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Sample records for depleted zinc properties

  1. The glutathione redox couple modulates zinc transfer from metallothionein to zinc-depleted sorbitol dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1998-01-01

    The release and transfer of zinc from metallothionein (MT) to zinc-depleted sorbitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.14) in vitro has been used to explore the role of MT in cellular zinc distribution. A 1:1 molar ratio of MT to sorbitol dehydrogenase is required for full reactivation, indicating that only one of the seven zinc atoms of MT is transferred in this process. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) are critical modulators of both the rate of zinc transfer and the ultimate number of zinc atoms transferred. GSSG increases the rate of zinc transfer 3-fold, and its concentration is the major determinant for efficient zinc transfer. GSH has a dual function. In the absence of GSSG, it inhibits zinc transfer from MT, indicating that MT is in a latent state under the relatively high cellular concentrations of GSH. In addition, it primes MT for the reaction with GSSG by enhancing the rate of zinc transfer 10-fold and by increasing the number of zinc atoms transferred to four. 65Zn-labeling experiments confirm the release of one zinc from MT in the absence of glutathione and the more effective release of zinc in the presence of GSH and GSSG. In vivo, MT may keep the cellular concentrations of free zinc very low and, acting as a temporary cellular reservoir, release zinc in a process that is dynamically controlled by its interactions with both GSH and GSSG. These results suggest that a change of the redox state of the cell could serve as a driving force and signal for zinc distribution from MT. PMID:9520392

  2. Diagnosis and clinical associations of zinc depletion following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, A; Nathavitharana, K; Williams, M D; Darbyshire, P J; Booth, I W

    1996-01-01

    Following the emergence of biochemical zinc deficiency after bone marrow transplantation, the clinical value of plasma alkaline phosphatase activity as an early indicator of biochemical zinc depletion was investigated in this group of patients. Serial measurements of plasma zinc and alkaline phosphatase activities in 28 consecutive children (median age 8.7 years; 16 males) undergoing bone marrow transplantation were carried out and clinical associations recorded. A significant fall in plasma zinc occurred after the bone marrow transplant, and 19 children developed biochemical zinc deficiency (Zn < 11 mumol/l) at a median of 7 days following the transplant. Zinc depletion was more common in younger patients and in children with diarrhoea. A positive correlation was found between plasma zinc and alkaline phosphatase activities. Zinc depleted patients had more febrile episodes of longer duration and were more likely to have a positive blood culture. Haemopoetic recovery was not affected by zinc deficiency. Following zinc supplementation, alkaline phosphatase showed a significant increase. The sensitivity of a low alkaline phosphatase as a screening test for biochemical zinc deficiency was 83%, with a specificity of 86%. Low alkaline phosphatase activity following bone marrow transplant is an indication for zinc supplements. PMID:8669934

  3. Zinc depletion regulates the processing and secretion of IL-1β

    PubMed Central

    Summersgill, H; England, H; Lopez-Castejon, G; Lawrence, C B; Luheshi, N M; Pahle, J; Mendes, P; Brough, D

    2014-01-01

    Sterile inflammation contributes to many common and serious human diseases. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives sterile inflammatory responses and is thus a very attractive therapeutic target. Activation of IL-1β in sterile diseases commonly requires an intracellular multi-protein complex called the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome. A number of disease-associated danger molecules are known to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. We show here that depletion of zinc from macrophages, a paradigm for zinc deficiency, also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces IL-1β secretion. Our data suggest that zinc depletion damages the integrity of lysosomes and that this event is important for NLRP3 activation. These data provide new mechanistic insight to how zinc deficiency contributes to inflammation and further unravel the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:24481454

  4. Zinc depletion regulates the processing and secretion of IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Summersgill, H; England, H; Lopez-Castejon, G; Lawrence, C B; Luheshi, N M; Pahle, J; Mendes, P; Brough, D

    2014-01-01

    Sterile inflammation contributes to many common and serious human diseases. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives sterile inflammatory responses and is thus a very attractive therapeutic target. Activation of IL-1β in sterile diseases commonly requires an intracellular multi-protein complex called the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome. A number of disease-associated danger molecules are known to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. We show here that depletion of zinc from macrophages, a paradigm for zinc deficiency, also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces IL-1β secretion. Our data suggest that zinc depletion damages the integrity of lysosomes and that this event is important for NLRP3 activation. These data provide new mechanistic insight to how zinc deficiency contributes to inflammation and further unravel the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:24481454

  5. Iron-induced accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein: a marked diminution by short-term dietary zinc depletion

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of zinc depletion on the accumulation of hepatic zinc metallothionein (ZnMT) induced by iron loading. Four-week-old chicks were fed a zinc-deficient diet (-Zn, 1.4 ppm Zn) for 6 days prior to iron loading. Iron loading was accomplished by two injections (i.p.) at 24-hour intervals of ferric chloride at 10 mg Fe/kg BW. Control chicks received an equal volume of saline in conjunction with either -Zn or zinc-sufficient diet (+Zn, 64 ppm Zn). Within 24 hours of feeding -Zn, plasma zinc decreased to approximately 30% of control values and remained at this level for the remaining period. Neither feed consumption nor bodyweight gain was affected by -Zn. Iron loading decreased plasma zinc (40%) in +Zn chicks and caused a similar reduction in feed consumption for both - and + Zn chicks. ZnMT was not detectable (by G-75 chromatography) in -Zn saline-treated chicks but was estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g Zn/ml cytosol for +Zn chicks. Values for + and - Zn iron-loaded chicks were 8.9 +/- 2.5 and 1.8 +/- 0.6. The concentration of hepatic ZnMT in the various groups was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Similar results were obtained when -Zn diets were fed for 2 days prior to iron loading. The results indicate that plasma zinc is an important component in the process by which parenteral iron effects an accumulation of hepatic ZnMT.

  6. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S.; King, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem worldwide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224–1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immuno-affinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunode-pleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future. PMID:23255060

  7. Impact properties of zinc die cast alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Manahan, M.P.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2005-01-01

    Alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were tested at five temperatures between -40 C and room temperature to determine impact properties. Izod impact energy data was obtained in accordance with ASTM D256. Unlike ASTM E23, these samples were tested with a milled notch in order to compare with plastic samples. In addition, flexural data was obtained for design use.

  8. Fluorescence depletion properties of insulin–gold nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Fu; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lin, Wei-Kuan; Chen, Kuan-Chieh; Chou, Pi-Tai; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Insulin–gold nanoclusters exhibit outstanding biocompatibility, photostability, and fluorescence quantum efficiency. However, they have never been used in superresolution microscopy, which requires nonlinear switching or saturation of fluorescence. Here we examine the fluorescence and stimulated emission depletion properties of gold nanoclusters. Their bleaching rate is very slow, demonstrating superior photostability. Surprisingly, however, the best depletion efficiency is less than 70%, whereas the depletion intensity requirement is much higher than the expectation from a simple two-level model. Fluorescence lifetime measurement revealed two distinct lifetime components, which indicate intersystem and reverse intersystem crossing during excitation. Based on population dynamic calculation, excellent agreement of the maximal depletion efficiency is found. Our work not only features the first examination of STED with metallic clusters, but also reveals the significance of molecular transition dynamics when considering a STED labeling. PMID:26309767

  9. Zinc protects human kidney cells from depleted uranium-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhangyou; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2014-03-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a weak radioactive heavy metal, and zinc (Zn) is an effective antidote to heavy metal poisoning. However, the effect of Zn on DU-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Zn on DU-induced cell apoptosis in human kidney cells (HK-2) and explore its molecular mechanism. Pre-treatment with Zn significantly inhibited DU-induced apoptosis. It reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species in the cells, increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, suppressed the DU-induced soluble Fas receptor (sFasR) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) overexpression, suppressed the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inhibitor factor (AIF) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, inhibited the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induced metallothionein (MT) expression. Furthermore, exogenous MT effectively inhibited DU-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, mitochondrial and FasR-mediated apoptosis pathways contribute to DU-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Through independent mechanisms, such as indirect antioxidant effects, inhibition of the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induction of MT expression, Zn inhibits DU-induced apoptosis. PMID:24330236

  10. Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.

    PubMed

    Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10 mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5 h under artificial sunlight (1060 W m(-2) or 530 W m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions. PMID:25115521

  11. High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2016-04-01

    Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.

  12. Zinc Depletion Causes Multiple Defects in Ovarian Function during the Periovulatory Period in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X.

    2012-01-01

    Shortly before ovulation, the oocyte acquires developmental competence and granulosa cells undergo tremendous changes including cumulus expansion and luteinization. Zinc is emerging as a key regulator of meiosis in vitro, but a complete understanding of zinc-mediated effects during the periovulatory period is lacking. The present study uncovers the previously unknown role of zinc in maintaining meiotic arrest before ovulation. A zinc chelator [N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN)] caused premature germinal vesicle breakdown and associated spindle defects in denuded oocytes even in the presence of a phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitor (milrinone). TPEN also potently blocked cumulus expansion by blocking induction of expansion-related transcripts Has2, Ptx3, Ptgs2, and Tnfaip6 mRNA. Both meiotic arrest and cumulus expansion were rescued by exogenous zinc. Lack of cumulus expansion is due to an almost complete suppression of phospho-Sma- and Mad-related protein 2/3 signaling. Consistent with a decrease in phospho-Sma- and Mad-related protein 2/3 signaling, TPEN also decreased cumulus transcripts (Ar and Slc38a3) and caused a surprising increase in mural transcripts (Lhcgr and Cyp11a1) in cumulus cells. In vivo, feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 10 d completely blocked ovulation and compromised cumulus expansion. However, 42.5% of oocytes had prematurely resumed meiosis before human chorionic gonadotropin injection, underscoring the importance of zinc before ovulation. A more acute 3-d treatment with a zinc-deficient diet did not block ovulation but did increase the number of oocytes trapped in luteinizing follicles. Moreover, 23% of ovulated oocytes did not reach metaphase II due to severe spindle defects. Thus, acute zinc deficiency causes profound defects during the periovulatory period with consequences for oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. PMID:22147014

  13. Restoring wtp53 activity in HIPK2 depleted MCF7 cells by modulating metallothionein and zinc.

    PubMed

    Puca, Rosa; Nardinocchi, Lavinia; Bossi, Gianluca; Sacchi, Ada; Rechavi, Gideon; Givol, David; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of p53 transactivation activity is important for p53 apoptotic function. We have shown that stable knockdown of HIPK2 induces p53 misfolding with inhibition of p53 target gene transcription. In this study we established a lentiviral-based system for doxycyclin (Dox)-induced conditional interference of HIPK2 expression to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in p53 deregulation. We found that HIPK2 knockdown induced metallothionein 2A (MT2A) upregulation as assessed by RT-PCR analysis, increased promoter acetylation, and increased promoter luciferase activity. The MT2A upregulation correlated with resistance to Adriamycin (ADR)-driven apoptosis and with p53 inhibition. Thus, acute knockdown of HIPK2 (HIPK2i) induced misfolded p53 protein in MCF7 breast cancer cells and inhibited p53 DNA-binding and transcription activities in response to ADR treatment. Previous works show that MT may modulate p53 activity through zinc exchange. Here, we found that inhibition of MT2A expression by siRNA in the HIPK2i cells restored p53 transcription activity. Similarly zinc supplementation to HIPK2i cells restored p53 transcription activity and drug-induced apoptosis. These data support the notion that MT2A is involved in p53 deregulation and strengthen the possibility that combination of chemotherapy and zinc might be useful to treat tumors with inactive wtp53. PMID:18996371

  14. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeary, Lucas W.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rawn, Claudia J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Thompson, James R.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2011-12-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, ZnyFe1-yFe2O4) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with ZnxFe1-xOOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (Ms) reported in the literature. The averaged Ms values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  15. Candida albicans Induces Metabolic Reprogramming in Human NK Cells and Responds to Perforin with a Zinc Depletion Response

    PubMed Central

    Hellwig, Daniela; Voigt, Jessica; Bouzani, Maria; Löffler, Jürgen; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Weber, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Martin, Ronny; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are directly involved in the response to fungal infections. Perforin has been identified as the major effector molecule acting against many fungal pathogens. While several studies have shown that perforin mediated fungicidal effects can contribute to fungal clearance, neither the activation of NK cells by fungal pathogens nor the effects of perforin on fungal cells are well-understood. In a dual approach, we have studied the global gene expression pattern of primary and cytokine activated NK cells after co-incubation with Candida albicans and the transcriptomic adaptation of C. albicans to perforin exposure. NK cells responded to the fungal pathogen with an up-regulation of genes involved in immune signaling and release of cytokines. Furthermore, we observed a pronounced increase of genes involved in glycolysis and glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose impaired C. albicans induced NK cell activation. This strongly indicates that metabolic adaptation is a major part of the NK cell response to C. albicans infections. In the fungal pathogen, perforin induced a strong up-regulation of several fungal genes involved in the zinc depletion response, such as PRA1 and ZRT1. These data suggest that fungal zinc homeostasis is linked to the reaction to perforin secreted by NK cells. However, deletion mutants in PRA1 and ZRT1 did not show altered susceptibility to perforin. PMID:27242763

  16. Candida albicans Induces Metabolic Reprogramming in Human NK Cells and Responds to Perforin with a Zinc Depletion Response.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Daniela; Voigt, Jessica; Bouzani, Maria; Löffler, Jürgen; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Weber, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Martin, Ronny; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As part of the innate immune system, natural killer (NK) cells are directly involved in the response to fungal infections. Perforin has been identified as the major effector molecule acting against many fungal pathogens. While several studies have shown that perforin mediated fungicidal effects can contribute to fungal clearance, neither the activation of NK cells by fungal pathogens nor the effects of perforin on fungal cells are well-understood. In a dual approach, we have studied the global gene expression pattern of primary and cytokine activated NK cells after co-incubation with Candida albicans and the transcriptomic adaptation of C. albicans to perforin exposure. NK cells responded to the fungal pathogen with an up-regulation of genes involved in immune signaling and release of cytokines. Furthermore, we observed a pronounced increase of genes involved in glycolysis and glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose impaired C. albicans induced NK cell activation. This strongly indicates that metabolic adaptation is a major part of the NK cell response to C. albicans infections. In the fungal pathogen, perforin induced a strong up-regulation of several fungal genes involved in the zinc depletion response, such as PRA1 and ZRT1. These data suggest that fungal zinc homeostasis is linked to the reaction to perforin secreted by NK cells. However, deletion mutants in PRA1 and ZRT1 did not show altered susceptibility to perforin. PMID:27242763

  17. Antimicrobial property of zinc based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, V.; Stratulat, D. N.; Calin, G.; Nichitus, S.; Burlui, V.; Stadoleanu, C.; Popa, M.; Popa, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen bacteria strains with wide spectrum can cause serious infections with drastic damages on humans. There are studies reflecting antibacterial effect of nanoparticles type metal or metal oxides as an alternative or concurrent treatment to the diseases caused by infectious agents. Synthesised nanoparticles using different methods like sol-gel, hydrothermal or plant extraction were tested following well-established protocols with the regard to their antimicrobial activity. It was found that zinc based nanoparticles possess strong synergistic effect with commonly used antibiotics on infection tratment.

  18. Hydrogen transport properties in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, N. H.

    2007-07-01

    Hydrogen diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) was investigated by deuterium diffusion and hydrogen effusion measurements. The diffusion coefficient exhibits thermally activated behavior and varies between EA=0.17 and 0.37 eV. Interestingly, the change in EA is accompanied by a variation of the diffusion prefactor by about eight orders of magnitude. This indicates that EA does not represent the diffusion barrier. On the other hand, the H density of states derived from effusion data is consistent with originally reported values of the diffusion activation energy of EA≈1.0 eV.

  19. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  20. Structural properties of Zinc Lithium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidu, A.; Wagiran, H.; Saeed, M. A.; Alajerami, Y. S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Zinc Lithium Borate glasses of different composition were prepared with the aim of using it for thermoluminescence dosimetry. Melt quenching method was adopted in this process. Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy techniques were employed to investigate the infrared spectra and energy band gap of different composition of Zinc Lithium Borate glasses. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the glass samples. Glass forming ability and stability of the glass was checked using Differential thermal analysis (DTA). Density, molar volume, refractive index parameters have been analyzed in the light of different concentration of the modifier. The active vibrational modes of 1200-1600 cm-1 for B-O stretching of BO3 units, 800-1200 cm-1 for B-O stretching of BO4 units and 400-800 cm-1 for bending vibration of various borate segments were detected. Addition of ZnO to lithium borate shows its influence in converting the dominant BO3 group to BO4 group. BO4 are known for creating complex defects, a situation that established deep and stable traps good for thermoluminescence phenomena. From optical data, direct and indirect energy band gap has been calculated using the data obtained from UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Both direct and indirect band gaps decrease with the increase of modifier Li2CO3.

  1. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely. PMID:26702153

  2. Crystalline state and acoustic properties of zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Kal'naya, G.I.; Pryadko, I.F.; Yarovoi, Yu.A.

    1988-08-01

    We study the effect of the crystalline state of zinc oxide films, prepared by magnetron sputtering, on the efficiency of SAW transducers based on the layered system textured ZnO film-interdigital transducer (IDT)-fused quartz substrate. The crystalline perfection of the ZnO films was studied by the x-ray method using a DRON-2.0 diffractometer. The acoustic properties of the layered system fused quartz substrate-IDT-zinc oxide film were evaluated based on the squared electromechanical coupling constant K/sup 2/ for strip filters. It was found that K/sup 2/ depends on the magnitude of the mechanical stresses. When zinc oxide films are deposited by the method of magnetron deposition on fused quartz substrates, depending on the process conditions limitations can arise on the rate of deposition owing to mechanical stresses, which significantly degrade the efficiency of SAW transducers based on them, in the ZnO films.

  3. The Antimicrobial Properties of Zinc-Releasing Bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin

    Up to 80% of nosocomial infections are caused by biofilm-producing bacteria such as Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These types of microorganisms can become resistant to antibiotics and are difficult to eliminate. As such, there is tremendous interest in developing bioactive implant materials that can help to minimize these post- operative infections. Using water-based chemistry, we developed an economical, biodegradable and biocompatible orthopedic implant material consisting of zinc- doped hydroxyapatite (HA), which mimics the main inorganic component of the bone. Because the crystallinity of HA is typically too compact for efficient drug release, we substituted calcium ions in HA with zinc during the synthesis step to perturb the crystal structure. An added benefit is that zinc itself is a microelement of the human body with anti-inflammatory property, and we hypothesized that Zn-doped HA is an inherently antibacterial material. All HA samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using aqueous solutions of Zinc nitrate, Calcium Nitrate, and Ammonium Phosphate. XRD data showed that Zn was successfully incorporated into the HA. The effectiveness of Zn-doped HA against a model biofilm-forming bacterium is currently being evaluated using a wild-type strain and a streptomycin- resistant strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (Psp) which is a plant pathogen isolated from diseased apples. Key words: Hydroxyapatite, Zinc, Citrate, Pseudomonas, Antibacterial.

  4. Trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles - Zinc depletion as a possible indicator of atmospheric entry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Major-element abundances in 11 C, C?, and TCA cosmic dust particles have been measured using SEM and TEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) systems. The Fe/Ni ratio, when coupled with major element abundances, appears to be a useful discriminator of cosmic particles. Three particles classified as C?, but having Fe/Ni peak height ratios similar to those measured on the powdered Allende meteorite sample in their HSC EDX spectra, exhibit chondritic minor-/trace-element abundance patterns, suggesting they are extraterrestrial. The one particle classified as C-type, but without detectable Ni in its JSC EDX spectrum, exhibits an apparently nonchondritic minor-/trace-element abundance pattern. A class of particles that are chondritic except for large depletions in the volatile elements Zn and S has been identified. It is likely that these particles condensed with a C1 abundance pattern and that Zn and S were removed by some subsequent process.

  5. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals. PMID:26339693

  6. Investigation of Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chism, Tyler

    UV photodetection devices have many important applications for uses in biological detection, gas sensing, weaponry detection, fire detection, chemical analysis, and many others. Today's photodetectors often utilize semiconductors such as GaAs to achieve high responsivity and sensitivity. Zinc oxide, unlike many other semiconductors, is cheap, abundant, non-toxic, and easy to grow different morphologies at the micro and nano scale. With the proliferation of these devices also comes the impending need to further study optics and photonics in relation to phononics and plasmonics, and the general principles underlying the interaction of photons with solid state matter and, specifically, semiconductors. For this research a metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector has been fabricated by using a quartz substrate on top of which was deposited micropatterned gold in an interdigitated electrode design. On this, sparsely coated zinc oxide nano trees were hydrothermally grown. The UV photodetection device showed promise for detection applications, especially because zinc oxide is also very thermally stable, a quality which is highly sought after in today's UV photodetectors. Furthermore, the newly synthesized photodetector was used to investigate optical properties and how they respond to different stimuli. It was discovered that the photons transmitted through the sparsely coated zinc oxide nano trees decreased as the voltage across the device increased. This research is aimed at better understanding photons interaction with matter and also to open the door for new devices with tunable optical properties such as transmission.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of zinc based pnictide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeparvathy, P. C.; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed first principles density functional calculations to understand the electronic structure and transport properties of Zn-based pnictides ZnXPn2 (X: Si, Ge, and Sn; Pn: P and As) and ZnSiSb2. The electronic properties calculated using Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson functional reveals the semi-conducting nature, and the resulting band gaps are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical reports. We find a mixture of heavy and light bands in the band structure which is an advantage for good thermoelectric (TE) properties. The calculated transport properties unveils the favour p-type conduction in ZnXP2 (X: Si, Ge, and Sn) and n-type conduction in ZnGeP2 and ZnSiAs2. Comparison of transport properties of Zn-based pnictides with the prototype chalcopyrite thermoelectric materials implies that the thermopower values of the investigated compounds to be higher when compared with the prototype chalcopyrite thermoelectric materials, together with the comparable values for electrical conductivity scaled by relaxation time. In addition to this, Zn-based pnictides are found to possess higher thermopower than well known traditional TE materials at room temperature and above which motivates further research in these compounds.

  8. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  9. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  10. Anticorrosion Properties of Pigments based on Ferrite Coated Zinc Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, P.; Kalendová, A.

    The paper deals with a new anticorrosion pigment, synthesized on a core-shell basis. For its syntheses a starting substance is used that forms the lamellar shaped core; namely lamellar zinc. The cover of the core is represented by zinc oxide, which is in fact partly oxidized lamellar zinc core, and is created during the calcination of the pigment. The compound that forms the top layer of the core, a ferrite, is also formed during calcination. The formula for the prepared pigment is then defined as MexZn1-xFe2O4/Zn and the formula of thin ferrite layer is MexZn1-xFe2O4 (where Me = Ca, Mg). Due to its shape, this anticorrosion pigment includes another anticorrosion effect, the so called "barrier effect". The mechanisms of anticorrosion effect, corrosion efficiency and mechanical properties were investigated for epoxy-ester paint systems with 10%pigment volume concentration (PVC). Mechanical tests were performed to determine the adhesiveness and mechanical resistance of paints and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to evaluate efficiency against chemical degradation factors.

  11. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... women taking iron and folic acid supplements. Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking zinc along with other vitamins and minerals may prevent prostate cancer in some men. However, other research suggests that ...

  12. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth does not improve sperm count or sperm movement in men with fertility problems. However, other early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile ...

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of chromium doped zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Rintu Mary; Thankachan, Smitha; Xavier, Sheena; Mohammed, E. M.; Joseph, Shaji

    2014-01-28

    Zinc chromium ferrites with chemical formula ZnCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by Sol - Gel technique. The structural as well as magnetic properties of the synthesized samples have been studied and reported here. The structural characterizations of the samples were analyzed by using X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The single phase spinel cubic structure of all the prepared samples was tested by XRD and FTIR. The particle size was observed to decrease from 18.636 nm to 6.125 nm by chromium doping and induced a tensile strain in all the zinc chromium mixed ferrites. The magnetic properties of few samples (x = 0.0, 0.4, 1.0) were investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

  14. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  15. Synthesis and properties of zinc oxide nanowires for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janfeshan, Bita; Sivoththaman, Siva

    2011-08-01

    Zinc oxide is a wide band gap semiconductor with a large exciton binding energy (60meV). As a result the nanostructures of this material have many potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work, the growth and optical properties of ZnO nanowires have been studied. The nanowires (NW) of ZnO were synthesized using low pressure chemical vapour deposition method (LPCVD) under different chamber pressures. The growth was carried out on (100) Si wafers pre-coated by gold particles as a catalyst. The morphology of the synthesized NWs and their optical properties like transparency and reflection were studied. The NW arrays have high optical transmittance compared to ZnO thin films prepared by sputtering. The photoluminescence of the NWs were also measured and compared with that of ZnO thin films. The two types of NW structures obtained have potential applications in photovoltaic devices as optical and electrical components.

  16. [Zinc].

    PubMed

    Couinaud, C

    1984-10-01

    Zinc is indispensable for life from bacteria to man. As a trace element it is included in numerous enzymes or serves as their activator (more than 80 zinc metallo-enzymes). It is necessary for nucleic acid and protein synthesis, the formation of sulphated molecules (insulin, growth hormone, keratin, immunoglobulins), and the functioning of carbonic anhydrase, aldolases, many dehydrogenases (including alcohol-dehydrogenase, retinal reductase indispensable for retinal rod function), alkaline phosphatase, T cells and superoxide dismutase. Its lack provokes distinctive signs: anorexia, diarrhea, taste, smell and vision disorders, skin lesions, delayed healing, growth retardation, delayed appearance of sexual characteristics, diminished resistance to infection, and it may be the cause of congenital malformations. Assay is now simplified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in blood or hair. There is a latent lack prior to any disease because of the vices of modern eating habits, and this increases during stress, infections or tissue healing processes. Its lack is accentuated during long-term parenteral feeding or chronic gastrointestinal affections. Correction is as simple as it is innocuous, and zinc supplements should be given more routinely during surgical procedures. PMID:6210294

  17. Influence of boron oxide on protective properties of zinc coating on steel

    SciTech Connect

    Alimov, V.I.; Berezin, A.V.

    1986-05-01

    The authors study the properties of zinc coating when boron oxide is added to the melt for galvanization. The authors found that a rise in the degree of initial deformation of the steel leads to the production of varying thickness of the zinc coating. The results show the favorable influence of small amounts of added boron oxide on the corrosion resistance of a zinc coating on cold-deformed high-carbon steel; this influence is also manifested in the case of deformation of the zinc coating itself.

  18. Spectral properties of zinc sulfide sols stabilized by high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Gatchin, Yu. A.; Evstrop'ev, K. S.; Dukel'skii, K. V.; Kislyakov, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral properties of zinc sulfide sols stabilized by high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone have been studied. It is shown that the absorption spectra of colloidal solutions in the UV spectral range are determined by the quantum-confinement effect, exhibiting a dependence of the absorption edge on the size of zinc sulfide nanocrystals.

  19. Scaling characteristics of depletion type, fully transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors and inverters following Ar plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonwoo; Jeong, Soon Moon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated depletion type, transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and inverters with an Ar plasma treatment and analyzed their scaling characteristics with channel lengths ranging from 2 to 100 µm. The improvement of the field-effect mobility of a-IGZO TFTs is apparent only for short channel lengths. There is also an unexpected side effect of the Ar plasma treatment, which introduces back-channel interfacial states and induces a positive shift in the threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFTs. The resulting increase in the field-effect mobility and the positive shift in the threshold voltage of each TFT increase the differential gain up to 3 times and the positive shift in the transient point of the transparent inverters.

  20. Notched bar Izod impact properties of zinc die castings

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2007-03-01

    Notched bar Izod impact testing of zinc die cast Alloy 3, Alloy 5, ZA-8, and AcuZinc 5 was performed at five temperatures between -40\\mDC and room temperature in accordance with ASTM E23 for impact testing of metallic materials. A direct comparison between ASTM D256 for impact testing of plastics and ASTM E23 was performed using continuously cast zinc specimens of Alloy 5 and ZA-8 at -40\\mDC and room temperature. There are differences in sample sizes, impact velocity, and striker geometry between the two tests. Bulk zinc tested according to ASTM E23 resulted in higher impact energies at -40\\mDC and lower impact energies at room temperature then did the same alloys when tested according to ASTM D256.

  1. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 μm ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion. PMID

  2. Depletions of sulfur and/or zinc in IDPs: Are they reliable indicators of atmospheric entry heating?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.; Kloeck, W.; Thomas, K. L.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The degree of heating of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) on Earth atmospheric entry is important in distinguishing cometary particles from main-belt asteroidal particles. Depletions in the volatile elements S and Zn were proposed as chemical indicators of significant entry heating. The S and Zn contents of cosmic dust particles were correlated with physical indicators of atmospheric entry heating, such as the production of magnetite and the loss of solar wind implanted He. The results indicate that the Zn content of IDP's is a useful indicator of entry heating, but the S content seems to be less useful.

  3. Zinc isotopic composition of iron meteorites: Absence of isotopic anomalies and origin of the volatile element depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng; Nguyen, Bach Mai; Moynier, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    High-precision Zn isotopic compositions measured by MC-ICP-MS are documented for 32 iron meteorites from various fractionally crystallized and silicate-bearing groups. The δ66Zn values range from -0.59‰ up to +5.61‰ with most samples being slightly enriched in the heavier isotopes compared with carbonaceous chondrites (0 < δ66Zn < 0.5). The δ66Zn versus δ68Zn plot of all samples defines a common linear fractionation line, which supports the hypothesis that Zn was derived from a single reservoir or from multiple reservoirs linked by mass-dependent fractionation processes. Our data for Redfields fall on a mass fractionation line and therefore refute a previous claim of it having an anomalous isotopic composition due to nonmixing of nucleosynthetic products. The negative correlation between δ66Zn and the Zn concentration of IAB and IIE is consistent with mass-dependent isotopic fractionation due to evaporation with preferential loss of lighter isotopes in the vapor phase. Data for the Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions of two IVA samples demonstrate that volatile depletion in the IVA parent body is not likely the result of evaporation. This is important evidence that favors the incomplete condensation origin for the volatile depletion of the IVA parent body.

  4. Charge collection properties of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor using a HV-SOI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Perez, S.; Backhaus, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Gallrapp, C.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Krueger, H.; Moll, M.; Padilla, C.; Pernegger, H.

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detector concepts, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity CMOS processes, are being investigated as a possible candidate to the inner and outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker in the HL-LHC upgrade. A depleted monolithic active pixel sensor on thick film SOI technology is being extensively investigated for that purpose. This particular technology provides a double well structure, which shields the thin gate oxide transistors from the Buried Oxide (BOX). In addition, the distance between transistors and BOX is one order of magnitude bigger than conventional SOI technologies, making the technology promising against its main limitations, as radiation hardness or back gate effects. Its radiation hardness to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and the absence of back gate effect up to 700 Mrad has been measured and published [1]. The process allows the use of high voltages (up to 300V) which are used to partially deplete the substrate. The process allows fabrication in higher resistivity, therefore a fully depleted substrate could be achieved after thinning. This article shows the results on charge collection properties of the silicon bulk below the BOX by different techniques, in a laboratory with radioactive sources and by edge Transient Current Technique, for unirradiated and irradiated samples.

  5. Grip force, EDL contractile properties, and voluntary wheel running after postdevelopmental myostatin depletion in mice.

    PubMed

    Personius, Kirkwood E; Jayaram, Aditi; Krull, David; Brown, Roger; Xu, Tianshun; Han, Bajin; Burgess, Kerri; Storey, Christopher; Shah, Bharati; Tawil, Rabi; Welle, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    There is no consensus about whether making muscles abnormally large by reducing myostatin activity affects force-generating capacity or the ability to perform activities requiring muscular endurance. We therefore examined grip force, contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, and voluntary wheel running in mice in which myostatin was depleted after normal muscle development. Cre recombinase activity was induced to knock out exon 3 of the myostatin gene in 4-mo-old mice in which this exon was flanked by loxP sequences (Mstn[f/f]). Control mice with normal myostatin genes (Mstn[w/w]) received the same Cre-activating treatment. Myostatin depletion increased the mass of all muscles that were examined (gastrocnemius, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, EDL, soleus, triceps) by approximately 20-40%. Grip force, measured multiple times 2-22 wk after myostatin knockout, was not consistently greater in the myostatin-deficient mice. EDL contractile properties were determined 7-13 mo after myostatin knockout. Twitch force tended to be greater in myostatin-deficient muscles (+24%; P=0.09), whereas tetanic force was not consistently elevated (mean +11%; P=0.36), even though EDL mass was greater than normal in all myostatin-deficient mice (mean +36%; P<0.001). The force deficit induced by eccentric contractions was approximately twofold greater in myostatin-deficient than in normal EDL muscles (31% vs. 16% after five eccentric contractions; P=0.02). Myostatin-deficient mice ran 19% less distance (P<0.01) than control mice during the 12 wk following myostatin depletion, primarily because of fewer running bouts per night rather than diminished running speed or bout duration. Reduced specific tension (ratio of force to mass) and reduced running have been observed after muscle hypertrophy was induced by other means, suggesting that they are characteristics generally associated with abnormally large muscles rather than unique effects of myostatin deficiency. PMID

  6. Optoelectronic Properties of Color-Tunable Mixed Ligand-Based Light-Emitting Zinc Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devender; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Tanwar, Vijeta; Nishal, Vandna

    2016-06-01

    A series of mixed ligand-based zinc complexes (Zn1-Zn5); [(8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn1), [(5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn2), [(5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn3), [(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn4) and [(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)(2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazolato)zinc(II)] (Zn5) were synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of zinc complexes were examined by ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. All prepared metal complexes produced intense luminescence on excitation with a UV light source. In this study, the color-tunable characteristics of metal complexes were investigated by introducing the electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand. The emission spectra of metal complexes showed emission wavelength at 500 nm for [ZnHBI(q)], 509 nm for [ZnHBI(Clq)], 504 nm for [Zn(HBI)(Cl2q)], 496 nm for [ZnHBI (Meq)] and 573 nm for [ZnHBI(Me2Q)] materials. A temperature-dependent PL spectrum was used to study the emission profile of zinc complex and observed that variation in the temperature altered the position and the intensity of emission peak. The synthesized metal complex also exhibited good thermal stability (>300°C). Photophysical characteristics of color-tunable light-emitting zinc complexes suggested that these materials could be efficiently used for emissive display device applications.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Surabhi Siva; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Rao, Vanka Ranga; Rao, Gollapalli Nagewsara

    2013-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precipitation method with zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. The synthesized sample was calcined at different temperatures for 2 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. SEM images show various morphological changes of ZnO obtained by the above method. The average crystallite sizes of the samples were calculated from the full width at half maximum of XRD peaks by using Debye-Scherrer's formula and were found to be in the nanorange. EDS shows that the above route produced highly pure ZnO nanostructures. PIXE technique was used for trace elemental analysis of ZnO. The optical band gaps of various ZnO powders were calculated from UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies.

  8. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  9. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

  10. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Samreen Heena; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ˜50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  11. The effects of gold coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanohexagons on the photophysicochemical properties of the low symmetry zinc phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Sarah; Ogbodu, Racheal; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-11-01

    A new low symmetry, Zn phthalocyanine monosubstituted with diethylaminoethanethiol (mDEAET ZnPc) was synthesized and characterized. This work reports on its photophysical and photochemical properties of mDEAET ZnPc alone and when conjugated to gold coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanohexagons (ZnO NHXs). The photophysicochemical properties generally improved in the presence of the ZnO NHXs. These complexes were also tested for their photodynamic antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The Pc alone showed remarkable growth inhibition even at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/mL. The conjugates showed a high photoinactivation of S. aureus after 30 min at a fluence of 90 mW cm-2 at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL. The ZnPc-ZnO NHX conjugates produced the best antimicrobial results.

  12. Synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoflakes and its effect on flame retardant properties of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shengli; Long Beihong; Wang Zichen; Tian Yumei; Zheng Yunhui; Zhang Qian

    2010-04-15

    Zinc borate (2ZnO.3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.3.5H{sub 2}O) has relatively high dehydration on-set temperature which property permits processing in a wide range of polymer system. But zinc borate particles are hardly dispersed in a polymer matrix so that they prevent their using in industry. To address this problem, we synthesized hydrophobic zinc borate (2ZnO.3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.3.5H{sub 2}O) nanoflakes by employing solid-liquid reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) in the presence of oleic acid. This method does not bring pollution. By conducting morphological and microscopic analyses, we found that this compound displayed nanoflake morphology with particle size of around 100-200 nm, thickness less than 100 nm and there were uniform mesopores with the diameter about 10 nm within the particles. Furthermore, our products had an effect on flame retardant of polyethylene, especially when the zinc borate was modified by oleic acid. - Graphical abstract: The contact angle of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoflakes is 129.02 deg. with added 2.0 wt% of oleic acid.

  13. Structure-property relationships for self-assembled zinc chlorin light-harvesting dye aggregates.

    PubMed

    Huber, Valerie; Sengupta, Sanchita; Würthner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A series of zinc 3(1)-hydroxymethyl chlorins 10 a-e and zinc 3(1)-hydroxyethyl chlorins 17 with varied structural features were synthesized by modifying naturally occurring chlorophyll a. Solvent-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent UV/Vis and CD spectroscopic methods as well as microscopic investigations were performed to explore the importance of particular functional groups and steric effects on the self-assembly behavior of these zinc chlorins. Semisynthetic zinc chlorins 10 a-e possess the three functional units relevant for self-assembly found in their natural bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) counterparts, namely, the 3(1)-OH group, a central metal ion, and the 13(1) C==O moiety along the Qy axis, and they contain various 17(2)-substituents. Depending on whether the zinc chlorins have 17(2)-hydrophobic or hydrophilic side chains, they self-assemble in nonpolar organic solvents or in aqueous media, respectively. Zinc chlorins possessing at least two long side chains provide soluble self-aggregates that are stable in solution for a prolonged time, thus facilitating elucidation of their properties by optical spectroscopy. The morphology of the zinc chlorin aggregates was elucidated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies, revealing well-defined nanoscale rod structures for zinc chlorin 10 b with a height of about 6 nm. It is worth noting that this size is in good accordance with a tubular arrangement of the dyes similar to that observed in their natural BChl counterparts in the light-harvesting chlorosomes of green bacteria. Furthermore, for the epimeric 3(1)-hydroxyethyl zinc chlorins 17 with hydrophobic side chains, the influence of the chirality center at the 3(1)-position on the aggregation behavior was studied in detail by UV/Vis and CD spectroscopy. Unlike zinc chlorins 10, the 3(1)-hydroxyethyl zinc chlorins 17 formed only small oligomers and not higher rod aggregate structures, which can be attributed to the steric effect imposed by the additional

  14. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  15. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30ZnO-(70-x) B2O3 (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σe) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  16. Different properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bidmeshkipour, Samina Shahtahmasebi, Nasser

    2013-06-15

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructured thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrate using specifically designed ZnO target containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder as the Al doping source. The optical properties of the aluminium doped zinc oxide films are investigated. The topography of the deposited films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Variation of the refractive index by annealing temperature are considered and it is seen that the refractive index increases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  17. Physicochemical properties of the zinc-containing dusts of electric furnace steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. P.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Petrakova, N. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2013-07-01

    The properties of the dusts of electric-arc melting in the Severstal' metallurgical works are studied by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. The elemental compositions of dust particles of various sizes are determined, and the complex structural composition of iron-containing oxide phases is revealed. It is shown that, in these systems, the carbon reduction of zinc from zincite is possible in the solid state in the temperature range 600-1000°C. In this case, zinc passes into a gaseous phase and iron oxides are reduced to form metallic iron.

  18. Phosphating of hot-dipped zinc-aluminum coated steel: Formation and properties of the coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Radzikowski, M.

    1995-11-01

    55%Al-Zn and 5%Al-Zn were phosphated in comparison with electrolytic zinc coatings. Potential measurements during phosphating were carried out in order to find the interpretation of differences in the crystal size. impedance measurements were performed for the assessment of the corrosion properties of the phosphate coatings. It was found that there is no differences between coatings formed from the high or low-zinc baths. The best results were obtained for the phosphated 55%Al-Zn, however one may find also suitable treatment for 5%Al-Zn surface. From the X-ray diffraction data de and rehydration tendency of the coating components were recorded. In the case of high zinc processes it was found that the slowest rehydration rate occurs on the phosphated 5% Al-Zn surfaces. It was also found that depending on the kind of the bath, hopeite formed on the metal surface exhibited various thermal stabilities.

  19. Effect of solvents on the synthesis of nano-size zinc oxide and its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Aiyer, R.C.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The effect of the solvents on particle size and morphology of ZnO is investigated. The optical properties of nano ZnO were studied extensively. During this study, zinc oxalate was prepared in aqueous and organic solvents using zinc acetate and oxalic acid as precursors. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) showed formation of ZnO at 400 deg. C. Nano-size zinc oxide was obtained by thermal decomposition of aqueous and organic mediated zinc oxalate at 450 deg. C. The phase purity was confirmed by XRD and crystal size determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be 22-25 nm for the aqueous and 14 -17 nm in organic mediated ZnO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) also revealed different nature of surfaces and microstructures for zinc oxide obtained in aqueous and organic solvents. The UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for organic mediated ZnO, due to monodispersity and lower particle size. Sharp peaks and absence of any impurity peaks in photoluminescence spectra (PLS) complement the above observations.

  20. Facile fabrication and supercapacitive properties of mesoporous zinc cobaltite microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinghong; Du, Jialu; Zhu, Yuxuan; Yang, Jiaqin; Chen, Juan; Wang, Chao; Li, Liang; Jiao, Lifang

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) microspheres have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal method followed by an annealing process. The as-prepared ZnCo2O4 displays uniform sphere-like morphology composed of interconnected ZnCo2O4 nanoparticles. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of mesoporous ZnCo2O4 microspheres is about 51.4 m2 g-1 with dominant pore diameter of 7.5 nm. The novel ZnCo2O4 material exhibits high specific capacitance of 953.2 F g-1 and 768.5 F g-1 at discharge current densities of 4 A g-1 and 30 A g-1, respectively. The energy density can be estimated to be 26.68 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 8 kW kg-1. The specific capacitance retention is 97.8% after 3000 cycles, suggesting its excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the uniformity of the surface structure and the porosity of the microspheres, which benefit electrons and ions transportation, provide large electrode-electrolyte contact area, and meanwhile reduce volume change during the charge-discharge process. This method of constructing porous microspheres is very effective, yet simple, and it could be applied in other high-performance metal oxide electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, as well as in Li-ion batteries.

  1. Kinetic properties of mutant deoxyguanosine kinase in a case of reversible hepatic mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Mousson de camaret, Bénédicte; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Padet, Sylvie; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Mandon, Ginette; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Lachaux, Alain; Bozon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    DGUOK [dG (deoxyguanosine) kinase] is one of the two mitochondrial deoxynucleoside salvage pathway enzymes involved in precursor synthesis for mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) replication. DGUOK is responsible for the initial rate-limiting phosphorylation of the purine deoxynucleosides, using a nucleoside triphosphate as phosphate donor. Mutations in the DGUOK gene are associated with the hepato-specific and hepatocerebral forms of MDS (mtDNA depletion syndrome). We identified two missense mutations (N46S and L266R) in the DGUOK gene of a previously reported child, now 10 years old, who presented with an unusual revertant phenotype of liver MDS. The kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK were studied in mitochondrial preparations from cultured skin fibroblasts, using an optimized methodology. The N46S/L266R DGUOK showed 14 and 10% residual activity as compared with controls with dG and deoxyadenosine as phosphate acceptors respectively. Similar apparent negative co-operativity in the binding of the phosphate acceptors to the wild-type enzyme was found for the mutant. In contrast, abnormal bimodal kinetics were shown with ATP as the phosphate donor, suggesting an impairment of the ATP binding mode at the phosphate donor site. No kinetic behaviours were found for two other patients with splicing defects or premature stop codon. The present study represents the first characterization of the enzymatic kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK in organello and our optimized protocol allowed us to demonstrate a residual activity in skin fibroblast mitochondria from a patient with a revertant phenotype of MDS. The residual DGUOK activity may play a crucial role in the phenotype reversal. PMID:17073823

  2. Kinetic properties of mutant deoxyguanosine kinase in a case of reversible hepatic mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Padet, Sylvie; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Mandon, Ginette; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Lachaux, Alain; Bozon, Dominique

    2007-03-01

    DGUOK [dG (deoxyguanosine) kinase] is one of the two mitochondrial deoxynucleoside salvage pathway enzymes involved in precursor synthesis for mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) replication. DGUOK is responsible for the initial rate-limiting phosphorylation of the purine deoxynucleosides, using a nucleoside triphosphate as phosphate donor. Mutations in the DGUOK gene are associated with the hepato-specific and hepatocerebral forms of MDS (mtDNA depletion syndrome). We identified two missense mutations (N46S and L266R) in the DGUOK gene of a previously reported child, now 10 years old, who presented with an unusual revertant phenotype of liver MDS. The kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK were studied in mitochondrial preparations from cultured skin fibroblasts, using an optimized methodology. The N46S/L266R DGUOK showed 14 and 10% residual activity as compared with controls with dG and deoxyadenosine as phosphate acceptors respectively. Similar apparent negative co-operativity in the binding of the phosphate acceptors to the wild-type enzyme was found for the mutant. In contrast, abnormal bimodal kinetics were shown with ATP as the phosphate donor, suggesting an impairment of the ATP binding mode at the phosphate donor site. No kinetic behaviours were found for two other patients with splicing defects or premature stop codon. The present study represents the first characterization of the enzymatic kinetic properties of normal and mutant DGUOK in organello and our optimized protocol allowed us to demonstrate a residual activity in skin fibroblast mitochondria from a patient with a revertant phenotype of MDS. The residual DGUOK activity may play a crucial role in the phenotype reversal. PMID:17073823

  3. Mechanically Stiff, Zinc Cross-Linked Nanocomposite Scaffolds with Improved Osteostimulation and Antibacterial Properties.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rekha R; Carvalho, Edmund; Banerjee, Rinti

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposite scaffolds are studied widely due to their resemblance with the natural extracellular matrix of bone; but their use as a bone tissue engineered scaffold is clinically hampered due to low mechanical stiffness, inadequate osteoconduction, and graft associated infections. The purpose of the current study was the development of a mechanically stiff nanocomposite scaffold using biodegradable gellan and xanthan polymers reinforced with bioglass nanoparticles (nB) (Size: 20-120 nm). These nanocomposite scaffolds were cross-linked with zinc sulfate ions to improve their osteoconduction and antibacterial properties for the regeneration of a functional bone. The compressive strength and modulus of the optimized nanocomposite scaffold (1% w/v polymer reinforced with 4%w/v nB nanoparticles, cross-linked with 1.5 mM zinc sulfate) was 1.91 ± 0.31 MPa and 20.36 ± 1.08 MPa, respectively, which was comparable to the trabecular bone and very high compared to nanocomposite scaffolds reported in earlier studies. Further, in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) study suggested deposition of biomimetic apatite on the surface of zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds confirming their bioactivity. MG 63 osteoblast-like cells cultured with the nanocomposite scaffolds responded to matrix stiffness with better adhesion, spreading and cellular interconnections compared to the polymeric gellan and xanthan scaffolds. Incorporation of bioglass nanoparticles and zinc cross-linker in nanocomposite scaffolds demonstrated 62% increment in expression of alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and 150% increment in calcium deposition of MG 63 osteoblast-like cells compared to just gellan and xanthan polymeric scaffolds. Furthermore, zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (70% reduction) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (81% reduction) bacteria. This study demonstrated a facile approach to tune the mechanical stiffness

  4. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  5. Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate

    SciTech Connect

    P, Sharmila P; Tharayil, Nisha J.

    2014-10-15

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

  6. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, alpha, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, epsilon, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of alpha and epsilon were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  7. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  8. Anticancer nanodelivery system with controlled release property based on protocatechuate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Abd Gani, Shafinaz; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Background We characterize a novel nanocomposite that acts as an efficient anticancer agent. Methods This nanocomposite consists of zinc layered hydroxide intercalated with protocatechuate (an anionic form of protocatechuic acid), that has been synthesized using a direct method with zinc oxide and protocatechuic acid as precursors. Results The resulting protocatechuic acid nanocomposite (PAN) showed a basal spacing of 12.7 Å, indicating that protocatechuate was intercalated in a monolayer arrangement, with an angle of 54° from the Z-axis between the interlayers of the zinc layered hydroxide, and an estimated drug loading of about 35.7%. PAN exhibited the properties of a mesoporous type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of protocatechuate as compared to its free counterpart. The presence of protocatechuate in the interlayers of the zinc layered hydroxide was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Protocatechuate was released from PAN in a slow and sustained manner. This mechanism of release was well represented by a pseudo-second order kinetics model. PAN has shown increased cytotoxicity compared to the free form of protocatechuic acid in all cancer cell lines tested. Tumor growth suppression was extensive, particularly in HepG2 and HT29 cell lines. Conclusion PAN is suitable for use as a controlled release formulation, and our in vitro evidence indicates that PAN is an effective anticancer agent. PAN may have potential as a chemotherapeutic drug for human cancer. PMID:25061291

  9. Origin of Electrochemical, Structural, and Transport Properties in Nonaqueous Zinc Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Don; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Qu, Xiaohui; Pan, Baofei; He, Meinan; Ferrandon, Magali S; Liao, Chen; Persson, Kristin A; Burrell, Anthony K

    2016-02-10

    Through coupled experimental analysis and computational techniques, we uncover the origin of anodic stability for a range of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. By examination of electrochemical, structural, and transport properties of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes with varying concentrations, it is demonstrated that the acetonitrile-Zn(TFSI)2, acetonitrile-Zn(CF3SO3)2, and propylene carbonate-Zn(TFSI)2 electrolytes can not only support highly reversible Zn deposition behavior on a Zn metal anode (≥99% of Coulombic efficiency) but also provide high anodic stability (up to ∼3.8 V vs Zn/Zn(2+)). The predicted anodic stability from DFT calculations is well in accordance with experimental results, and elucidates that the solvents play an important role in anodic stability of most electrolytes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to understand the solvation structure (e.g., ion solvation and ionic association) and its effect on dynamics and transport properties (e.g., diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity) of the electrolytes. The combination of these techniques provides unprecedented insight into the origin of the electrochemical, structural, and transport properties in nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. PMID:26765789

  10. Origin of electrochemical, structural and transport properties in non-aqueous zinc electrolytes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Sang -Don; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Qu, Xiaohui; Pan, Baofei; He, Meinan; Ferrandon, Magali S.; Liao, Chen; Persson, Kristin A.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2016-01-14

    Through coupled experimental analysis and computational techniques, we uncover the origin of anodic stability for a range of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes. By examination of electrochemical, structural, and transport properties of nonaqueous zinc electrolytes with varying concentrations, it is demonstrated that the acetonitrile Zn(TFSI)2, acetonitrile Zn(CF3SO3)2, and propylene carbonate Zn(TFSI)2 electrolytes can not only support highly reversible Zn deposition behavior on a Zn metal anode (≥99% of Coulombic efficiency), but also provide high anodic stability (up to ~3.8 V). The predicted anodic stability from DFT calculations is well in accordance with experimental results, and elucidates that the solvents play an importantmore » role in anodic stability of most electrolytes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to understand the solvation structure (e.g., ion solvation and ionic association) and its effect on dynamics and transport properties (e.g., diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity) of the electrolytes. Lastly, the combination of these techniques provides unprecedented insight into the origin of the electrochemical, structural, and transport properties in nonaqueous zinc electrolytes« less

  11. Elastic properties of Li+ doped lead zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    Glasses in the system 0.25PbO-(0.25-x) ZnO-0.5B2O3-xLi2O have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, DSC studies have been employed to study the role of Li2O in the present glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been determined using pulsed echo ultrasonic interferometer operating at 10MHz. Sound velocities Vl, Vt and elastic moduli decrease up to 5 mol% and then gradually increase with increase in Li2O concentration. Debye temperature and the glass transition temperature decreases with increase in Li2O. Densities remains almost constant up to 15 mol% Li2O concentration and increases monotonically while the molar volume decreases with the increase of Li2O concentration. The results are discussed in view of the borate structural network and dual role of Zn and Pb in these glasses.

  12. Multifunctional properties of zinc oxide: An ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Priya

    In this dissertation, we present our results of first-principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic properties of a range of ZnO-based systems. ZnO is a II-VI wide band gap semiconductor, is a strong piezoelectric, is transparent and can be easily fabricated in a variety of microstructurures from bulk single crystals to thin films to nanostructures. Recent reports also suggest the possibility of magnetic ZnO as a potential spintronic material. Due to its range of properties, ZnO has numerous applications including varistors, piezoelectric transducers, sonars, acoustic devices, solar cells, UV blocking, chemical catalysts and transparent conducting oxides. In this work, we explore the following "multifunctional aspects" of ZnO-based systems. First we calculate the structural, polarization and piezoelectric properties of wurtzite-structure ZnO, MgO and CdO (used in band gap engineering of ZnO) to explore the relationship between optical and piezoelectric functionalities. Second, we investigate wurtzite-structure MnO to understand coexisting magnetic and piezoelectric functionalities. Finally, we study the nature of magnetic interactions in ZnO doped with 3d transition metals to explore the simultaneous magnetic, semiconducting and piezoelectric properties. Our main findings are: (i) Polarization differences between MgO and ZnO, and CdO and ZnO are large suggesting that strong polarization gradients will accompany the changes in band gap induced by Cd or Mg doping. (ii) wurtzite-structure MnO is antiferromagnetic, with a strong magnetostructural coupling and piezoelectric response; this indicates the possibility of coexistence of magnetism and piezoelectricity. (iii) In transition-metal doped ZnO we do not observe a room-temperature ferromagnetic interaction. We find that the magnetic ground state is highly sensitive to details of the calculations such as k-point mesh, details of the geometry optimizations and the choice of exchange correlation functional.

  13. Electrodeposition of zinc oxide nanowires: Growth, doping, and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew Allan

    As a transparent, wide bandgap semiconductor, ZnO offers an expansive range of potential uses in various technological arenas such as electronics, optoelectronics, photonics, sensors, and energy conversion. However, a current obstacle to the realization of ZnO based electronics and optoelectronics is the lack of a reliable and reproducible method for fabricating high quality p-type ZnO. In addition, there remains a difficulty in tuning the various properties of ZnO materials, especially nanostructures, via low cost and low temperature deposition techniques. In this work, some of these deficiencies have been addressed. Undoped and Ag-doped ZnO nanowires, as well as highly uniform and dense ZnO films, were obtained by an inexpensive, low temperature, electrochemical technique in aqueous solution. The effects of electrochemical growth conditions and Ag-doping on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnO nanowires were investigated in detail. Ag-doping was found to induce significant changes in the various physical properties of the ZnO nanowires. Importantly, a range of experimental and theoretical results indicate Ag is doped into the ZnO nanowire structure and leads to p-type properties of the nanowires. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of the nanowires illustrates bandgap reduction, while intense emissions from a free electron to neutral acceptor were induced in the low temperature PL upon Ag-doping. The electrical properties of the Ag-doped nanowires were probed with photoelectrochemical cell measurements, providing further evidence for their p-type nature. The mechanism of Ag-doping in the nanowires was explored with cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Interestingly, the presence of Ag+ in the growth process catalyzes and enhances the electrochemistry, shifting the ZnO growth conditions to an O-rich environment. These conditions enable a more efficient Ag

  14. Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Zinc Oxide Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin

    The present dissertation investigates the relationship between the structure and thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials, with a focus on trivalent element doping on engineering the microstructure and altering the electrical and thermal transport properties. Within the solubility range, the addition of trivalent elements, such as In3+, Fe 3+ and Ga3+, is observed to increase the electrical conductivity of ZnO and decrease the thermal conductivity. As the solubility is exceeded, the consequent structure and thermoelectric properties varies with dopant species. The ZnO-In2O3 binary system, which we have chosen as one of the model systems, is of particular interests as it contains a variety of phase equilibria and microstructures. The In2O3(ZnO)k superlattice structures, which form as the indium solubility is reached, are observed to strongly scatter phonons while relatively permissive to electrons, resulting in a low thermal conductivity of about 2 W/mK and improved electrical conductivity. The thermal (Kapitza) resistance of In2O3(ZnO)k superlattice interfaces is found to be 5.0 +/- 0.6 x 10-10 m 2K/W by fitting the modified Klemens-Callaway's thermal conductivity model to the experimental data. Across the phase diagram, the materials behave as n-type free-electron semiconductors at high temperatures. An effective medium approximation model is for the first time successfully tested on the thermoelectrics of two-phase regions. Both Fe2O3-ZnO and Ga2O3-ZnO binary systems are also investigated. In the Fe doped ZnO system, a highly Fe concentrated ZnO solid solution phase as well as the significant grain refinement are observed after high temperature annealing. The Ga2O 3(ZnO)9 homologous superlattices in Ga2O 3-ZnO system is also found to strongly scatter phonons and induces a drastic reduction in thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity, as one of the key factors in thermoelectrics, is highly sensitive to material defects. In this dissertation, I also

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  16. The dielectric properties of porous zinc oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Calame, J.P.; Carmel, Y.; Gershon, D.; Birman, A.; Martin, L.P.; Dadon, D.; Rosen, M.

    1996-12-31

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of microwave sintered, porous ZnO at 2.45 GHz are presented. The dielectric properties as a function of porosity do not obey the standard Maxwell-Garnet dielectric mixing law with the ceramic material as the major phase, but instead behave as if the ceramic grains always remain in relatively poor electrical contact even at very high densities. Electromagnetic simulations, carried out for a variety of microstructure geometries, are performed to explore this observation. A model which treats the ceramic as an array of grains and pores, with the grains separated from each other by non- or slightly-percolating, fractal-geometry surfaces, provides a good description of the experimental results.

  17. Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film using RF-sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, A. J.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ghazai, Alaa J.

    2012-11-27

    This paper reports the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) film using RF-sputtering technique. Determination of the structural properties using High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) confirmed that ZnO film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate has a high quality. This result is in line with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) which were used to image the morphology of the film, in which a rough surface was demonstrated. Photoluminescence (PL) emission is included to study the optical properties of ZnO film that shows two PL peak in the UV region at 371 nm and in visible region at 530 nm respectively.

  18. Influence of doping with third group oxides on properties of zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Palimar, Sowmya Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2013-03-15

    The study of modifications in structural, optical and electrical properties of vacuum evaporated zinc oxide thin films on doping with III group oxides namely aluminum oxide, gallium oxide and indium oxide are reported. It was observed that all the films have transmittance ranging from 85 to 95%. The variation in optical properties with dopants is discussed. On doping the film with III group oxides, the conductivity of the films showed an excellent improvement of the order of 10{sup 3} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. The measurements of activation energy showed that all three oxide doped films have 2 donor levels below the conduction band.

  19. Photophysical properties of zinc phthalocyanine-uridine single walled carbon nanotube - conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbodu, Racheal O.; Amuhaya, Edith K.; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-10-01

    The photophysical properties of the conjugate of uridine and zinc mono carboxy phenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-uridine, 4) are reported in this work. The conjugate was also adsorbed onto single walled carbon nanotubes (ZnMCPPc-uridine-SWCNT, 5). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of 4 showed three N 1s peaks while that of 5 showed four N 1s peak, a new peak at 399.4 eV of 5 was assigned to pyrrolidonic nitrogen, due to the interaction of the pyrrolic nitrogen of 4 with the oxygen moiety of SWCNT-COOH in 5. The triplet lifetime, triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields of the zinc mono carboxy phenoxy phthalocyanine increased by over 40% in the presence of uridine. SWCNTs resulted in only a small quenching of the triplet state parameters of 4.

  20. Optical properties of single wurtzite/zinc-blende ZnSe nanowires grown at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zannier, V.; Cremel, T.; Kheng, K.; Artioli, A.; Ferrand, D.; Grillo, V.

    2015-09-07

    ZnSe nanowires with a dominant wurtzite structure have been grown at low temperature (300 °C) by molecular beam epitaxy assisted by solid Au nanoparticles. The nanowires emission is polarized perpendicularly to their axis in agreement with the wurtzite selection rules. Alternations of wurtzite and zinc-blende regions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy, and their impact on the nanowires optical properties has been studied by microphotoluminescence. The nanowires show a dominant intense near-band-edge emission as well as the ZnSe wurtzite free exciton line. A type II band alignment between zinc-blende and wurtzite ZnSe is evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence. From this measurement, we deduce values for the conduction and valence band offsets of 98 and 50 meV, respectively.

  1. Semiconducting properties of zinc-doped cubic boron nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2007-09-15

    We have examined the electronic properties of zinc-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) thin films prepared by sputter deposition. The electric conductivity of films deposited in pure Ar increased as the concentration of zinc dopant increased, and hole conduction was identified by the measurement of thermoelectric currents. It was also found that the conductivity increment in such films was accompanied by a linear increase in the B/(B+N) ratio. At the same time, no modification of the composition and the conductivity by incorporated zinc was observed when film growth took place in presence of nitrogen gas. The effect of the excess boron on the conductivity emerged only when films show semi-insulating behavior. These results suggest that Zn substitution for nitrogen causes high electric conductivity of cBN. The electric contact between Ti electrode and semiconducting cBN was examined by the transfer length method, and Ohmic conduction was observed in the Ti/cBN contact. The specific contact resistance was affected by the specific resistance of cBN films, and it was reduced from 10{sup 5} to 100 {omega} cm{sup 2} by increasing the concentration of incorporated Zn.

  2. Effects of Natural Organic Matter Properties on the Dissolution Kinetics of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Aiken, George R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-10-01

    The dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is a key step of controlling their environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity. Rates of dissolution often depend upon factors such as interactions of NPs with natural organic matter (NOM). We examined the effects of 16 different NOM isolates on the dissolution kinetics of ZnO NPs in buffered potassium chloride solution using anodic stripping voltammetry to directly measure dissolved zinc concentrations. The observed dissolution rate constants (kobs) and dissolved zinc concentrations at equilibrium increased linearly with NOM concentration (from 0 to 40 mg C L(-1)) for Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. When dissolution rates were compared for the 16 NOM isolates, kobs was positively correlated with certain properties of NOM, including specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), aromatic and carbonyl carbon contents, and molecular weight. Dissolution rate constants were negatively correlated to hydrogen/carbon ratio and aliphatic carbon content. The observed correlations indicate that aromatic carbon content is a key factor in determining the rate of NOM-promoted dissolution of ZnO NPs. The findings of this study facilitate a better understanding of the fate of ZnO NPs in organic-rich aquatic environments and highlight SUVA as a facile and useful indicator of NOM interactions with metal-based nanoparticles. PMID:26355264

  3. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. • Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. • ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  4. Effects of Li and Cu dopants on structural properties of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Jin, Zhuguang; Abe, Yoshio; Kawamura, Midori

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated undoped zinc oxide (ZnO), Li-doped zinc oxide (LZO), and Cu-doped zinc oxide (CZO) nanorods (NRs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates using chemical solution deposition and investigated their structural properties. With the incorporation of the Li dopant, the length and crystallinity of LZO NRs increased and improved, respectively, compared to that of the ZnO NRs. The average optical transmittance of LZO NRs was slightly lower than that of the ZnO NRs, but otherwise very similar over the visible wavelength region. With the incorporation of the Cu dopant, however, the morphology of the CZO sample was remarkably different from that of the pure ZnO NRs. Rods with a length of ∼12 μm and a diameter of 0.5-1.2 μm were randomly oriented on the substrate, and copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were uniformly grown on the surface of substrate. This paper presents a simple way to tune the growth behaviors of the ZnO NRs by adding dopants.

  5. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. K.; Greer, A. L.; Piwowarski, G.; Krajewski, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt overheating

  6. Tribological properties of nanolamellar tungsten disulfide doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    An, V; Irtegov, Y; Anisimov, E; Druzyanova, V; Burtsev, N; Khaskelberg, M

    2015-01-01

    Tribological properties of nanolamellar tungsten disulfide doped with zinc oxide nanoparticles were studied. Nanolamellar tungsten disulfide and ZnO nanoparticles produced by electrospark erosion of metal granules in an H2O2 solution were analyzed using the XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. According to the tribological measurements, ZnO nanoparticles did not significantly change the friction coefficient of nanolamellar WS2 at 25 °C in air, whereas they positively impact on wear resistance of nanolamellar WS2 at 400 °C. PMID:26558176

  7. Effect of CO on the field emission properties of tetrapod zinc oxide cathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinchan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Mao, Fuming; Cui, Yunkang; Xiao, Mei

    2012-08-01

    Tetrapod zinc oxide (T-ZnO), being a kind of nano-material, has large specific surface area and surface binding energy, which will make it sensitive to the ambient gas condition. So the field emission properties will be influenced by the gas adsorption when being applied as the cathode materials of field emission devices. Carbon monoxide is the main residual gas in T-ZnO field emission devices. In this paper, carbon monoxide was introduced into a field emission device with T-ZnO emitters. The field emission currents of tetrapod ZnO were compared before and after exposure to CO. PMID:22962767

  8. Density functional theory description of electronic properties of wurtzite zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, L.; Ekuma, C. E.; Zhao, G. L.; Bagayoko, D.

    2013-05-01

    We report calculated, electronic properties of wurtzite zinc oxide (w-ZnO). We solved self-consistently the two inherently coupled equations of density functional theory (DFT), following the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We employed a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). Most of the calculated, electronic properties of w-ZnO are in excellent agreement with experiment, including our zero temperature band gap of 3.39 eV and the electron effective mass. The doubly self-consistent approach utilized in this work points to the ability of theory to predict accurately key properties of semiconductors and hence to inform and to guide the design and fabrication of semiconductor-based devices.

  9. Improved electrical properties of zinc-tin oxide TFTs by inkjet process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2014-07-01

    Inkjet printing process was optimized to improve the electrical properties of inkjet-printed zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistors. Among the process conditions evaluated, inkjet voltage and substrate temperature were found to be the key factors for obtaining uniform thin-films and good thin-film transistors. The optimization process with a jetting voltage of 60 V and substrate temperature of 50°C gave good electrical properties, such as a field-effect mobility of 5.11 cm2/V s, a threshold voltage of 2.83 V, a subthreshold slope of 1.33 V/dec, and an on-to-off current ratio of 108. The electrical properties of the inkjet-optimized TFTs were superior to those of the unoptimized inkjet TFTs. A positive bias stability was also investigated.

  10. Microstructure and optoelectronic properties of galliumtitanium-zinc oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shou-bu; Lu, Zhou; Zhong, Zhi-you; Long, Hao; Gu, Jin-hua; Long, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Gallium-titanium-zinc oxide (GTZO) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The dependences of the microstructure and optoelectronic properties of GTZO thin films on Ar gas pressure were observed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that all the deposited films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure and have a preferred orientation along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. With the increment of Ar gas pressure, the microstructure and optoelectronic properties of GTZO thin films will be changed. When Ar gas pressure is 0.4 Pa, the deposited films possess the best crystal quality and optoelectronic properties.

  11. Preparation and electromagnetic properties of zinc ferrite/expanded graphite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guozhu; Yu, Songtao; Cao, Yuan

    2014-09-01

    An effective process for the synthesis of nano spinel zinc ferrite/expanded graphite composites was developed in order to get an electromagnetic interference shielding material. Firstly, expandable graphite was prepared using sulfuric and nitric acid solutions. Then, the precursor of the composites was produced by chemical co-precipitation method, followed by heating treatment. The obtained composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric and magnetic properties were determined using vector network analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that ferrite nanoparticles with the sizes of about 50-150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface and interspace of EG. The magnetic properties of the composites changed by adjusting the ferrite/EG ratio and the composites had high dielectric constant in the range of 2-18 GHz. These properties of the prepared composites suggest that they can be used as a promising electromagnetic interference shielding material.

  12. Potential antidepressant-like properties of the TC G-1008, a GPR39 (zinc receptor) agonist.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Starowicz, Gabriela; Gaweł, Magdalena; Frąckiewicz, Ewelina; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Some forms of depression appear to be more related to the glutamatergic system. G-coupled protein receptor 39 (GPR39) is the metabotropic zinc receptor, which may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the antidepressant response. Its deficiency abolishes the antidepressant response, which means that GPR39 is required to obtain a therapeutic effect in depression. This raises the possibility that agonists of the zinc receptor may have a role in antidepressant treatment. To explore this possibility we investigated animal behaviour in the forced swim test, the tail suspension test (to assess antidepressant-like properties), the light/dark test and the elevated plus maze test (to assess anxiolytic-like properties), following acute administration of a GPR39 agonist (TC G-1008). We found an antidepressant response (as measured by the forced swim test but not by the tail suspension test) in mice following the GPR39 agonist treatment. Additionally, we observed the opposite results in the light/dark box (decreased overall distance; increased time spent in the lit compartment; decreased time spent in the dark compartment; increased freezing time) and elevated plus maze (no significant changes), which may be a consequence of the sedative effect of TC G-1008. We also found hippocampal GPR39 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) up-regulation following administration of the GPR39 agonist, which may be undiscovered so far as a possible novel agent in the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:27235821

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  14. Properties of phosphorus-doped zinc oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuanjie; Liu Zilong; Ren Jiangbo

    2011-05-15

    Electrical and chemical bonding properties of P-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates were systematically characterized utilizing the Hall effect and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Oxygen growth pressure and postannealing processing play a great role in the properties of these films. Increasing oxygen growth pressure from 5 to 20 Pa enhanced the resistivity of P-doped ZnO films by three orders of magnitude. P-doped ZnO films grown at 700 deg. C under 20 Pa O{sub 2} exhibited p-type conductivity with hole concentration of 5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and hole mobility of 0.3 cm{sup 2}/V s. Rapid thermal annealing processing decreased the electron density in the P-doped ZnO films. XPS binding energies of P 2s and 2p peaks showed formation of P-O bonds which increased with oxygen pressure in the films. This indicates formation of defect complexes of P dopants occupying zinc sites P{sub Zn} and zinc vacancies V{sub Zn} in the P-doped ZnO films.

  15. Zinc-metallothionein genoprotective effect is independent of the glutathione depletion in HaCaT keratinocytes after solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Eric; Marie Jeanne, Richard; Régine, Steiman; Pascale, Guiraud

    2004-06-01

    UV radiations are the major environmental factors that induce DNA damage of skin cells either by direct absorption (UVB), or after inducing an oxidative stress (UVA and UVB). Cells maintain a reducing intracellular environment to avoid genomic damage. MTs have been expected not only to control metal homeostasis but also counteract the glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by oxidative stress because of their high thiol content. Induction and redistribution of MTs in cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in response to SSL, is an important cellular defense mechanism against DNA damage. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is another way of cellular protection against UV-induced oxidative stress. This study which extend our previous finding focused on the relation between intracellular GSH and Zn genoprotective effects after solar irradiation. HaCaT cells, depleted or not in GSH by a chemical treatment were used to compare MTs induction by Northern blot, expression by Western blot and localization using immunocytochemistry. Zn genoprotection experiments after SSL irradiation was carried out by the comet assay. We demonstrated that in absence of GSH, Zn-MTs could protect DNA after SSL irradiation and that GSH depletion has no effect on MTs induction and localization. Nuclear Zn-MTs could be responsible for this observed genoprotection in GSH depleted cells. So the GSH/Zn and the MT/Zn systems could be two independent but interacting mechanisms of cellular protection against SSL injury. PMID:15156574

  16. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Shielded with an Ultrathin Nickel Layer: Tailoring of Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Mudusu, Devika; Nandanapalli, Koteeswara Reddy; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Tu, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of Ni-shielded ZnO nanorod (NR) structures and the impact of the Ni layer on the ZnO NR properties. We developed nickel-capped zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO/Ni NR) structures by e-beam evaporation of Ni and the subsequent annealing of the ZnO/Ni core/shell nanostructures. The core/shell NRs annealed at 400 °C showed superior crystalline and emission properties. More interestingly, with the increase of annealing temperature, the crystallinity of the Ni shells over the ZnO NRs gradually changed from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The presence of the Ni layer as a polycrystalline shell completely hindered the light emission and transmission of the ZnO NR cores. Further, the band gap of ZnO NRs continuously decreased with the increase of annealing temperature. PMID:27334555

  17. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Shielded with an Ultrathin Nickel Layer: Tailoring of Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mudusu, Devika; Nandanapalli, Koteeswara Reddy; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Tu, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of Ni-shielded ZnO nanorod (NR) structures and the impact of the Ni layer on the ZnO NR properties. We developed nickel-capped zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO/Ni NR) structures by e-beam evaporation of Ni and the subsequent annealing of the ZnO/Ni core/shell nanostructures. The core/shell NRs annealed at 400 °C showed superior crystalline and emission properties. More interestingly, with the increase of annealing temperature, the crystallinity of the Ni shells over the ZnO NRs gradually changed from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The presence of the Ni layer as a polycrystalline shell completely hindered the light emission and transmission of the ZnO NR cores. Further, the band gap of ZnO NRs continuously decreased with the increase of annealing temperature. PMID:27334555

  18. Structural, dielectric and AC conductivity properties of Co2+ doped mixed alkali zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, B. J.; Banu, Syed Asma; Harshitha, G. A.; Shilpa, T. M.; Shruthi, B.

    2013-02-01

    The Co2+ doped 19.9ZnO+5Li2CO3+25Na2CO3+50B2O3 (ZLNB) mixed alkali zinc borate glasses have been prepared by a conventional melt quenching method. The structural (XRD & FT-IR), dielectric and a.c. conductivity (σac) properties have been investigated. Amorphous nature of these glasses has been confirmed from their XRD pattern. The dielectric properties and electrical conductivity (σac) of these glasses have been studied from 100Hz to 5MHz at the room temperature. Based on the observed trends in the a.c. conductivities, the present glass samples are found to exhibit a non-Debye behavior.

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide doped bismuth thin films using Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, S.; Bouchouit, K.; Aida, M. S.; Taboukhat, S.; Sofiani, Z.; Kulyk, B.; Figa, V.

    2016-06-01

    ZnO doped Bi thin films were grown on glass substrates by spray ultrasonic technique. This paper presents the effect of Bi doping concentration on structural and nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide thin films. These thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer technique. XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO:Bi thin films indicated good preferential orientation along c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (Imχ(3)) are investigated. The calculations have been performed with a Z scan technique using Nd:YAG laser emitting 532 nm. The reverse saturable absorption (RSA) mechanism was responsible for the optical limiting effect. The results suggest that this material considered as a promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  20. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Shielded with an Ultrathin Nickel Layer: Tailoring of Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudusu, Devika; Nandanapalli, Koteeswara Reddy; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Tu, Charles W.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the development of Ni-shielded ZnO nanorod (NR) structures and the impact of the Ni layer on the ZnO NR properties. We developed nickel-capped zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO/Ni NR) structures by e-beam evaporation of Ni and the subsequent annealing of the ZnO/Ni core/shell nanostructures. The core/shell NRs annealed at 400 °C showed superior crystalline and emission properties. More interestingly, with the increase of annealing temperature, the crystallinity of the Ni shells over the ZnO NRs gradually changed from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The presence of the Ni layer as a polycrystalline shell completely hindered the light emission and transmission of the ZnO NR cores. Further, the band gap of ZnO NRs continuously decreased with the increase of annealing temperature.

  1. Vinyltrimethoxysilane-modified zinc oxide quantum dots with tuned optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tăbăcaru, Aurel; Muşat, Viorica; Ţigău, Nicolae; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Surdu, Vasile-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with covalently attachable organosilane species is a promising route for the preparation of hybrid nanomaterials in which optical and physico-chemical properties can be easily tuned. As a continuation of our ongoing studies regarding the surface modification of ZnO NPs with adjustable optical properties, we here report a novel series of hybrid zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) modified with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). The modified ZnO QDs, with sizes spanning the range 3-4 nm, were obtained through a simple and low-cost precipitation method. They were morpho-structurally characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while their optical properties were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. When applied as thin films on glass substrate, the obtained ZnO QDs showed excellent optical transmittance between 85 and 90%, and low reflectance in the visible domain. The photoluminescence spectra showed a significant blue-shift of the emission bands, from 578 nm for unmodified ZnO to 540 nm for ZnO modified with 10% VTMS. A new opposite trend of band gap variation from 3.494 eV for unmodified ZnO to 3.32 eV for ZnO modified with 10% VTMS was detected, while an organosilane loading higher than 10% was found to reincrease both nanoparticles size and band gap energy. These results highlighted the better ability of VTMS to attain a higher degree of nanoparticles size reduction, along with the tuning of the optical properties, with respect to the previously reported ZnO-MPS series.

  2. Depleted uranium dust from fired munitions: physical, chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, R E J; Sunder, S

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports physical, chemical and biological analyses of samples of dust resulting from munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) that had been live-fired and had impacted an armored target. Mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that the average atom% of U was 0.198 +/- 0.10, consistent with depleted uranium. Other major elements present were iron, aluminum, and silicon. About 47% of the total mass was particles with diameters <300 microm, of which about 14% was <10 microm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the uranium was present in the sample as uranium oxides-mainly U3O7 (47%), U3O8 (44%) and UO2 (9%). Depleted uranium dust, instilled into the lungs or implanted into the muscle of rats, contained a rapidly soluble uranium component and a more slowly soluble uranium component. The fraction that underwent dissolution in 7 d declined exponentially with increasing initial burden. At the lower lung burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/lung) about 14% of the uranium appeared in urine within 7 d. At the higher lung burdens tested (~80-200 microg DU dust/lung) about 5% of the DU appeared in urine within 7 d. In both cases about 50% of that total appeared in urine within the first day. DU implanted in muscle similarly showed that about half of the total excreted within 7 d appeared in the first day. At the lower muscle burdens tested (<15 microg DU dust/injection site) about 9% was solubilized within 7 d. At muscle burdens >35 microg DU dust/injection site about 2% appeared in urine within 7 d. Natural uranium (NU) ore dust was instilled into rat lungs for comparison. The fraction dissolving in lung showed a pattern of exponential decline with increasing initial burden similar to DU. However, the decline was less steep, with about 14% appearing in urine for lung burdens up to about 200 microg NU dust/lung and 5% at lung burdens >1,100 microg NU dust/lung. NU also showed both a fast and a more slowly dissolving component. At the higher lung burdens of both

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on the surface morphology and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Hashim, H.; Rusop, M.

    2008-05-20

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films were prepared through sol gel and spin coating technique from zinc acetate dihydrate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate in alcoholic solution. The electrical properties and surface morphology study are investigated for the thin films annealed at 350{approx}500 deg. C. Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates were characterized using electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement scanning for surface morphology and electrical properties study respectively. The SEM investigation shows that zinc oxide thin films are denser at higher annealing temperature. The result indicates electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are improved with annealing temperatures. The resistivity of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are decreased with annealing temperature up to 500 deg. C.

  4. Zinc- and oxidative property-dependent degradation of pro-caspase-1 and NLRP3 by ziram in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Masashi; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-06-15

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, composed of caspase-1, NLRP3 and ASC, plays a critical role in the clearance of microbial pathogens. Here, we found that the treatment of mouse macrophages with the zinc-containing dithiocarbamate ziram, a widely used fungicide in agriculture, caused a decrease in pro-caspase-1 and NLRP3 levels while not affecting ASC level. Ziram did not affect levels of pro-caspase-1 and NLRP3 mRNA, and no cleavage products of pro-caspase-1 including p10 subunit, which is an autocleavage product of pro-caspase-1, were detected, indicating that the decrease was associated with degradation of these proteins. The decrease was inhibited by SH-type antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine, dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol, or a metal chelator EDTA but not by inhibitors of proteasome, lysosomes, autophagy and matrix metalloproteases. Thiram, a comparator for ziram that does not contain zinc, showed a weaker decrease in protein levels. Furthermore, the zinc-containing dithiocarbamate, zinc diethyldithiocarbamate, efficiently decreased the levels of pro-caspase-1 and NLRP3, whereas dithiocarbamates, dimethyldithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate without zinc, were less active. The organic zinc compound [3,4-toluenedithiolato(2-)]zinc hydrate did not induce a decrease in protein levels. Ziram also inhibited IL-1β production by macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial clearance during Salmonella infection of macrophage cells. These results indicate that ziram causes degradation of pro-caspase-1 and NLRP3 in a zinc- and oxidative property-dependent manner and suggest that exposure to ziram may compromise the clearance of microbial pathogens. PMID:25929180

  5. Tailoring the optical and hydrophobic property of zinc oxide nanorod by coating with amorphous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, D.; Das, N. S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized at room temperature on potassium permanganate activated silicon and glass substrate by simple chemical method using zinc acetate as precursor. To modify the surface energy of the as prepared ZnO thin films the samples were coated with amorphous graphene (a-G) synthesized by un-zipping of chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). All the pure and coated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The roughness analysis of the as prepared samples was done by atomic force microscopic analysis. The detail optical properties of all the samples were studied with the help of a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The surface energy of the as prepared pure and coated samples was calculated by measuring the contact angle of two different liquids. It is seen that the water repellence of ZnO nanorods got increased after they are being coated with a-Gs. Also even after UV irradiation the contact angle remain same unlike the case for the uncoated sample where the contact angle gets decreased significantly after UV irradiation. Existing Cassie-Wenzel model has been employed along with the Owen's approach to determine the different components of surface energy.

  6. Structure-property-composition relationships in doped zinc oxides: enhanced photocatalytic activity with rare earth dopants.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Josephine B M; Illsley, Derek; Lines, Robert; Makwana, Neel M; Darr, Jawwad A

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) technology to rapidly produce a library of 56 crystalline (doped) zinc oxide nanopowders and two undoped samples, each with different particle properties. Each sample was produced in series from the mixing of an aqueous stream of basic zinc nitrate (and dopant ion or modifier) solution with a flow of superheated water (at 450 °C and 24.1 MPa), whereupon a crystalline nanoparticle slurry was rapidly formed. Each composition was collected in series, cleaned, freeze-dried, and then characterized using analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Photocatalytic activity of the samples toward the decolorization of methylene blue dye was assessed, and the results revealed that transition metal dopants tended to reduce the photoactivity while rare earth ions, in general, increased the photocatalytic activity. In general, low dopant concentrations were more beneficial to having greater photodecolorization in all cases. PMID:25602735

  7. Electrical and optical properties of molybdenum doped zinc oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R. Subba; Sreedhar, A.; Uthanna, S.

    2015-08-28

    Molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) films were deposited on to glass substrates held at temperatures in the range from 303 to 673 K by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method. The chemical composition, crystallographic structure and surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of the films were determined. The films contained the molybdenum of 2.7 at. % in ZnO. The films deposited at 303 K were of X-ray amorphous. The films formed at 473 K were of nanocrystalline in nature with wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the films was increased with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance of the films was in the visible range was 80–85%. The molybdenum (2.7 at %) doped zinc oxide films deposited at substrate temperature of 573 K were of nanocrystalline with electrical resistivity of 7.2×10{sup −3} Ωcm, optical transmittance of 85 %, optical band gap of 3.35 eV and figure of merit 30.6 Ω{sup −1}cm{sup −1}.

  8. Structural and photoluminescence properties of terbium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningthoujam Surajkumar, Singh; Shougaijam Dorendrajit, Singh; Sanoujam Dhiren, Meetei

    2014-05-01

    We present in this paper a study of the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of terbium (Tb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by a simple low temperature chemical precipitation method, using zinc acetate and terbium nitrate in an isopropanol medium with diethanolamine (DEA) as the capping agent at 60 °C. The as-prepared samples were heat treated and the PL of the annealed samples were studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show the pattern of typical ZnO nanoparticles and correspond with the standard XRD pattern given by JCPDS card No. 36-1451, showing the hexagonal phase structure. The PL intensity was enhanced due to Tb3+ doping, and it decreased at higher concentrations of Tb3+ doping after reaching a certain optimum concentration. The PL spectra of Tb3+ doped samples exhibited blue, bluish green, and green emissions at 460 nm (5D3 - 7F3), 484 nm (5D4 - 7F6), and 530 nm (5D4 - 7F5), respectively, which were more intense than the emissions for the undoped ZnO sample. Based on the results, an energy level schematic diagram was proposed to explain the possible electron transition processes.

  9. Structural and antimicrobial properties of irradiated chitosan and its complexes with zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Azam; Mehmood, Shaukat; Shafiq, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Shabir

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the structural and antimicrobial properties of irradiated chitosan and its complexes with zinc. Chitosan having a molecular weight (Mη) of 220 kDa was exposed to gamma rays in dry, wet and solution forms. The chitosan-zinc complexes were prepared by varying the Mη of chitosan and Zn content. Viscometeric analysis revealed a sharp decrease in the Mη of chitosan irradiated in solution form even at lower doses compared with the dry and wet forms. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated variation in the crystallinity of chitosan upon exposure to gamma rays. The antibacterial response of the irradiated chitosan and its complexes against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria demonstrated wide spectrum of effective antimicrobial activities, which increased with the dose. Additionally, the complexes exhibited excellent antifungal activity with no growth of Aspergallious fumigatus and Fusarium solani even after two weeks. These results suggested that the irradiated chitosan and its complexes with Zn can be used as antimicrobial additives for various applications.

  10. Amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine photosensitizers: synthesis, photophysicochemical properties and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Dilek; Göksel, Meltem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-05-28

    Peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanines bearing 2-(2-{2-[3-(dimethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy and 2-(2-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy groups (, , and ) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of the corresponding phthalonitriles (, , and ). Their quaternized ionic derivatives (, , and ) were also synthesized by the reaction of them with methyl iodide. The novel compounds were characterized by using standard spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-vis, mass and elemental analyses. The obtained quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) showed amphiphilic behaviour with excellent solubility in both organic and aqueous solutions, which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen and photodegradation quantum yields) properties of these novel phthalocyanines were studied in DMSO for both non-ionic and ionic quaternized derivatives. However, these properties were examined in both DMSO and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for quaternized ionic phthalocyanines. The effects of the positions of substituents (peripheral or non-peripheral) and the quaternization of the nitrogen atoms on the substituents about their photophysical and photochemical properties were also compared in this study. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding behaviours of the studied quaternized ionic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines were also described in PBS solutions. The quaternized phthalocyanines (, , and ) successfully displayed light-dependent photodamage in HeLa and HuH-7 cancer cells in photodynamic therapy treatment. The photosensitivity and the intensity of damage were found directly related to the concentration of the photosensitizers. PMID:25923925

  11. Photophysical, photochemical and BSA binding/BQ quenching properties of quaternizable coumarin containing water soluble zinc phthalocyanine complexes.

    PubMed

    Esenpınar, Aliye Aslı; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bulut, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    The non-peripherally (np-QZnPc) and peripherally (p-QZnPc) tetrakis-[7-oxo-(3-[(2-diethylaminomethyliodide)ethyl)]-4-methylcoumarin]-phthalocyaninatozinc complexes have been prepared by quaternization of non-peripherally and peripherally tetrakis[7-oxo-(3-[(2-diethylamino)ethyl)]-methylcoumarin] phthalocyaninato zinc complexes with methyliodide in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The new quaternized zinc phthalocyanine complex (np-QZnPc) has been characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF, IR and UV-vis spectral data. The photophysical and photochemical properties of the peripherally and non-peripherally quaternized tetrakis-3-[(2-diethylamino)ethyl]-7-oxo-4-methylcoumarin substituted zinc phthalocyanines are reported. The effects of the position of the substituents and the aggregation of the phthalocyanine molecules on the photophysical and photochemical properties are also investigated. General trends are described for photodegradation, singlet oxygen and fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes for complexes np-ZnPc/p-ZnPc in DMSO and for complexes np-QZnPc/p-QZnPc in DMSO, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS+Triton-X 100 solutions. The fluorescence of the tetra-substituted quaternized zinc phthalocyanine complexes (np-QZnPc/p-QZnPc) are effectively quenched addition of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) and this study also presented the ionic zinc phthalocyanine complexes strongly bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA). PMID:21536490

  12. Effect of depletion layer width on electrical properties of semiconductive thin film gas sensor: a numerical study based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Lu, Yiting; Cui, Xiao; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia

    2016-03-01

    The effects of depletion layer width on the semiconductor gas sensors were investigated based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model, which provided numerical descriptions for the sensor properties. The potential barrier height, sensor resistance, and response to target gases were simulated to reveal their dependences on the depletion layer width. According to the simulation, it was possible to improve the sensor response by enlarging the width of depletion layer without changing the resistance of the gas sensor under the special circumstance. The different performances between resistance and response could provide a bright expectation that the design and fabrication of gas sensing devices could be economized. The simulation results were validated by the experimental performances of SnO2 thin film gas sensors, which were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The dependences of sensor properties on depletion layer width were observed to be in agreement with the simulations.

  13. Photophysical and photochemical properties of α-(8-quinolinoxy) zinc phthalocyanine for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yuehui; Yu, Songlin; Lin, Huiyun; Li, Buhong; Xue, Jinping; Xie, Shusen

    2009-02-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of a newly developed photosensitizer α-(8-quinolinoxy) zinc phthalocyanine (α-(8-QLO)PcZn) were investigated for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The maximal Q band for α-(8-QLO)PcZn in dimethylformamide around 675 nm with the molar extinction coefficient of about 1.89×105 mol-1cm-1. The fluorescence quantum and singlet oxygen (1O2) yields were determined to be 0.18+/-0.02 and 0.62+/-0.03, respectively. α-(8-QLO) PcZn has a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells, and the efficient photodynamic cytotoxicity was observed. Our findings of this study suggest that α-(8-QLO)PcZn is a promising second-generation photosensitizer for PDT.

  14. Electronic and optical properties of zinc-blende GeC by first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jinhui; Zhai, Jinguang; Wan, Ajun

    2015-07-01

    The electronic and optical properties of zinc-blende (zb)GeC have been investigated using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The obtained band gap of zb-GeC is 2.30eV by means of Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. We have discussed the energy-dependent optical functions including dielectric constants, refractive index, absorption, reflectivity, and energy-loss spectrum in detail. The results reveal that zb-GeC has a higher static dielectric constant compared with that of zb-SiC. The optical functions are mainly associated with the interband transitions from the occupied valence bands (VBs) Ge4p and C2p states to Ge4s, 4p and C2p states of the unoccupied conduction bands (CBs).

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Acetylene Sensing Properties of Variety Low Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weigen; Peng, Shudi; Zeng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Various morphologies of low dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including spheres, rods, sheets, and wires, were successfully synthesized using a simple and facile hydrothermal method assisted with different surfactants. Zinc acetate dihydrate was chosen as the precursors of ZnO nanostructures. We found that polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), glycine, and ethylene glycol (EG) play critical roles in the morphologies and microstructures of the synthesized nanostructures, and a series of possible growth processes were discussed in detail. Gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology, and their sensing properties towards acetylene gas (C2H2), one of the most important arc discharge characteristic gases dissolved in oil-filled power equipments, were systematically measured. The ZnO nanowires based sensor exhibits excellent C2H2 sensing behaviors than those of ZnO nanosheets, nanorods, and nanospheres, indicating a feasible way to develop high-performance C2H2 gas sensor for practical application. PMID:24672324

  16. Manganese modified structural and optical properties of zinc soda lime silica glasses.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Nur Farhana; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Wahab, Zaidan Abdul; Fen, Yap Wing; Liew, Josephine Ying Chi; Lim, Way Foong; Mohd Zaid, Mohd Hafiz; Omar, Nur Alia Sheh

    2016-03-20

    A series of MnO-doped zinc soda lime silica glass systems was prepared by a conventional melt and quenching technique. In this study, the x-ray diffraction analysis was applied to confirm the amorphous nature of the glasses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the glass network consists of MnO4, SiO4, and ZnO4 units as basic structural units. The glass samples under field emission scanning electron microscopy observation demonstrated irregularity in shape and size with glassy phase-like structure. The optical absorption studies revealed that the optical bandgap (Eopt) values decrease with an increase of MnO content. Through the results of various measurements, the doping of MnO in the glass matrix had effects on the performance of the glasses and significantly improved the properties of the glass sample as a potential host for phosphor material. PMID:27140551

  17. Optical properties of wurtzite/zinc-blende heterostructures in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacopin, G.; Rigutti, L.; Largeau, L.; Fortuna, F.; Furtmayr, F.; Julien, F. H.; Eickhoff, M.; Tchernycheva, M.

    2011-09-01

    The optical and structural properties of wurtzite GaN nanowires containing zinc-blende GaN inclusions of different thicknesses are investigated. Micro-photoluminescence spectra of single nanowires exhibit a series of narrow emission peaks with linewidth as low as 0.8 meV in the interval 3.1-3.42 eV. The peak energy blue-shifts with increasing excitation power following a ˜I1/3 law due to the progressive band filling and to the screening of the internal field. The quantum confinement in these type-II crystal phase heterostructures was simulated in the framework of a one-dimensional effective mass model, accounting for the internal electrical polarization of the wurtzite GaN. The predicted transition energies are in good agreement with the energy statistics realized on more than 30 single nanowire emission spectra.

  18. Microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties of erbium doped zinc oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, P. P.; Kennedy, J.; Ruck, B. J.; Rubanov, S.

    2015-11-01

    We report the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of erbium (Er) implanted zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals. Rutherford backscattering and channeling results showed that the majority of Er atoms resided in Zn substitutional lattice sites. Annealing led to a fraction of Er atoms moving into random interstitial sites. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that doped Er atoms were located in the near-surface region, consistent with the results obtained from DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations. A non-linear Hall-voltage was observed near 100 K, which is associated with inhomogeneous transport in the material. The Er implanted and annealed ZnO exhibited persistent magnetic ordering to room temperature. Ferromagnetism was likely from the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO, which mediates the magnetic ordering in Er implanted and annealed ZnO. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Structure and optical properties of rare earth-doped zinc oxyhalide tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sidebottom, D.L.; Hruschka, M.A.; Potter, B.G.; Brow, R.K.

    1997-10-01

    Zinc tellurite glasses appear to be excellent candidates for hosting rare earth ions since they provide a low phonon energy environment to minimize non-radiative losses as well as possess good chemical durability and optical properties. The optical behavior of the rare earth ion can be manipulated by modifying its local environment in the glass host. The authors report measurements of the emission lifetime, optical absorption, and vibrational density of states of the glass system (ZnO){sub x}(ZnF{sub 2}){sub y}(TeO{sub 2}){sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}doped (0.1 mol%) with a series of rare earths. Phonon sideband spectroscopy has been successfully employed to probe vibrational structure in the immediate vicinity of the rare earth ion. The authors observe a significant increase in the emission lifetime (from approximately 150 {mu}s to 250 {mu}s) of Nd{sup 3+} with increasing fluorine substitution.

  20. Electrical properties of undoped zinc oxide nanostructures at different annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. F.; Zainol, M. N.; Hannas, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Rahman, S. A.; Rusop, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different annealing temperature which is varied 400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C.Undoped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 500 °C which its resistivity is 5.36 × 104 Ωcm-1. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  1. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. F.; Zainol, M. N.; Hannas, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Rahman, S. A.; Rusop, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 103 Ωcm-1. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  2. Structural and electronic properties of zinc blend GaAs 1-xBi x solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdiche, A.; Abid, H.; Riane, R.; Bouaza, A.

    2010-05-01

    First principles total energy calculations were carried out to investigate structural and electronic properties of zinc-blend (ZB) GaAs, GaBi and GaAs 1-xBi x solid solutions. We have calculated lattice parameters, bulk modulus, pressure derivative and GaAs 1-xBi x band-gap energy for zinc blend-type crystals of the compositions x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1. Discussions will be given in comparison with results obtained with other available theoretical and experimental results.

  3. Chemical composition, morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide coatings deposited by low-energy electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragachev, A. V.; Yarmolenko, M. A.; Rogachev, A. A.; Gorbachev, D. L.; Zhou, Bing

    2014-06-01

    The research determines the features of formation, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the coatings deposited by the method, proposed for the first time, of the exposure of mechanical mixture of zinc and sulfur powders to low-energy electron beam evaporation. The findings show that the deposited coatings are characterized by high chemical and structural homogeneity in thickness. The study considers the influence of substrate temperature and thickness of the deposited layer on the morphology and the width of the formed ZnS thin layers band gap. Also was shown the possibility to form ZnS coatings with this method using the mixture of zinc and copper sulfide powders.

  4. Structure and physico-chemical properties of hexadentate Schiff base zinc complexes derived from salicylaldehydes and triethylenetetramine*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantarasiri, Nuanphun; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Detsen, Hussadee; Mananunsap, Thussanee; Batiya, Chureephon; Chaichit, Narongsak

    2004-09-01

    Two hexadentate Schiff base zinc complexes, ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien, where Sal=salicylaldehyde, Van= o-vanillin, and trien=triethylenetetramine, have been synthesized by the reaction between salicylaldehydes, triethylenetetramine and zinc acetate. The structure of ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. It was found that both ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien have a bent-shaped structure. Properties of the complexes were examined using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. Protonation constants of the ligands Sal 2trien and Van 2trien and stability constants of their zinc complexes were determined by potentiometric titration. Binding energies of ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien complexes were obtained by quantum chemical calculations.

  5. Synthesis of asymmetric zinc(II) phthalocyanines with two different functional groups & spectroscopic properties and photodynamic activity for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Göksel, Meltem

    2016-09-15

    Zinc(II) phthalocyanine containing [2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]ethoxy and iodine groups (A and B), as well as their deprotected mono-amino and tri-iodine zinc(II) phthalocyanine (2) were obtained. This structure surrounds by substituents with functional groups. From this perspective it can be used a starting material for many reactions and applications, such as sonogashira coupling, carbodiimide coupling. An example of a first diversification reaction of this compound was obtained with conjugation of a biotin. Asymmetrically biotin conjugated and heavy atom bearing zinc(II) phthalocyanine (3) were synthesized characterized for the first time and photophysical, photochemical and photobiological properties of these phthalocyanines were compared in this study. PMID:27423301

  6. New nanostructured zinc phosphite templated by cetyltrimethylammonium cations: synthesis, crystal structure, adsorption, and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Min; Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Chiu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Mei; Lii, Kwang-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured zinc phosphite templated by cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA(+)) cations was synthesized using a hydro(solvo)thermal method. This is the first example of a crystalline metal phosphite containing long carbon tails of the CTA(+) ions as templates in its structure, as is structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 2D inorganic structures with 4.8(2) topologies are constructed from the interconnection of tetrahedral ZnO3Br and HPO3 units, which are sandwiched between CTA(+) ion surfactants in a packing behavior of a largely lamellar liquid-crystalline structure to extend the interlayer d spacing to 28.05 Å. Adsorption experiment shows selective adsorption properties of 1-naphthol and a adsorption capacity of 0.17 mmol/mmol (CTA)ZnBr(HPO3). This compound has potential as an adsorbent for the removal of 1-naphthol pollutant from wastewater. In addition, the naphthol-adsorbed sample shows interesting luminescent properties that are different from that of an as-synthesized sample. The crystal structure, thermal stability, IR spectrum, adsorption, and photoluminescence properties have been studied. PMID:24661090

  7. Nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles precipitated from zinc acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Željka; Ristić, Mira; Musić, Svetozar; Fabián, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The influence of experimental conditions on the nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles produced by rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate, followed by aging of the precipitation system at 160 °C, was investigated. Samples were characterized by XRD, FE scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FT-IR, UV/Vis/NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. XRD patterns of all samples were assigned to the hexagonal ZnO phase (wurtzite-type), as well as the corresponding FT-IR spectra. FE-SEM inspection showed a high dependence of the ZnO nano/microstructure on the chemical composition of the reaction mixture and autoclaving time after the rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate. Microstructural differences were noticed between C2H5OH/H2O and H2O media, as well as under the influence of NH4OH addition. Measurements of nanocrystallite sizes showed no significant preferential orientation in the (1 0 0) and (0 0 2) directions relative to the (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) directions. Somewhat smaller crystallite sizes were noticed for ZnO samples synthesized by adding the NH4OH solution. Dissolution/recrystallization of ZnO particles played an important role in the formation of different ZnO nano/microstructures. The band gap values for prepared ZnO samples were calculated on the basis of recorded UV/Vis spectra. PL spectra were recorded for ZnO samples in powder form and their suspensions in pure ethanol. Noticed differences are discussed.

  8. Effect of AgCl on spectroscopic properties of erbium doped zinc tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Dousti, M.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, Raja J.; Samavati, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    The Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glass containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from high purity raw materials by melt quenching method and the influence of Ag NPs on the spectroscopic properties were investigated. The glasses are characterized using DTA, EDX, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The DTA data reveal that the addition of silver chloride increased the thermal stability from 0.52 to 0.67 for samples without and with 2 mol% AgCl respectively. The sharp peaks in EDX spectra show the presence of Ag nanocrystallites. The TEM micrograph shows the distribution of NPs is Gaussian and the average size is estimated ˜10 nm. Seven absorption bands of erbium were evidenced in the UV-Vis-NIR measurements. Optical band gap and density were found to decrease with addition of AgCl concentration, while molar volume increased. The PL spectra exhibit four peaks corresponding to 2H11/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions. An enhancement in the order of six times for 2 mol% of dopant and a subsequent quench in luminescence spectra of co-doped zinc tellurite glasses were observed. Such enhancements were attributed to silver nanoparticles with average size of 10 nm and absorption band centered at 552 nm. The studied glasses provide enormous scope to achieve the materials suitable for nanophotonics, solid state lasers and color displays.

  9. Spectroscopic properties and luminescence behavior of Nd3+ doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamuda, Sk.; Swapna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Sasikala, T.; Pavani, K.; Rama Moorthy, L.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of neodymium are prepared by using the melt quenching technique to study their physical, absorption and luminescence properties to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. From the absorption spectra various spectroscopic parameters and Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are evaluated. These JO parameters are used to calculate the transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), and branching ratios (βR) for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses gives three prominent transitions 4F3/2→4I9/2, 4F3/2→4I11/2 and 4F3/2→4I13/2 for which effective band widths (ΔλP) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σse) are evaluated. Branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-sections measured for all these glasses show that the 4F3/2→4I11/2 transition under investigation has the potential for laser applications. The intensity of Nd3+ emission spectra increases with increasing concentrations of Nd3+ up to 1 mol% and beyond 1 mol% the concentration quenching is observed. The high stimulated emission cross-section and branching ratios from the present glasses suggests their potential for infrared lasers. From the absorption and emission spectral studies it was found that, 1 mol% of Nd3+ ion concentration is optimum for Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses to generate a strong laser emission at 1060 nm.

  10. Magnetic properties of conducting polymer doped with manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Wilson, J. L.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2004-10-01

    The magnetic properties of superparamagnetic particles are influenced by the supporting matrix. We have systematically studied the DC magnetic properties of loosely packed manganese-zinc ferrite (Mn0.68Zn0.25Fe2.07O3) nanoparticles synthesized using a reverse micelle technique. The results have been compared with those for particles suspended in paraffin wax and embedded in a polypyrrole matrix. The polypyrrole-doped particles were prepared using an in situ ultraviolet irradiation method and spin-coated into thin films. The loosely packed particles showed no resolvable coercivity even well below the blocking temperature. On the other hand, the same particles in wax showed the opening up of a large coercivity below the blocking temperature. However, both the samples showed characteristic superparamagnetic transition peaks in the temperature-dependent susceptibility nearly at the same temperature. The particles in the polypyrrole matrix showed a remarkable increase in the blocking temperature and large hysteresis at 300 K. The structural characterization of the polymer-doped sample showed clustering of the nanoparticles.

  11. Ab-initio Electronic, Transport and Related Properties of Zinc Blende Boron Arsenide (zb-BAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwigboji, Ifeanyi H.; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We present results from ab-initio, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of zinc blende boron arsenide (zb-BAs). We utilized a local density approximation (LDA) potential and the linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) formalism. Our computational technique follows the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin. Our results include electronic energy bands, densities of states, and effective masses. We explain the agreement between these findings, including the indirect band gap, and available, corresponding, experimental ones. This work confirms the capability of DFT to describe accurately properties of materials, provided the computations adhere to the conditions of validity of DFT [AIP Advances, 4, 127104 (2014)]. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  12. Synthesis and size-dependent properties of zinc-blende semiconductor quantum rods.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shihai; Mokari, Taleb; Rothenberg, Eli; Banin, Uri

    2003-03-01

    Dimensionality and size are two factors that govern the properties of semiconductor nanostructures. In nanocrystals, dimensionality is manifested by the control of shape, which presents a key challenge for synthesis. So far, the growth of rod-shaped nanocrystals using a surfactant-controlled growth mode, has been limited to semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structures, such as CdSe (ref. 3). Here, we report on a general method for the growth of soluble nanorods applied to semiconductors with the zinc-blende cubic lattice structure. InAs quantum rods with controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized using the solution-liquid-solid mechanism with gold nanocrystals as catalysts. This provides an unexpected link between two successful strategies for growing high-quality nanomaterials, the vapour-liquid-solid approach for growing nanowires, and the colloidal approach for synthesizing soluble nanocrystals. The rods exhibit both length- and shape-dependent optical properties, manifested in a red-shift of the bandgap with increased length, and in the observation of polarized emission covering the near-infrared spectral range relevant for telecommunications devices. PMID:12612671

  13. Synthesis and size-dependent properties of zinc-blende semiconductor quantum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Shihai; Mokari, Taleb; Rothenberg, Eli; Banin, Uri

    2003-03-01

    Dimensionality and size are two factors that govern the properties of semiconductor nanostructures. In nanocrystals, dimensionality is manifested by the control of shape, which presents a key challenge for synthesis. So far, the growth of rod-shaped nanocrystals using a surfactant-controlled growth mode, has been limited to semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structures, such as CdSe (ref. 3). Here, we report on a general method for the growth of soluble nanorods applied to semiconductors with the zinc-blende cubic lattice structure. InAs quantum rods with controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized using the solution-liquid-solid mechanism with gold nanocrystals as catalysts. This provides an unexpected link between two successful strategies for growing high-quality nanomaterials, the vapour-liquid-solid approach for growing nanowires, and the colloidal approach for synthesizing soluble nanocrystals. The rods exhibit both length- and shape-dependent optical properties, manifested in a red-shift of the bandgap with increased length, and in the observation of polarized emission covering the near-infrared spectral range relevant for telecommunications devices.

  14. Preparation, characterization and optoelectronic properties of nanodiamonds doped zinc oxide nanomaterials by a ball milling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hameed; Sohail, Muhammad; Malik, Uzma; Ali, Naveed; Bangash, Masroor Ahmad; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the very important metal oxides (MOs) for applications in optoelectronic devices which work in the blue and UV regions. However, to meet the challenges of obtaining ZnO nanomaterials suitable for practical applications, various modifications in physico-chemical properties are highly desirable. One of the ways adopted for altering the properties is to synthesize composite(s) of ZnO with various reinforcements. Here we report on the tuning of optoelectronic properties of ZnO upon doping by nanodiamonds (NDs) using the ball milling technique. A varying weight percent (wt.%) of NDs were ball milled for 2 h with ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a simple precipitation method. The effects of different parameters, the calcination temperature of ZnO, wt.% of NDs and mechanical milling upon the optoelectronic properties of the resulting ZnO–NDs nanocomposites have been investigated. The ZnO–NDs nanocomposites were characterized by IR spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The UV-vis spectroscopy revealed the alteration in the bandgap energy (Eg ) of ZnO as a function of the calcination temperature of ZnO, changing the concentration of NDs, and mechanical milling of the resulting nanocomposites. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a decrease in the deep level emission (DLE) peaks and an increase in near-band-edge transition peaks as a result of the increasing concentration of NDs. The decrease in DLE and increase in band to band transition peaks were due to the strong interaction between the NDs and the Zn+; consequently, the Zn+ concentration decreased on the interstitial sites.

  15. Effect of zinc oxide amounts on the properties and antibacterial activities of zeolite/zinc oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Alswat, Abdullah A; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Saleh, Tawfik A; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266. PMID:27524047

  16. Comparison study of electrochemical properties of porous zinc oxide/N-doped carbon and pristine zinc oxide polyhedrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenfang; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Jinghao; Peng, Hongrui; Li, Guicun

    2015-07-01

    An in-situ calcination strategy has been developed for the synthesis of porous zinc oxide/N-doped carbon (ZnO/NC) polyhedrons, in which zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) serves as the precursor. The ZnO/NC polyhedrons with a hierarchical architecture possess a high specific surface area of 390.7 m2 g-1, high nitrogen content (19.99 at%), and robust pore structures. The porous N-doped carbon frameworks can not only increase the electronic conductivity of ZnO, but also provide interior space for the fast diffusion of Li+ ions and accommodate the volume variations during the charge and discharge cycles. When evaluated for lithium storage capacity, the hierarchical ZnO/NC polyhedrons exhibit high reversible discharge capacity (834.3 mAh g-1 at the initial low rate of 0.5C, 1C = 978 mA g-1), superior rate performance (399.2 mAh g-1 at 5C and 253.5 mAh g-1 at 10C), and excellent cycling stability (677.9 mAh g-1 at 1C after 400 cycles). The reasons are explored in terms of the well-confined primary nanocrystals (5 nm), and the finely constructed interconnected pores of the N-doped carbon networks, which facilitate the fast and effective transfer of Li+ ions and electrons, and accommodate the large volume expansions.

  17. Low-frequency noise properties in Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Linqing; Ma, Xiaochen; Wilson, Joshua; Jin, Jidong; Du, Lulu; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2015-08-31

    The low-frequency noise properties of Pt-indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes at different forward biases are investigated. The IGZO layer and Pt contact were deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. The diode showed an ideality factor of 1.2 and a barrier height of 0.94 eV. The current noise spectral density exhibited 1/f behavior at low frequencies. The analysis of the current dependency of the noise spectral density revealed that for the as-deposited diode, the noise followed Luo's mobility and diffusivity fluctuation model in the thermionic-emission-limited region and Hooge's empirical theory in the series-resistance-limited region. A low Hooge's constant of 1.4 × 10{sup −9} was found in the space-charge region. In the series-resistance-limited region, the Hooge's constant was 2.2 × 10{sup −5}. After annealing, the diode showed degradation in the electrical performance. The interface-trap-induced noise dominated the noise spectrum. By using the random walk model, the interface-trap density was obtained to be 3.6 × 10{sup 15 }eV{sup −1 }cm{sup −2}. This work provides a quantitative approach to analyze the properties of Pt-IGZO interfacial layers. These low noise properties are a prerequisite to the use of IGZO Schottky diodes in switch elements in memory devices, photosensors, and mixer diodes.

  18. First-principles study of the electronic properties of wurtzite, zinc-blende, and twinned InP nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dengfeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei

    2010-12-17

    The electronic properties of zinc blende, wurtzite, and rotationally twinned InP nanowires were studied using first-principles calculations. The results show that all the simulated nanowires exhibit a semiconducting character, and the band gap decreases with increasing the nanowire size. The band gap difference between the zinc blende, wurtzite, and twinned InP nanowires and a bulk InP can be described by several formulas proportional to the diameter of nanowires. The valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) originate mainly from the p-orbitals of the P atoms and s-orbitals of the In atoms at the core regions of the nanowires, respectively. The hexagonal (2H) stacking inside the cubic (3C) stacking has no effect on the electronic properties of thin InP nanowires.

  19. Effects of Clear and Amber Cullet on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glass-Ceramics Containing Zinc Hydrometallurgy Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanpongpun, Wilasinee; Jiemsirilers, Sirithan; Thavorniti, Parjaree

    The effect of glass cullet on physical and mechanical properties of glass-ceramics developed from zinc hydrometallurgy waste and glass cullet was investigated. The glass-ceramics were prepared by mixing zinc hydrometallurgy waste with glass cullet through vitrification process. Two difference types of glass cullet (clear and amber cullet) were used. The parent glasses were ground and pressed into bars and sintered at low temperature (850°C) for 2 hours. The obtained glass-ceramics had low porosity. The glass-ceramics with clear cullet exhibited higher density and strength, comparing with the glass-ceramics with amber cullet. The type and the amount of the glass cullet present in the glass-ceramics have strong effect on their properties.

  20. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sonawane, Yogesh S.; Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. Aiyer, R.C.

    2008-10-02

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

  1. Optical Properties of Zinc(II) and Boron(III) Dipyrrinates with Different Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonova, A. Yu.; Kuznetsova, R. T.; Aksenova, Iu. V.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Mayer, G. V.; Dudina, N. A.; Nuraneeva, E. N.; Antina, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral luminescent, photophysical, photochemical, lasing, nonlinear optical, and sensor characteristics of a series of new synthesized complexes of zinc and difluoroborate with dipyrrines of different structure have been studied. It is found that many of these compounds exhibit stimulated emission in different solvents when excited by the second (532 nm) and third (355 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser in the range of 548-692 nm. It is shown that not only efficient fluorophores belonging to dipyrrine difluoroborates (with a quantum fluorescence yield close to 1), but also compounds with a fluorescence yield equal to 0.3, generate laser radiation with a high resource; phosphorescence is also observed along with fluorescence. Transmission of UV radiation (355 nm) is shown to decrease with an increase in the pulsed excitation power density; this is a manifestation of nonlinear optical properties. The change of phosphorescence signal in dependence of the composition of the gas mixture around a solid-state sample colored by dipyrrinate complexes indicates that a number of the compounds under consideration exhibit sensor abilities.

  2. Optical properties of petal-like aggregated nanocrystalline zinc oxide synthesized by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarkhani, P.; Chehrghani, A.; Torkamany, M.J.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petal like ZnO nanocrystals are synthesized by high frequency laser ablation in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap of ZnO nanocrystals was tunable by changing the laser pulse energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonlinear optical properties and limiting threshold were obtained by Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The results of the investigations carried out on the third-order nonlinearity in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) by Z-scan technique are included in this paper. ZnO NCs show negative nonlinearity and good nonlinear absorption behavior at 532 nm. The third-order optical susceptibility {chi}(3) increases with enlargement of NCs due to the size dependent enhancement of exciton oscillator strength. The synthesis of ZnO NCs was performed by laser ablation from a high-purity metallic target of Zn in distilled water medium. For the ablation process, a high frequency pulsed Nd:YAG laser was employed operating at 532 nm with 100 ns pulse duration. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy illustrated the enhancement of the size of ZnO NCs upon increasing the laser pulse energy applied in ablation process. Accordingly the corresponding optical band gap (E{sub g}) decrease by increasing the size of NCs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) associated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to characterize the crystalline phase and also for determining the ZnO NCs morphology.

  3. Control of zinc oxide nanowire array properties with electron-beam lithography templating for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicaise, Samuel M.; Cheng, Jayce J.; Kiani, Amirreza; Gradečak, Silvija; Berggren, Karl K.

    2015-02-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowire arrays have been used as nanostructured acceptors in emerging photovoltaic (PV) devices. The nanoscale dimensions of such arrays allow for enhanced charge extraction from PV active layers, but the device performance critically depends on the nanowire array pitch and alignment. In this study, we templated hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowire arrays via high-resolution electron-beam-lithography defined masks, achieving the dual requirements of high-resolution patterning at a pitch of several hundred nanometers, while maintaining hole sizes small enough to control nanowire array morphology. We investigated several process conditions, including the effect of annealing sputtered and spincoated ZnO seed layers on nanowire growth, to optimize array property metrics—branching from individual template holes and off-normal alignment. We found that decreasing template hole size decreased branching prevalence but also reduced alignment. Annealing seed layers typically improved alignment, and sputtered seed layers yielded nanowire arrays superior to spincoated seed layers. We show that these effects arose from variation in the size of the template holes relative to the ZnO grain size in the seed layer. The quantitative control of branching and alignment of the nanowire array that is achieved in this study will open new paths toward engineering more efficient electrodes to increase photocurrent in nanostructured PVs. This control is also applicable to inorganic nanowire growth in general, nanomechanical generators, nanowire transistors, and surface-energy engineering.

  4. Experimental and theoretical study on field emission properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Wei-Man; Liu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Li

    2015-05-01

    Field emission properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. CNTs are in situ decorated with ZnO NPs during the growth process by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from the iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The experimental field emission test shows that the ZnO NP decoration significantly improves the emission current from 50 μA to 275 μA at 550 V and the reduced threshold voltage from 450 V to 350 V. The field emission mechanism of ZnO NPs on CNTs is theoretically studied by the density functional theory (DFT) combined with the Penn-Plummer method. The ZnO NPs reconstruct the ZnO-CNT structure and pull down the surface barrier of the entire emitter system to 0.49 eV so as to reduce the threshold electric field. The simulation results suggest that the presence of ZnO NPs would increase the LDOS near the Fermi level and increase the emission current. The calculation results are consistent with the experiment results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91123018, 61172040, and 61172041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7277).

  5. Enhanced optical properties due to indium incorporation in zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Sarkar, K.; Mazouchi, M.; Stroscio, M. A.; Dutta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-doped zinc oxide nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid technique with 1.6 at. % indium content show intense room temperature photoluminescence (PL) that is red shifted to 20 meV from band edge. We report on a combination of nanowires and nanobelts-like structures with enhanced optical properties after indium doping. The near band edge emission shift gives an estimate for the carrier density as high as 5.5 × 1019 cm-3 for doped nanowires according to Mott's critical density theory. Quenching of the visible green peak is seen for doped nanostructures indicating lesser oxygen vacancies and improved quality. PL and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm indium doping into the ZnO lattice, whereas temperature dependent PL data give an estimation of the donor and acceptor binding energies that agrees well with indium doped nanowires. This provides a non-destructive technique to estimate doping for 1D structures as compared to the traditional FET approach. Furthermore, these indium doped nanowires can be a potential candidate for transparent conducting oxides applications and spintronic devices with controlled growth mechanism.

  6. Properties of Silver Nanowire/Zinc Oxide Transparent Bilayer Thin Films for Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    You, Sslimsearom; Park, Yong Seo; Choi, Hyung Wook; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated electrical, optical and structural properties of silver nanowire (AgNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) transparent conductive bilayer films for optoelectronic applications. The AgNW/ZnO transparent conductive bilayer films were fabricated using spin-coating and facing target sputtering (FTS) method. The spin-coated the AgNW layer has advantages, such as low resistivity and high transmittance in visible range. However, the spin-coated AgNW layers can be oxidized by natural oxygen. Consequently, the conductivity of AgNW layer was strongly decreased. So, an oxidation prevented layer is necessary. The ZnO thin film layer on the Ag NW layer can be prevented oxidation. In addition, the peeling of spin-coated AgNW layer were prevented the deposited ZnO thin film layer. As the results, the sheet resistance and average transmittance in visible range of AgNW/ZnO transparent bilayer thin films exhibited 34.1 ohm/sq. and 83.46%. PMID:26726570

  7. Optical and structural properties of zinc oxide nanorod synthesized by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, Mochamad Riza; Saepuloh, Enang; Safriani, Lusi; Bahtiar, Ayi

    2013-09-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal has been intensively studied not only for its fundamental scientific interest, but also for its potential in many optoelectronic applications, such as electroluminescence devices, chemical sensors, electrochromic windows and solar cells. Recently, ZnO nanocrystal has been used as electron acceptor materials for high power conversion efficiency hybrid solar cells due to good combination of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), large exciton binding energy (60 meV), high charge carrier mobility, mechanical and thermal stability. The synthesis of monodisperse ZnO is an important key for achieving high performance of hybrid solar cells, because the properties of its nanocrystals strongly depend on its size and shape. We have successfully synthesized ZnO nanorod with 5 nm diameter and 11-13 nm in length by using sol-gel method as confirmed by TEM measurement. The ZnO nanorod has optical bandgap 3.38 eV and wurzite crystal structure.

  8. Control of zinc oxide nanowire array properties with electron-beam lithography templating for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Samuel M; Cheng, Jayce J; Kiani, Amirreza; Gradečak, Silvija; Berggren, Karl K

    2015-02-20

    Hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowire arrays have been used as nanostructured acceptors in emerging photovoltaic (PV) devices. The nanoscale dimensions of such arrays allow for enhanced charge extraction from PV active layers, but the device performance critically depends on the nanowire array pitch and alignment. In this study, we templated hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowire arrays via high-resolution electron-beam-lithography defined masks, achieving the dual requirements of high-resolution patterning at a pitch of several hundred nanometers, while maintaining hole sizes small enough to control nanowire array morphology. We investigated several process conditions, including the effect of annealing sputtered and spincoated ZnO seed layers on nanowire growth, to optimize array property metrics-branching from individual template holes and off-normal alignment. We found that decreasing template hole size decreased branching prevalence but also reduced alignment. Annealing seed layers typically improved alignment, and sputtered seed layers yielded nanowire arrays superior to spincoated seed layers. We show that these effects arose from variation in the size of the template holes relative to the ZnO grain size in the seed layer. The quantitative control of branching and alignment of the nanowire array that is achieved in this study will open new paths toward engineering more efficient electrodes to increase photocurrent in nanostructured PVs. This control is also applicable to inorganic nanowire growth in general, nanomechanical generators, nanowire transistors, and surface-energy engineering. PMID:25642895

  9. Ionothermal synthesis, properties and vibrational spectra of zinc (II) complex with nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Cui, Fenghua; Zhang, Heng; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (II) complex with nicotinamide, (C₆H₁₁N₂)[ZnBr₃(C₆H₆N₂O)], was prepared under ionothermal condition by using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([EMIM]Br) as a solvent. At the same time, [EMIM]Br also functions as a structure-directing agent, leading to a framework structure different from those obtained by the conventional methods. Single-crystal X-ray analysis revealed that the coordinated compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, and the Zn (II) ion is four-coordinated by one pyridine ring N atom and three bromide anions in a slightly distorted tetrahedron arrangement. The [EMIM](+) cations acting as the extra framework charge balancing species occupy the channels of this asymmetric unit. In the crystal structure, intermolecular NH⋯Br and NH⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to form a supramolecular structure. In addition, this compound was further characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and the observed important bands were assigned. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and fluorescent properties of solid samples were also studied at room temperature. PMID:25025308

  10. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sai, Ranajit; Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-05-07

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f{sub FMR}) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of f{sub FMR} has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  11. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Ranajit; Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (fFMR) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of fFMR has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  12. Electrochemical properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) submicron-fibrous electrode for zinc/polymer secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhijiang; Guo, Jie; Yang, Haizheng; Xu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop an aqueous zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers secondary battery system. Zn foil and ZnCl2 are used as anode active materials and the electrolytic solution, respectively. Poly(5-cyanoindole) synthesized by chemical oxidation is electrospun into fibers and used as cathode active materials. FTIR and NMR test are carried out to investigate the chemical structure of poly(5-cyanoindole). Surface properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers are studied by SEM, TEM, and BET. The performance of zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers battery system is evaluated in term of electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, discharge capacity and durability test. The cell achieves 2.0 V electromotive force with about 107-61 Ah Kg-1 discharge capacity at 0.2C-10C rate. At 800th cycle, the discharge capacity remains 80-57 Ah Kg-1 at 0.2C-2C rate, which is about 75-63% of the maximum discharge capacity. These results indicate that the cell has very excellent cyclic properties as well as fast charge/discharge properties. Electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers have been proved to be a better candidate than polyindole powder as cathode material in zinc/polymer battery.

  13. Effect of zinc sulphate on gelling properties of phosphorylated protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-12-01

    Impacts of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) (0-140 μmol/kg) on gel properties of yellow stripe trevally surimi added with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (0.25% and 0.5%, w/w) and protein isolate phosphorylated with STPP at 0.25% and 0.5% (w/w) were studied. Gels from surimi added with 60 μmol ZnSO4/kg in the absence and presence of 0.5% STPP had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 20.9% and 33.3%, and 11.6% and 18.6%, respectively, compared with the control surimi gel (without additives). Gel of protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP containing 100 μmol ZnSO4/kg had the increases in breaking force and deformation by 14.87% and 5.6%, respectively, compared with the gel from non-phosphorylated protein isolate at the same ZnSO4 level, suggesting that the phosphorylated protein isolate was more crosslinked by Zn(2+). The addition of ZnSO4 at the suitable level lowered the expressible moisture content, but increased whiteness of surimi or protein isolate gels (P<0.05). Non-covalent bonds, more likely salt bridge and ionic interactions, played a major role in cross-linking of proteins in both surimi and protein isolate added with ZnSO4, regardless of phosphates incorporated. Microstructure study revealed that a gel having highly interconnected and denser network with smaller voids was formed when protein isolate phosphorylated with 0.5% STPP was added with ZnSO4 at a level of 100 μmol/kg. Thus, gel with improved properties could be obtained from protein isolate from yellow stripe trevally phosphorylated with STPP in conjunction with addition of ZnSO4 at an appropriate level. PMID:23871033

  14. Growth of KTiOPO{sub 4} crystals doped with zinc and studies of their physical properties and specific structural features

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, E. I.; Novikova, N. E.; Gagor, A.; Verin, I. A.; Pietraszko, A.; Belov, D. A.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2010-07-15

    A series of potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals doped with zinc (KTP: Zn) is grown by spontaneous flux crystallization. Their properties and the way the additive is implanted in the crystal lattice are studied. The inclusion of zinc atoms in the KTP structure is evidenced by the data of chemical analysis and the results of studies of electrophysical properties (the growth of conductivity and increase of relaxation anomalies). Precision X-ray diffraction studies of KTP: Zn single crystals reveal changes in the channel of the structure which correlate with the physical properties of this crystal series. No substitution of zinc atoms for titanium, phosphorus, or potassium atoms is found in the structure. Zinc atoms can be located at structural defects, domain walls, and the crystal surface.

  15. Surface morphology and nanomechanical properties of tribological antiwear films derived from zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktary, Mirwais

    The protection of mechanical equipment from wear is of significant economic interest. It has been estimated that up to half of a percent of the gross domestic product of industrialized countries goes to replacing mechanical components that have lost compliance due to wear. Antiwear additives are key ingredients in lubrication oils that assist in protecting components from wear during high loads. These agents form sacrificial films on metal parts that limit the adhesion between the contacting surfaces and reduce the wear rate considerably. One of the most common classes of compounds employed as an antiwear agent is zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP). This work will explore the formation, structure, and mechanical properties of ZDDP derived antiwear films on the nanoscale. These studies are important because the macroscopic performance of antiwear coatings is dictated by their nanoscale surface properties. As a first study, scanning force microscopy (SFM) is employed to track the formation of films formed from the thermooxidative decomposition of ZDDP on gold substrates. The SFM analysis is correlated with infrared spectroscopy to relate surface structure to chemical composition. The morphology and mechanical strength of ZDDP tribofilms formed at the interface of sliding stainless steel contacts is also investigated. The tribofilms evolve morphologically with contact time and are characterized by distinct segregated islands at low times that transforms to a full film at longer times. The nanomechanical properties of the tribofilms are evaluated by nanoindentation analysis. It is found that the films are mechanically softer than the underlying steel substrate. SFM and nanoindentation analyses reveal that calcium sulphonate detergents promote the formation of ZDDP tribofilms and impart to them greater mechanical stability. By contrast succinimide dispersants reduce the capacity of ZDDP to form effective antiwear films. The first application of SFM and nanoindentation

  16. To study the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression material at various time intervals after mixing.

    PubMed

    Katna, Vishal; Suresh, S; Vivek, Sharma; Meenakshi, Khandelwal; Ankita, Gaur

    2014-12-01

    Aims and objective of the study was to evaluate the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression materials at various time intervals, after mixing 49 samples (seven groups) were fabricated for flow property of the material. The sample were fabricated as equal length of base and accelerator paste of the test materials was taken on the glass slab and mixed with a rigid stainless steel spatula as per manufacturers recommendation till the homogenous mix was obtained. The mix material was loaded in glass syringe and 0.5 ml material was injected on a cellophane sheet placed on marked glass plate. A cellophane sheet and glass plate 70 and 500 g weight was carefully placed on freshly dispensed zinc oxide eugenol impression paste sequentially. The diameter of the mix was noted after 30 s and 1 min of load application and also after the final set of material. The diameter gives the flow of material. The samples were stored at the room temperature. The data of the flow property was analyzed with analysis of variance, Post hoc test and t test. The flow of the zinc oxide eugenol impression paste after 30 s, 1 min and final set of load application for Group A to Group G was noted. Maximum flow was seen for Group G zinc oxide eugenol impression material followed by Group F, D, E, B, C and A in descending order respectively after 30 s, where as the flow property changed after 1 min in the sequence of maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, B, A, C, and F. Lastly after final set of the impression material the flow maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, C, F, A and B in descending order. Based on statistical analysis of the results and within in the limitations of this in-vitro study, the following conclusions were drawn that; the flow of zinc oxide eugenol impression material after 30 s, 1 min and that after the final set was maximum for P.S.P. (Group G) and the flow for PYREX (Group A) was minimum. PMID:25489163

  17. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole.

    PubMed

    Turner, G A; Matheson, J R; Li, G-Z; Fei, X-Q; Zhu, D; Baines, F L

    2013-02-01

    Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal. PMID:22970742

  18. Synthesis, characterization, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide nanostructures embedded in silicon based substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Bimal

    Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by low energy ion implantation technique were examined. ZnO molecular ions were implanted into Si/SiO2 substrates at room temperature and then furnace annealed under different temperatures and environments. In all as-implanted samples only Zn nanostructures with varying diameters distributed into the Si/SiO2 matrices were observed. No trace of ZnO was found. The distributions of Zn nanostructures in Si/SiO2 closely matched results from Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulations. During annealing at 750 °C, Zn diffused both toward and away from the surface of the substrate and combine with oxygen to form ZnO nanostructures. At higher annealing temperatures ZnO bonding started to break down and transfer to zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4), and at 900 °C the ZnO was completely converted into Zn2SiO4. The average sizes of Zn/ZnO nanostructures depended on the ion fluence. If the fluence increased the average sizes of nanostructures also increased and vice versa. For room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL), band-edge emission in the ultraviolet (UV) region was observed from all samples annealed at 700 °C/750 °C and were slightly blue shifted as compare to bulk ZnO. Donor-bound exciton (D,X) and acceptor-bound exciton (A,X) transitions were observed in low temperature photoluminescence (PL). The lifetime of both donor-bound excitonic emission (D, X) and acceptor-bound excitonic emission (A, X) were found to be in the picosecond (ps) range.

  19. Tumour-localising and -photosensitising properties of a novel zinc(II) octadecylphthalocyanine.

    PubMed Central

    Ometto, C.; Fabris, C.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Cook, M. J.; Russell, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octadecylphthalocyaninato zinc(II), ZnODPc, incorporated into a Cremophor emulsion, was assayed for its pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic properties in Balb/c mice bearing an intramuscularly transplanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma. The phthalocyanine was injected intravenously (i.v.) in three doses, i.e. 1.46, 0.73 and 0.37 mumol kg-1 body weight. In all cases, the octadecyl-substituted phthalocyanine showed an unusually high affinity for serum low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and a high efficiency and selectivity of tumour targeting: the maximum accumulation in the tumour occurred at 24 h after injection, whereas no detectable amount of phthalocyanine was recovered from the muscle, i.e. the peritumoral tissue, between 1 h and 1 week after injection. At the same time, low amounts of phthalocyanine were recovered from skin and then only at short times after injection, with skin photosensitivity rapidly disappearing and the phthalocyanine present in the serum only. Tumour photosensitisation studies were carried out at 24 h after administration of 1.46 mumol kg-1 ZnODPc and showed that this phthalocyanine has a very high phototherapeutic efficiency; this is probably a consequence of the multiple mechanisms by which the phthalocyanine induces tumour damage, involving both direct modification of malignant cells and impairment of blood flow, as well as the alteration of a variety of subcellular components, such as mitochondria, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear membrane and, occasionally, cell nuclei. Tumour necrosis appears to be the consequence of both random cell death and apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8980387

  20. Effects of Erosion Angle on Erosion Properties of Fe-B Alloy in Flowing Liquid Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangzhu; Xing, Jiandong; Ma, Shengqiang; He, Yaling; Fu, Hanguang; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yiran

    2015-05-01

    The effect of erosion angle on erosion behavior of the as-cast Fe-B alloy in flowing liquid zinc was investigated. The results show that the erosion rate of Fe-B alloy decreases linearly with increasing erosion angle. The erosion resistance of Fe-B alloy is better than that of 316L stainless steel, which is attributed to the favorable barrier effect of net-like Fe2B that resists erosion by flowing liquid zinc. Meanwhile, the ductile matrix can provide support in preventing borides from spalling and borides cause barrier effect on flowing liquid zinc during liquid zinc erosion, which shows a synergistic erosion-corrosion behavior between the matrix and borides. Moreover, an increase in erosion angle can cause a decrease in the removal effect of the flowing liquid zinc scouring component on the erosion compounds. Therefore, the quantity of erosion compounds increases at the erosion interface, weakening the mass transfer process and decreasing the erosion rate of the Fe-B alloy.

  1. Preparation and properties of zinc blende and orthorhombic SnS films by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Shen, Honglie; Sun, Lei

    2011-05-01

    SnS (stannous sulfide) films were prepared by chemical bath deposition in which a novel chelating reagent ammonium citrate was used. The film has a zinc blende structure or an orthorhombic structure which is determined by the pH value and the temperature of the deposition solution. The reason for this result is considered to be that SnS films prepared under different conditions have different deposition mechanisms (ion-by-ion mechanism for the zinc blende structured SnS and hydroxide cluster mechanism for the orthorhombic structured SnS). The prepared SnS films are homogeneous and well adhered. SEM images show that the SnS films with different structures have different surface morphologies. Electrical test shows that the resistivity of the films is as low as 420 Ω cm and 3300 Ω cm for orthorhombic and zinc blende SnS films, respectively, which are much lower than the ever reported values. Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) phenomena are observed for both the films with zinc blende and orthorhombic structures by photo-current responses measurement. The optical bandgaps of the SnS films are determined to be 1.75 eV and 1.15 eV for zinc blende structure and orthorhombic structure, respectively.

  2. Study of Ferromagnetic and Field Effect Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Daxue

    Spintronics (spin transport electronics), in which both spm and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is perceived to be a candidate to extend and possibly to become the next-generation electronics. Its advantages include nonvolatility (data retention without electrical power), lower energy consumption, faster processing speed, and higher integration densities in comparison with the current semiconductor devices relying solely on electron charge. To realize a spin-field effect transistor, two respects are prerequisite. On the one hand, the mechanism of ferromagnetism should be addressed before one could prepare magnetic semiconductor films in a controllable way. On the other hand, excellent field effect properties should be sought through a convenient and low-cost strategy for manufacturing future nano-scale spintronic devices. This thesis is comprised of two parts. Firstly, it deals with the synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped or un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. Secondly, it focuses on the field effect properties of solution processable ZnO thin films, which are not only of great interest for current charge-carrier based thin film transistors, but also of fundamental importance in future spin-based transistors. A facile spin-coating technique has been developed to fabricate ZnO thin films. Even without magnetic element doping, the film is found to show room temperature ferromagnetism. A broad series of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are utilized to characterize the thin films properties. Oxygen vacancy defects are tentatively attributed to the observed ferromagnetism. Following the similar method, Ga doped or Ga, Co co-doped ZnO thin films are prepared. The ferromagnetism is enhanced with Ga doping, providing more carriers. It is discovered that room temperature ferromagnetism can exist in both highly conductive regime and the less conductive or near insulating regime. Transition metal

  3. Control of local structures and photophysical properties of zinc porphyrin-based supramolecular assemblies structurally organized by regioselective ligand coordination.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takao; Sakai, Hayato; Araki, Yasuyuki; Wada, Takehiko; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-02-10

    Nano- and micro-sized molecular assemblies of zinc porphyrins [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrinato-zinc(ii) (ZnTCPP)] utilizing bridging nitrogen ligands such as diazabicycro[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) were prepared to demonstrate the regioselective coordination by two different synthetic strategies such as (i) the solvothermal method and (ii) the colloidal metal organic framework (MOF) method. The initial organization process is a planar checkerboard patterned formation (2D platform) of zinc porphyrins organized by paddlewheel secondary building units (PSBUs) between carboxylate and zinc ions. Then, DABCO moieties are decorated on zinc atoms in the metal centres of the porphyrin rings (m-cPDC) in the solvothermal method, whereas the metal centres in the porphyrin rings (n-uPDC) remain uncoordinated in the colloidal MOF method. These internal structural changes between m-cPDC and n-uPDC are in sharp contrast with the corresponding reference systems using ZnTCPP and a 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY) ligand (i.e., m-cPBC and n-cPBC). Concretely, the metal centres of zinc porphyrins in n-uPDC were unsaturated and uncoordinated with the DABCO ligands, which was confirmed by XRD and steady-state spectroscopic measurements. These different coordination features have great effect on the spectroscopic and photophysical properties. For example, the average fluorescence lifetime of m-cPDC is much smaller than that of n-uPDC because of the acceleration of nonradiative processes, which are highly related with the coordination of DABCO to the Zn(ii) centre of the ZnTCPP unit. Finally, fluorescence quenching experiments via photoinduced electron transfer (PET) utilizing an electron acceptor: benzoquinone (BQ) were performed. The apparent association constant (Kapp) of n-uPDC is larger than that of m-cPDC. This suggested that the unsaturated ZnTCPP units embedded in n-uPDC easily accommodate guest molecules as compared to the other systems. PMID:26821786

  4. Depletion effect of oxide semiconductor analyzed by Hall effects.

    PubMed

    Oh, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    This letter discusses the tunneling behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) analyzed through the observation of its Hall effects. The properties of the a-IGZO changed from those of a majority carrier to those of a minority carrier after the annealing process as a result of the electron-hole recombination due to the thermal activation energy and the formation of a depletion layer with a high-potential Schottky barrier. Therefore, the diffusion current of these minority charge carriers caused ambipolar transfer characteristics, a tunneling behavior, in the metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor. PMID:25971008

  5. Electrical and Optical Properties of Hydrogen Doped Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Low Cost Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Young; Kwon, Samyoung; Kim, Eung Kwon; Choi, Wonseok; Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrate using a magnetron sputtering system. In this work, a powder target was used as a source material for low cost applications, instead of a conventional sintered ceramic target. The effects of the hydrogen gas ratio on the electrical and optical properties of the AZO films. The hydrogen doped AZO (AZO:H) films had a hexagonal polycrystalline structure. A small amount of hydrogen gas deteriorated the electrical and optical properties of the AZO:H films. However, these properties improved, as the H2/(H2 + Ar) gas ratio increased. The AZO:H films grown at an H2/(H2+Ar) ratio of 10% showed good properties for low cost applications, such as a low resistivity of 1.35 x 10(-3) Ω-cm, high average transmittance of 83.1% in the visible range of light. PMID:27483879

  6. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, R.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide receives remarkable attention due to its several attractive physical properties. Zinc oxide thin films doped with nitrogen were grown by employing RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. Doping was accomplished in gaseous medium by mixing high purity nitrogen gas along with argon sputtering gas. Structural studies confirmed the high crystalline nature with c-axis oriented growth of the nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin films. The tensile strain was developed due to the incorporation of the nitrogen into the ZnO crystal lattice. Surface roughness of the grown films was found to be decreased with increasing doping level was identified through atomic force microscope analysis. The presenting phonon modes of each film were confirmed through FTIR spectral analysis. The increasing doping level leads towards red-shifting of the cut-off wavelength due to decrement of the band gap was identified through UV-vis spectroscopy. All the doped films exhibited p-type conductivity was ascertained using Hall measurements and the obtained results were presented.

  7. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Bibo; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide.

  8. Electromechanical properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide transistors structured with an island configuration on plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Na, Hyung Il; Yoo, Soon Sung; Park, Kwon-Shik

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of the electromechanical properties was carried out on a low-temperature-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor, particularly with regard to the structural design of the device under the stress accumulation of an outward bending surface. Shown herein is the reliable electromechanical integrity of island-structured devices against the mechanical strain at bending radii of mm order. The onset of crack strain also closely corresponded to the electrical failure of the stressed device. These results revealed that the island configuration on the bending surface effectively suppresses the stress accumulation on sheets composed of inorganic stacked layers in a uniaxial direction.

  9. Solution processed zinc oxide nanopyramid/silver nanowire transparent network films with highly tunable light scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Saahil; Christoforo, Mark G.; Peumans, Peter; Salleo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    Metal nanowire transparent networks are promising replacements to indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices. While the transparency and sheet resistance are key metrics for transparent electrode performance, independent control of the film light scattering properties is important to developing multifunctional electrodes for improved photovoltaic absorption. Here we show that controlled incorporation of ZnO nanopyramids into a metal nanowire network film affords independent, highly tunable control of the scattering properties (haze) with minimal effects on the transparency and sheet resistance. Varying the zinc oxide/silver nanostructure ratios prior to spray deposition results in sheet resistances, transmission (600 nm), and haze (600 nm) of 6-30 Ω □-1, 68-86%, and 34-66%, respectively. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanopyramid scattering agents into the conducting nanowire mesh has a negligible effect on mesh connectivity, providing a straightforward method of controlling electrode scattering properties. The decoupling of the film scattering power and electrical characteristics makes these films promising candidates for highly scattering transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices and can be generalized to other metal nanowire films as well as carbon nanotube transparent electrodes.

  10. Low-Temperature Sintering and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Zn2SiO4 Ceramic Added with Crystalline Zinc Borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaware, Varsha; Deshmukh, Ravindra; Sarode, Chetan; Gokhale, Suresh; Phatak, Girish

    2015-07-01

    The physical and dielectric properties of composites of known microwave materials, Zn2SiO4 and Zn3B2O6, prepared by solid-state reaction, were investigated with the purpose of developing a low-loss dielectric material for low-temperature co-fired ceramic applications. An off-stoichiometric phase of Zn2SiO4 with extra SiO2 was used to avoid the occurrence of unreacted ZnO. During sintering, zinc borate was found to partially react with residual SiO2 to form Zn2SiO4. The residual zinc borate was converted to a boron-rich glassy phase which helped to reduce the sintering temperature of the composite. Good relative sintering density (>90%) at temperatures below the melting temperature of zinc borate is indicative of a sintering mechanism of diffusion-based mass transfer. Composites containing 15 wt.% zinc borate, 2.5 wt.% lithium carbonate and 20 wt.% zinc borate in zinc silicate had dielectric constants of 6.8 and 6.1, quality factors (Q×f) of 48,800 and 94,300 GHz when sintered at 900°C and 950°C, respectively. These quality factor results are close to the best values reported for zinc silicate at these sintering temperatures.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Silicone Rubber Acoustic Lens Material Doped with Fine Zinc Oxide Powders for Ultrasonic Medical Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Noriko; Yohachi; Yamashita; Itsumi, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical properties of high-temperature-vulcanization silicone (Q) rubber doped with zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powders have been investigated to develop an acoustic lens material with high reliability. The ZnO-doped Q rubber with an acoustic impedance (Z) of 1.46×106 kg·m-2·s-1 showed a tear strength of 43 N/mm and an elongation of 560%. These mechanical property values were about 3 times higher than those of conventional acoustic Q lens materials. The ZnO-doped Q rubbers also showed a lower abrasion loss. These superior characteristics are attributable to the microstructure with fewer origins of breaks; few pores and spherical fine ZnO powder. The high mechanical properties of ZnO-doped Q rubber acoustic lenses enable higher performance during long-life and safe operation during diagnosis using medical array probe applications.

  12. Toxicity of Functional Nano-Micro Zinc Oxide Tetrapods: Impact of Cell Culture Conditions, Cellular Age and Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Kaps, Sören; Paulowicz, Ingo; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Elbahri, Mady; Maser, Edmund; Adelung, Rainer; Röhl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    With increasing production and applications of nanostructured zinc oxide, e.g., for biomedical and consumer products, the question of safety is getting more and more important. Different morphologies of zinc oxide structures have been synthesized and accordingly investigated. In this study, we have particularly focused on nano-micro ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T), because their large scale fabrication has been made possible by a newly introduced flame transport synthesis approach which will probably lead to several new applications. Moreover, ZnO-T provide a completely different morphology then classical spherical ZnO nanoparticles. To get a better understanding of parameters that affect the interactions between ZnO-T and mammalian cells, and thus their biocompatibility, we have examined the impact of cell culture conditions as well as of material properties on cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the cell density of fibroblasts in culture along with their age, i.e., the number of preceding cell divisions, strongly affect the cytotoxic potency of ZnO-T. Concerning the material properties, the toxic potency of ZnO-T is found to be significantly lower than that of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO-T influenced cellular toxicity in contrast to surface charges modified by UV illumination or O2 treatment and to the material age. Finally, we have observed that direct contact between tetrapods and cells increases their toxicity compared to transwell culture models which allow only an indirect effect via released zinc ions. The results reveal several parameters that can be of importance for the assessment of ZnO-T toxicity in cell cultures and for particle development. PMID:24454775

  13. Influence of a Boron Precursor on the Growth and Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited Zinc Oxide Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Fabien; Thomere, Angélica; Bris, Arthur Le; Collin, Stéphane; Lincot, Daniel; Rousset, Jean

    2016-05-18

    Highly transparent and conductive materials are required for many industrial applications. One of the interesting features of ZnO is the possibility to dope it using different elements, hence improving its conductivity. Results concerning the zinc oxide thin films electrodeposited in a zinc perchlorate medium containing a boron precursor are presented in this study. The addition of boron to the electrolyte leads to significant effects on the morphology and crystalline structure as well as an evolution of the optical properties of the material. Varying the concentration of boric acid from 0 to 15 mM strongly improves the compactness of the deposit and increases the band gap from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Investigations were also conducted to estimate and determine the influence of boric acid on the electrical properties of the ZnO layers. As a result, no doping effect effect by boron was demonstrated. However, the role of boric acid on the material quality has also been proven and discussed. Boric acid strongly contributes to the growth of high quality electrodeposited zinc oxide. The high doping level of the film can be attributed to the perchlorate ions introduced in the bath. Finally, a ZnO layer electrodeposited in a boron rich electrolyte was tested as front contact of a Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 based solar cell. An efficiency of 12.5% was measured with a quite high fill factor (>70%) which confirms the high conductivity of the ZnO thin film. PMID:27111517

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of zinc blende half-metal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, C. Y.; Qian, M. C.; Pask, J. E.; Yang, L. H.; Dag, S.

    2004-01-01

    Zinc blende half-metallic compounds such as CrAs, with large magnetic moments and high Curie temperatures, are promising materials for spintronic applications. We explore layered materials, consisting of alternating layers of zinc blende half-metals, by first principles calculations, and find that superlattices of (CrAs)1(MnAs)1 and (CrAs)2(MnAs)2 are half-metallic with magnetic moments of 7.0μB and 14.0μB per unit cell, respectively. We discuss the nature of the bonding and half-metallicity in these materials and, based on the understanding acquired, develop a simple expression for the magnetic moment in such materials. We explore the range of lattice constants over which half-metallicity is manifested, and suggest corresponding substrates for growth in thin film form.

  15. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  16. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  17. Changes in triphasic mechanical properties of proteoglycan-depleted articular cartilage extracted from osmotic swelling behavior monitored using high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zheng, Y P; Niu, H J

    2010-03-01

    This study aims to obtain osmosis-induced swelling strains of normal and proteoglycan (PG) depleted articular cartilage using an ultrasound system and to investigate the changes in its mechanical properties due to the PG depletion using a layered triphasic model. The swelling strains of 20 cylindrical cartilage-bone samples collected from different bovine patellae were induced by decreasing the concentration of bath saline and monitored by the ultrasound system. The samples were subsequently digested by a trypsin solution for approximately 20 min to deplete proteoglycans, and the swelling behaviors of the digested samples were measured again. The bi-layered triphasic model proposed in our previous study (Wang et al., J Biomech Eng-Trans ASME 2007; 129: 413-422) was used to predict the layered aggregate modulus Ha from the data of depth-dependent swelling strain, fixed charge density and water content. It was found that the region near the bone, for the normal specimens, had a significantly higher aggregate modulus (Ha1 = 20.6 +/- 18.2 MPa) in comparison with the middle zone and the surface layer (Ha2 = 7.8 +/- 14.5 MPa and Ha3 = 3.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively) (p < 0.001). The normalized thickness of the deep layer h1 was 0.68 +/- 0.20. After the trypsin digestion, the parametric values decreased to Ha1 = 13.6 +/- 9.6 MPa, Ha2 = 6.7 +/- 11.5 MPa, Ha3 = 2.7 +/- 3.2 MPa, and h1 = 0.57 +/- 0.28. Other models were also used to analyze data and the results were compared. This study showed that high-frequency ultrasound measurement combined with the triphasic modeling was capable of nondestructively quantifying the alterations in the layered mechanical properties of the proteoglycan-depleted articular cartilage. PMID:20806723

  18. The effects of the pressure and the oxygen content of the sputtering gas on the structure and the properties of zinc oxy-nitride thin films deposited by reactive sputtering of zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nanke; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2013-02-01

    Zinc nitride and oxy-nitride thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron rf sputtering of zinc in either nitrogen-argon or nitrogen-argon-oxygen ambient. The effects of varying the total sputtering pressure and the oxygen fraction in the total sputtering gas mixture on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties were investigated. With increasing the sputtering pressure, the dominant phase comprising the film material changes from the crystalline zinc nitride phase to crystalline zinc oxide. The characteristic pressure, at which this change in the dominant phase is observed, decreases with the increase of the oxygen fraction in the total sputtering gas mixture. The increase of the oxygen content in the films (from 5 at.% to a maximum of 40 at.%) and the downward shift in the optical absorption edge (from 920 to 400 nm), combined with the x-ray diffraction data, support these observations, indicating the controllable fabrication of an oxy-nitride film material. Correlations between the films’ fabrication conditions, including post-deposition annealing, their structure and composition, and their electrical properties are examined as well.

  19. Electron depletion and accumulation regions in n-type copper-hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine and their effects on electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibo; Liu, Zengtao; Fai Lo, Ming; Wai Ng, Tsz; Yan, Donghang; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2012-03-01

    We investigated interfacial electronic structures of organic/inorganic heterojunctions formed between copper-hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) and molybdenum trioxide or lead monoxide by ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission spectroscopies. Obvious energy level bending in F16CuPc shows the formation of electron depletion and accumulation regions in its contact with molybdenum and lead oxides, respectively. Effects of these depletion/accumulation zones were studied via electronic characteristics of field-effect transistors constructed with these heterojunctions as active layers. Finally, a summary about the heterojunction including organic semiconductor (n-type and p-type) and metal oxide was given, which demonstrated that organic semiconductors can form various space charge regions like conventional inorganic semiconductors.

  20. Structural and electronic properties of ni-doped ZnO in zinc-blende phase: A DFT investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Bakhtiar Ul; Ahmed, R.; Afaq, A.; Shaari, A.; Zarshenas, M.

    2012-09-01

    In the present work investigations of structural and electronic properties of nickel doped ZnO in zinc-blende phase have been done in the framework of density functional theory. In doping process 25% cations (Zn atoms) have been replaced by Ni atoms. Wu-Cohen parameterized Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA-WC) is used for exchange and correlation energy functional treatment. Our calculations for structural properties reveal a reduction in lattice constant with Ni doping. Whereas the spin polarized electronic structures show metallic behavior of ZnO in the presence of Ni impurity atoms for both up and down spin configuration. Moreover we present calculated density of states to understand the effect of Ni doping on ZnO.

  1. Spectral and Electroluminescent Properties of Binuclear Zinc Complexes with Halogen-Substituted Derivatives of 1,2,4-Triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, T. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Samsonova, L. G.; Gadirov, R. M.; Gusev, A. N.; Shul'gin, V. F.; Meshkova, S. B.

    2015-03-01

    Spectral properties of binuclear zinc complexes in chloroform solutions and polyvinylcarbazole (PVC) films are investigated. It is demonstrated that incorporation of a halogen atom (chlorine or bromine) in a ligand benzene ring leads to a small shift of the spectrum toward the red region and a reduction of the fluorescence quantum yield. The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra at T = 77K are investigated. The fluorescence undergoes a blue shift of about 30 nm and multiply increases in the intensity, and the phosphorescence is observed at 540-580 nm. The phosphorescence lifetime is estimated. The electroluminescent properties of metal complexes in structures with thermal vacuum spin coating of complexes and in PVC films are investigated.

  2. Synthesis of zinc oxide particles coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Dielectric properties, electromagnetic interference shielding and microwave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wei-Li; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Wen, Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Cheng, Jin; Yuan, Jie

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: A resistor–capacitor model could well describe the relationships between the structure and the dielectric properties, electromagnetic interference shielding and microwave-absorption of the composites in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The resonant behavior associated with the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/zinc oxide (MWCNTs/ZnO) interface greatly broadens the absorption band. Highlights: ► ZnO-immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs/ZnO) have resonant behavior. ► A resistor–capacitor model describes the relation between the structure and properties. ► The composite with 40 wt% MWCNTs/ZnO has good electromagnetic interference shielding. ► Two different types of absorption peaks are found in the MWCNTs/ZnO composites. ► The existence of MWCNTs/ZnO interface broadens the absorption band. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were coated on the surfaces of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that the wurtzite ZnO immobilized on the MWCNTs is single-crystalline with a preferential [0 0 0 2] growth direction. A capacitor was generated by the interface of ZnO and MWCNTs, and a resistor–capacitor model could well describe the relationships between the structure and the dielectric properties, electromagnetic interference shielding and microwave-absorption of the composites in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The network built by ZnO-immobilized MWCNTs could contribute to the improvement of electrical properties. Resonant peaks associated with the capacitor formed by the interface were observed in the microwave absorption spectra, which suggest that reflection–loss peaks greatly broadens the absorption bandwidth.

  3. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  4. Effect of zinc concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of mixed Co-Zn ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol/gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ali, M.; El Maalam, K.; El Moussaoui, H.; Mounkachi, O.; Hamedoun, M.; Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesization of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0-0.3) has been achieved by the sol/gel method. The characterization of the synthesized nano-particles has been done by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The relation between the composition and magnetic properties has been investigated by Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS). The results revealed that the nanoparticles size is in the range of 11-28 nm. It was found that the zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increases saturation magnetization from 60.92 emu/g (x=0) to 74.67 emu/g (x=0.3). Nevertheless, zinc concentrations cause a significant decrease in coercivity.

  5. pH effect on structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Munef, R. A.

    2015-03-30

    ZnO nanostructures were Deposited on Objekttrager glasses for various pH values by chemical bath deposition method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O (zinc nitrate hexahydrate) solution at 75°C reaction temperature without any posterior treatments. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, UV). The structure was hexagonal and it was found that some peaks disappear with various pH values. The grain sizes of ZnO films increases from 22-to-29nm with increasing pH. The transmission of the films was (85-95%)

  6. Photoelectrical, optical, and transport properties of poly (3-hexylthiophene)-zinc sulfide hybrid nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Beerandra; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-08-14

    We have synthesized nanocomposites of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) at 273 K and zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles at 353 K by the chemical route method. The synthesis of these nanocomposites is confirmed by UV-visible, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. We have measured photocurrent of P3HT using 50 W tungsten lamp. The photoconductivity increases with concentration of ZnS in P3HT-ZnS composite. Temperature dependent dc conductivity of P3HT and its nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated in light of Mott's variable range hopping.

  7. Relationship between microstructure and electronic properties of energetically deposited zinc tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, Billy James; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Partridge, James G.

    2016-06-01

    Thin films of amorphous n-type zinc tin oxide have been energetically deposited from a filtered cathodic vacuum arc at moderate temperatures. The characteristics of these films span a range suitable for semiconductor devices and transparent conducting oxide interconnects with carrier concentration and mobility dependent on local bonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron diffraction have revealed that acceptor-like Sn(II) bonding in the films decreased with increasing growth temperature, resulting in higher n-type carrier concentrations. XPS and in situ Ar plasma treatment showed that downward surface band bending resulted from OH attachment. Persistent photoconductivity was attributed to the photoionization of oxygen vacancies.

  8. Optical properties of Dy3+ doped bismuth zinc borate glass and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Kanth Kumar, V. V. Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Dy3+ doped bismuth zinc borate transparent glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and these glasses were used precursor to obtain transparent glass ceramics by heat treatment method. XRD pattern of the glass ceramic shows the formation of the β-BiB3O6 and Bi2ZnOB2O6 phases. The visible emission intensity of the glass ceramics is stronger than the glass. This can be due to the formation of nano nonlinear optical crystallites in glass matrix.

  9. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence properties of A2B2 zinc porphyrins: the effect of π-extended conjugation.

    PubMed

    Galván-Miranda, Elizabeth K; Castro-Cruz, Hiram M; Arturo Arias-Orea, J; Iurlo, Matteo; Valenti, Giovanni; Marcaccio, Massimo; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma A

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of two A2B2 porphyrins, {5,15-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphyrinato}zinc(ii) () and {5,15-bis-(carbazol-3-yl-ethynyl)-10,20-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphinato}-zinc(ii) (), is reported. Their photophysical properties were studied by steady-state absorption and emission. Substituting the carbazolylethynyl moieties at two of the meso positions results in a large bathochromic shift of all the absorption bands, a notable increase in the absorption coefficient of the Q(0,0) band, and higher fluorescence quantum yield compared to porphyrin , with two unsubstituted meso positions. Cyclic voltammetry and digital simulation show that electrogenerated radical ions of are more stable than those of . The lack of substituents at the meso positions of leads to dimerization reactions of the radical cation. Despite this, the annihilation reaction of and produces very similar electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) intensity. Spectroelectrochemical experiments demonstrate that the electroreduction of leads to a strong absorption band that might quench the ECL. PMID:27194584

  10. Fundamental Properties of One-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials and Implementations in Various Detection Modes of Enhanced Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Jong-in

    2016-05-01

    Recent bioapplications of one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials, despite the short development period, have shown promising signs as new sensors and assay platforms offering exquisite biomolecular sensitivity and selectivity. The incorporation of 1D ZnO nanomaterials has proven beneficial to various modes of biodetection owing to their inherent properties. The more widely explored electrochemical and electrical approaches tend to capitalize on the reduced physical dimensionality, yielding a high surface-to-volume ratio, as well as on the electrical properties of ZnO. The newer development of the use of 1D ZnO nanomaterials in fluorescence-based biodetection exploits the innate optical property of their high anisotropy. This review considers stimulating research advances made to identify and understand fundamental properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials, and examines various biosensing modes utilizing them, while focusing on the unique optical properties of individual and ensembles of 1D ZnO nanomaterials specifically pertaining to their bio-optical applications in simple and complex fluorescence assays.

  11. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of nano nickel zinc ferrite synthesized by reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Sangeeta; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrites (Ni 0.58Zn 0.42Fe 2O 4) at different pH values (less than 9.6, 9.6, 10.96, and 11.40) for the alkali-precipitating reaction were synthesized by reverse micelle technique. X-ray diffraction reveals a well-defined nickel-zinc ferrite crystal phase at pH=9.6. Increase in pH value obstructs pure-phase formation and results in partial formation of α-Fe 2O 3. The magnetic behaviour of the samples was studied by superconducting quantum interference device. All the samples show superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature (300 K) and negligible hysteresis at low temperature (5 K). The low value of saturation magnetization is explained on the basis of spin canting. The high-field irreversibility and shifting of the hysteresis loop detected in single-phase sample has been assigned to a spin-disordered phase, which has a spin-freezing temperature of approximately 42 K and other two samples have an antiferromagnetic phase (α-Fe 2O 3) coupled to the ferromagnetic phase.

  13. Synthesis and controlled release properties of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Bashi, Abbas M.; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Tichit, Didier

    2013-07-15

    Direct reaction of ZnO with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (24D) solutions of different concentrations allows obtaining new organic–inorganic nanohybrid materials formed by intercalation of 24D into interlayers of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH). XRD patterns show a progressive evolution of the structure as 24D concentration increases. The nanohybrid obtained at higher 24D concentration (24D–ZLH(0.4)) reveals a well ordered layered structure with two different basal spacings at 25.2 Å and 24 Å. The FTIR spectrum showing the vibrations bands of the functional groups of 24D and of the ZLH confirms the intercalation. SEM images are in agreement with the structural evolution observed by XRD and reveal the ribbon morphology of the nanohybrids. The release studies of 24D showed a rapid release of 94% for the first 100 min governed by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. - Graphical abstract: The phenomenon indicates that the optical energy gap is enlarged with the increase of molar concentrations in 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate anion content into ZnO to create a ZLH–24D nanohybrid. - Highlights: • Nanohybrid was synthesized from 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate with-Zinc LHD, using wet chemistry. • Characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD and TGA. • Ribbon-shaped 24D–Zn-layered hydroxide nanoparticles with (003) diffractions of 2.5 nm phase were synthesized.

  14. Influence of alumina on mineralogy and environmental properties of zinc-copper smelting slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa; Björkman, Bo

    2013-03-01

    An iron-silicate slag, from a zinc-copper smelting process, and mixtures of this slag with 5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt% alumina addition were re-melted, semi-rapidly solidified, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The FactSage™6.2 thermodynamic package was applied to compare the stable phases at equilibrium conditions with experimental characterization. A standard European leaching test was also carried out for all samples to investigate the changes in leaching behaviour because of the addition of alumina. Results show that the commonly reported phases for slags from copper and zinc production processes (olivine, pyroxene, and spinel) are the major constituents of the current samples. A correlation can be seen between mineralogical characteristics and leaching behaviours. The sample with 10wt% alumina addition, which contains high amounts of spinels and lower amounts of the other soluble phases, shows the lowest leachabilities for most of the elements.

  15. Tuning electrical properties in amorphous zinc tin oxide thin films for solution processed electronics.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R Devi; Rao, Manohar; Zhang, Keke; Prabhakar, Rajiv Ramanujam; Shi, Chen; Zhang, Jie; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

    2014-01-22

    Solution processed zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated by varying the Zn/Sn composition. The addition of Sn to the zinc oxide (ZnO) films resulted in improved electrical characteristics, with devices of Zn0.7Sn0.3O composition showing the highest mobility of 7.7 cm(2)/(V s). An improvement in subthreshold swings was also observed, indicative of a reduction of the interfacial trap densities. Mobility studies at low temperature have been carried out, which indicated that the activation energy was reduced with Sn incorporation. Kelvin probe force microscopy was performed on the films to evaluate work function and correlated to the metal-semiconductor barrier indicating Zn0.7Sn0.3O films had the smallest barrier for charge injection. Organic-inorganic hybrid complementary inverters with a maximum gain of 10 were fabricated by integrating ZTO TFTs with poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors. PMID:24380364

  16. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  17. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g(-1). The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres. PMID:25684436

  18. Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide doped by V2O5 synthesized by solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaira, R.; Dammak, T.; Matoussi, A.; Younes, A.

    2016-03-01

    Vanadium doped zinc oxide with different vanadium concentration were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. The structural and optical properties of ZnO: V2O5 pellets were studied by using a panalytic diffraktometer (X'pert) with Cu-K radiation, the UV-visible spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL). X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that all the samples have a wurtzite structure and grow mainly in the (101) orientation, we show also the presence of dominated phase Zn3 (VO4)2, Optical studied indicate a decrease in optical band gap energy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed a strong visible emission band, energy position and intensity of this emission depends on the temperature measurement. The activate energy Ea has been fitted and studied using Arunis equation.

  19. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of 1-alkyl-2-(2'-tosylaminophenyl)-5-nitrobenzimidazoles and their zinc(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlov, Anatolii S.; Koshchienko, Yurii V.; Kiskin, Mikhail A.; Nikolaevskii, Stanislav A.; Garnovskii, Dmitrii A.; Lermontov, Anatolii S.; Makarova, Nadegda I.; Metelitsa, Anatolii V.; Eremenko, Igor L.

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 1-alkyl-2-(2'-tosylaminophenyl)-5-nitrobenzimidazoles with common formulas HL (1-3) (R = C2H5 (1); R = n-C3H7 (2); R = n-C4H9(3)) and their mononuclear zinc(II) complexes ZnL2 (4-6) have been synthesized in a molar ratio Zn: HL = 1:2 in methanol solutions. Formulation of 1-6 is based upon satisfactory C, H, N, S elemental analyses, IR and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopies, while the structures of 2, 3, 5, 6 were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The optical properties of 1-6 were investigated.

  20. The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, B. S.; Choi, Daniel S.; Wu, H. C.; Shvets, I. V.; Abid, M.; Chu, I. C.; Serrano-Guisan, S.

    2010-08-23

    We investigated the effect on the electronic properties of aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) films by modulating the radio frequency sputtering power. Our experimental results show that increasing the sputtering power increases the Al doping concentration, decreases the resistivity, and also shifts the Zn 2p and O 1s to higher binding energy states. Our local-density approximation (LDA) and LDA+U calculations show that the shift in higher binding energy and resistivity decrease are due to an enhancement of the O 2p-Zn 3d coupling and the modification of the Zn 4s-O 2p interaction in ZnO induced by Al doping.

  1. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  2. Effect of annealing on the properties of zinc oxide nanofiber thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda Kumar, N.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanofiber thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline with the hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation along (002) direction for films annealed for 1 h at 450 °C. Further increase in annealing time changes the preferred orientation to (100) direction. The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed the formation of ZnO nanofiber with an average diameter of approximately 800 nm for annealed films. The compositional analysis of nanofiber ZnO thin films were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, which indicated oxygen deficiency in the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.29 and 3.20 eV. The electrical conductivity of the as grown and annealed films showed an increase in the conductivity by two orders of magnitude with increase in annealing duration.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films irradiated by 90 keV neon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafton, E. V.; Bulai, G.; Caltun, O. F.; Cervera, S.; Macé, S.; Trassinelli, M.; Steydli, S.; Vernhet, D.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of 90 keV neon beam irradiation on the structure and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films have been investigated through several methods, namely, X-ray diffraction technique, Vibrating Sample and SQUID magnetometers. Beforehand, the pristine have also been characterized using profilometry and microscopy techniques. In particular single-phase formation of the thin films deposited on monocrystalline Si (111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique was confirmed. Crystal lattice, coercivity, saturation magnetization have been studied for the first time, as a function of ion penetration depth and irradiation fluence. The chemical composition and the crystallinity of the films are not affected with the ion impact acting as a mechanical stress relief. On the contrary, both magnetization and coercivity are sensitive to Neq+ ion irradiation and exhibit different behaviours depending on the ion fluence range.

  4. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Azam; Hussain, Mushtaque; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-08-01

    The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

  5. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20–40 Ω/□ to 7–15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  6. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Ngoc Phan, Vu; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-19

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20-40 Ω/□ to 7-15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%. PMID:27378668

  7. The effect of Cu doping on the mechanical and optical properties of zinc oxide nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal route.

    PubMed

    Robak, Elżbieta; Coy, Emerson; Kotkowiak, Michał; Jurga, Stefan; Załęski, Karol; Drozdowski, Henryk

    2016-04-29

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor material with applications in a variety of fields such as electronics, optoelectronic and solar cells. However, much of these applications demand a reproducible, reliable and controllable synthesis method that takes special care of their functional properties. In this work ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanowires are obtained by an optimized hydrothermal method, following the promising results which ZnO nanostructures have shown in the past few years. The morphology of as-prepared and copper-doped ZnO nanostructures is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction is used to study the impact of doping on the crystalline structure of the wires. Furthermore, the mechanical properties (nanoindentation) and the functional properties (absorption and photoluminescence measurements) of ZnO nanostructures are examined in order to assess their applicability in photovoltaics, piezoelectric and hybrids nanodevices. This work shows a strong correlation between growing conditions, morphology, doping and mechanical as well as optical properties of ZnO nanowires. PMID:26987563

  8. The effect of Cu doping on the mechanical and optical properties of zinc oxide nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robak, Elżbieta; Coy, Emerson; Kotkowiak, Michał; Jurga, Stefan; Załęski, Karol; Drozdowski, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor material with applications in a variety of fields such as electronics, optoelectronic and solar cells. However, much of these applications demand a reproducible, reliable and controllable synthesis method that takes special care of their functional properties. In this work ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanowires are obtained by an optimized hydrothermal method, following the promising results which ZnO nanostructures have shown in the past few years. The morphology of as-prepared and copper-doped ZnO nanostructures is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction is used to study the impact of doping on the crystalline structure of the wires. Furthermore, the mechanical properties (nanoindentation) and the functional properties (absorption and photoluminescence measurements) of ZnO nanostructures are examined in order to assess their applicability in photovoltaics, piezoelectric and hybrids nanodevices. This work shows a strong correlation between growing conditions, morphology, doping and mechanical as well as optical properties of ZnO nanowires.

  9. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  10. Significant improvement in electronic properties of transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide through yttrium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Yu, Zhigen; Huang, Yanhua; Xia, Yijie; Lai, Weng Soon; Gong, Hao

    2014-04-01

    One big challenge in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is to achieve high conductivity and mobility at a low processing temperature. Although optimized conductivity has been achieved in indium zinc oxide (IZO) without doping, it is still interesting to find whether doping can improve conductivity of IZO further. In this paper, we report a low processing temperature achievement of high conductivity and mobility of IZO through yttrium (Y) doping. We found that with different Y doping levels, room temperature fabricated amorphous IZO (a-IZO) samples can be controlled to exhibit either metallic or semiconductor characteristics. Y2O3 is demonstrated to be an effective doping source to achieve conductivity 300% higher than the non-doped IZO sample. Anomalously improved mobility of certain Y2O3-doped IZO samples compared with the non-doped IZO sample is found and analyzed. Besides, a low-temperature resistivity anomaly (semiconductor metal transition) phenomenon is observed and discussed.

  11. Analysis of proton single-particle properties of zinc and germanium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalova, O. V. Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.

    2014-12-15

    Experimental proton single-particle energies in the vicinity of the Fermi energy for stable zinc and germanium isotopes are analyzed on the basis the dispersive optical model. The values found for the parameters of the dispersive optical potential are corrected with the aim of matching the total number of protons that is calculated with the aid of the function of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for the occupation probability for single-particle orbits with the charge number Z of the nucleus. The parameters of the dispersive optical potential are extrapolated on the basis of physically motivated arguments to the region of unstable isotopes in which the number N ranges between 34 and 50, and single-particle spectra are predicted by means of calculations with these parameters.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on dielectric properties of manganese zinc nanoferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Angadi, V. Jagadeesha Rudraswamy, B.; Melagiriyappa, E.; Somashekarappa, H. M.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2014-04-24

    Naocrystalline ferrites Mn{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00) were prepared by combustion method. The samples were characterized by XRD technique. The dielectric measurements were carried out in the frequency range 40 Hz to 100 MHz at room temperature. All the measurements were performed before and after gamma {sup 60}Co irradiation. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of nanocrystalline and single-phase spinel structure. The lattice parameter decrease with zinc ion concentration and increased after the irradiation due to ferric ions of smaller radius converted to ferrous ions of larger radius. The dielectric behavior is attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization. The dielctric contant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity enhanced after the irradiation.

  13. Novel zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone rigid dyad and its photoinduced electron transfer properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-H.; Guo, J.; Chen, L. X.; Mandal, B. K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-10-10

    While preparing the first structurally rigid zinc phthalocyanine-benzoquinone (ZnPc-BQ) dyad as a model for photoinduced charge separation mimicking natural photosynthesis, a convenient method is developed for in situ generation of a benzoquinone chromophore in the dyad using an iso-butyryl mask. The dyad has no rotamers and possesses a fixed distance between ZnPc and BQ moieties (center-to-center and edge-to-edge distances are 9.40 and 2.14 {angstrom}, respectively). The dyad displays unusual electronic perturbation in the ground state, resulting from the interactions between Pc and BQ, and exhibits photoinduced electron transfer with a lifetime of 40 ps of the charged separated states. The steady-state fluorescence and electrochemical behavior of the dyad are evaluated. This study opens a route to subsequent dyads, triads, and complex architectures of electron donor-acceptor arrays with rigid structures and long charge separation states.

  14. Photophysical and electrochemical properties of a dysprosium-zinc tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Qiu-Yan; Pei, Yun-Peng

    2016-02-01

    A dysprosium-zinc porphyrin, [DyZn(TPPS)H3O]n (1) (TPPS = tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin), was prepared through solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 features a three-dimensional (3-D) porous open framework that is thermally stable up to 400 °C. Complex 1 displays a void space of 215 Å(3), occupying 9.2% of the unit cell volume. The fluorescence spectra reveal that it shows an emission band in the red region. The fluorescence lifetime is 39 µsec and the quantum yield is 1.7%. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed one quasi-reversible wave with E1/2  = 0.30 V. PMID:26014749

  15. Effect of sintering temperature on structural property of X-type barium-zinc hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagdi, Amrin; Solanki, Neha; Jotania, Rajshree B.

    2016-05-01

    X-type Barium-Zinc hexaferrite powder with chemical composition Ba2Zn2Fe28O46 has been prepared using citrate gel auto combustion technique. The combusted powder waspre-heated at 550 °C for 4 hours followed by final calcinations of 1100 °C and 1250 °C for 5 hoursrespectively. Prepared hexaferrite samples were characterizedusingdifferent instrumental techniques such as FTIR and XRD. XRD analysis of the sample calcined at 1250 °C revealed formation of mono phase of X-type hexaferrite; while the sample calcined at 1100 °C shows multiphases of M, W and X-type hexaferrites. FTIR spectra of both samples show stretching of metal-oxide bands.

  16. Investigation of the photophysical and photochemical properties of peripherally tetra-substituted water-soluble zwitterionic and cationic zinc(ii) phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Senem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Yıldız, Salih Zeki

    2016-06-21

    In this study, 4-{4-[N-((3-dimethylamino)propyl)amide]phenoxy}phthalonitrile () and its zinc(ii) phthalocyanine derivative () were synthesized for the first time. 4-(N-((3-Dimethylamino)propyl)amide)phenoxy substituted zinc(ii) phthalocyanine () was converted to its water-soluble sulfobetaine (), betaine () and N-oxide () containing zwitterionic and quaternized cationic () derivatives. All newly synthesized compounds () were characterized by the combination of UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen quantum yields) properties were investigated in DMSO for all the synthesized zinc(ii) phthalocyanines () and in both DMSO and aqueous solutions for zwitterionic and cationic phthalocyanines () for the specification of their capability as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The binding behavior of water soluble phthalocyanines () to the bovine serum albumin protein was also examined for the determination of their transportation ability in the blood stream. PMID:27253970

  17. Preparation and study of magnetic properties of silico phosphate glass and glass-ceramics having iron and zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.; Singh, Sher; Prajapat, C. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Jagannath; Singh, M. R.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2009-11-01

    The magnetic properties of 25SiO 2-50CaO-15P 2O 5-(10- x)Fe 2O 3- xZnO (where x=0, 2, 5 mol%) glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. These glasses are prepared by melt quench technique and heat treated at 800 °C for 6 h. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) revealed that the fraction of non-bridging oxygen decreases with the increase in zinc oxide content. Evolution of crystalline phases in glass-ceramics has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits formation of nanosize particles. Effect of controlled heat treatment on magnetic properties was studied by means of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature was also carried out to determine the state of iron ions in glasses and glass-ceramics. Isomer shift values of the glasses suggest that Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ are in tetrahedral coordination. The analysis of the glass without ZnO shows about 58 wt% of total iron ions is in the Fe 3+ state. The samples on heat treatment show improved magnetic properties due to the formation of magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic studies revealed the relaxation of magnetic particles and the increase in saturation magnetization with addition of 2 mol% ZnO. Increase in ZnO content results in decrease in the strength of dipolar interactions.

  18. Judd-Ofelt analysis and spectral properties of Dy3+ ions doped niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, O.; Reddy, C. Madhukar; Reddy, B. Sudhakar; Deva Prasad Raju, B.

    2014-02-01

    Niobium containing tellurium calcium zinc borate (TCZNB) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quenching method and their optical properties have been studied. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4 and 6) were calculated using the least square fit method. Based on the magnitude of Ω2 parameter the hypersensitivity of 6H15/2→6F11/2 has also been discussed. From the evaluated J-O intensity parameters as well as from the emission and lifetime measurements, radiative transition properties such as radiative transition probability rates and branching ratios were calculated for 4F9/2 excited level. It is found that for Dy3+ ion, the transition 4F9/2→6H13/2 shows highest emission cross-section at 1.0 mol% TCZNB glass matrix. From the visible luminescence spectra, yellow to blue (Y/B) intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates were also estimated. The TCZNB glasses exhibit good luminescence properties and are suitable for generation of white light.

  19. Imaging Mobile Zinc in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Tomat, Elisa; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution and mobilization in live cells fuels the development of increasingly sophisticated probes. Detection systems that respond to zinc binding with changes of their fluorescence emission properties have provided sensitive tools for mobile zinc imaging, and fluorescence microscopy experiments have afforded depictions of zinc distribution within live cells and tissues. Both small-molecule and protein-based fluorescent probes can address complex imaging challenges, such as analyte quantification, site-specific sensor localization, and real-time detection. PMID:20097117

  20. Effect of Zinc Nitrate Concentration on the Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO Nanorods for Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Jae; Anwar, M S; Heo, Si-Nae; Koo, Bon Heun

    2016-06-01

    We report the effect of zinc nitrate (ZN) concentration on the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and their optical and morphological properties. As prepared ZnO nanorods on glass substrate were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis), Raman and Photo-luminescence (PL) spectroscopy. FE-SEM results show that the nanorods were obtained for the 0.033 and 0.053 M concentration of ZN. As the ZN concentration increased from 0.033 M to 0.053 M, the diameter of the nanorods was increased. It indicated that the diameter of the nanorods was affected by the ZN concentration. The Raman spectra of nanorods show only one peak at 438 cm(-1) corresponding to E2(high) high mode, which means that ZnO nanorods grown perpendicularly on the glass substrate, i.e., the ZnO nanorod arrays are highly c-axis oriented. Room-temperature PL spectrum of the as-grown ZnO nanorods reveals a near-band-edge (NBE) emission peak and defect induced green light emission. The green light emission band at -579 nm might be attributed to surface oxygen vacancies or defects. The UV-visible measurements reflect that the total transmittance for the as grown ZnO nanorods is over 80%. The simple technique presented in this study to grow ZnO nanorods on a glass substrate can be helpful for making the cost effective photovoltaic devices. PMID:27427680

  1. Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase is a calcium-activated zinc metalloprotein. Purification and properties of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Spungin, A; Blumberg, S

    1989-08-01

    A heat-stable aminopeptidase with an N-terminal Ala-Pro-Asp-Ile-Pro-Leu sequence has been purified from Streptomyces griseus by heat treatment followed by gel-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatographic procedures. The enzyme is a monomeric zinc metalloenzyme showing an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 21 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12. Calcium ions bind to the enzyme, pKCa 4.5, and activate it about sixfold when the substrate is leucine-4-nitroanilide (0.4 mM in 50 mM Tris/HCl pH 8.0, 25 degrees C). Binding of Ca2+ also contributes to the thermal stability of the protein. This aminopeptidase may be useful for two-stage assays of bacterial and mammalian metalloendopeptidases; it may also serve in studies of proteolytic enzyme activation by calcium ions. PMID:2503378

  2. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  3. Effect of filler loading of nickel zinc ferrite on the tensile properties of PLA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdan, Dalila; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical strength of magnetic polymer nanocomposite (MPNC) of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer is reported. The matrix was prepared from PLA and LNR in the ratio of 90:10. The MPNC were prepared at constant mixing temperature at 180°C, mixing time of 15 min. and mixing speed of 100 rpm. In order to achieve a good dispersion of NiZn ferrite in the matrix, firstly an ultrasonic treatment had been employed to mix the LNR and NiZn ferrite for 1 hour. The MPNC of PLA/LNR/NiZn ferrite then were prepared via Thermo Haake internal mixer using melt-blending method from different filler loading from 1-5 wt% NiZn ferrite. The result of tensile tests showed that as the filler loading increases the tensile strength also increases until an optimum value of filler loading was reached. The Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break have also increased. The study proves that NiZn ferrite is excellent reinforcement filler in PLA matrix. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were meant to show the homogeneity dispersion of nanoparticles within the matrix and to confirm the elemental composition of NiZn ferrites-PLA/LNR nanocomposites respectively.

  4. The electrical conduction properties of poly-crystalline indium-zinc-oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Tomai, S.; Terai, K.; Junke, T.; Tsuruma, Y.; Ebata, K.; Yano, K.; Uraoka, Y.

    2014-02-28

    We have developed a high-mobility and high-uniform oxide semiconductor using poly-crystalline semiconductor material composed of indium and zinc (p-IZO). A typical conduction mechanism of p-IZO film was demonstrated by the grain boundary scattering model as in polycrystalline silicon. The grain boundary potential of the 2-h-annealed IZO film was calculated to be 100 meV, which was comparable to that of the polycrystalline silicon. However, the p-IZO thin film transistor (TFT) measurement shows rather uniform characteristics. It denotes that the mobility deterioration around the grain boundaries is lower than the case for low-temperature polycrystalline silicon. This assertion was made based on the difference of the mobility between the polycrystalline and amorphous IZO film being much smaller than is the case for silicon transistors. Therefore, we conclude that the p-IZO is a promising material for a TFT channel, which realizes high drift mobility and uniformity simultaneously.

  5. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-01

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10-4 Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  6. Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of spin coated zinc oxide-polystyrene nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeeju, Pullarkat P.; Jayalekshmi, S.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Sudheesh, P.

    2012-11-01

    Using simple wet chemical method at room temperature, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene (PS) matrix were synthesized. The size of the ZnO nanoparticles could be varied by varying the precursor concentration, reaction time and stirring speed. Transparent films of ZnO/PS nanocomposites of thickness around 1 μm were coated on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates by spin coating. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in ZnO/PS nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two-photon absorption in ZnO. These films also show a self-defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The observed nonlinear absorption is strongly dependent on particle size and the normalized transmittance could be reduced to as low as 0.43 by the suitable choice of the ZnO nanoparticle size. These composite films can hence be used as efficient optical limiters for sensor protection. The much-pronounced nonlinear response of these composite films, compared to pure ZnO, combined with the improved stability of ZnO nanoparticles in the PS matrix offer prospects of application of these composite films in the fabrication of stable non-linear optical devices.

  7. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties and line profile analysis of zinc-substituted copper ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, A. R.; Jayanna, H. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Prasanna, G. D.; Chaturmukha, V. S.; Harish, B. M.; Suresh, S.; Avinash, B. S.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature dependence of dielectric constant and loss has been investigated for different compositions of Zinc substituted copper ferrites with general formula Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) prepared by ceramic method. XRD analysis confirms all the samples exhibit single phase cubic spinel structure. The dielectric constant and loss of the sample were studied in the temperature ranges from RT to 1000K at different constant frequency. Samples of the composition with x = 0.8 show low dielectric loss up to a measured temperature around 770 °C at higher frequencies as compared to samples of other compositions. A plot of dielectric constant versus temperature shows a transition near the Curie temperature, an attempt is made to explain the possible mechanism for this observation. The dielectric constant increases slowly from 309°C to 770°C with temperature in the beginning and sharply decreases with increase in frequency for all the samples. The variation of tanδ with frequency shows cusps for all the samples except for x = 0.6. These variations have been explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory. The variation of dielectric loss tangent with frequency showed maxima for the 1 KHz. These maxima are also found to shift towards low-frequency region as the content of Zn increases.

  8. Magnetic properties and adsorptive performance of manganese-zinc ferrites/activated carbon nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. B.; Xu, J. C.; Xin, P. H.; Han, Y. B.; Hong, B.; Jin, H. X.; Jin, D. F.; Peng, X. L.; Li, J.; Gong, J.; Ge, H. L.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, X. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the unique microstructure and high specific surface area, activated carbon (AC) could act as an excellent adsorbent for wastewater treatment and good carrier for functional materials. In this paper, manganese-zinc ferrites (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4: MZF) were anchored into AC by hydrothermal method, resulting in the excellent magnetic response for AC nanocomposites in wastewater treatment. All results demonstrated the magnetic nanoparticles presented a spinel phase structure and existed in the pores of AC. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of MZF/AC nanocomposites increased with the ferrites content, while the pore volume and specific surface area declined. The Sample-5 possessed the specific surface area of 1129 m2 g-1 (close to 1243 m2 g-1 of AC) and Ms of 3.96 emu g-1. Furthermore, the adsorptive performance for organic dyes was studied and 99% methylene blue was adsorbed in 30 min. The magnetic AC nanocomposites could be separated easily from solution by magnetic separation technique.

  9. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  10. Influence of low sputtering pressure on structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zengguang; Tang, Yang; Chen, Jingyun; Chen, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited without intentional heating by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering pressure varied from 0.02 Pa to 0.32 Pa while the deposition power was kept at 240 W for all depositions. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the deposited films have a strong preferred c-axis (002) orientation perpendicular to the substrate regardless of sputtering pressure. The minimum resistivity of 6.4×10-4 Ω cm is obtained at 0.05 Pa, which is mainly influenced by the hall mobility, rather than carrier concentration. The highest transmittance could be ~80% on average in the visible range under various working pressures, and the largest bandgap achieved is about 3.82 eV. The ultraviolet emission peaks in photoluminescence spectra are centered at about 360 nm. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the dependence of the electrical and optical properties on structural evolution of deposited films.

  11. The influence of zinc on the blood serum of cadmium-treated rats through the rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Sherif Aa; Alaamer, Abdulaziz; Abdelhalim, Mohamed A K

    2016-01-01

    The blood rheological properties serve as an important indicator for the early detection of many diseases. This study aimed to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) on blood serum of cadmium (Cd) intoxication-treated male rats through the rheological properties. The rheological parameters were measured in serum of control, Cd, and Cd+Zn groups at wide range of shear rates (225-1875 s(-1)). The rat blood serum showed a non-significant change in cadmium-treated rats' %torque and shear stress at the lower shear rates (200-600 s(-1)) while a significant increase was observed at the higher shear rates (650-1875 s(-1)) compared with the control. The rat blood serum viscosity increased significantly in the Cd-treated group at each shear rate compared with the control. The viscosity and shear rate exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior for all groups. The increase in blood serum viscosity in Cd-treated male rats might be attributed to destruction or changes in the non-clotting proteins, and other blood serum components. In Cd+Zn-treated rats, the rat blood serum viscosity values returned nearer to the control values at each shear rate. Our results confirmed that Zn displaced Cd or compete with the binding sites for Cd uptake. PMID:26492072

  12. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  13. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  14. Nanometer-scale Mechanical/Structural Properties of Molybdenum Dithiocarbamate and Zinc Dialkylsithiophosphate Tribofilms and Friction Reduction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiping; Araki, Sawa; Kano, Makoto; Yasuda, Yoshiteru

    2005-07-01

    Nanometer-scale differences in mechanical and structural properties between the molybdenum- dithiocarbamate/zinc-dialkylsithiophosphate (MoDTC/ZDDP) tribofilm and ZDDP tribofilm were successfully evaluated by using atomic force microscopic phase-image techniques, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photo spectroscopy. It is well known that the MoDTC/ZDDP tribofilm exhibits markedly lower friction behavior than the ZDDP tribofilm. To elucidate the mechanism of friction reduction originating from the MoDTC additive, attention was focused on property differences in the surface area in particular, from the uppermost surface to an underlying region of less than 10 nm in depth. It was found that the friction reduction due to the MoDTC/ZDDP additives originates from an inner skin layer formed by MoS2 nanostrips just below the surface. The MoS2 nanostrips were oriented in the sliding direction, had low yield strength and acted as a solid lubricant in lowering the friction coefficient of the MoDTC/ZDDP tribofilm.

  15. Luminescence properties of Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses for green laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Batalla, J.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Muñoz H., G.; Camarillo, I.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses of composition in mol%: (100.0 - x)Zn(PO3)2 - xTb2O3, x = 0.6, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0, were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and characterized by photoluminescence and decay time spectroscopy. The integrated intensities of the 5D4 → 7F5 (green at 541 nm) and 5D3 → 7F4 (blue at 435 nm) emissions and their intensity ratios IG/IB upon 350 nm excitation have been evaluated as function of Tb3+ concentration. The CIE1931 color of the glasses excited at 350 nm varies from turquoise to green by increasing the Tb3+ content. The increased IG/IB ratio up to a factor of 364 for the phosphor with the highest Tb3+ content (ZP5Tb) is consistent with the observed shift toward the green region in the CIE coordinates, so that the ZP5Tb glass exhibits a green color purity of 66.9% with chromaticity coordinates (0.290, 0.581), being very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. This interesting feature of the ZP5Tb phosphor, together with an experimental branching ratio larger than 60% of the 5D4 → 7F5 green emission, highlights its capability as solid state green laser pumped by AlGaN (350 nm) LEDs. The decay time profiles of the 5D3 level resulted to be non-exponential for all the studied concentrations due to energy transfer between Tb3+ ions through cross-relaxation. Such decay profiles were well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model for S = 6, which indicates that an electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the cross-relaxation energy transfer occurring in Tb3+ ion clusters.

  16. Mid- to long-wavelength infrared surface plasmon properties in doped zinc oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Justin W.; Snure, Michael; Leedy, Kevin D.; Look, David C.; Eyink, Kurt; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates properties of surface plasmons on doped metal oxides in the 2-20 μm wavelength regime. By varying the stoichiometry in pulse laser deposited Ga and Al doped ZnO, the plasmonic properties can be controlled via a fluctuating free carrier concentration. This deterministic approach may enable one to develop the most appropriate stoichometry of ZnAlO and ZnGaO in regards to specific plasmonic applications for particular IR wavelengths. Presented are theoretical and experimental investigations pertaining to ZnAlO and ZnGaO as surface plasmon host materials. Samples are fabricated via pulsed laser deposition and characterized by infrared ellipsometry and Hall-effect measurements. Complex permittivity spectra are presented, as well as plasmon properties such as the field propagation lengths and penetration depths, in the infrared range of interest. Drude considerations are utilized to determine how the optical properties may change with doping. Finite element simulations verify these plasmonic properties. These materials not only offer potential use as IR plasmon hosts for sensor applications, but also offer new integrated device possibilities due to stoichiometric control of electrical and optical properties.

  17. Characterization of Mechanical and Biological Properties of 3-D Scaffolds Reinforced with Zinc Oxide for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    A scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have highly interconnected porous structure, appropriate mechanical and biological properties. In this work, we fabricated well-interconnected porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS). We found that the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds were improved by doping of zinc oxide (ZnO). Our data showed that the fracture toughness increased from 1.09 to 1.40 MPam1/2, and the compressive strength increased from 3.01 to 17.89 MPa when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. It is hypothesized that the increase of ZnO would lead to a reduction in grain size and an increase in density of the strut. However, the fracture toughness and compressive strength decreased with further increasing of ZnO content, which may be due to the sharp increase in grain size. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated by analyzing the adhesion and the morphology of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on the surfaces of the scaffolds. The scaffolds exhibited better and better ability to support cell attachment and proliferation when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. Moreover, a bone like apatite layer formed on the surfaces of the scaffolds after incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating an ability of osteoinduction and osteoconduction. In summary, interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds doped with ZnO were successfully fabricated and revealed good mechanical and biological properties, which may be used for bone repair and replacement potentially. PMID:24498185

  18. Controllable fabrication of zinc borate hierarchical nanostructure on brucite surface for enhanced mechanical properties and flame retardant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuesong; Pang, Hongchang; Chen, Wendan; Lin, Yuan; Zong, Lishuai; Ning, Guiling

    2014-05-28

    A novel and efficient halogen-free composite flame retardant (CFR) consisting of a brucite core and a fine zinc borate [Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3] hierarchical nanostructure shell was designed and synthesized via a facile nanoengineering route. It had been demonstrated that this unique hybrid structure possessed a high BET specific surface area (65 m(2)/g) and could significantly enhance the interfacial interaction when mixing with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). This improved the transfer of stress between CFR particles and EVA matrix and increased the viscosity of EVA/EVA blends, which was beneficial for droplet inhibition and char forming. The mechanical properties and flammability behaviors of the EVA/CFR blends had been compared with the EVA/physical mixture (PM, with the given proportion of brucite and Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3). The mechanical properties of EVA/CFR blends, especially the tensile strength (TS), presented a remarkable increase reaching at least a 20% increment. Meanwhile, with the same 45 wt % of fillers, the EVA/CFR formulation could achieve a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 33 (37.5 % higher than that of EVA/PM blends) and UL-94 V-0 rating. Moreover, the heat release rate (HRR), peak heat release rate (PHRR), total heat released (THR), smoke production rate (SPR) and mass loss rate (MLR) were considerably reduced, especially PHRR and SPR for EVA/CFR blends were reduced to 32%. According to this study, the design of fine structure might pave the way for the future development of halogen-free flame retardants combining both enhanced mechanical properties and excellent flame retardant behaviors. PMID:24813539

  19. Magnetic properties and adsorptive performance of manganese–zinc ferrites/activated carbon nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.B.; Xu, J.C.; Xin, P.H.; Han, Y.B.; Hong, B.; Jin, H.X.; Jin, D.F.; Peng, X.L.; Li, J.; Gong, J.; Ge, H.L.; Zhu, Z.W.; Wang, X.Q.

    2015-01-15

    Owing to the unique microstructure and high specific surface area, activated carbon (AC) could act as an excellent adsorbent for wastewater treatment and good carrier for functional materials. In this paper, manganese–zinc ferrites (Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: MZF) were anchored into AC by hydrothermal method, resulting in the excellent magnetic response for AC nanocomposites in wastewater treatment. All results demonstrated the magnetic nanoparticles presented a spinel phase structure and existed in the pores of AC. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of MZF/AC nanocomposites increased with the ferrites content, while the pore volume and specific surface area declined. The Sample-5 possessed the specific surface area of 1129 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (close to 1243 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} of AC) and Ms of 3.96 emu g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the adsorptive performance for organic dyes was studied and 99% methylene blue was adsorbed in 30 min. The magnetic AC nanocomposites could be separated easily from solution by magnetic separation technique. - Graphical abstract: The Sample-5 presented both good magnetic response and high BET surface area up to 1129 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (close to AC of 1243 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), which could be separated completely for about 60 s. MZF/AC nanocomposites (Sample-3, 4, 5) in our work could be used as the magnetic absorbents, which could be separated easily by an outer magnet after the MB adsorption. - Highlights: • Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (MZF) as few as possible was implanted into activated carbon (AC) for the higher surface area. • Sample-5 possessed the high specific surface area (1129 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and the suitable Ms (3.96 emu g{sup −1}). • Methylene blue was adsorbed almost completely by MZF/AC nanocomposites in 30 min. • MZF/AC nanocomposites were separated easily from solution by magnetic separation technique.

  20. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  1. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  2. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  3. Optical properties of lanthanide-containing halide-modified zinc tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sidebottom, D.L.; Hruschka, M.A.; Potter, B.G.; Brow, R.K.; Hudgens, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    As part of an ongoing investigation to characterize the properties and structure of Zn halide-Te oxide glasses, we report preliminary measurements of the optical properties of several Nd- and Er-doped tellurites. Measurements include fluorescence lifetimes and estimates of the theoretical radiative lifetimes (from traditional Judd-Ofelt analysis of optical absorption spectra) as well as phonon sideband studies sensitive to vibrational characteristics near the rare earth ion. Response of these optical features to the substitution of alternative halides is examined.

  4. Effect of sintering temperature on the magnetic properties of zinc substituted lithium ferrites synthesized using sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Vijaya Bhasker; Reddy, S. Narender; Reddy, Ch. Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Polycrystalline zinc substituted lithium (Li-Zn) ferrite samples with chemical formula, Li0.5-x/2ZnxFe2.5-x/2O4(x = 0.6), were synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized powders were palletized and sintered at different temperatures starting from 500°C to 1000°C. XRD patterns of these samples confirm their single phase cubic spinel structure. The particle sizes obtained from XRD patterns using Debye-Scherrer formula were found to be in the range of 42 to 57 nm with almost a linear relationship between sintering temperature and particle size. Magnetization in these samples as a function of applied magnetic field was measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) were found from M-H loops. It is found that Ms increases with increasing sintering temperature whereas Hc decreases. These variations in saturation magnetization and coercivity with sintering temperature are attributed to the corresponding variation in particle sizes.

  5. Effect of Sputtering Gas environments on the Properties of Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Ram Narayan; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, C.; Anand, R. S.

    2011-10-20

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by R.F. sputtering using ZnO(98%)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(2%) target in different sputtering gaseous environments, viz., Ar, Ar/O{sub 2} and Ar/N{sub 2}+H{sub 2} at 80 deg. C. These films have been studied with regard to phase, microstructure, optical absorption and sheet resistance for application in photovoltaic devices as transparent conducting electrodes. The properties of the films are shown to strongly depend on the sputtering gas(es). The films exhibit a wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with the (00.2) preferred orientation, the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The intensity of 00.2 diffraction peak and the average crystallite size remain almost the same when the films are prepared under pure Ar or Ar/O{sub 2} environment. However the average crystallite size increases while electrical resistance decreases with introduction of nitrogen and hydrogen in comparison to oxygen in argon. Nevertheless, the optimum value of optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the films deposited in pure argon are found to be 85-96% in the wavelength range 400-800 nm and 65 {Omega}/{open_square}, respectively.

  6. EPR investigation on synthesis of Lithium zinc vanadate using sol-gel-combustion route and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Nimai; Gupta, Santosh K.; Prince, Angelina; Kadam, R. M.; Natarajan, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the synthesis of Lithium zinc vanadate (LiZnVO4) nanophosphor prepared by sol-gel-combustion method and its optical properties. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, electron paramagnetic resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study showed the formation of pure LiZnVO4 at 600 °C with distorted phenacite structure. SEM investigation revealed that the phosphor powder has spherical morphology with particle size of about 100-200 nm. EPR study showed the change of coordination sphere around vanadium from axially distorted octahedral symmetry to tetrahedral geometry along with the change in oxidation state of vanadium ion from +4 to +5. The emission spectrum showed a broad emission at 543 nm with λex = 375 nm. The decay time obtained on mono-exponential fitting was 8.3 μs. The colour coordinates of the system were evaluated using CIE index diagram to be 0.31 and 0.41, which suggest that the prepared material is a potential green emitting phosphor. A bright green colour emission was also observed directly from this phosphor upon excitation with an UV source.

  7. Magnetic properties of zinc-blende Cd1-xFexS nanoparticles: Temperature and Fe-content dependence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anirudha; Paul, Sanhita; Raj, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of zinc-blende Cd1-xFexS (x~0.0017-0.033) nanoparticles have been investigated at various temperature regimes and contents of Fe3+ ions. The high temperature (range: 160-300 K) inverse magnetic susceptibility has been found to follow linear Curie-Weiss equation for all compositions of samples with monotonic variation of Curie-Weiss temperature, Θ (from negative to positive values) with increase in Fe3+ content, which implies a transition from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering. However, at low temperature regime (range: 5-70 K) anti-ferromagnetic ordering prevails in all compositions of samples but show changing trend from anti-ferromagnetic towards ferromagnetic with Fe content, similar to the high temperature regime. A particular content of Fe3+ ions in Cd1-xFexS is estimated by fitting Θ linearly as a function of x, where identical magnetic phases are expected in both low and high temperature regimes. The sample with such amount of Fe3+ ions content has been found to be weakly anti-ferromagnetic.

  8. The influence of diffusion temperature on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of manganese-doped zinc oxysulfide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, İ.; Aksu, S.; Altunbaş, M.; Yılmaz, S.; Bacaksız, E.

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn-doped zinc oxysulfide films. Zn(O,S) films were deposited by a spray pyrolysis method on glass substrate. A thin Mn layer evaporated on these films served as the source for the diffusion doping. The XRD pattern of undoped films revealed the presence of two wurtzite phases corresponding to ZnS and ZnO with a strong preferred orientation along the ZnS (0 0 2) hexagonal plane direction. SEM showed a similar surface morphology for the undoped and Mn-doped films, displaying regular arrays of hexagonal micro-rods perpendicular to the substrate. The optical transmission measurements showed that both undoped and Mn diffusion-doped films had a low average transmittance less than about 10%. The gap energy is decreased from 3.42 to 3.33 eV upon annealing at 400 °C. Photoluminescence studies at 300 K show that the incorporation of manganese leads to a decrease of deep level band intensity compared to undoped sample. Clear ferromagnetic loops were observed for the Mn-doped Zn(O,S) films, which might be due to the presence of point defects.

  9. Study of structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of indium-doped zinc sulfide thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrad, Abdelhak; Ben Nasr, Tarek; Turki-Kamoun, Najoua

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we have deposited indium-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:In) thin films by chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). The structural properties studied by X-ray diffraction indicate that ZnS:In has a cubic structure with an average crystallite size 4.7-11.0 nm. Transmission and reflection spectra reveal the presence of interference fringes indicating thickness uniformity and surface homogeneity of deposited material. All the films were transparent in the visible and infrared regions (⩾60%), which allows us to use this material as an optical window or a buffer layer in solar cells. The obtained band gap energy Eg is in the range of 3.70-3.76 eV. The refractive index and thickness of ZnS:In thin films was calculated using envelope method. The variation of the refractive index along the Cauchy distribution was observed in all ZnS:In thin films. The analysis of the refractive index data through the Wemple-DiDomenico model leads to the single oscillator energy (E0) and the dispersion energy (Ed).

  10. Single crystal growth and enhancing effect of glycine on characteristic properties of bis-thiourea zinc acetate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Muley, G. G.

    2016-08-01

    A single crystal of glycine-doped bis-thiourea zinc acetate (G-BTZA) with a dimension of 15 × 6 × 4 mm3 has been grown using the slow solution evaporation technique. The structural parameters of the crystals were determined using the single crystal XRD technique. The increase in optical transparency of the doped BTZA crystal was ascertained in the range of 200 to 900 nm using UV–visible spectral analysis. The improved optical band gap of the G-BTZA crystal is found to be 4.19 eV, and vital optical constants have been calculated using the transmittance data. The influence of glycine on the mechanical parameters of the BTZA crystal has been investigated via microhardness studies. The thermal stability of pure and doped BTZA crystals has been determined by employing the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis technique. The improvement in the dielectric properties of the BTZA crystal after the addition of glycine has been evaluated in a temperature range of 30 to 120 °C at a frequency of 100 KHz. The SHG efficiency of the glycine-doped BTZA crystal is found to be much higher than KDP and BTZA crystal material in a Kurtz–Perry powder analysis.