using sterile paper points. The samples cultured under suitable conditions were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting 16s r-DNA. The samples were divided into three groups namely, Group A: Control, Group B: With Papacarie Duo, Group C: With Carie Care. The pathogen inoculums plugs were inserted in the petri dishes containing chemically defined medium and the experimental gels at different concentrations and were incubated under optimal conditions. The inhibition of growth of the pathogen was studied visually. Results: There was visual inhibition of growth for Group B and C and also exhibited a dose-dependent effect also. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, Carie Care™ gel demonstrated better antimicrobial action against A. actinomycetemcomitans which is a major periodontal disease causing pathogen. PMID:26681861

  10. Protein-repellent and antibacterial dental composite to inhibit biofilms and caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Ma, Jianfeng; Melo, Mary A. S.; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Biofilm acids contribute to secondary caries, which is a main reason for dental restoration failures. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a protein-repellent and antibacterial composite, and (2) investigate the effects of combining 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) on composite mechanical properties and biofilm response for the first time. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and glass particles were mixed into a dental resin composite. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. Protein adsorption onto the composites was measured by a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, live/dead assay, metabolic activity, and lactic acid production of biofilms were determined. Results Incorporation of 3% MPC and 1.5% DMAHDM into composite achieved protein-repellent and antibacterial capabilities without compromising the mechanical properties. Composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM had protein adsorption that was 1/10 that of a commercial composite (p < 0.05). The composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM had much greater reduction in biofilm growth than using MPC or DMAHDM alone (p < 0.05). Biofilm CFU counts on composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM were more than three orders of magnitude lower than that of commercial control. Conclusions Dental composite with a combination of strong protein-repellent and antibacterial capabilities was developed for the first time. Composite with MPC and DMAHDM greatly reduced biofilm activity and is promising to inhibit secondary caries. The dual agents of MPC plus DMAHDM may have wide applicability to other dental materials. PMID:25478889

  11. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis. PMID:26941520

  12. Scientific knowledge and clinical authority in dentistry: James Sim Wallace and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, M; Taylor, G S

    2009-03-01

    Once the germ theory had become generally accepted within medicine, the importance of experimental science to the improvement of medical practice could no longer be reasonably doubted. However, clinicians still sought to retain control of how knowledge that had originated in the laboratory was interpreted and applied within practical diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus how practitioners incorporated new scientific knowledge into their medical discourse and practice is a matter for careful empirical inquiry. James Sim Wallace, born in Renfrewshire in 1869 and a graduate in medicine from the University of Glasgow, was a leading figure in British dentistry throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Through an examination of his voluminous writings, we explore how the new 'chemico-parasitical' theory of dental caries was accommodated within dentists' understanding of oral hygiene. The paper also looks at the controversies that surrounded the application of the vitamin theory to the problems of rickets and dental caries, focusing on the contentious interaction between Sim Wallace and his colleagues, on the one hand, and the eminent physiologists May and Edward Mellanby, on the other. PMID:19831286

  13. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  14. Association between untreated dental caries and household food insecurity in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between untreated dental caries (UDC) and household food insecurity (HFI) among schoolchildren in different income strata. A population-based study was carried out with a sample of 584 12-y-old schoolchildren. Oral examinations were performed and HFI was determined using a validated scale. Other independent variables were analyzed for being of interest to the stratification of the results (per capita household income) or for acting as potential confounding variables. The prevalence of UDC and HFI was 45% and 39%, respectively. The multivariate models demonstrated that the UDC was significantly more prevalent among children in food-insecure households with per capita income of up to US$ 70.71 than among those in the same income stratum that were free of HFI [PR = 1.52 (95%CI = 1.01-2.29)]. HFI was associated with a greater frequency of UDC among low-income schoolchildren, but had no significant impact on this variable among children from other income strata. Thus, ensuring access to quality food may be a good strategy for minimizing inequities in oral health and reducing dental caries experience among schoolchildren from low-income families. PMID:26910164

  15. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500–1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths. PMID:24791129

  16. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  17. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  18. [Polarization of dental caries in teen-agers in the southwest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales; de Carvalho, Fábio Silva; de Carvalho, Cristiane Paz; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2008-12-01

    In most Brazilian cities, oral health is still a challenge for the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index), the differences with regard to gender and geographic localization, Significant Caries Index and the percentages of caries-free adolescents in Itaí-SP - Brazil, in 2006. The methodology used was in agreement with the criteria established by the WHO. The sample was composed of 178 teen-agers, corresponding to 46% of the 12-years-old registered in the schools of the city. One single examiner performed the examination. The Kappa test method was used with an agreement rater of 0.95. The DMTF index was of 2.45, SiC of 5.08 and 30% of the adolescents were caries-free. It was observed that 70% of caries cases were concentrated in 34% of the adolescents. The data obtained showed a polarization of dental caries in 12-years-old adolescents, but this polarization was not uniform. The problems are concentrated in a small portion of the population. PMID:19039399

  19. 38 CFR 3.381 - Service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... teeth, dental or alveolar abscesses, and periodontal disease are not compensable disabilities, but may... will consider each defective or missing tooth and each disease of the teeth and periodontal tissues... they were filled during service. However, new caries that developed 180 days or more after such a...

  20. 38 CFR 3.381 - Service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... teeth, dental or alveolar abscesses, and periodontal disease are not compensable disabilities, but may... will consider each defective or missing tooth and each disease of the teeth and periodontal tissues... they were filled during service. However, new caries that developed 180 days or more after such a...

  1. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed. PMID:27056513

  2. Prediction of Future High Caries Increments for Children in a School Dental Service and in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…

  3. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te

    2010-01-01

    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  4. The use of in vitro model systems to study dental biofilms associated with caries: a short review

    PubMed Central

    Salli, Krista M.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    A dental biofilm forms a distinct environment where microorganisms live in a matrix of extracellular polysaccharides. The biofilm favors certain bacteria and creates a habitat that functions differently compared to planktonic bacteria. Reproducible model systems which help to address various questions related to biofilm formation, the process of caries development, and its prevention are needed and are continuously developed. Recent research using both batch culture, continuous culture and flow cells in caries biofilm formation is presented. The development of new techniques and equipment has led to a deeper understanding of how caries biofilms function. Biofilm models have also been used in the development of materials inhibiting secondary caries. This short review summarizes available models to study these questions. PMID:25740099

  5. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  6. [Caries prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Riethe, P

    1977-07-14

    The extent of dental caries incidence has reached such proportions that it may no longer be kept under control by restorative methods alone. Parodontopathy is besides tooth caried the most wide spread ailment. Bacterial plaque can be considered as main cause and key-factor for caries incidence and parodontopathy. All other causes are co-factors. It follows that decrease of dental plaque must be the most urgent goal in prophylactic dentistry. The combination of all caries and parodontal prophylactic remedies and methods determines as a complex the fate of hard and soft tissues exposed to bacterial plaque. PMID:885457

  7. Cytoskeletal binding proteins distinguish cultured dental follicle cells and periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Tian, Ye; Yang, Yaling; Chen, Guoqing; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) derived from the ectomesenchymal tissue, have been shown to exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties and the ability to induce tissue regeneration. Stem cells in dental follicle differentiate into cementoblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts, these cells form cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, respectively. While stem cells in dental follicle are a precursor to periodontal ligament fibroblasts, the molecular changes that distinguish cultured DFCs from PDLCs are still unknown. In this study, we have compared the immunophenotypic features and cell cycle status of the two cell lines. The results suggest that DFCs and PDLCs displayed similar features related to immunophenotype and cell cycle. Then we employed an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics strategy to reveal the molecular differences between the two cell types. A total of 2138 proteins were identified and 39 of these proteins were consistently differentially expressed between DFCs and PDLCs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the protein subsets expressed higher in PDLCs were related to actin binding, cytoskeletal protein binding, and structural constituent of muscle. Upon validation by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) and caldesmon 1 (CALD1) were expressed higher in PDLCs than in DFCs. Our results suggested that PDLCs display enhanced actin cytoskeletal dynamics relative to DFCs while DFCs may exhibit a more robust antioxidant defense ability relative to PDLCs. This study expands our knowledge of the cultured DFCs and PDLCs proteome and provides new insights into possible mechanisms responsible for the different biological features observed in each cell type. PMID:26708290

  8. Periodontal Disease and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mobeen, N; Jehan, I; Banjay, N; Moore, J; McClure, EM; Pasha, O; Wright, LL; Goldenberg, RL

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Periodontal disease may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes; however, results have been mixed. Few studies have examined periodontal disease in developing countries. We describe the relationship between periodontal disease and birth outcomes in a community setting in Pakistan. METHODS Enrollment occurred at 20–26 wks. A study dentist performed the periodontal examination to assess probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingivitis index (GI) and plaque index (PI). Outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal mortality, <32 wk preterm birth (PTB), 32–36 wk PTB, and low birthweight (LBW), and are presented for increasing periodontal disease severity by quartiles (Q1-4). RESULTS Dental examinations and outcome data were completed for 1152 women. 81% were multiparous with a mean age of 27 yrs. 33% had no education. Dental caries were present in 47%, missing teeth in 27%, and 92% had no dental care in the last year. Periodontal disease was common: 87% had ≥ 4 teeth with a PD of >3mm, 54% had ≥4 teeth with a PI = 3, and 58% had ≥ 4 teeth with a GI = 3. In general, as the measure of periodontal disease increased, stillbirth, PTB <32 wks and neonatal mortality also increased. Late PTB and LBW were not related to measures of periodontal disease. Adjustment for demographic characteristics did not significantly change the relationships. CONCLUSION Pregnant Pakistani women have high levels of moderate to severe dental disease. Both stillbirth and neonatal mortality increased with the severity of periodontal disease. PMID:18455527

  9. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  10. Breast and Bottle Feeding as Risk Factors for Dental Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Walesca M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Paiva, Saul M.; Martins, Carolina C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role that breastfeeding and bottle feeding play in the development of dental caries during childhood is essential in helping dentists and parents and care providers prevent the disease, and also for the development of effective public health policies. However, the issue is not yet fully understood. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence in response to the question: Do bottle fed children have more dental caries in primary dentition than breastfed children? Seven electronic databases and grey literature were used in the search. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO CRD 42014006534. Two independent reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and evaluated risk of bias by quality assessment. A random effect model was used for meta-analysis, and the summary effect measure were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Seven studies were included: five cross-sectional, one case-control and one cohort study. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that breastfed children were less affected by dental caries than bottle fed children (OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23–0.80). Four studies showed that bottle fed children had more dental caries (p<0.05), while three studies found no such association (p>0.05). The scientific evidence therefore indicated that breastfeeding can protect against dental caries in early childhood. The benefits of breastfeeding until age two is recommended by WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Further prospective observational cohort studies are needed to strengthen the evidence. PMID:26579710

  11. Periodontal Disease, Dental Implants, Extractions and Medications Related to Osteonecrosis of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha P; Katsarelis, Helen; Pazianas, Michael; Dhariwal, Daljit K

    2015-11-01

    Patients taking bisphosphonates and other anti-resorptive drugs are likely to attend general dental practice. The term 'bisphosphonate'is often immediately associated with osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). Risk assessment and subsequent management of these patients should be carried out taking into account all the risk factors associated with ONJ. The introduction of newer drugs, also shown to be associated with ONJ, demands increased awareness of general dental practitioners about these medications. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper provides an update on medication-related ONJ and considers the effects of anti-resorptive drugs on the management of patients needing exodontia, treatment for periodontal disease and dental implant placement. PMID:26749795

  12. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  13. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  14. Comparative Gene-Expression Analysis of the Dental Follicle and Periodontal Ligament in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Song, Je-Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ill; Jung, Han-Sung; Choi, Byung-Jai

    2013-01-01

    The human dental follicle partially differentiates into the periodontal ligament (PDL), but their biological functions are different. The gene-expression profiles of the dental follicle and PDL were compared using the cDNA microarray technique. Microarray analysis identified 490 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression, 365 and 125 of which were more abundant in the dental follicle and PDL, respectively. The most strongly expressed genes in the dental follicle were those related to bone development and remodeling (EGFL6, MMP8, FRZB, and NELL1), apoptosis and chemotaxis (Nox4, CXCL13, and CCL2), and tooth and embryo development (WNT2, PAX3, FGF7, AMBN, AMTN, and SLC4A4), while in the PDL it was the tumor-suppressor gene WIF1. Genes related to bone development and remodeling (STMN2, IBSP, BMP8A, BGLAP, ACP5, OPN, BMP3, and TM7SF4) and wound healing (IL1, IL8, MMP3, and MMP9) were also more strongly expressed in the PDL than in the dental follicle. In selected genes, a comparison among cDNA microarray, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed similar relative gene expressions. The gene-expression profiles presented here identify candidate genes that may enable differentiation between the dental follicle and PDL. PMID:24376796

  15. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Soroushian, Sheila; Ganguly, Rumpa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. Results There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, "With CCAP" and "Without CCAP", there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. Conclusion This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health. PMID:24380062

  16. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE + MI, and CE + MI + RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. Methods/Design This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n = 690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE + MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE + MI + RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in

  17. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  18. Association Signals Unveiled by a Comprehensive Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of Dental Caries Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cuenco, Karen T.; Zeng, Zhen; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L.; Wang, Lily; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Gene set-based analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data has recently emerged as a useful approach to examine the joint effects of multiple risk loci in complex human diseases or phenotypes. Dental caries is a common, chronic, and complex disease leading to a decrease in quality of life worldwide. In this study, we applied the approaches of gene set enrichment analysis to a major dental caries GWAS dataset, which consists of 537 cases and 605 controls. Using four complementary gene set analysis methods, we analyzed 1331 Gene Ontology (GO) terms collected from the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). Setting false discovery rate (FDR) threshold as 0.05, we identified 13 significantly associated GO terms. Additionally, 17 terms were further included as marginally associated because they were top ranked by each method, although their FDR is higher than 0.05. In total, we identified 30 promising GO terms, including ‘Sphingoid metabolic process,’ ‘Ubiquitin protein ligase activity,’ ‘Regulation of cytokine secretion,’ and ‘Ceramide metabolic process.’ These GO terms encompass broad functions that potentially interact and contribute to the oral immune response related to caries development, which have not been reported in the standard single marker based analysis. Collectively, our gene set enrichment analysis provided complementary insights into the molecular mechanisms and polygenic interactions in dental caries, revealing promising association signals that could not be detected through single marker analysis of GWAS data. PMID:23967329

  19. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  20. The effect of high-index liquids on PS-OCT imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high refractive index liquids on PS-OCT imaging of dental enamel. Several biocompatible agents such as propylene glycol and glycerol that have been proposed or utilized for soft tissue OCT experiments (skin and GI mucosa) were applied to the occlusal surfaces of sound and carious teeth. This study determined that the application of high refractive index liquids increased penetration depth in sound enamel to a greater degree than dried or water moistened samples. The results also demonstrated that image contrast between sound and carious enamel is dependent on the viscosity of the liquid and the degree of porosity of the carious lesion. The use of liquid agents with different viscositites in PS-OCT imaging may help determine the severity and depth of caries lesions in the occlusal pits and fissures.

  1. Dental management of early childhood caries in spastic quadriparesis: a case report and clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of CP are often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems, and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Spastic quadriparesis is the most severe form of spastic cerebral palsy. The present report describes the management of a 5-year-old patient with early childhood caries and spastic quadriparesis. The oral manifestations and clinical guidelines are discussed considering the special health care needs in these patients so as to provide comprehensive dental care. PMID:24705660

  2. The Development of Drug-free Therapy for Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Jia, Zhenshan; Rice, Kelly C.; Reinhardt, Richard A.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a novel, drug-free therapy that can reduce the over-accumulation of cariogenic bacteria on dental surfaces. Method We designed and synthesized a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrophilic copolymer functionalized with a pyrophosphate (PPi) tooth-binding anchor using “click” chemistry. The polymer was then evaluated for hydroxyapatite (HA) binding kinetics and capability of reducing bacteria adhesion to artificial tooth surface. Results The PPi-PEG copolymer can effectively inhibit salivary protein adsorption after rapid binding to an artificial tooth surface. As a result, thein vitro S. mutans adhesion study showed that the PPi-PEG copolymer can inhibit saliva protein-promotedS. mutans adhesion through the creation of a neutral, hydrophilic layer on the artificial tooth surface. Conclusion The results suggested the potential application of a PPi-PEG copolymer as a drug-free alternative to current antimicrobial therapy for caries prevention. PMID:24831311

  3. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care. PMID:26262380

  4. Dental students' and faculty members' concepts and emotions associated with a caries risk assessment program.

    PubMed

    Maupome, Gerardo; Isyutina, Olga

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify concepts and emotions associated with using an established Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) and Caries Risk Management (CRM) program in a dental school. Five focus groups with students and faculty members were conducted. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were qualitatively analyzed for emotions, using Plutchik's wheel of emotions, and were inductively evaluated for concepts (stability coefficients, Scott's π, 0.65-0.71). A total of twenty-five students took part in three focus groups (D2, D3, and D4 separately), and fifteen faculty members participated in two groups. Few frequency differences existed across students and faculty in terms of emotions (278 in faculty members' discourse; 276 in students'). From these, 535 concepts were assembled in seven groups of semantically distinct concepts. Faculty members verbalized more numerous concepts than students (300 vs. 235). Skepticism about the effectiveness of the CRA/CRM program represented the most significant barrier to comprehensive student and faculty support. The findings also suggested that, in order to dispel misconceptions, clearer messages, simpler forms and systems, and better tailored foci of the program for diverse patient, student, and faculty subgroups are needed. Ultimately, buy-in from users depends on CRA forms and programs that are seen as relevant, useful, and simple, offering tangible outcomes for patients and clinicians. PMID:24192413

  5. [Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries in Brazil: a bioethical approach].

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Verdi, Marta; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the problem of dental caries as a public health issue of epidemiological relevance. It is a case study based on documentary analysis of national epidemiological surveys on oral health in the years 1986, 2003 and 2010, with the Bioethics of Protection as an analytical support. The surveys revealed inequalities between population groups; and such inequalities were analyzed with respect to the reduction of the disease in the younger population, access to oral health care, and tooth loss, which is the worst outcome for tooth decay. The good results presented in the surveys have not reached the whole population; data have shown inequalities regarding family income and Brazilian region. It was also found that from 2003 government interventions in protective actions such as the adoption of criteria of equity in the allocation of health resources and inclusion of vulnerable population have contributed to a reduction in caries. Nevertheless, it is considered necessary update oral health care models by using Epidemiology as a structuring tool, and an interface with socially responsible protective bioethics, since regional differences continued to be marked in the analysis. PMID:23358771

  6. Optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries with polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    We report the utility of a rapid polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique developed for optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries in the tooth. Hyperspectral SRS images (512 × 512 pixels) of the tooth covering both the fingerprint (800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (2800-3600 cm(-1)) regions can be acquired within 15 minutes, which is at least 10(3) faster in imaging speed than confocal Raman mapping. Hyperspectral SRS imaging uncovers the biochemical distributions and variations across the carious enamel in the tooth. SRS imaging shows that compared to the sound enamel, the mineral content in the body of lesion decreases by 55%; while increasing up to 110% in the surface zone, indicating the formation of a hyper-mineralized layer due to the remineralization process. Further polarized SRS imaging shows that the depolarization ratios of hydroxyapatite crystals (ν 1-PO4 (3-) of SRS at 959 cm(-1)) of the tooth in the sound enamel, translucent zone, body of lesion and the surface zone are 0.035 ± 0.01, 0.052 ± 0.02, 0.314 ± 0.1, 0.038 ± 0.02, respectively, providing a new diagnostic criterion for discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in the teeth. This work demonstrates for the first time that the polarization-resolved hyperspectral SRS imaging technique can be used for quantitatively determining tooth mineralization levels and discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in a rapid fashion, proving its promising potential of early detection and diagnosis of dental caries without labeling. PMID:27446654

  7. Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Simulation of Probing Dental Caries Within a Narrow Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Xiaohan; Shi, Youjiao; Zhang, Yuru; Hou, Jianxia; Xiao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Haptic simulation of handling pathological tissues is a crucial component to enhance virtual surgical training systems. In this paper, we introduce a configuration-based optimization approach to simulate the exploration and diagnosis of carious tissues in dental operations. To simulate the six Degree-of-Freedom (6DoF) haptic interaction between the dental probe and the oral tissues, we introduce two interaction states, the sliding state and the penetration state, which simulate the exploration on the surface of and inside of the caries, respectively. Penetration criteria considering a contact force threshold are defined to trigger the switch between the two states. By utilizing a simplified friction model based on the optimization approach, various multi-region frictional contacts between the probe and carious tissues are simulated. To simulate the exploration within the carious tissues for diagnosing the depth of the caries, a dynamic sphere tree is used to constrain the insertion/extraction of the probe within carious tissues along a fixed direction while enabling simulation of additional contacts of the probe with neighboring oral tissues during the insertion/extraction process. Experimental results show that decays with different levels of stiffness and friction coefficients can be stably simulated. Preliminary user studies show that users could easily identify the invisible boundary between the decay and healthy tissues and correctly rank the depth of target decays within a required time limit. The proposed approach could be used for training delicate motor skill of probing target carious teeth in a narrow oral cavity, which requires collaborated control of tool posture and insertion/extraction force, while avoiding damages to adjacent healthy tissues of the tongue and gingiva. PMID:26915130

  8. Optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries with polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We report the utility of a rapid polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique developed for optical diagnosis and characterization of dental caries in the tooth. Hyperspectral SRS images (512 × 512 pixels) of the tooth covering both the fingerprint (800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (2800-3600 cm−1) regions can be acquired within 15 minutes, which is at least 103 faster in imaging speed than confocal Raman mapping. Hyperspectral SRS imaging uncovers the biochemical distributions and variations across the carious enamel in the tooth. SRS imaging shows that compared to the sound enamel, the mineral content in the body of lesion decreases by 55%; while increasing up to 110% in the surface zone, indicating the formation of a hyper-mineralized layer due to the remineralization process. Further polarized SRS imaging shows that the depolarization ratios of hydroxyapatite crystals (ν1-PO43- of SRS at 959 cm−1) of the tooth in the sound enamel, translucent zone, body of lesion and the surface zone are 0.035 ± 0.01, 0.052 ± 0.02, 0.314 ± 0.1, 0.038 ± 0.02, respectively, providing a new diagnostic criterion for discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in the teeth. This work demonstrates for the first time that the polarization-resolved hyperspectral SRS imaging technique can be used for quantitatively determining tooth mineralization levels and discriminating carious lesions from sound enamel in a rapid fashion, proving its promising potential of early detection and diagnosis of dental caries without labeling. PMID:27446654

  9. Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E; Castillo, Ramon; Lazo, Rocio

    2005-01-01

    Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT), powder and evaporated) were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 years). Each group evaluated xylitol and sorbitol in one type of milk. In the first phase, each child was presented with a tray of four plastic cups containing 50 ml of milk with 0.021 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml sorbitol or no sugar. Each child was asked to taste the samples in a self-selected order. After tasting each sample, the child placed the milk cup in front of one of three cartoon faces (smile, frown or neutral) representing the child's response to the taste of each sample. In the second phase, the child was asked to rank order the milk samples within each category (smile, frown or neutral). Ranks within categories were then combined to obtain a rank ordering for all the test samples. Results The ranking from best to worst for the samples across categories (UHT, powder, evaporated) was xylitol (0.0.042 g/ml), sorbitol (0.042 g/ml), xylitol (0.021 g/ml) and milk alone (Friedman's ANOVA). Xylitol and sorbitol were preferred over milk alone, and xylitol (0.042 g/ml) was preferred to sorbitol (0.042 g/ml)(p < .05 sign test). Conclusion Milk sweetened with xylitol is well accepted by Peruvian children ages 4–7 years. PMID:16042782

  10. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  11. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth. PMID:1975497

  12. Dental Caries and its Relationship to Malocclusion in Permanent Dentition Among 12-15 Year Old School Going Children

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Shashank S; Gheware, Anjali; Kamatagi, Laxmikant; Pasumarthy, Sandeep; Pawar, Vivek; Fatangare, Madhura

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to know the prevalence of dental caries among children having malocclusion. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 880 students aged 1215 years, among whom 488 were boys and 392 were girls. A proforma was prepared to record dental caries status and dental esthetic index (DAI) using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and ANOVA. The P value of 0.05 or less was considered as statistically significant. Results: It was found that 644 (73.2%) had no abnormality or minor malocclusion, whereas 115 (13.0%), 100 (11.4%) and 21 (2.4%) had definite, severe and very severe or handicapping malocclusion, respectively. Overall mean of decayed teeth (DT) component was found to be 0.95 ± 1.006, missing teeth 0.23 ± 0.670 and filled teeth 0.23 ± 0.559 and decayed, missing, filled tooth (DMFT) was 1.41 ± 1.483. DT and overall DMFT component significantly increased with increasing DAI of malocclusion (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The severity of dental caries showed positive relation with DAI and age. PMID:25395789

  13. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process. PMID:25209226

  14. Dental rehabilitation of the patient with severe caries after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fattore, L; Rosenstein, H E; Fine, L

    1986-01-01

    Dental management of the patient with severe caries after radiation therapy can be accomplished by the general practitioner in an office setting. Because of the decrease in vascularity that results from radiotherapy, the general practitioner must keep the following points in mind when treating these patients: Extraction of teeth that were in the field of radiotherapy is contraindicated. If there is a question about a possible extraction, consultation should be made with the patient's radiotherapist and a hospital-trained dentist (preferably, an oral surgeon). Endodontic treatment is the only treatment indicated for pulpally damaged teeth in the field of radiotherapy. When endodontic treatment is done, the following precautions are necessary: all teeth that are an immediate source of infection must be treated first; prophylactic antibiotics should be administered for the duration of treatment'; all endodontic procedures must be administered in an aseptic field of treatment--if a tooth is badly deteriorated as a result of severe caries, a copper band should be used with a rubber dam and no tooth should ever be left "open for drainage" in these patients; temporary fillings should be of sufficient strength to prevent contamination between appointments; tooth-length determination should be done with precision--instrumentation beyond the apex should be avoided; caustic irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite should be avoided--sterile water or sterile saline solution is preferable. For fabrication of prostheses, the general practitioner should be aware that: metallic-oxide impression materials such as zinc-oxide and eugenol should be avoided because of their irritating properties; trismus is common when the masticatory muscles are bilaterally in the field of radiotherapy-therefore, to prevent encroachment on the freeway space for these patients, the vertical dimension of occlusion should be decreased accordingly; monoplane teeth are preferable to cusped teeth

  15. A study of influence of sugars on the modulations of dental plaque pH in children with rampant caries, moderate caries and no caries.

    PubMed

    Utreja, D; Tewari, A; Chawla, H S

    2010-01-01

    The present study is undertaken to find out the pH of resting plaque in children with no caries, moderate caries and rampant caries and to determine the modulations of plaque pH with different sugar solution rinses viz: sucrose, glucose and fructose. The study was carried out on forty five children, in the age group of 3-10 years (25 males and 20 females). The child was given 10 ml of test solution and was asked to rinse and swish it in the mouth for a period of 30 sec. Plaque samples were taken from 20 different spots after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min of the rinse and pH values of all the samples were determined. Results show that there was a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference between the pH values of plaque at different intervals of time with sucrose, fructose and glucose solution rinse in children with moderate caries, rampant caries as compared to the caries free group. Sucrose was found to be highly cariogenic in all the children with a greater potentiating effect in moderate and rampant caries. Glucose also appeared to have a cariogenic role while fructose had the least of it all. PMID:21273716

  16. Can early exposure to probiotics in children prevent dental caries? A current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Garima; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Neelisha

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms which cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Probiotics have already been established in the treatment and prevention of various gastrointestinal system. Recently, role of probiotics has become an important issue for research in dentistry in the era of increased antibiotic resistance. Materials and methods The basis of the paper is the clinical studies and research done in relation to probiotics on oral health using PUBMED search database. Results and conclusions Although many clinical studies have demonstrated positive outcome in preventing caries and periodontal diseases, the data is still scarce in recommending probiotics for the oral health. Moreover, since initial colonization of oral cavity of the newborn is very important for developing immunity and prevention of future diseases. Hence, measures should be directed towards its preventive use in infants and children. The formulations produced for oral cavity should also be within reach of common man especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. This review endeavors to compile the research of probiotics on oral cavity and throws a light on its evolving status in developing countries. It also evaluates its use in children for a long-term benefit. PMID:25737845

  17. [Dental diseases prevention and treatment among foreign students from different regions of the world].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Daurova, F Iu; Piatigorskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    420 foreign first year students of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia from different regions of the world were examined for oral health status. The main dental indexes were analyzed and recommendations for dental diseases prevention and treatment were given for each region group. For students from Africa the leading direction is caries prevention. Students from Middle East and Latin America need in caries treatment and endodontic treatment. The main problem of students from Asia is periodontal diseases. PMID:23808271

  18. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall out. Periodontitis is the primary cause of tooth loss in adults. This disorder is uncommon in ... damage of the tissues and bone surrounding the tooth. Because plaque contains bacteria, infection is likely, and ...

  19. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  20. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ...

  1. The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats

    PubMed Central

    XU, JING-SHU; LI, YAO; CAO, XUE; CUI, YUN

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol has been widely used in medicine due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats. Eugenol demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against acid production by S. mutans. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by glucosyltransferases was reduced by eugenol. Eugenol also markedly suppressed the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Furthermore, topical application of eugenol reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol may be a useful therapeutic agent for dental caries. PMID:23837051

  2. The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Shu; Li, Yao; Cao, Xue; Cui, Yun

    2013-06-01

    Eugenol has been widely used in medicine due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats. Eugenol demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against acid production by S. mutans. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by glucosyltransferases was reduced by eugenol. Eugenol also markedly suppressed the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Furthermore, topical application of eugenol reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol may be a useful therapeutic agent for dental caries. PMID:23837051

  3. A two-year randomized clinical trial of chlorhexidine varnish on dental caries in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Du, M Q; Tai, B J; Jiang, H; Lo, E C M; Fan, M W; Bian, Z

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of six-monthly professional applications of chlorhexidine varnish on the prevention of dental caries in primary molars in Chinese preschool children. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 334 children aged 4-5 years were randomly divided into two groups. Children in the test group received six-monthly applications of a 40% chlorhexidine varnish, and the control children received a placebo varnish. Caries status of the children was assessed by two calibrated examiners at baseline and after 24 months, according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The two-year mean caries increments in the test and the control group children were 1.0 and 1.6 decayed, missing, or filled molar surfaces (dmfs-molar), respectively, a 37.3% reduction (t test, p = 0.036). No side-effects were found. It was concluded that six-monthly applications of chlorhexidine varnish were effective in reducing the incidence of dental caries in primary molars. PMID:16723655

  4. Linear polarization detection of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in the early detection of the application of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zeng, Nan; Yang, Lifeng

    2010-11-01

    Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an important functional OCT. By extracting the polarization properties from PS-OCT signals we can obtain more information about the structural and optical features of tissues or materials. Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide. The primary caries detection and the structure transformation of the enamel and dentin between sound and broken teeth are given serious attention by dentists. In this paper, using our Fourier-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (FD-PS-OCT) setup by three incident linear polarization states and two detection states, we can get the 9 Mueller matrix elements from M11to M33 of the decay areas of the artificial caries measured. We also applied our polarized sensitive Monte Carlo program in the simulation of the PS-OCT detection process. We used a sphere-cylinder scattering model as an approximation of anisotropic tissues to describe the optical properties of tooth. By comparing the Mueller matrix elements of both experimental and simulation results, especially the diagonal elements (M11, M22 and M33), we reach the point that the main structural change of the caries that affects its scattering features is the expanded diameter of the enamel rods and dentinal tubules caused by the acid corrosion due to caries lesion.

  5. Dental students’ and lecturers’ perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. Methods: A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants’ perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject’s final perception. Associations between the subjects’ degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Results: Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; P<0.001 and 8.40, 3.31, and 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: Topics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations. PMID:26708573

  6. Nanocatalysts promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm matrix degradation and enhance bacterial killing to suppress dental caries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lizeng; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Hwang, Geelsu; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Dental biofilms (known as plaque) are notoriously difficult to remove or treat because the bacteria can be enmeshed in a protective extracellular matrix. It can also create highly acidic microenvironments that cause acid-dissolution of enamel-apatite on teeth, leading to the onset of dental caries. Current antimicrobial agents are incapable of disrupting the matrix and thereby fail to efficiently kill the microbes within plaque-biofilms. Here, we report a novel strategy to control plaque-biofilms using catalytic nanoparticles (CAT-NP) with peroxidase-like activity that trigger extracellular matrix degradation and cause bacterial death within acidic niches of caries-causing biofilm. CAT-NP containing biocompatible Fe3O4 were developed to catalyze H2O2 to generate free-radicals in situ that simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and rapidly kill the embedded bacteria with exceptional efficacy (>5-log reduction of cell-viability). Moreover, it displays an additional property of reducing apatite demineralization in acidic conditions. Using 1-min topical daily treatments akin to a clinical situation, we demonstrate that CAT-NP in combination with H2O2 effectively suppress the onset and severity of dental caries while sparing normal tissues in vivo. Our results reveal the potential to exploit nanocatalysts with enzyme-like activity as a potent alternative approach for treatment of a prevalent biofilm-associated oral disease. PMID:27294544

  7. Dental plaque, caries prevalence and gingival conditions of 14-15-year-old schoolchildren in Jerash District, Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Qaderi, S S; Quteish Ta'ani, D

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries prevalence in 14-15-year-old school children in Jerash District, Northern Jordan. Twenty schools (10 male and 10 female schools) with 1362 children of eighth and ninth grades were randomly selected and incorporated in this study. All participants had dental examinations for oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries experience using the Silness and Löe Plaque Index (PI), Löe and Silness Gingival Index (GI), and decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) and surface (DMFS) codes respectively. The results showed that males had significant lower plaque but significantly higher gingival scores than females (P < 0.001). About 24% of children were caries-free. The proportions of children with one, two or three decayed teeth were between 10% and 18%. Slight non-significant variations between males and females were observed in regard to DMFT/S and their components (P < 0.05). It is concluded that significant gender variations were noted in PI and GI scores but not in DMFT/S or their components. However, the values of these clinical scores were lower than those results previously reported in northern Jordan. PMID:16958744

  8. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  9. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narksawat, Kulaya; Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Boonthum, Angsana

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition and identified oral hygiene indicators among older children aged 12-14 years in primary schools in Thailand. The study was comprised of 862 schoolchildren from five provinces representing five regions of Thailand, from both rural and urban areas, including Bangkok. The dental hygeine status was assessed by evaluating for decayed teeth, missing teeth due to decay, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). Weight and height were measured to evaluate the nutritional status; hygiene practices assessed by interview. The results show a negative relationship between nutritional status and the DMFT index, which increased when the nutritional status decreased (Spearman's rho correlation = -0.140, p < 0.001). The results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed normal weight and thin schoolchildren were more likely to have a DMFT of at least 1 by 1.94 times (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.25-3.00, p = 0.004) and 2.22 times (OR = 2.22; 95%CI = 1.20-4.09, p = 0.001), respectively, compared to overweight and obese children. Normal and thin schoolchildren had a higher risk for dental caries than overweight and obese children aged 12-14 years in Thailand. School health promotion activities should emphasize eating habit improvement in order to reduce the incidence of caries. PMID:19323020

  10. Effect of school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing on dental caries incidence among schoolchildren in the Kingdom of Tonga.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Reiri; Kawamura, Kohji; Kawamura, Sayuri; Endoh, Mami; Tomiki, Sililo; Taguchi, Chieko; Kobayashi, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998, the authors have been working to improve the oral health of children at kindergartens and primary schools in the Kingdom of Tonga (Tonga). Our primary activity has been a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing (FMR) program. FMR is performed using 7-10 mL of a 0.2% NaF solution for 1 min once per week at each school. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of school-based FMR on dental caries incidence among Tongan schoolchildren. A total of 109 children aged 10 years were evaluated at six primary schools on Tongatapu Island. The FMR group comprised 46 children who had participated in the school-based FMR program for at least 5 years 6 months; the control group comprised 63 children who had participated in the school-based FMR program for 1 year or less. During standardized dental examinations, decayed, missing, and filled teeth were counted by a single dentist at each school. The school-based FMR program effectively decreased the number of dental caries. A school-based FMR program may thus be very beneficial in preventing caries among children in Tonga. PMID:23221160

  11. Familial Oral Microbial Imbalance and Dental Caries Occurrence in Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Bretz, Walter A.; Thomas, John G.; weyant, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Develop a familial liability index for oral microbial status that reflects an imbalance of oral domains based on the presence of risk indicators in saliva, inter-proximal plaque, tongue, and throat. Methods Fifty-six mother-child pairs from Webster and Nicholas counties, West Virginia, USA, participated in this study. Saliva samples were assayed for mutans streptococci (MS), interproximal plaque samples for the BANA Test (BT) species, tongue swabs for BT, and throat swabs for any of the sentinel organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and yeasts). The corresponding thresholds for a (+) risk indicator were, respectively, ≥105 CFU of MS salivary levels, one or more BT-(+) plaques (>105 CFU/mg of plaque of at least one of BT-(+) species), weak-(+) BT for a tongue swab (>104-<105), and >104 CFU/swab for any of the sentinel markers. Results The mean age of mothers and children was 41.6 and 14.6 years. Ninety-one % of both mothers and children had at least one (+) risk indicator. Overall, 76% of mother child-pairs had at least one (+) concordant oral microbial risk indicator. Accordingly, the relative risk (RR) of children having concordant results with their mothers was increased 1.36 (BT-plaque), 1.37 (BT-tongue), 0.94 (sentinel organisms) and 1.13 (MS) times. Principal component analysis revealed distinct sets of oral microbial risk indicators in mothers and children that correlated with dental caries prevalence rates in children. Conclusions Mother-child pairs shared similarities of oral microbial risk indicators that allow for the development of a liability index that can elucidate caries in the children. PMID:24600078

  12. Dental caries among the pre-Hispanic population from Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Darias, T; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Martín-Rodríguez, E; González-Reimers, E

    2005-11-01

    The island of Gran Canaria was inhabited in pre-Hispanic times by people of North African origin who arrived on the island towards the second half of the first millennium BC. In previous studies, we reported that there are some differences between the coastal inhabitants from Gran Canaria, mainly buried in tumuli, and those from the central mountains, mainly buried in caves. For example, the prevalence of auricular exostoses is higher among the population interred in coastal tumuli when compared with the inland population. This finding may be explained by the practice of marine activities, as supported by chroniclers' reports, by archaeological data, and by bone trace-element analysis, which point to a more intense consumption of marine products by the inhabitants of the coastal regions. Dental caries epidemiology is one of the most important ways in which the diet of past populations can be reconstructed. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and intensity of caries among the pre-Hispanic population of Gran Canaria, in order to increase our knowledge about the dietary habits of these people, and to search for differences among the population buried in caves and that buried in tumuli. We studied a total of 791 individuals. Sex was estimated in 561 cases, and age at death, following Brothwell's criteria, in 549. We found that 66.95% of individuals buried in caves and 58.91% of those buried in tumuli showed at least one carious lesion. The proportion of carious teeth was significantly higher among the population buried in caves (median = 15.71%, interquartile range (IR) = 0-33.33%) than among the population buried in tumuli (median = 6.25%, IR = 0-20%, P = 0.001). Type of burial is the main factor associated with the proportion of carious teeth.These data suggest that the population buried in caves had a different dietary pattern from that of those buried in tumuli. PMID:15895436

  13. Italian deprivation index and dental caries in 12-year-old children: a multilevel Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Domenica; Campus, Guglielmo; Castiglia, Paolo; Strohmenger, Laura; Solinas, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from the literature has shown that people with a lower socioeconomic status enjoy less good health than people with a higher socioeconomic status. The Italian deprivation index (DI) was used with the aim to evaluate the association between the DMFT index and risk factors for dental caries, including city population and DI. The study included 4,305 12-year-old children living in 38 cities classified by demographic size as small, midsize and large. Zero-inflated negative binomial multilevel regression models were used to assess risk factors for DMFT and to address excess of zero DMFT and overdispersion through a Bayesian approach. The difference in the average level of DMFT among children living in cities with different DI quintile was not statistically significant (p = 0.578). The DI and ln(population), included as city-level fixed effects in the two-level variance components model, were not statistically significant. Consuming sweet drinks on average increased the mean DMFT of a susceptible child, while having a highly educated mother reduced it. Unobserved heterogeneity among cities was detected for the probability to be non-susceptible to caries (city-level variance = 0.26 with 95% credibility interval 0.09-0.57), while no territorial effect was found for the mean DMFT of the susceptible children. Our results suggest that the DI and city population did not play a role in explaining between-city variability. Interventions against social deprivation can be influential on the perception of oral health in Italian 12-year-old children to the extent that they can also affect individual level factors. PMID:25073937

  14. Cross-cultural validity of a dietary questionnaire for studies of dental caries risk in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a major modifiable contributing factor in the etiology of dental caries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Japanese version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary intake in relation to dental caries risk in Japanese. Methods The 38-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, in which Japanese food items were added to increase content validity, was translated into Japanese, and administered to two samples. The first sample comprised 355 pregnant women with mean age of 29.2 ± 4.2 years for the internal consistency and criterion validity analyses. Factor analysis (principal components with Varimax rotation) was used to determine dimensionality. The dietary cariogenicity score was calculated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire and used for the analyses. Salivary mutans streptococci level was used as a semi-quantitative assessment of dental caries risk and measured by Dentocult SM. Dentocult SM scores were compared with the dietary cariogenicity score computed from the Food Frequency Questionnaire to examine criterion validity, and assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs) and Kruskal-Wallis test. Test-retest reliability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire was assessed with a second sample of 25 adults with mean age of 34.0 ± 3.0 years by using the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis. Results The Japanese language version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire showed high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.70) and good criterion validity assessed by relationship with salivary mutans streptococci levels (rs = 0.22; p < 0.001). Factor analysis revealed four subscales that construct the questionnaire (solid sugars, solid and starchy sugars, liquid and semisolid sugars, sticky and slowly dissolving sugars). Internal consistency were low to acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.67 for the total scale, 0.46-0.61 for each subscale). Mean dietary

  15. An Examination of Periodontal Treatment, Dental Care, and Pregnancy Outcomes in an Insured Population in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Melissa D.; Andrews, Howard F.; Williams, Sharifa Z.; Ward, Angela; Lee Conicella, Mary; Rauh, Virginia; Thomson, Janet L.; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether periodontal treatment or other dental care is associated with adverse birth outcomes within a medical and dental insurance database. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, we examined the records of 23 441 women enrolled in a national insurance plan who delivered live births from singleton pregnancies in the United States between January 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, for adverse birth outcomes on the basis of dental treatment received. We compared rates of low birthweight and preterm birth among 5 groups, specifying the relative timing and type of dental treatment received. We used logistic regression analysis to compare outcome rates across treatment groups while adjusting for duration of continuous dental coverage, maternal age, pregnancy complications, neighborhood-level income, and race/ethnicity. Results. Analyses showed that women who received preventive dental care had better birth outcomes than did those who received no treatment (P < .001). We observed no evidence of increased odds of adverse birth outcomes from dental or periodontal treatment. Conclusions. For women with medical and dental insurance, preventive care is associated with a lower incidence of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:21088265

  16. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries: a summary of the current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs; contributing factors relate to misconceptions about the mechanisms of fluoride, low priority given to oral health in national health policy and strategic plans, and lack of interest among public health administrators. A workshop on the effective use of fluoride in Asia took place in Phang-Nga, Thailand, in 2011. A series of country presentations addressed some of the topics mentioned above; in addition, speakers from countries of the region provided examples of successful fluoride interventions and discussed program limitations, barriers encountered, and solutions, as well as possibilities for expanding coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition, the use of affordable fluoride-containing toothpastes should be encouraged. The workshop identified: strengths and weaknesses of ongoing community-based fluoride programs, as well as the interest of countries in a particular method; the requirement for World Health Organization (WHO) technical assistance on various aspects, including fluoridation process, feasibility studies, and implementation of effective epidemiological surveillance of the program; exchange of information; and the need for inter-country collaboration. It was acknowledged that program process and evaluation at the local and country levels need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of dental pulp and periodontal ligament stem cells after in vivo transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Li, Kun; Li, Bei; Gao, Li-Na; Chen, Fa-Ming; Jin, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human postnatal dental pulp and periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues can give rise to multilineage differentiation in vitro and generate related dental tissues in vivo. However, the cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) after in vivo implantation remain largely unidentified. In this study, cells were re-isolated from in vivo-generated dental pulp-like and PDL-like tissues (termed re-DPCs and re-PDLCs, respectively) as a result of ectopic transplantation of human DPSC and PDLSC sheets. The cell characteristics in terms of colony-forming ability, cell surface antigens and multi-differentiation potentials were all evaluated before and after implantation. It was found that re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were of human and mesenchymal origin and positive for MSC markers such as STRO-1, CD146, CD29, CD90 and CD105; and, to some extent, re-DPCs could maintain their colony forming abilities. Moreover, both cell types were able to form mineral deposits and differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes; however, quantitative analysis and related gene expression determination showed that the osteo-/chondro-differentiation capabilities of re-DPCs and re-PDLCs were significantly reduced compared to those of DPSCs and PDLSCs, respectively (P < 0.05); re-PDLCs showed a greater reduction potential than re-DPCs. We conclude that DPSCs and PDLSCs may maintain their MSC characteristics after in vivo implantation and, compared to PDLSCs, DPSCs appear much more stable under in vivo conditions. These findings provide additional cellular and molecular evidence that supports expanding the use of dental tissue-derived stem cells in cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:24824581

  18. Another update for Canadian dentists regarding chlorhexidine varnish therapy for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D W

    1994-08-01

    Some of the reasons for my belief that CVT has been marketed prematurely have been described. They include the belief that the only really important outcome from the patients' and dentists' perspectives is proven reductions in dental caries. Associated with this is the need to recognize that, using such a criterion, the numbers of patients who may truly benefit from CVT in Canada are small--much smaller than those who promote the testing for and use of CVT appear to infer. Once proven clinically effective, the cost effectiveness of CVT for different patient groups must be demonstrated. I also think that studies to determine Cariescreen's accuracy in terms of predictive values for the "gold standard" plate counts of mutans streptococci should be undertaken. These results should then be given to dentists to help them in their decisions about using CVT in their practices, and if this decision is affirmative, in their discussions with patients for whom they decide CVT will be beneficial. Similarly, the effectiveness of the single application of CVT must be proven by a properly-designed study, since the current justification is inadequate for so important an issue. Finally, dentists should have been provided with all of this basic information before CVT was marketed in Canada. PMID:8087680

  19. [Preventive strategies in the control of dental caries: a research synthesis].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Vieira-Da-Silva, Lígia Maria

    2002-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on the effectiveness of measures to prevent dental caries. Articles published in scientific journals from 1980 to 1998 and indexed in MEDLINE were selected. Some 210 articles were found and their abstracts classified according to intervention strategies, type of research design, and observed effects. The most frequent preventive measures were the use of fluoride toothpaste (20.5%), fluoride mouthwash (17.2%), and occlusal sealants (18,1%). The main target population was schoolchildren 6-12 years old (53.8%) and teenagers (15.7%). Western Europe produced 58.7% of the articles on this subject, followed by United States (22.7%), Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Latin America. No relationship was identified between program results (effective as opposed to ineffective studies) and the type of preventive practice and research design, indicating that other issues need to be investigated, such as the context of organizational implementation (where, how, and by whom prevention is implemented). Education in oral hygiene as a basic tool and key component in specific preventive action has received little research attention. PMID:11910432

  20. Decline in dental caries and public oral health care of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vehkalahti, M; Rytömaa, I; Helminen, S

    1991-12-01

    The adequacy and appropriateness of the oral health service were evaluated from patient records of 15-year-olds in Helsinki in 1976 and 1986. The subjects selected for the study represented the whole age group participating in public oral health service in the 2 years in question. During the 10 years, substantial decreases were seen in the mean numbers of dental visits (from 4.0 to 2.4) and fillings (from 2.9 to 1.2). The greatest decrease was seen in the number of fillings made in incisors. Slightly fewer preventive measures were carried out in 1986 than 10 years earlier, but no focusing on risk patients was seen. In the 2 years studied, 15-year-olds in the high-risk group received applications of topical fluorides and instructions on oral hygiene as often as those in the low-risk group. A major problem seemed to be the increasing number of unfinished courses of treatment among high-risk patients. We conclude that patients with a higher risk of caries should receive more attention with regard to both the preventive treatment given and ways of motivating them to complete their treatment courses. PMID:1776398

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Diverse Lactobacillus Species Present in Advanced Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Roy; Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Our previous analysis of 65 advanced dental caries lesions by traditional culture techniques indicated that lactobacilli were numerous in the advancing front of the progressive lesion. Production of organic acids by lactobacilli is considered to be important in causing decalcification of the dentinal matrix. The present study was undertaken to define more precisely the diversity of lactobacilli found in this environment and to quantify the major species and phylotypes relative to total load of lactobacilli by real-time PCR. Pooled DNA was amplified by PCR with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers for subsequent cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons, 18 different phylotypes of lactobacilli were detected, including strong representation of both novel and gastrointestinal phylotypes. Specific PCR primers were designed for nine prominent species, including Lactobacillus gasseri, L. ultunensis, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. crispatus, L. delbrueckii, L. fermentum, and L. gallinarum. More than three different species were identified as being present in most of the dentine samples, confirming the widespread distribution and numerical importance of various Lactobacillus spp. in carious dentine. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed various proportions of the nine species colonizing carious dentine, with higher mean loads of L. gasseri and L. ultunensis than of the other prevalent species. The findings provide a basis for further characterization of the pathogenicity of Lactobacillus spp. in the context of extension of the carious lesion. PMID:15243071

  2. Marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression with application to dental caries.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Long, D Leann; Divaris, Kimon

    2016-05-10

    The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB) is often employed in diverse fields such as dentistry, health care utilization, highway safety, and medicine to examine relationships between exposures of interest and overdispersed count outcomes exhibiting many zeros. The regression coefficients of ZINB have latent class interpretations for a susceptible subpopulation at risk for the disease/condition under study with counts generated from a negative binomial distribution and for a non-susceptible subpopulation that provides only zero counts. The ZINB parameters, however, are not well-suited for estimating overall exposure effects, specifically, in quantifying the effect of an explanatory variable in the overall mixture population. In this paper, a marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial regression (MZINB) model for independent responses is proposed to model the population marginal mean count directly, providing straightforward inference for overall exposure effects based on maximum likelihood estimation. Through simulation studies, the finite sample performance of MZINB is compared with marginalized zero-inflated Poisson, Poisson, and negative binomial regression. The MZINB model is applied in the evaluation of a school-based fluoride mouthrinse program on dental caries in 677 children. PMID:26568034

  3. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Case presentation A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from β–thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, and depapillation of tongue indicating an underlying condition of anemia. The poor oral condition due to topical and systemic immunosuppressants was seriously aggravated, and rampant caries developed rapidly, affecting all newly erupted, permanent teeth. The teeth were hypersensitive and halitosis was apparent. Strategies for oral health education and diet modification were given to the patient. Xylitol chewing gum was used to stimulate saliva flow to promote remineralization of teeth. Silver diamine fluoride was topically applied to arrest rampant caries and to relieve pain from hypersensitivity. Carious teeth with pulpal involvement were endodontically treated. Stainless steel crowns were provided on molars to restore chewing function, and polycarbonate crowns were placed on premolars, upper canines and incisors. Conclusion This case report demonstrates success in treating a young teenager with severe rampant dental decay by contemporary caries control and preventive strategy. PMID:24383434

  4. Screening the Drug Resistance Property Among Aerobic Pathogenic Microorganisms of Dental Caries in North-Western Indian Population: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Priya; Singhvi, Abhishek; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Ahluwalia, Amrit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To evaluate the emerging drug resistance among the caries pathogens isolated from carious dentine microbiologically. Materials and Methods Specimens from dental caries were collected from 75 patients referred to Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vyas Dental College. Microbiological processing of all the samples was done within three hours to isolate the caries pathogens. The samples were inoculated on agar medium (Nutrient agar, Mac-conkey’s agar) at 370C for 48 hours aerobically. The identification of strains was done by observing colony morphology and gram’s staining. The predominant isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test (Kirby Bauer’s method). Statistical analysis of the isolates was done using paired t-test. Results Out of 75 patients more common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yeast. The predominant were Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species. Newer antibiotics were proved to be effective against these predominant strains after evaluating antibiotic sensitivity tests. Conclusion Although Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the most prevalent microorganism seen in dental caries, the role of other microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas in initiation and progression of caries is evident from this study. Further extensive and large scale studies need to be conducted for better understanding the role of these microorganisms in dental caries. PMID:26393195

  5. Dental management of a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morales-Chávez, Mariana C

    2010-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) occurs in one out of 300,000 individuals. It is mainly characterized by a delay in growth, psychomotor retardation, duplication of the distal phalanx of the thumbs, typical facial dimorphism, a risk of cancer, and multiple dental abnormalities. This case report describes the dental management of a 13-year-old female with RTS, who had multiple dental problems such as caries, periodontal disease, and a severe malocclusion. Physical findings were similar to those previously described in other reports. Dental treatment was carried out under sedation due to the patient's inability to cooperate during dental treatment. After 3 years of follow-up there were no new caries and the periodontal health had improved. PMID:20500708

  6. Diabetes-Related Knowledge and Sources of Information among Periodontal Patients: Is There a Role for Dental Hygienists?

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Singh, Geetika; Tuthill, Janet; Brodsky, Anya; Rosedale, Mary; Bytyci, Ariana; Drayluk, Inna; Llambini, Alisa; Savice, Krystal; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although there is a bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes, little is known about the diabetes-related knowledge of periodontal patients. This study examines what patients with periodontal disease know about diabetes and its association with periodontitis. It also examines their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Patients (n=111) with, or at risk for diabetes, who were receiving care at a university-based Periodontics and Implant Clinic completed a written survey assessing their socio-demographic characteristics, health-related activities, diabetes knowledge, and sources of diabetes-related information. Survey results were summarized using descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare patients who had, and had not been diagnosed with diabetes according to (1) responses on diabetes-related knowledge items and (2) sources of diabetes information. Results Although respondents endorsed various diabetes-related information sources, including family and friends and health care providers, respondents demonstrated very limited knowledge about the diabetes and periodontal disease association. There were no statistically significant differences between patients who had, and had not been diagnosed with diabetes regarding their diabetes-related knowledge. As compared with patients not diagnosed with diabetes, patients with diabetes were significantly more likely to have learned about diabetes from a health care provider (p=.05) and significantly less likely to have learned about it from friends or family (p=.05). Conclusions Periodontal patients need education about the periodontitis-diabetes relationship. Dental hygienists’ regular and ongoing involvement with these patients and their primary role in the patients’ periodontal care places them in an optimal position to provide this education. PMID:23986141

  7. Is the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of patients with chronic periodontitis a risk factor for gastric infection?

    PubMed Central

    Asqah, Mohammed Al; Hamoudi, Nawaf Al; Anil, Sukumaran; Al jebreen, Abdulrahman; Al-hamoudi, Waleed Khalid

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori is considered to be a pathogen responsible for gastritis and peptic ulcers, and a risk factor for gastric cancer. A periodontal pocket in the teeth of individuals with chronic periodontitis may function as a reservoir for H pylori. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether the presence of H pylori in the dental plaque of patients with and without periodontitis correlates with gastric involvement. METHODS: A total of 101 patients with dyspepsia were included in the present study. Subjects were divided into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups. For the detection of H pylori in dental plaque, samples were collected from two teeth using a periodontal curette. Subgingival plaque was obtained by inserting two sterile paper points into periodontal pockets for 20 s. This was followed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and antral biopsies. RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent of patients had dental plaque positive for H pylori and more than 50% harboured the bacteria in their stomach. Periodontitis patients had a significantly higher percentage of H pylori in their dental plaque (79% versus 43%; P<0.05) and the stomach (60% versus 33%; P<0.05) than patients with no periodontitis. Additionally, 78% of patients from the periodontitis group versus only 30% from the nonperiodontitis group had a positive test result for the coexistence of H pylori in both dental plaque and the stomach. CONCLUSION: Patients with poor oral hygiene have a higher prevalence of H pylori in dental plaque and in the stomach. This finding suggests that the oral cavity may be a reservoir for H pylori, and potentially a source of transmission or reinfection. PMID:19319381

  8. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Results Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6- year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value ² 0.029, RR = 1.248, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.029-0.437) and 5-years (p-value ² 0.009, RR = 1.545, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.047-0.739), presence of dental plaque (p-value ² 0.003, RR = 0.744, 95% Bias corrected CI (−0.433)-(−0.169)), poor oral hygiene (p-value ² 0.000, RR = 0.661, 95% Bias corrected CI (−0.532)-(−0.284)), as well as consumption of non-sweetened milk (p-value ² 0.049, RR = 1.232, 95% Bias corrected CI 0.061-0.367). Conclusion Half of the preschoolers had dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established. PMID:23270546

  9. A longitudinal study of dental caries in the primary teeth of children who suffered from infant malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J O; Caceda, J; Woolley, T W; Carley, K W; Baiocchi, N; Caravedo, L; Navia, J M

    1993-12-01

    A prospective, four-year longitudinal study of 209 Peruvian children was conducted to evaluate the effect of a single malnutrition episode occurring at infancy (i.e., < 1 year of age) on dental caries in the primary teeth. Children were recruited into the study at age 6-11 months after they had suffered from a malnutrition episode and were thus classified by anthropometry as either: (1) Normal; (2) Wasted (low weight for height); (3) Stunted (low height for age); or (4) Stunted and Wasted (S and W). Eruption of the primary teeth was significantly delayed in all malnourished children; however, the effect of stunting--that is, retarded linear growth--was more pronounced and lasted longer than that of wasting or acute malnutrition (i.e., 2.5 vs. 1.5 years, respectively). By age 4 years, children from group 4 (S and W) showed a significantly higher caries experience in the primary teeth than did those in any of the other three groups. In summary, this longitudinal study has confirmed previous studies in animals and indirect epidemiological evidence which had suggested a cause-effect relationship between early malnutrition and increased dental caries. PMID:8254124

  10. Unsupervised clustering analyses of features extraction for a caries computer-assisted diagnosis using dental fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessani, Michel; da Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Maciel, Carlos D.

    2014-02-01

    Computer-assisted diagnoses (CAD) are performed by systems with embedded knowledge. These systems work as a second opinion to the physician and use patient data to infer diagnoses for health problems. Caries is the most common oral disease and directly affects both individuals and the society. Here we propose the use of dental fluorescence images as input of a caries computer-assisted diagnosis. We use texture descriptors together with statistical pattern recognition techniques to measure the descriptors performance for the caries classification task. The data set consists of 64 fluorescence images of in vitro healthy and carious teeth including different surfaces and lesions already diagnosed by an expert. The texture feature extraction was performed on fluorescence images using RGB and YCbCr color spaces, which generated 35 different descriptors for each sample. Principal components analysis was performed for the data interpretation and dimensionality reduction. Finally, unsupervised clustering was employed for the analysis of the relation between the output labeling and the diagnosis of the expert. The PCA result showed a high correlation between the extracted features; seven components were sufficient to represent 91.9% of the original feature vectors information. The unsupervised clustering output was compared with the expert classification resulting in an accuracy of 96.88%. The results show the high accuracy of the proposed approach in identifying carious and non-carious teeth. Therefore, the development of a CAD system for caries using such an approach appears to be promising.

  11. Contrasting patterns of caries profile and dental treatment in pupils of 16-18 years in South African ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Dison, E; Walker, B F; Segal, A F

    1982-04-01

    Investigations on caries profile and state of teeth treatment were made on 3752 high school pupils of 16-18 years, namely, rural and urban Black, Indian, Colored (Eur-African-Malay) and White pupils. Rural Blacks had a low mean DMFT of about 2, and a caries-free prevalence of 52%. Of the few with affected teeth, 10% were extracted, none filled, and 90% decayed; i.e. restorative dental attention was virtually nil. Among English and Afrikaans pupils attending Government Schools, mean DMFT was about 10, and caries-free prevalence negligible. Of affected teeth, 13% were extracted, 59% filled and 28% decayed. The situations regarding the urban Black, Indian and Colored groups were intermediate. The Jewish pupils, well-circumstanced and attending private school, had a mean DMFT of 6.5, moreover 6% were caries-free. Of affected teeth, 1% had been extracted; 93% were filled, and only 6% remained decayed. Since it transpired that the diets of the three White subgroups, cariogenically, were much the same, the advantageous position of the Jewish pupils was judged to be due primarily to their excellent oral hygiene motivation, particularly their demonstrably regular visits to dentists. PMID:6952973

  12. Guiding periodontal pocket recolonization: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Teughels, W; Newman, M G; Coucke, W; Haffajee, A D; Van Der Mei, H C; Haake, S Kinder; Schepers, E; Cassiman, J-J; Van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    2007-11-01

    The complexity of the periodontal microbiota resembles that of the gastro-intestinal tract, where infectious diseases are treatable via probiotics. In the oropharyngeal region, probiotic or replacement therapies have shown some benefit in the prevention of dental caries, otitis media, and pharyngitis, but their effectiveness in the treatment of periodontitis is unknown. Therefore, this study addressed the hypothesis that the application of selected beneficial bacteria, as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, would inhibit the periodontopathogen recolonization of periodontal pockets. Analysis of the data showed, in a beagle dog model, that when beneficial bacteria were applied in periodontal pockets adjunctively after root planing, subgingival recolonization of periodontopathogens was delayed and reduced, as was the degree of inflammation, at a clinically significant level. The study confirmed the hypothesis and provides a proof of concept for a guided pocket recolonization (GPR) approach in the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:17959900

  13. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  14. A 30-month longitudinal study of the effects of some oral hygiene measures on Streptococcus mutans and approximal dental caries.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, P; Kristoffersson, K; Karlsson, R; Bratthall, D

    1987-03-01

    The effects of some oral hygiene measures on Streptococcus mutants and approximal dental caries were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-seven 13-year-old individuals with high levels of salivary S. mutans (greater than 10(6)/mL) were selected. They were randomly distributed into three groups. Group I initially received professional mechanical tooth-cleaning, tongue-scraping, chlorhexidine treatment, and oral hygiene instructions concentrated on the approximal surfaces most colonized by S. mutans. The treatment was given four times with intervals of two days, followed by one single treatment every six months throughout the experimental period. The initial treatment period for group II, also consisting of four visits, included the same oral hygiene instructions as for group I. The instructions were repeated every six months. Group III was maintained in the preventive program provided by the local Dental Health Office, based on mechanical plaque control and topical use of fluorides and chlorhexidine at individualized intervals. Group I showed a significant immediate reduction of S. mutans in saliva as well as an approximal tooth surfaces. After six months, there were no differences among the three groups regarding these variables. Compared with baseline, there was a significant reduction of S. mutans in all groups. There was no significant difference in caries progression among the three groups. However, the selected "high-risk" individuals in group I developed 0.25 new manifest caries lesions approximally/year, compared with 0.27 for all children of the same age group in the area. Seventeen individuals had approximal surfaces with consistently high or consistently low S. mutans levels. Forty-six percent of the surfaces with high values developed new or progressive caries, compared with 2% of the surfaces with low values. PMID:3475309

  15. Emerging science in the dietary control and prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Al-Dajani, Mahmoud; Limeback, Hardy

    2012-10-01

    The key environmental factor involved in caries incidence is fermentable carbohydrates. Because of the high costs of caries treatment, researchers continue to explore dietary control as a promising preventive method. While dietary change has been demonstrated to reduce Streptococcus mutans, a preventive role is expected for "functional foods" and dietary habit alterations. The authors consider how recent advances in the understanding of caries pathology can reveal dietary control as a valuable method in promoting a healthy dentition. PMID:23316561

  16. [Periodontal health during pregnancy and the dental health of the child].

    PubMed

    Blumer, S; Peretz, B; Costa, L

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have shown an association between local/systemic infections and preterm-low birth weight (PTLBW), and it might be an important part of the etiology. Oral Infections such as periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes, microbial products and inflammatory mediators. These might influence pregnancy and contribute to restriction of fetal growth and induction of early labor and PTB. Enamel formation of the primary teeth begins at 11-14 weeks of fetal life and is completed by the end of 3rd postnatal month. The initial phase consists of matrix formation, followed by calcification in utero. Since enamel is a stable structure, defects involving its matrix secretion and/or maturation of primary teeth can act as a permanent record of insults occurring pre- or perinatally. Any stressful event during pregnancy and birth may lead to metabolic changes in the formation of the enamel, resulting in clinically enamel defects. Severe infections occurring during amelogenesis may be associated with enamel hypoplasia. Babies born after maternal complications during pregnancy or babies who experience a traumatic birth must be considered to be at risk of developing Early Childhood Caries - ECC when exposed to excessive bottle nursing. Therefore oral healthcare should be kept during pregnancy. PMID:26255426

  17. A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10–18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined. Design At each visit, the patient’s teeth were given a visual-tactile examination and the subject’s decayed; missing and filled (DMFS) score was determined. Next, molars lacking probeable caries or restorations were examined using transillumination for occlusal white and dark spots. This examination was repeated periodically. A Cox proportional hazard was used to analyze data concerning the development of new occusal caries in molars. Results The longitudinal data indicates that patients who were caries free at visit-1 developed significantly fewer occlusal caries during the longitudinal study. The hazard ratio for subjects who had first-visit caries was 2.27 compared to caries free subjects. Intact molars with occlusal white or dark lesions had caries hazard ratios of 0.78 and 1.49 respectively, compared to molars lacking initial color changes. Conclusion Having a prior caries history places the subject at increased risk of developing future caries. Teeth with dark lesions but not white lesions are at significantly increased risk for developing decay. White lesions may represent remineralizing or slowly progressing lesions. The results of this study can help identify patients and tooth surfaces at risk for future occlusal decay. PMID:22841633

  18. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to secondhand smoke at age 4 months was assessed by standardised parent reported questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth, defined as at least one decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with having no smoker in the family after propensity score adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Study answer and limitations Prevalence of household smoking among the 76 920 children was 55.3% (n=42 525), and 6.8% (n=5268) had evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke. A total of 12 729 incidents of dental caries were observed and most were decayed teeth (3 year follow-up rate 91.9%). The risk of caries at age 3 years was 14.0% (no smoker in family), 20.0% (smoking in household but without evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke), and 27.6% (exposure to tobacco smoke). The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios of the two exposure groups compared with having no smoker in the family were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52) and 2.14 (1.99 to 2.29), respectively. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and having no smoker in the family was 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25). What this study adds Exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months of age was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of caries

  19. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  20. The Effect of 0.2% Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash in Prevention of Dental Caries According to the DMFT Index

    PubMed Central

    Asl Aminabadi, Nasser; Balaei, Esrafil; Pouralibaba, Firoz

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Dental caries still remains a major problem in the field of oral and dental health and its prevention is more important than its treatment. Fluoride plays a significant role in prevention of caries, and improving oral and dental health. One of the common ways of fluoride use is the use of a fluoride-containing mouthwash, the most important of which in use is 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash. School-based fluoride mouthwash programs have been used for delivering oral and dental health to children in recent years. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash in prevention of dental caries according to DMFT index. Materials and methods The study included a case and a control group. For each group, 100 students were selected randomly from elementary schools of Tabriz, Iran. Case group had been participating in school-based fluoride mouthwash program for three years, while control group did not benefit from the program. The two groups were assessed by means of intra-oral examination. Data was recorded using DMFT index. Results Following the use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash, mean DMFT index in case group decreased as much as 51.5% compared to that of control group. The mean values of decrease for the decayed, missing and filled indices were 45%, 44% and 59%, respectively. The decrease in DMFT value of the case group compared to that of control group was statistically significant (p<0.001). A statistically significant decrease was seen in the decayed and filled indices of case group (p=0.042 and p=0.016, respectively), however the missing index did not show any statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.361). Conclusion According to this study results, the weekly use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash program has been successful in elementary schools of Tabriz. Such program can play an important role in the improvement of oral and dental health among children of school age. PMID

  1. The effect of cleaning on blood contamination in the dental surgery following periodontal procedures.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, L M; Rawlinson, A

    1998-10-01

    Blood contamination of 16 surfaces in the dental surgery was investigated using the Kastle-Meyer test for haemoglobin, after three types of periodontal procedures had been performed on a total of 30 patients. The effect of cleaning surfaces contaminated by blood was investigated using the same test. Cleaning materials used in the dental surgery were tested to rule out the possibility of false positive outcomes and the sensitivity of the test was determined prior to the study. The results show a marked variation in the degree of contamination and efficacy of cleaning following treatment. Overall, root planing was associated with the most widespread and frequent blood contamination and gingival surgery the least. The surgery work surface, edge of the spittoon, aspirator tube and ultrasonic scaler handpiece into which the ultrasonic insert fits, were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. The work surface, dentist's pen, light switch and handle were cleaned most effectively. The least effectively cleaned surfaces were the water dispenser switch, aspirator tube, bracket table and ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Methods for reducing this potential source of cross-infection are discussed. PMID:9848988

  2. Saliva as a prediction tool for dental caries: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha; Sharma, Arun; Sood, P.B.; Sood, Archana; Zaidi, Iram; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present study was undertaken to assess the caries activity by comparing the pH, buffering capacity, calcium, phosphorous, amylase along with the association of mutans in saliva for caries-free and caries-active children and to find out the interrelationship amongst the two groups. Methodology The study sample of 80 children, aged between 4 and 8 years were included in the study. Caries status of each child was recorded using DMFS. They were divided into two groups: (i) caries-free group (40) and (ii) caries-active group (40). After collecting the salivary samples, mutans were determined using Saliva-Check mutans kit and buffering capacity by Saliva-Check Buffer kit. The remaining samples were sent to laboratory for analyzing pH by electrode pH meter, calcium by OCPC(o-cresolphthalein complexone) photometric method, phosphorous by phosphomolybdate/UV method, amylase by CNP-G3(2chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-maltotrioside) method using semi-autoanalyzer. Results The results obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. The pH, buffering capacity, calcium and phosphorous level were found to be increased with the decrease in the caries activity of the children whereas amylase activity was increased with the increase in caries activity. It was observed that 77.5% children were tested positive and 22.5% were tested negative for mutans in caries-active group whereas 100% children were tested negative for mutans in caries-free group. Conclusion The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as pH, buffering capacity, calcium, phosphorous, amylase and Streptococcus mutans has a definite relationship with caries activity. PMID:26258015

  3. Training of Dental Professionals in Motivational Interviewing can Heighten Interdental Cleaning Self-Efficacy in Periodontal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woelber, Johan P.; Spann-Aloge, Narin; Hanna, Gilgamesh; Fabry, Goetz; Frick, Katrin; Brueck, Rigo; Jähne, Andreas; Vach, Kirstin; Ratka-Krüger, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The success of periodontal therapy depends on the adherence of patients to professional recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a workshop in motivational interviewing (MI) on non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by dental students. Materials and Methods: In the experimental group patients with periodontitis were treated by students trained in MI, while in the control group patients were treated by students who had not been trained in MI. Clinical oral parameters were assessed by a blinded periodontist in addition to the evaluation of psychological questionnaires given before and after the non-surgical periodontal treatment (6 months). Conversations between patients and students were recorded and rated with the Motivational Treatment Integrity Code (MITI-d) by a blinded psychologist. Results: There were 73 patients in the MI group and 99 patients in the control group. The MI group showed significantly higher scores in the MITI-d analysis. Regression analysis showed that there were no significant differences between groups with regard to plaque level, gingival bleeding, pocket depth reduction or bleeding upon probing. However, patients in the MI-group showed significantly higher interdental cleaning self-efficacy than patients in the control group (MI = 19.57 ± 4.7; control = 17.38 ± 6.01; p = 0.016). Conclusion: Teaching MI to dental students resulted in a significant improvement in the self-efficacy of interdental cleaning in patients compared to a control group of non-trained students, but no improvement in other aspects of non-surgical periodontal therapy. The study also showed that an 8-h workshop with supervision significantly improved the MI-compliant conversations of dental students without requiring more conversation time. PMID:26941698

  4. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth: multiple-regression modeling of observational clinical data from The National Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S.; Benjamin, Paul; Flink, Håkan; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Johnson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. We used actual clinical data to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. Methods We combined data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229 participating network dentists. Analysis of variance and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. Results Network dentists from 5 regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by patient age and race/ethnicity, dentist use of caries risk assessment, network region, and practice type. Enamel proximal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by dentist race/ethnicity, network region, and practice type. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Identifying patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with enamel caries restorations can guide strategies to improve provider adherence to evidence-based clinical recommendations. PMID:25000667

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  6. Recent dental attendance and levels of untreated caries in a sample of 11-12 year old children in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, A; Kinirons, M

    2000-01-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the relationship between dental attendance and the levels of untreated caries in a sample of 11-12 year old pupils attending first form of second level schools in the South Belfast area of Northern Ireland. A sample of 199 first form pupils attending second level schools in the area was obtained. The diagnosis of caries depended mainly on visual evidence following removal of debris and moisture. Blunted probes were used to confirm or reject doubtful lesions and no radiographs were taken. Details of parental employment status were obtained by a questionnaire to the parents. The data were entered on to an N.C.S.S. data analysis system for stepwise regression and analysis of variance. Overall there was a significant difference in the untreated caries status of those with different attendance patterns, the major difference being that a much higher proportion of those who had not attended within the previous 12 months had active caries. Almost half of the children had attended in the previous six months and only 16 (8 per cent) had not attended in the previous 12 months. Independent analysis indicated that parental employment status was significantly related to the level of untreated caries (p > or = 0.05). Independent variables entered in the stepwise regression were attendance, employment status and DMFT. The strongest predictors of untreated caries were previous caries experience and period since dental attendance, while employment status was a significant but weaker factor in the analysis. These findings may be relevant when planning the frequency of school dental screenings and managing the frequency of dental recalls and examinations. PMID:11326528

  7. Evaluation of two imaging techniques: near-infrared transillumination and dental radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Maia, A M A; Karlsson, L; Margulis, W; Gomes, A S L

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper was to evaluate a transillumination (TI) system using near-infrared (NIR) light and bitewing radiographs for the detection of early approximal enamel caries lesions. Methods Mesiodistal sections of teeth (n = 14) were cut with various thicknesses from 1.5 mm to 4.75 mm. Both sides of each section were included, 17 approximal surfaces with natural enamel caries and 11 surfaces considered intact. The approximal surfaces were illuminated by NIR light and X-ray. Captured images were analysed by two calibrated specialists in radiology, and re-analysed after 6 months using stereomicroscope images as a gold standard. Results The interexaminer reliability (Kappa test statistic) for the NIR TI technique showed moderate agreement on first (0.55) and second (0.48) evaluation, and low agreement for bitewing radiographs on first (0.26) and second (0.32) evaluation. In terms of accuracy, the sensitivity for the NIR TI system was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.72. For the bitewing radiographs the sensitivity ranged from 0.35 to 0.53 and the specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.72. Conclusion In the same samples and conditions tested, NIR TI images showed reliability and the enamel caries surfaces were better identified than on dental radiographs. PMID:21960400

  8. In vitro near-infrared imaging of occlusal dental caries using a germanium-enhanced CMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-infrared (NIR) at 1310-nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the lesion contrast derived from NIR transillumination can be used to estimate lesion severity. Another aim was to compare the performance of a new Ge enhanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based NIR imaging camera with the InGaAs focal plane array (FPA). Extracted human teeth (n=52) with natural occlusal caries were imaged with both cameras at 1310-nm and the image contrast between sound and carious regions was calculated. After NIR imaging, teeth were sectioned and examined using more established methods, namely polarized light microscopy (PLM) and transverse microradiography (TMR) to calculate lesion severity. Lesions were then classified into 4 categories according to the lesion severity. Lesion contrast increased significantly with lesion severity for both cameras (p<0.05). The Ge enhanced CMOS camera equipped with the larger array and smaller pixels yielded higher contrast values compared with the smaller InGaAs FPA (p<0.01). Results demonstrate that NIR lesion contrast can be used to estimate lesion severity.

  9. Design and Characterization of a Novel p1025 Peptide-Loaded Liquid Crystalline System for the Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Garcia, Matheus Henrique; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Chiavacci, Leila Aparecida; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, mainly caused by the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces, is an important public health problem worldwide. A synthetic peptide (p1025) corresponding to residues 1025-1044 of the adhesin can inhibit this binding. Peptides are particularly susceptible to the biological environment; therefore, a p1025 peptide-loaded liquid crystalline system (LCS) consisting of tea tree oil as the oil phase, polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol as the surfactant, and water or 0.5% polycarbophil polymer dispersions as the aqueous phase was employed as a drug delivery platform. This system exhibited anticaries and bioadhesive properties and provided a protective environment to p1025 at the site of action, thereby modulating its action, prolonging its contact with the teeth, and decreasing the frequency of administration. LCSs were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological, texture, and bioadhesive tests. PLM and SAXS revealed the presence of hexagonal liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions. Rheological analyses demonstrated that the addition of polymer dispersions favored characteristics such as shear thinning and thixotropy, hence improving buccal application. Bioadhesion tests showed that polymer dispersions contributed to the adhesion onto the teeth. Taken together, LCS could provide a novel pharmaceutical nanotechnology platform for dental caries treatment. PMID:26828470

  10. Caries treatment in a dental practice-based research network: movement toward stated evidence-based treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Funkhouser, Ellen M.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Odont, Dr; Anderson, Gerald; Worley, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Background Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a venue to foster evidence-based care. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of participation in a dental PBRN is associated with greater stated change toward evidence-based practice. Methods A total of 565 dental PBRN practitioner-investigators completed a baseline questionnaire entitled “Assessment of Caries Diagnosis and Treatment”; 405 of these also completed a follow-up questionnaire about treatment of caries and existing restorations. Certain questions (6 treatment scenarios) were repeated at follow-up a mean (S.D.) of 36.0 (3.8) months later. A total of 224 were “full participants” (enrolled in clinical studies and attended at least one network meeting); 181 were “partial participants” (did not meet “full” criteria). Results From 10% to 62% of practitioners were “surgically invasive” at baseline, depending on the clinical scenario. Stated treatment approach was significantly less-invasive at follow-up for 4 of 6 items. Change was greater among full participants and those with a more-invasive approach at baseline, with an overall pattern of movement away from the extremes. Conclusions These results are consistent with a preliminary conclusion that network participation fostered movement of scientific evidence into routine practice. PBRNs may foster movement of evidence into everyday practice as practitioners become engaged in the scientific process. PMID:23036131

  11. Nonnutritive, low caloric substitutes for food sugars: clinical implications for addressing the incidence of dental caries and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael W; Wright, J Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  12. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Michael W.; Wright, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate. PMID:22505906

  13. A clinical study on Krimidanta with reference to dental caries and its management with Jatipatradi Gutika and Yavanadi Churna.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, Makbul; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Bavalatti, Narayan

    2010-04-01

    Dental caries is progressive destruction of enamel, dentine and cementum, initiated by microbial activity at the tooth surface. It is one of the major problems in dentistry. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with Krimidanta which is one among the eight diseases of tooth. In the management of Krimidanta, Krimighna, Vataghna and Ushna Veerya dravyas are to be used which can relieve the toothache and discoloration. In this study, the trial drugs used were Jatipatradi Gutika for Pratisarana and Yavanadi Churna for oral administration. In this study, the patients of Krimidanta (dental caries) were selected from OPD of Shalakya Department and allotted randomly in different groups. In Group A, the patients were treated with Jatipatradi Gutika for Pratisarana for 30 days. In Group B, the patients were treated with Yavanadi Churna orally and Group C patients were treated with combined therapy for 30 days. The clinical study has shown that combined therapy gives better results than individual therapies. PMID:22131714

  14. [Dental status in children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity].

    PubMed

    Galkina, Iu V; Gavrilova, O A; Piekalnits, I Ia; Dianov, O A

    2015-01-01

    Dental status was studied in 168 obese teenagers aged from 12 to 17 years. The study revealed high prevalence in this group of teenagers of oral pathology like caries and fluorosis, inflammatory periodontal disease in 75% of children and poor oral hygiene level. One should consider high need for development of treatment-and-prophylactic measures for improvement of dental status in obese teenagers. PMID:25909618

  15. [Comparison of reproducibility measurements for calibration of dental caries epidemiological surveys].

    PubMed

    Assaf, Andréa Videira; Zanin, Luciane; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2006-09-01

    This study compares three measurements (Kappa, general agreement percentage, or GAP, and dice index) used to determine the reproducibility of caries diagnosis in epidemiological surveys under different clinical diagnostic thresholds. Eleven examiners with previous experience in epidemiological surveys were submitted to a theoretical and clinical calibration process. Data analysis used two caries detection thresholds: World Health Organization (WHO) and WHO with the inclusion of initial enamel lesions (WHO + IL). Twenty-three children 6-7 years of age were examined, with and without caries. Mean values for Kappa index, GAP, and Dice were considered high (> 0.90), except for the dice index for the WHO + IL threshold (0.69). Since Kappa is an adjusted agreement index, it can be considered the instrument of choice for calibration of examiners. However, when it is impossible to use, the GAP is recommended together with the dice index in order to orient and improve examiners when examining caries lesions. PMID:16917587

  16. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass

  17. Dental caries and first permanent molar pit and fissure morphology in 7- to 8-year-old children in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Dong; Chen, Xi; Frencken, Jo; Du, Min-Quan; Chen, Zhi

    2012-09-01

    To obtain the caries experience and, plaque accumulation severity and pit and fissure morphology in first permanent molars in 7-8 children in Wuhan, as a reasonable prediction of caries risk and preventive attention in the future, a convenient sample of five primary schools in the vicinity of the Wuhan University School and Hospital of Stomatology was drawn. Two calibrated examiners orally examined all present grade 2 children in the classroom, using standard caries plaque and tooth morphology criteria. Dental caries was scored at enamel (D(2)) and dentine (D(3)) for tooth and surface level. Independent variables were age, gender and school. Data analysis used analysis of variance and t-test. The sample comprised 1 043 7- and 8-year-olds. The prevalence of dental caries in permanent dentition was 8.7% and in primary dentition, 68.7%. Mean Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth/S (DMFT/S) scores were 0.11 and 0.14, respectively. Mean dmft/s scores were 2.8 and 5.0. The d-component constituted 75% of the d(3)mft index, while enamel carious lesions constituted 36% of the total number of carious lesions (d(2,3)-component). Prevalence of medium and deep pits and fissures was 84.6%. Prevalence of medium and severe plaque accumulation was 67.4%. Prevalence of dental caries in the deciduous and permanent dentitions of 7- to 8-year-old children was high. Deep pits and fissures in high caries risk children should be sealed. PMID:22699265

  18. Fluoride supplements in pregnancy, effectiveness in the prevention of dental caries in a group of children

    PubMed Central

    MATURO, P.; COSTACURTA, M.; PERUGIA, C.; DOCIMO, R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This clinical, retrospective study intends to evaluate whether the systemic administration of fluoride during pregnancy can reduce caries incidence in a group of paediatric patients, compared to a control group. 84 patients were selected out of a sample of 2000 children (3–15 years of age) and then divided in two groups: TEST Group: 34 patients (16M – 18F, mean age 9.23), whose mothers had taken fluoride during pregnancy; CONTROL Group: 50 patients (23M – 27F, mean age 9) whose mothers had not taken fluoride. Patients underwent a clinical and radiographic inspection to assess the dfs/DFS value as caries index (decayed or filled surfaces for deciduous or permanent teeth). Results: dfs/DFS value: TEST Group: 3.41, CONTROL group 2.49. The TEST group was further divided in individuals who were administered fluoride only during pregnancy (33%) with a dfs/DFS of 3.14 and individuals who were administered fluoride also after birth (67%) with a dfs/DFS of 3. Caries index (dfs/DFS) did not show any significant differences between the test and control groups. Fluoride administration during pregnancy and postpartum does not seem to have a significant impact on the reduction of caries incidence. More preventive strategies should be investigated to contrast the multifactorial etiology of children caries. PMID:23285398

  19. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  20. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  1. Laser-induced dental caries and plaque diagnosis on patients by sensitive autofluorescence spectroscopy and time-gated video imaging: preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1994-09-01

    The laser-induced in vivo autofluorescence of human teeth was investigated by means of time- resolved/time-gated fluorescence techniques. The aim of these studies was non-contact caries and plaque detection. Carious lesions and dental plaque fluoresce in the red spectral region. This autofluorescence seems to be based on porphyrin-producing bacteria. We report on preliminary studies on patients using a novel method of autofluorescence imaging. A special device was constructed for time-gated video imaging. Nanosecond laser pulses for fluorescence excitation were provided by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Autofluorescence was detected in an appropriate nanosecond time window using a video camera with a time-gated image intensifier (minimal time gate: 5 ns). Laser-induced autofluorescence based on porphyrin-producing bacteria seems to be an appropriate tool for detecting dental lesions and for creating `caries-images' and `dental plaque' images.

  2. A new curriculum framework for clinical prevention and population health, with a review of clinical caries prevention teaching in U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    PubMed

    Brown, John P

    2007-05-01

    To fulfill the Healthy People 2010 Objective 1.7, "Increase the proportion of . . . health professional training schools whose basic curriculum for health care providers includes the core competencies in health promotion and disease prevention," the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force has developed a curriculum framework for clinical prevention and population health for all the health professions. This framework has four components: 1) evidence base for practice; 2) clinical preventive services, including health promotion; 3) health systems and health policy; and 4) community aspects of practice. Within these four common components are nineteen domains, for which each health profession is identifying its own educational objectives. An inventory of knowledge and skills is being developed. A prerequisite to promoting change in the teaching of dental prevention and population oral health is to better understand the current status. Sixty-six of sixty-eight U.S. and Canadian dental schools provided input on the teaching of one important aspect of this wider topic--dental caries prevention--before a December 2002 Clinical Preventive Dentistry Leadership Conference in Cincinnati, OH. In clinical teaching, 68 percent of dental schools included caries risk assessment and also reevaluated preventive outcomes, but while 65 percent included remineralization procedures, only 38 percent specifically reevaluated this outcome. Faculty members have commonalities in attitudes about the advantages and problems in improving teaching in clinical prevention, yet dental schools act individually in curricular design and implementation. The conference introduced a method of conceptualizing change, so that dental schools might address organizational barriers in clinical curriculum development. Even with the new common curriculum framework, other barriers to improved dental prevention and population oral health exist: these include organizational change in dental schools, dental practices

  3. Artificial caries produced by different oral bacterial cultures incubated with bovine dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, I H; Pearce, E I; Cutress, T W

    1983-01-01

    Early caries-like lesions were formed in enamel incubated in glucose broths inoculated with different cultures of oral bacteria. Analysis of the broths by gas chromatography revealed, after appropriate incubation, the presence of lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric or n-caproic or mixtures of these acid catabolites. Subsurface lesions formed with all acids and mixtures providing that the terminal pH dropped less than or equal to 5.6. However, the processes conformed in part only with the idealized simple diffusion phenomenon for caries formation, indicating the presence of other factors which could affect the production of lesions in biological systems. PMID:6349592

  4. Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries. PMID:22007218

  5. Effects of chlorhexidine-fluoride gel treatments in mothers on the establishment of mutans streptococci in primary teeth and the development of dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Tenovuo, J; Häkkinen, P; Paunio, P; Emilson, C G

    1992-01-01

    In a longitudinal 3-year study, 151 children were followed for the colonization of the primary dentition by mutans streptococci (MS) and for the development of dental caries. At the age of 1 year, the child-mother pairs were divided into three groups on the basis of the levels of MS in maternal saliva. In the experimental group, the mothers had MS levels higher than 10(5) CFU/ml, and they were given chlorhexidine (1%)-sodium fluoride (0.2%) gel treatments twice a year for 3 years. Two control groups were formed. In control group 1, the mothers also had high levels of MS, but no gel was given. In control group 2, the mothers had low (< 10(5) CFU/ml) baseline levels of salivary MS, and no chlorhexidine-fluoride gel was used. In the total study population, 16, 42, and 54% of the children were colonized by MS by the age of 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively. Most children harbored only Streptococcus mutans, but 2 had both S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, and 2 had only S. sobrinus. Twenty-eight percent of the MS-positive children developed caries by the age of 4 years, whereas 4 out of 27 children with dental caries did not have any detectable MS in their plaque samples. Both the colonization by MS and the caries incidence were highest in control group 1 and lower in the experimental group and in control group 2. These observations suggest that the reduction of maternal salivary MS at the time of tooth emergence may delay, or perhaps even prevent, the colonization of MS in the children's primary dentition with a concomitant decline in caries incidence, even in a population with an already low prevalence of dental caries. PMID:1423442

  6. Saliva as the Sole Nutritional Source in the Development of Multispecies Communities in Dental Plaque.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S

    2015-06-01

    Dental plaque is a polymicrobial biofilm that forms on the surfaces of teeth and, if inadequately controlled, can lead to dental caries or periodontitis. Nutrient availability is the fundamental limiting factor for the formation of dental plaque, and for its ability to generate acid and erode dental enamel. Nutrient availability is also critical for bacteria to grow in subgingival biofilms and to initiate periodontitis. Over the early stages of dental plaque formation, micro-organisms acquire nutrients by breaking down complex salivary substrates such as mucins and other glycoproteins. Once dental plaque matures, dietary carbohydrates become more important for supragingival dental plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid forms the major nutrient source for subgingival microorganisms. Many species of oral bacteria do not grow in laboratory monocultures when saliva is the sole nutrient source, and it is now clear that intermicrobial interactions are critical for the development of dental plaque. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the key metabolic requirements of some well-characterized oral bacteria, and the nutrient webs that promote the growth of multispecies communities and underpin the pathogenicity of dental plaque for both dental caries and periodontitis. PMID:26185065

  7. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and development of dental caries in vivo by 7-epiclusianone and fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Ramiro M.; Branco-de-Almeida, Luciana S.; Franco, Eliane M.; Yatsuda, Regiane; dos Santos, Marcelo H.; de Alencar, Severino M.; Koo, Hyun; Rosalen, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    7-Epiclusianone (7-epi), a novel naturally occurring compound isolated from Rheedia brasiliensis, effectively inhibits the synthesis of exopolymers and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. In the present study, the ability of 7-epi, alone or in combination with fluoride (F), to disrupt biofilm development and pathogenicity of S. mutans in vivo was examined using a rodent model of dental caries. Treatment (twice-daily, 60s exposure) with 7-epi, alone or in combination with 125 ppm F, resulted in biofilms with less biomass and fewer insoluble glucans than did those treated with vehicle-control, and they also displayed significant cariostatic effects in vivo (p < 0.05). The combination 7-epi + 125 ppm F was as effective as 250 ppm F (positive-control) in reducing the development of both smooth- and sulcal-caries. No histopathological alterations were observed in the animals after the experimental period. The data show that 7-epiclusianone is a novel and effective antibiofilm/anticaries agent, which may enhance the cariostatic properties of fluoride. PMID:20938851

  8. Early hominid dental pathology: interproximal caries in 1.5 million-year-old Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans.

    PubMed

    Grine, F E; Gwinnett, A J; Oaks, J H

    1990-01-01

    Carious lesions on the mesial and distal aspects of a RM1 of a young adult 'robust' australopithecine. Paranthropus robustus, are described. The specimen is from Member 1 sediments of the Swartkrans cave, which are dated to between about 1.8 and 1.5 million years before present. The mesial lesion, located cervically, had progressed further than the two distal lesions, which were situated along the cervix and in the enamel of the interproximal contact facet. This is the third specimen of P. robustus to be discovered with dental caries, but the other two cases were associated with occlusal and buccal enamel hypoplasia. Caries is present in less than about 3.0% of the approx. 116-128 P. robustus specimens at Swartkrans, and this incidence is noticeably lower than in the small Homo erectus sample from the same site. While this difference may simply be a sampling artefact, it may reflect dietary differences between these two synchronic and presumably sympatric early hominid species. PMID:2196866

  9. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and development of dental caries in vivo by 7-epiclusianone and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ramiro M; Branco-de-Almeida, Luciana S; Franco, Eliane M; Yatsuda, Regiane; dos Santos, Marcelo H; de Alencar, Severino M; Koo, Hyun; Rosalen, Pedro L

    2010-10-01

    7-Epiclusianone (7-epi), a novel naturally occurring compound isolated from Rheedia brasiliensis, effectively inhibits the synthesis of exopolymers and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. In the present study, the ability of 7-epi, alone or in combination with fluoride (F), to disrupt biofilm development and pathogenicity of S. mutans in vivo was examined using a rodent model of dental caries. Treatment (twice-daily, 60s exposure) with 7-epi, alone or in combination with 125 ppm F, resulted in biofilms with less biomass and fewer insoluble glucans than did those treated with vehicle-control, and they also displayed significant cariostatic effects in vivo (p < 0.05). The combination 7-epi + 125 ppm F was as effective as 250 ppm F (positive-control) in reducing the development of both smooth- and sulcal-caries. No histopathological alterations were observed in the animals after the experimental period. The data show that 7-epiclusianone is a novel and effective antibiofilm/anticaries agent, which may enhance the cariostatic properties of fluoride. PMID:20938851

  10. Effect of Nutritional Habits on Dental Caries in Permanent Dentition among Schoolchildren Aged 10–12 Years: A Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson Regression Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    ALMASI, Afshin; RAHIMIFOROUSHANI, Abbas; ESHRAGHIAN, Mohammad Reza; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; PASDAR, Yahya; TARRAHI, Mohammad Javad; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; AHMADI JOUYBARI, Touraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition among schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 698 schoolchildren aged 10 to 12 yr from a random sample of primary schools in Kermanshah, western Iran, in 2014. The study was based on the data obtained from the questionnaire containing information on nutritional habits and the outcome of decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. The association between predictors and dental caries was modeled using the Zero Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) regression model. Results: Fourteen percent of the children were caries free. The model was shown that in female children, the odds of being in a caries susceptible sub-group was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08–1.51) times more likely than boys (P=0.041). Additionally, mean caries count in children who consumed the fizzy soft beverages and sweet biscuits more than once daily was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.19–1.63) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18–1.37) times more than children that were in category of less than 3 times a week or never, respectively. Conclusions: Girls were at a higher risk of caries than boys were. Since our study showed that nutritional status may have significant effect on caries in permanent teeth, we recommend that health promotion activities in school should be emphasized on healthful eating practices; especially limiting beverages containing sugar to only occasionally between meals. PMID:27141498

  11. Near-infared hyperspectral imaging of teeth for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakian, Christian; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) is preferred for caries detection compared to visible light imaging because it exhibits low absorption by stain and deeper penetration into teeth. Hyperspectral images from 1000 to 2500 nm have been obtained for a total of 12 extracted teeth (premolars and molars) with different degrees of natural lesion. Analysis of the reflectance spectra suggests that light scattering by porous enamel and absorption by water in dentin can be used to quantify the lesion severity and generate a NIR caries score. Teeth were ground for histological examination after the measurements. The NIR caries score obtained correlates significantly (Spearman's correlation of 0.89, p<0.01) with the corresponding histological score. Results yield a sensitivity of >99% and a specificity of 87.5% for enamel lesions and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity >99% for dentine lesions. The nature of the technique offers significant advantages, including the ability to map the lesion distribution rather than obtaining single-point measurements, it is also noninvasive, noncontact, and stain insensitive. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a potential clinical technique for quantitative caries diagnosis and can determine the presence of occlusal enamel and dentin lesions.

  12. Functional differences in mesenchymal stromal cells from human dental pulp and periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Vasandan, Anoop Babu; Shankar, Shilpa Rani; Prasad, Priya; Sowmya Jahnavi, Vulugundam; Bhonde, Ramesh Ramachandra; Jyothi Prasanna, Susarla

    2014-02-01

    Clinically reported reparative benefits of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are majorly attributed to strong immune-modulatory abilities not exactly shared by fibroblasts. However, MSCs remain heterogeneous populations, with unique tissue-specific subsets, and lack of clear-cut assays defining therapeutic stromal subsets adds further ambiguity to the field. In this context, in-depth evaluation of cellular characteristics of MSCs from proximal oro-facial tissues: dental pulp (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) from identical donors provides an opportunity to evaluate exclusive niche-specific influences on multipotency and immune-modulation. Exhaustive cell surface profiling of DPSCs and PDLSCs indicated key differences in expression of mesenchymal (CD105) and pluripotent/multipotent stem cell-associated cell surface antigens: SSEA4, CD117, CD123 and CD29. DPSCs and PDLSCs exhibited strong chondrogenic potential, but only DPSCs exhibited adipogenic and osteogenic propensities. PDLSCs expressed immuno-stimulatory/immune-adhesive ligands like HLA-DR and CD50, upon priming with IFNγ, unlike DPSCs, indicating differential response patterns to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both DPSCs and PDLSCs were hypo-immunogenic and did not elicit robust allogeneic responses despite exposure to IFNγ or TNFα. Interestingly, only DPSCs attenuated mitogen-induced lympho-proliferative responses and priming with either IFNγ or TNFα enhanced immuno-modulation capacity. In contrast, primed or unprimed PDLSCs lacked the ability to suppress polyclonal T cell blast responses. This study indicates that stromal cells from even topographically related tissues do not necessarily share identical MSC properties and emphasizes the need for a thorough functional testing of MSCs from diverse sources with respect to multipotency, immune parameters and response to pro-inflammatory cytokines before translational usage. PMID:24393246

  13. Caries prevention and reversal based on the caries balance.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, John D B

    2006-01-01

    The science behind caries prevention and reversal is well understood. A recent clinical trial has confirmed that reducing caries risk results in a reduction in dental decay. Dental caries progression or reversal depends upon the balance between demineralization and remineralization and can be visualized for clinical purposes as the "caries balance." This balance is determined by the relative weights of the sums of pathological factors and protective factors. A structured caries risk assessment should be carried out based upon the concept of the caries balance. Following the risk assessment, a treatment plan is devised which leads to the control of dental caries for the patient. The balance between pathological and preventive factors can be swung in the direction of caries intervention and prevention by the active role of the dentist and his/her auxiliary staff. PMID:16708787

  14. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  15. Periodontal considerations of the removable partial overdenture.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B C; Renner, R P

    1990-10-01

    1. An overdenture, whether complete or partial, is an excellent mode of treatment in the mutilated dentition for the preservation of the residual ridge. 2. Selection of patients for an overdenture should be based on past history of dental neglect, the status of the teeth and their periodontium, including present oral hygiene status, and patient motivation. The patients with a history of dental neglect, poor oral hygiene, and lack of motivation in having the teeth and the periodontium restored to health as well as strict compliance to a home-care regimen and recall schedule are not good candidates for treatment with an overdenture. 3. The choice of teeth or roots to serve as overdenture abutments must include their periodontal evaluation, which should consist of a detailed periodontal examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment when this is indicated, including chemical protection (fluoride gel) and an oral hygiene regimen tailored to individual needs. 4. The knowledge and expertise in the selection and implementation of appropriate periodontal treatment modalities is of paramount importance in restoring optimum periodontal health to the overdenture abutments before overdenture fabrication. 5. The maintenance phase of the overdenture abutments as well as of the existing natural teeth is of critical importance in the preservation of health of these abutments and teeth. This maintenance phase should consist of periodic recalls based on individual needs; a detailed periodontal evaluation, including patient's motivation and status of oral hygiene and denture hygiene; and detection of caries. If necessary, appropriate periodontal and/or restorative therapy should be performed, and oral hygiene measures reinforced. This will ensure longevity of both abutment teeth or roots and of the existing natural teeth resulting in a long-term success of an overdenture. 6. Because there is evidence of high incidence of periodontal disease and dental caries in overdenture wearers

  16. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons. PMID:24817803

  17. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  18. Association of dental and periodontal disease with chronic kidney disease in patients of a single, tertiary care centre in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ausavarungnirun, R; Wisetsin, S; Rongkiettechakorn, N; Chaichalermsak, S; Udompol, U; Rattanasompattikul, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown an association between oral diseases and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and regular oral care may be an important strategy for reducing the burden of CKD. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the association between dental and periodontal diseases in Thai patients with various stages of CKD. Methods This was designed as a cross-sectional study and was performed between 2011 and 2012. The inclusion criteria were age >20 years and a diagnosis of CKD for at least 90 days. Data from medical records were collected, clinical oral examination was performed, and data were statistically analysed. Results A total of 129 patients with different stages of CKD were included. Ninety-eight (76%) were men. The age range was 30–86 years. The Decay, Missing and Filling Tooth Index and the number of missing teeth were higher in the group with moderate CKD than in the control group (21 vs 17.5, p=0.045, 13 vs 8 p=0.01, respectively). Serum albumin levels decreased when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was in decline (γ=0.33; p=0.002). Severe periodontitis was significantly higher in the ‘more severe CKD group’ (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) than in the ‘less severe CKD group’ (eGFR 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2; 24% vs 9%, p=0.03). Severe periodontitis, eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and brushing teeth more than once a day were associated with hypoalbuminaemia (defined as <3.8 g/dL) (OR (95% CI) 5.88 (1.64 to 21.11), 5.80 (1.58 to 21.35) and 0.16 (0.05 to 0.60), respectively). Conclusions Severe periodontal diseases were more prevalent in patients with more severe CKD than in those with less severe CKD. The novel association of serum albumin levels with periodontal status was demonstrated in progressive stages of CKD. Dental intervention may be beneficial from the early stages of CKD. PMID:27466240

  19. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Selective removal of caries lesions with high precision is best accomplished using lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates utilizing small spot sizes. Conventional flash-lamp pumped Er:YAG