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1

Gold in the Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Evidence from bulk ore analysis and laser ablation ICP?MS data on sulfide phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 329-Mt Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (total resource of 163 Mt at 10.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, 0.34% Cu,\\u000a and 115 g\\/t Ag) is hosted within a Middle Ordovician bimodal volcanic and sedimentary sequence. Massive sulfides are for the\\u000a most part syngenetic, and the bulk of the sulfide ore occurs as a Zn–Pb-rich banded sulfide facies that forms an intimate

Sean H. McClenaghan; David R. Lentz; Jillian Martin; Wilfredo G. Diegor

2009-01-01

2

Gold in the Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Evidence from bulk ore analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS data on sulfide phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 329-Mt Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (total resource of 163 Mt at 10.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, 0.34% Cu, and 115 g/t Ag) is hosted within a Middle Ordovician bimodal volcanic and sedimentary sequence. Massive sulfides are for the most part syngenetic, and the bulk of the sulfide ore occurs as a Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies that forms an intimate relationship with a laterally extensive Algoma-type iron formation and defines the Brunswick Horizon. Zone refining of stratiform sulfides is considered to have resulted in the development of a large replacement-style Cu-rich basal sulfide facies, which is generally confined between the banded sulfide facies and an underlying stringer sulfide zone. Complex polyphase deformation and associated lower- to upper-greenschist facies regional metamorphism is responsible for the present geometry of the deposit. Textural modification has resulted in a general increase in grain size through the development of pyrite and arsenopyrite porphyroblasts, which tend to overprint primary mineral assemblages. Despite the heterogeneous ductile deformation, primary features have locally been preserved, such as fine-grained colloform pyrite and base and precious metal zonation within the Main Zone. Base metal and trace element abundances in massive sulfides from the Brunswick No. 12 deposit indicate two distinct geochemical associations. The basal sulfide facies, characterized by a proximal high-temperature hydrothermal signature (Cu-Co-Bi-Se), contains generally low Au contents averaging 0.39 ppm ( n = 34). Conversely, Au is enriched in the banded sulfide facies, averaging 1.1 ppm Au ( n = 21), and is associated with an exhalative suite of elements (Zn-Pb-As-Sb-Ag-Sn). Finely laminated sulfide lenses hosted by iron formation at the north end of the Main Zone are further enriched in Au, averaging 1.7 ppm ( n = 41) and ranging up to 8.2 ppm. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite ( n = 97) from the north end of the Main Zone average 2.6 ppm Au and range from the detection limit (0.015 ppm) to 21 ppm. Overall, these analyses reveal a distinct Au-Sb-As-Ag-Hg-Mn association within pyrite grains. Gold is strongly enriched in large pseudo-primary masses of pyrite that exhibit relict banding and fine-grained cores; smaller euhedral pyrite porphyroblasts, and euhedral rims of metamorphic origin surrounding the pyrite masses, contain much less Au, Sb, Ag, As, and Sn. Arsenopyrite, occurring chiefly as late porphyroblasts, contains less Au, averaging 1.0 ppm and ranging from the detection limit (0.027 ppm) to 6.9 ppm. Depth profiles for single-spot laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite display uniform values of Au and an absence of discrete microscopic inclusions of Au-bearing minerals, which is consistent with chemically bonded Au in the sulfide structure. The pervasive correlation of Au with Sn in the Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies suggests similar hydrothermal behavior during the waxing stages of deposition on the seafloor. Under high temperature (>350ºC) and moderate- to low-pH conditions, Au and Sn in hydrothermal fluids would be transported as chlorocomplexes. An abrupt decrease in temperature and aH2S, accompanied by an increase in fO2 and pH during mixing with seawater, would lead to the simultaneous destabilization of both Au and Sn chlorocomplexes. The enrichment of Au in fine-grained laminated sulfides on the periphery of the deposit, accompanied by sporadic occurrences of barite and Fe-poor sphalerite, supports lower hydrothermal fluid temperatures analogous to white smoker activity on the flanks of a large volcanogenic massive sulfide system. In lower temperature (<350ºC) and mildly acidic hydrothermal fluids, Au would be transported by thiocomplexes, which exhibit multifunctional (retrograde-prograde) solubility and a capacity to mobilize Au to the outer parts of the sulfide mound. The sluggish nature of this low-temperature venting together with larger variations in ambient fO2 could lead to a s

McClenaghan, Sean H.; Lentz, David R.; Martin, Jillian; Diegor, Wilfredo G.

2009-07-01

3

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

2002-01-01

4

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

Torgersen, Christian

5

Scaling behavior and the effects of heterogeneity on shallow seismic imaging of mineral deposits: A case study from Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the scaling behavior of compressional-wave velocity and density logs from an exploration borehole that extends down to about 700 m depth in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada. Using statistical methods, vertical and horizontal scale lengths of heterogeneity were estimated. Vertical scale length estimates from the velocity, density and calculated acoustic impedance are 14 m, 33 m, and about 20 m, respectively. Although the estimated scale length for the acoustic impedance implies a weak scattering environment, elastic finite difference modeling of seismic wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media demonstrates that even this weak scattering medium can mask seismic signals from small, but yet economically feasible, massive sulfide deposits. Further analysis of the synthetic seismic data suggests that in the presence of heterogeneity, lenticular-shaped targets may only exhibit incomplete diffraction signals whereby the down-dip tails of these diffractions are mainly visible on the stacked sections. Therefore, identification of orebody generated diffractions is much easier on the unmigrated stacked sections than on migrated stacked sections. The numerical seismic modeling in 2D heterogeneous media indicates that in the presence of large horizontal, but small vertical scale lengths (structural anisotropy), identification of massive sulfide deposits is possible, but their delineation at depth requires detailed velocity modeling and processing algorithms which can handle the anisotropy.

Cheraghi, Saeid; Malehmir, Alireza; Bellefleur, Gilles; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bastani, Mehrdad

2013-03-01

6

Modeling density dependence and climatic disturbances in caribou: a case study from the Bathurst Island complex,  

E-print Network

doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00257.x Abstract Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi important roles in the population dynamics of caribou and reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Solberg et al., 2001Modeling density dependence and climatic disturbances in caribou: a case study from the Bathurst

7

Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.  

PubMed

To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants should be created in the upper part of the cover layer, namely a sufficient amount of plant nutrients. However, to define such a condition is difficult since different plant species have different requirements. PMID:17253002

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-12-01

8

International Workshop on ecological aspects on underground mining of usable minerals deposits,  

E-print Network

International Workshop on ecological aspects on underground mining of usable minerals deposits, GIG in a coherent series of cartographic documents and specialised studies, ranging from the planning Ecological aspects of underground mining of usable minerals deposits, Szczyrk : Poland (1993)" #12;2/12 I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Applications of soft computing in Mining Undiscovered Global Porphyry Copper Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the efficacy of an unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to facilitate modeling of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits at the global scale. Specifically, the SOM can provide relevant model input for quantifying the amounts of undiscovered metals, and predicting the economic feasibility of mining undiscovered deposits. In quantifying the amounts of metals, the SOM is used to estimate missing data values, estimate numbers of deposits, and evaluate grade and tonnage models. In predicting the economic feasibility of mining, the SOM is used to derive empirical equations. Examples are provided including the prediction of economic likelihood for mining a permissive tract in the Yukon Territory, Canada.

Friedel, M. J.

2011-12-01

10

Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.  

PubMed

Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching. PMID:15092483

Bergholm, J; Steen, E

1989-01-01

11

Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.  

PubMed

From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH. PMID:16509314

Dold, Bernhard

2006-02-01

12

The Wounded Woman and the Parrot: Postfeminist Girlhood in Alan Warner's The Sopranos and Bella Bathurst's Special  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay reads two British novels about teenage girls – Alan Warner's The Sopranos (1998) and Bella Bathurst's Special (2002) – within the context of recent sociological Girls' Studies research. Particular attention is given to processes of self-formation, group dynamics, and twenty-first-century girls' attitudes to both traditional femininity and feminist politics. Contrasting a group of working-class girls with a group

Berthold Schoene

2006-01-01

13

Comparison of Microbial Biomass, Biodiversity, and Biogeochemistry in Three Contrasting Gold Mine Tailings Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary approach was used to assess the biogeochemistry of three deposits of gold mine tailings in Nopiming Provincial Park, Manitoba, Canada. Each depositional site has developed varying levels of natural revegetation over the past 70 years. Although the tailings are the products of processing similar carbonate-hosted quartz-carbonate shear zones by the same methods, the physical, chemical, and hydrogeological conditions

Kathleen L. Londry; Barbara L. Sherriff

2005-01-01

14

Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term mining history introduced a series of environmental problems in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were investigated using RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during day time and night time in May 2010, which showed that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in Wanshan Hg mining area. Meanwhile, both precipitation and throughfall samples were collected weekly at Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng from May 2010 to May 2011, respectively. Our data showed that the concentrations of different Hg species varied with a large range, and the annual volume-weighted mean total mercury (THg) concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng L-1 and 977.8 ng L-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng L-1and 3392.1 ng L-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng L-1 and 9641.5 ng L-1 at Supeng, respectively. Besides, THg concentrations in all throughfall samples were 1-7 folds higher than those in precipitation samples. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in Wanshan Hg mining area since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in Wanshan Hg mining area.

Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Fu, X. W.; Li, P.

2012-02-01

15

Origin of the gold deposit in the Polkowice-West Mine, Lubin-Sieroszowice Mining District, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently discovered gold deposit in the Lubin-Sieroszowice district lies 0.0 to 1.5?m below the stratabound copper-silver\\u000a orebody, mainly in the Polkowice-west mine. The deposit extends over 60?km2, has a thickness of 20–80?cm and a conservative estimate of the average grade of 1.5?g\\/t gold, 0.3?g\\/t Pd and 0.2?g\\/t Pt.\\u000a It contains gold and electrum in association with minor amounts (up

A. Piestrzynski; A. Wodzicki

2000-01-01

16

Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legacy of long-term mining activities in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China including a series of environmental issues related to Hg pollution. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were monitored using a mobile RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during daytime and night time in May 2010. The data imply that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in WMMA. For a full year (May 2010 to May 2011), sampling of precipitation and throughfall were conducted on a weekly basis at three sites (Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng) within WMMA. Hg in deposition was characterized by analysis of total Hg (THg) and dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations. The corresponding data exhibit a high degree of variability, both temporarily and spatially. The volume-weighted mean THg concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng l-1 and 977.8 ng l-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng l-1and 3392.1 ng l-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng l-1and 9641.5 ng l-1 at Supeng, respectively. THg was enhanced in throughfall compared to wet deposition samples by up to a factor of 7. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in WMMA since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in WMMA.

Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Sommar, J.; Li, P.; Fu, X. W.

2012-07-01

17

TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM AN URANIUM DEPOSIT BY MEANS OF A NATURAL WETLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage waters generated in the uranium deposit Curilo, western Bulgaria, were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 2.7 - 4.1 and contained uranium, radium, some heavy metals (iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead), arsenic and sulphates as main pollutants. The water course through

S. N. Groudev; M. V. Nicolova; I. I. Spasova; K. Komnitsas; I. Paspaliaris

2001-01-01

18

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Pb, Zn and Ag Mine Tailings Originating From Carbonate-Rich Deposits  

E-print Network

MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF PB, ZN AND AG MINE TAILINGS ORIGINATING FROM CARBONATE-RICH DEPOSITS A Thesis by ROBERTA JEAN MCCLURE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... ............................................................... 49 CHAPTER IV GEOCHEMISTRY ........................................................................... 66 Major Components ........................................................................................ 66 Trace Components...

McClure, Roberta 1981-

2012-11-29

19

Effects of historical and modern mining on mercury deposition in southeastern Peru.  

PubMed

Both modern anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg), primarily from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and preindustrial anthropogenic emissions from mining are thought to have a large impact on present-day atmospheric Hg deposition. We study the spatial distribution of Hg and its depositional history over the past ?400 years in sediment cores from lakes located regionally proximal (?90-150 km) to the largest ASGM in Peru and distal (>400 km) to major preindustrial mining centers. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediments from fourteen lakes are typical of remote regions (10-115 ng g(-1)). Hg fluxes in cores from four lakes demonstrate preindustrial Hg deposition in southeastern Peru was spatially variable and at least an order of magnitude lower than previously reported fluxes in lakes located closer to mining centers. Average modern (A.D. 2000-2011) Hg fluxes in these cores are 3.4-6.9 ?g m(-2) a(-1), compared to average preindustrial (A.D. 1800-1850) fluxes of 0.8-2.5 ?g m(-2) a(-1). Modern Hg fluxes determined from the four lakes are on average 3.3 (±1.5) times greater than their preindustrial fluxes, similar to those determined in other remote lakes around the world. This agreement suggests that Hg emissions from ASGM are likely not significantly deposited in nearby down-wind regions. PMID:24124645

Beal, Samuel A; Jackson, Brian P; Kelly, Meredith A; Stroup, Justin S; Landis, Joshua D

2013-11-19

20

Quantifying silica in filter-deposited mine dusts using infrared spectra and partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring airborne crystalline silica (?-quartz) in noncoal mine dusts using a direct-on-filter method of analysis is demonstrated. Respirable ?-quartz was quantified by applying a partial least squares (PLS) regression to the infrared transmission spectra of mine-dust samples deposited on porous polymeric filters. This direct-on-filter method deviates from the current regulatory determination of respirable ?-quartz by refraining from ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the analyte prior to quantification using either infrared spectrometry for coal mines or x-ray diffraction (XRD) from noncoal mines. Since XRD is not field portable, this study evaluated the efficacy of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for silica determination in noncoal mine dusts. PLS regressions were performed using select regions of the spectra from nonashed samples with important wavenumbers selected using a novel modification to the Monte Carlo unimportant variable elimination procedure. Wavenumber selection helped to improve PLS prediction, reduce the number of required PLS factors, and identify additional silica bands distinct from those currently used in regulatory enforcement. PLS regression appeared robust against the influence of residual filter and extraneous mineral absorptions while outperforming ordinary least squares calibration. These results support the quantification of respirable silica in noncoal mines using field-portable infrared spectrometers. PMID:24830397

Weakley, Andrew Todd; Miller, Arthur L; Griffiths, Peter R; Bayman, Sean J

2014-07-01

21

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-01-15

22

Multitemporal satellite data in mine waste monitoring of Medet copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic impact of the mining industry on the environment is seen all over the world. In the last decades several mining areas and corresponding waste disposal sites in Bulgaria are being monitored for ongoing reclamation processes. In this research we were focused on one environmental status of one of the most important copper producing fields for our country - Medet deposit. The objectives of the study were: (1) to analyze multispectral satellite images for 1980 - 2000 in order to assess the environmental pollution from the mining activity in the Medet open pit mine in temporal perspective; (2) to prove that by means of remote sensing an integrated environmental impact assessment can be made. After ceasing its exploitation in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period. We consider that revealing the potential of satellite multispectral and multitemporal imagery will provide valuable information on the impact of this long-term mining activity on the environment. One of the first tasks was to prepare thematic maps for several, non-successive years of the affected areas at regional scale. On the next step change detection methods were used to assess the short-term reclamation activities by examination of vegetation cover status in the areas surrounding the mine. To complete this tasks data from Landsat TM/ETM+ instruments combined with in-situ measured data was used. For data processing several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno; Banushev, Banush

2012-10-01

23

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.  

PubMed

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

Bendell, L I

2011-02-15

24

Depositional Influences on Porewater Arsenic in Sediments of a Mining-Contaminated Freshwater Lake  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated.

Toevs, G.; Morra, M.J.; Winowiecki, L.; Strawn, D.; Polizzotto, M.L.; Fendorf, S.

2009-05-26

25

Sources and chronology of fifteen elements in the sediments of lakes affected by metal deposition in a mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources and chronologies of metal contamination were studied in sediment cores of three lakes of the Rouyn-Noranda mining\\u000a area (Québec, Canada) affected by atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic contaminants. One of the three lakes also received\\u000a acid mine drainage. The sediments were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analysed for stable Pb isotope ratios and for total concentrations of 15 elements

Yves Couillard; Antonella Cattaneo; Céline Gallon; Michel Courcelles

2008-01-01

26

Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au–pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight’s Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid–base accounting

Robert R. Seal II; Jane M. Hammarstrom; Adam N. Johnson; Nadine M. Piatak; Gregory A. Wandless

2008-01-01

27

Geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste materials taken from abandoned mine deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy in Korean (MOTIE), approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread in the Republic of Korea, but almost 80% mines are still left without any proper remediation and cleanup. The physic-chemical properties of waste materials in the mountainous area are strongly affected by heavy rainfall. Failed sediments pose the largest threat to the mountain communities and environments. In particular, a significant amount of heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead etc., is introduced to soil systems. This study examined the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials collected from mine deposits, located in Imgi-ri, Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. We used a ring shear apparatus for geotechnical properties and a rheometer for rheological properties. The materials collected from mines are classified as gravelly sand soils. A series of drained and undrained ring shear tests were performed to examine the stress characteristics with regard to (i) shearing time dependency, (ii) shear speed dependency, and (iii) normal stress dependency. In addition, the grain crushing in the shear zone was examined to explain a high mobile failed masses. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced debris flows. From the rheological tests, the materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the debris flow potential. There are positive relationships between the volumetric concentration of sediment ranging from 50% to 65% and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological parameters is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries between ball and vane-penetrated system is emphasized.

Jeong, Sueng-Won; Ji, Sang Woo; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

28

Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District  

SciTech Connect

The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth.

Falkowski, S.K.

1980-01-01

29

The impact of the linkage between grade distribution and petrofabric on the understanding of structurally controlled mineral deposits: Ouro Fino Gold Mine, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ore deposit structural analysis, using a combination of structural geology and geostatistics, has direct application in the mining industry. Its main goal is to integrate structural measurements and assay data to create a method in which structurally controlled deposits are modeled numerically. This provides guidance to grade control and pit optimization during mining, improves prediction of orebody geometry and orientation,

R. N Monteiro; W. S Fyfe; F Chemale

2004-01-01

30

The Hadamengou Mine: A Typical Gold Deposit in the Archean Granulite Facies Terrane of the North China Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits in Archean high-grade terranes are either syngenetic or epigenetic. In the North China craton, the high-grade metamorphic rocks are considered to be the main source of gold for the formation of gold deposits formed during the Proterozoic or Mesozoic eras.The Hadamengou mine is located in the E-W-trending Archean Daqingshan granulite belt at the northern margin of the North

S.-F. Gan; Y.-M. Qiu; H.-Y. Yang; D. D. Van Reenen

1994-01-01

31

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY OF THE VANADIUM-URANIUM DEPOSIT OF THE RIFLE AND GARFIELD MINES, GARFIELD COUNTY, COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vandium-uranium deposit at the Rifle and Garfield mines is in the ; Wingate(?) sandstone and the overlying Entrada sandstone. Both formations are ; composed of clean light-colored, fine-grained, massive, and crossbedded sandstone. ; The ore, which consists of vanadium with only a small uranium content, occurs in ; fine-grained minerals that impregnate tbe sandstone. It forms three partly ;

T. Botinelly; R. P. Fischer

1955-01-01

32

Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site? †  

PubMed Central

Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies. PMID:21097582

Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

2011-01-01

33

Atmospheric distribution and deposition of mercury in the Idrija Hg mine region, Slovenia.  

PubMed

The atmospheric distribution and deposition of Hg in the area of the former Idrija Hg-mine, Slovenia, were investigated. Mapping of air Hg(0) concentrations was performed to assess the spatial distribution and major sources of mercury to the atmosphere in the area. In addition, analyses of mercury speciation in the air over Idrija were performed during a 4-day sampling campaign in September 2006 to better understand the fate and transformation of Hg in the atmosphere of this specific mercury polluted site. The speciation results were then compared to the results of mercury speciation in the wet and throughfall deposition sampled on a precipitation event basis from October 2006 to September 2007. The Hg(0) concentration in air was mostly below 10 ng m(-3), with the highest concentration in the area of the former smelter complex exceeding 5000 ng m(-3). Mercury-bearing airborne particles (TPM) seem to dominate the atmospheric Hg deposition, which revealed noticeable variations between precipitation events (11-76 ng m(-2)day(-1)), mostly as a function of the amount of precipitation. Hg in precipitation was largely (? 50%) associated with the particulate phase (THg(P)). No correlation was found between the THg(P) and the dissolved phases (THg(D)), suggesting that particulate phase Hg is mostly the result of dry deposition. In the throughfall, significantly higher (2-10 fold) Hg concentrations than in associated event precipitation were observed, mostly due to Hg in the particulate phase (? 70% THg). As shown by SEM/EDXS microscopy, an important amount of mercury in the precipitation and throughfall samples is due to the presence of cinnabar particles as a result of the aeolian erosion of cinnabar-containing surfaces in the area. PMID:21112585

Kocman, David; Vre?a, Polona; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

2011-01-01

34

Plant macroscopic remains from recent sediments of Banks Island, Northwest Territories, and Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada, and the interpretation of Quaternary cold stage plant macroscopic assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic plant remains were extracted from recent sediments of streams on Banks Island and Bathurst Island. Analyses of the samples are given and their general relation to the vegetation is described. Problems of interpretation of the contemporary and Quaternary cold stage macroscopic assemblages include the variation of the representation of taxa, the significance of taphonomy, especially under fluvial conditions, and the origin of the assemblages in a mosaic of vegetation. The contribution of analyses of macroscopic remains to interpretations of vegetation and environment based on pollen analysis is emphasised.

West, Richard G.; Pettit, Mary E.

2000-02-01

35

Post-Depositional Behavior of Cu in a Metal-Mining Polishing Pond (East Lake, Canada)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The post-depositional behavior of Cu in a gold-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada) was assessed after mine closure by examination of porewater chemistry and mineralogy. The near-surface (upper 1.5 cm) sediments are enriched in Cu, with values ranging from 0.4 to 2 wt %. Mineralogical examination revealed that the bulk of the Cu inventory is present as authigenic copper sulfides. Optical microscopy, energy-dispersion spectra, and X-ray data indicate that the main Cu sulfide is covellite (CuS). The formation of authigenic Cu-S phases is supported by the porewater data, which demonstrate that the sediments are serving as a sink for dissolved Cu below sub-bottom depths of 1-2 cm. The zone of Cu removal is consistent with the occurrence of detectable sulfide and the consumption of sulfate. The sediments can be viewed as a passive bioreactor that permanently removes Cu as insoluble copper sulfides. This process is not unlike that which occurs in other forms of bioremediation, such as wetlands and permeable reactive barriers. Above the zone of Cu removal, dissolved Cu maxima in the interfacial porewaters range from 150 to 450 ??g L-1 and reflect the dissolution of a Cu-bearing phase in the surface sediments. The reactive phase is thought to be a component of treatment sludges delivered to the lake as part of cyanide treatment. Flux calculations indicate that the efflux of dissolved Cu from the sediments to the water column (14-51 ??g cm-2 yr-1) can account for the elevated levels of dissolved Cu in lake waters (???50 ??g L-1). Implications for lake recovery are discussed.

Martin, A. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Pedersen, T. F.; Crusius, J.

2003-01-01

36

Generation of polluted waters from mining wastes in a uranium deposit.  

PubMed

Dump consisting of 9500 tons of rich-in-pyrite mining wastes located in the uranium deposit Curilo, Western Bulgaria, was, after rainfall, an intensive source of acid drainage waters. These waters had a pH in the range of about 1.7-4.5 and contained radionuclides (uranium, radium), heavy metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, nickel, cobalt, iron, and manganese), arsenic and sulphates in concentrations usually much higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in the agriculture and/or industry. The generation of these polluted waters was studied under real field conditions for a period of about seven years during different climatic seasons. It was found that the dump was inhabited by a diverse microflora in which some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria were the prevalent microorganisms. The solubilization of the above-mentioned pollutants from the dump material was connected mainly with the oxidation of pyrite and other sulphide minerals by these bacteria. Their activity depended on some essential environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and water, oxygen and nutrient contents in the dump. PMID:16457374

Groudev, Stoyan N; Spasova, Irena I; Nicolova, Marina V; Georgiev, Plamen S

2005-01-01

37

Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.  

PubMed

The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended. PMID:24912237

Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

2014-01-01

38

Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining.  

PubMed

Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings. PMID:25075337

Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

2014-05-01

39

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.  

PubMed

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. PMID:24552963

Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, Mackenzie R; King, Matt

2014-01-01

40

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site  

PubMed Central

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. PMID:24552963

Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.; Saez, A. Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P.; Russell, MacKenzie R.; King, Matt

2014-01-01

41

The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ashfall into heavily populated areas during the October-November 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia created anxiety regarding the growing impacts to health as the eruption escalated and the hazard zone widened. We made a preliminary assessment of the respiratory hazards to human health of the tephra deposits (ashfall, lahar, and PDC surge) from the eruption using a laboratory protocol specifically developed to study the toxic potential of volcanic ash particles. Twenty samples collected from a range of locations were analysed for health-pertinent mineralogical parameters (grain size, crystalline silica content, morphology, surface area, bulk chemistry, and leachable elements) and bio-reactivity (hydroxyl radical generation, haemolytic potential, oxidative capacity, pro-inflammatory response). The grain size pertinent to respiratory health was variable, ranging from 1.4-15.6 vol.% sub-4 ?m and 3.0-28.9 vol.% sub-10 ?m diameter material. No fibre-like particles were observed. Cristobalite was present in all samples, ranging from 1.9-9.5 wt.%, but surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity assays showed low reactivity for all samples tested. The risk of direct exposure to ash from fallout was in any case low due to seasonal rains limiting its re-suspension and the immediate and effective clean-up of communities by local people who supplied the ash to the Indonesian construction industry for use as aggregate. However, mining of the lahar and thick PDC deposits in the valleys draining the volcano is performed on a vast, industrial scale, which could result in high occupational exposure to thousands of sand miners at Merapi during the dry seasons. Further study of the health hazard of the mined Merapi deposits is warranted.

Damby, D. E.; Horwell, C. J.; Baxter, P. J.; Delmelle, P.; Donaldson, K.; Dunster, C.; Fubini, B.; Murphy, F. A.; Nattrass, C.; Sweeney, S.; Tetley, T. D.; Tomatis, M.

2013-07-01

42

Mapping the Extent and Rate of Overbank Deposition Using Mine-Derived Sediment Tracers Along the Strickland River, Papua New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of collaborative investigation among an NSF sponsored Margins Source to Sink research group, University of Papua New Guinea (PNG) researchers, Porgera Joint Venture (PNG), Ok Tedi Mining Ltd (PNG) and CSIRO (Australia), a field study is being conducted to map the extent and rate of overbank deposition along the Strickland River, which is the dominant drainage to the Fly River delta, Papua New Guinea. A key question is what proportion of the river's sediment load is deposited on the lowland floodplain before the river joins the Fly. Previous studies on the Fly River above the junction with the Strickland concluded that about 40% of the lowland sediment load is lost to the floodplain. It was hypothesized that the historically much higher load on the Strickland had lead to more rapid infilling of accommodation space and consequently current rates of deposition would be proportionately smaller than on the Fly. The Strickland River receives inputs of mine tailings and waste rock from the Porgera gold mine, which is situated at an elevation of 2,500 meters in the upper catchment of the river system. While the contribution to the overall sediment load of the river is small, the mine-derived sediments contain elevated concentrations of several metals and there is both a need to understand their transport, fate and the potential release of dissolved metals as they are transported through the system and an opportunity to use these metals as tracers of sediment transport and deposition. This paper summarizes studies undertaken to examine the extent of overbank deposition of mine-derived sediments in the lower reaches of the Strickland River. Sediment cores were collected along transects at six key points on the lower Strickland River floodplain during 1997 and 2003 and analyzed for a suite of trace elements. In 2003, additional cores were collected at 5 other transects and duplicate cores were collected at all transects for analysis of 210Pb. Particulate silver and lead were used as tracers of mine-derived sediments because a previous investigation had indicated that these metals were present at elevated concentrations in mine tailings relative to pre-mining floodplain sediments. Using these relatively simple chemical tools, it was possible to obtain information on mine-derived sediment dispersion and overbank deposition rates in an extremely complex, diverse aquatic system.

Apte, S. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G. M.; Reibe, C.; Aalto, R.; Sanders, J.; Lauer, W.; Simpson, S. L.; Marshall, A.; Bera, M.

2003-12-01

43

Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

2002-01-01

44

Development of soil chemical and biological properties in the initial stages of post-mining deposition sites.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal development of the physicochemical (pH, organic C, organic N, extractable P, Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and biological soil properties (microbial biomass, activities of urease, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) of the topsoil of mine deposition sites that differed based on the material used exclusively for their creation: (a) marlstones, (b) red-grey formations (RGF), and (c) fly ash (FA), during the first year after their creation. Our hypothesis was that all deposition sites, regardless the material they consist of, present equal opportunities for the establishment of spontaneous vegetation. All macronutrients concentrations (P, Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) remained constant with time and were found to be higher in the FA sites. Organic C, organic N, all enzyme activities, and microbial biomass were higher in the RGF and marl depositions, with marl sites presenting the highest values. All values of biological variables, with the exception of alkaline phosphatase, increased with time. The alkaline environment along with the slow improvement in soil biological properties of the FA sites seemed to present the most unfavorable conditions for spontaneous vegetation growth. On the contrary, the other two spoil materials presented significant improvement in the initial stages of soil formation in terms of soil functionality. PMID:25249044

Monokrousos, Nikolaos; Boutsis, George; Diamantopoulos, John D

2014-12-01

45

Occurrences of dendritic gold at the McLaughlin Mine hot-spring gold deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two styles of gold dendrites are variably developed at the McLaughlin Mine. The most abundant occurrence is hosted by amber-coloured hydrocarbon-rich opal. Silica likely precipitated from a boiling hydrothermal fluid and complexed with immiscible hydrocarbons forming an amorphous hydrocarbon-silica phase. This phase likely scavenged particulate gold by electrostatic attraction to the hydrocarbon-silica phase. The dendritic nature of the gold is

R. L. Sherlock; N. J. Lehrman

1995-01-01

46

Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.  

PubMed

This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods. PMID:23813094

Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

2013-11-01

47

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

2005-04-26

48

Relationships between microbial communities and environmental parameters at sites impacted by mining of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations among geochemical parameters and sediment microbial communities were examined at three shoreline sites in the Prince William Sound, Alaska, which display varying degrees of impact by acid-rock drainage (ARD) associated with historic mining of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Microbial communities were examined using total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), a class of compounds derived from lipids produced by

A. L. Foster; L. Munk; R. A. Koski; W. C. Shanks III; L. L. Stillings

2008-01-01

49

Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and siltstones of the well-drained swamp environment. Deposits of black carbonaceous shale which were formed in the poorly drained swamp deposits of the interfluve area are not favorable host rocks for uranium. The depositional energy levels of the various environments in which the sandstone and shale beds of the Dakota were deposited govern the relative favorability of the strata as uranium host rocks. In the report area, uranium usually occurs in carbonaceous sandstone deposited under low- to medium-energy fluvial conditions within distributary channels. A prerequisite, however, is that such sandstone be overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds. Low- to medium-energy fluvial conditions result in the deposition of sandstone beds having detrital carbonaceous material distributed in laminae or in trash pockets on bedding planes. The carbonaceous laminae and trash pockets provide the necessary reductant to cause precipitation of uranium from solution. High-energy fluvial conditions result in the deposition of sandstones having little or no carbonaceous material included to provide a reductant. Very low energy swampy conditions result in carbonaceous shale deposits, which are generally barren of uranium because of their relative impermeability to migrating uranium-bearing solutions.

Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

1977-01-01

50

The impact of the linkage between grade distribution and petrofabric on the understanding of structurally controlled mineral deposits: Ouro Fino Gold Mine, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ore deposit structural analysis, using a combination of structural geology and geostatistics, has direct application in the mining industry. Its main goal is to integrate structural measurements and assay data to create a method in which structurally controlled deposits are modeled numerically. This provides guidance to grade control and pit optimization during mining, improves prediction of orebody geometry and orientation, and provides more effective exploration strategies for surrounding areas. The method leads to a better understanding of how mineralized fluids percolated and were focused at the Ouro Fino Mine, a shear zone-hosted gold deposit in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In this mine, gold is distributed along permeability pathways within rock fabrics that were produced or modified during the Brasiliano orogeny, when the Espinhaço-Araçua?´ sequence was inverted towards the São Francisco craton during a basement-involved fold-and-thrust regime. The resulting permeable zones are conformable with the C surface, within which two other clusters of fabric elements control the large-scale features of the mineralization: (1) a cluster of fabric elements (mineral, stretching and intersection lineations) that plunges SE; and (2) a sub-horizontal cluster along folds and intersection lineations and the strike of the shear zone.

Monteiro, R. N.; Fyfe, W. S.; Chemale, F.

2004-06-01

51

Formation of Acid Mine Drainage Water at Sb (Au) Deposit Pezinok  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of leaching experiments regarding the comparison of chemical and biological-chemical leaching of ores from the Sb-(Au-) base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty., the Western Carpathians) under the same conditions in solution. Discussed are the differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity. The extent and the kinetics of the biological-chemical leaching of the technogenous sediments from the setting-pits are significantly higher than those without bacteria.

Rusko, Miroslav; Andráš, Peter; Kušnierová, Mária; Aschenbrenner, Štefan; Krná?, Jozef; Dubiel, Ján

2011-01-01

52

[Phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria in the ancient salt deposits of the Yipinglang Salt Mine, P. R. China].  

PubMed

The microbial diversity of cultivable bacteria, isolated from the ancient salt deposits from the Yipinglang Salt Mine (YPL) in the Yunnan Province, P. R. China,was investigated by using conventional culture-dependent method and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. 38 bacteria strains were isolated from the brine, halite and saline soil samples on MBA (marine broth agar 2216, Difco) and ISP 2 (International Streotomyces Project medium 2) media supplemented with 0.5-3.5 mol/L NaCl. The genomic DNAs of the isolates were extracted and their 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers. The resulting 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with sequences obtained from public databases to find the most closely related species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the software packages MEGA after multiple alignment of sequence data by CLUSTAL X. The evolutional instances (corrected by Kimura's 2-parameter model) were calculated and clustering was performed with the neighbor-joining method. The results showed that the isolates are members of twenty-four genera (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Chromohalobacter, Dietzia, Erythrobacter, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Idiomarina, Kocuria, Marinobacter, Micrococcus, Paracoccus, Planomicrbium, Porphyrobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Roseivivax, Saccharospirillum, Salegentibactor, Salinicoccus, Streptomyces) of seventeen families (Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Idiomarinaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, Moraxellaceae, Planococcaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Dietziaceae, Saccharospirillaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptomycetaceae) in four major phylogenetic groups (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria). The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the phyla of Proteobacteria (47.3%; Gamma-Proteobacteria, 31.5%; Alpha-Proteobacteria, 15.8%) and Firmicutes (34.2%). The phylogenetic distance matrix results suggested that out of 38 isolates 32 are different strains of 27 known species, and that at least 3 stains represent new species within 3 characterized genera. Y3 (Accession No. EF177665) and Y25 (EF177670) represent new species of the genera Idiomarina and Saccharospirillum, respectively. Y15 (DQ837380), Y16 (EF177680) and Y22 (EF177689) represent a new species of the genus Salinicoccus. And strain Y21 (EF177692) may represent a novel species of a possible new genus of the family Staphylococcaceae. The results presented above shown that there are abundant bacterial species diversity and phylogenetic diversity in the ancient salt deposits from the Yipinglang Salt Mine. PMID:17944352

Chen, Yi-guang; Li, Hui-ming; Li, Qin-yuan; Chen, Wei; Cui, Xiao-long

2007-08-01

53

The Sudbury Mining District  

E-print Network

In this paper will be given a brief history of the Sudbury Mining district and something of the geology and ore deposits of the same; also, a description of the mining and metallurgical methods used by the Canadian Copper ...

Bedell, Frank G.

1906-06-01

54

Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits.  

PubMed

The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of <10?m aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure. PMID:25222928

Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A

2014-09-15

55

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

56

Mercury contamination of active channel sediment and floodplain deposits from historic gold mining at Gold Hill, North Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconnaissance investigation of mercury contamination associated with historic gold mining in North Carolina, USA, revealed\\u000a high concentrations of mercury in channel and floodplain sediments downstream from the Gold Hill mining district. The most\\u000a intense period of mining activities in this region occurred in the 1840s and 1850s when mercury amalgamation was used to recover\\u000a fine gold particles from milled

Scott Lecce; Robert Pavlowsky; Gwenda Schlomer

2008-01-01

57

43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of...

2011-10-01

58

Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

1980-01-01

59

Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

Pfaffl, Fritz A.

2010-06-01

60

Oil shale mining and the environment. [Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental mining of oil shale, to date, has been conducted only in the shallow Mahogany Zone and has utilized only the room and pillar mining method. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is planning a demonstration mine in the deep, thick oil-shale deposits in Colorado. This study describes the 4 mining concepts that are planned for demonstration and the interrelationship of

V. Rajaram; T. A. Kauppila; R. L. Bolmer

1977-01-01

61

Mercury dispersal in water, sediments and aquatic biota of a gold mining tailing deposit drainage in pocone, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pocone district, Brazil, Hg distribution was studied in a small watershed which drains tailings from a 10 yr old gold mining operation. Heavy regional rains are responsible for continuous weathering, thereby making it possible to transport Hg into the ecologically important Pantanal area. Mercury concentrations in creek sediments range from -1. The highest concentrations occur close to the

L. D. Lacerda; W. C. Pfeiffer; R. V. Marins; S. Rodrigues; C. M. M. Souza; W. R. Bastos

1991-01-01

62

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents,

L. I. Bendell

2011-01-01

63

Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot  

E-print Network

(dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation quantities of tailings and wastes still containing high concentrations of trace metals are produced by mining and smelting activities. Mobilization of trace metals from these tailings and wastes due to complex biological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.  

...oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. (a) Computation...oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. (1...of this paragraph). In the selection of a unit of mineral for...thousands of cubic feet of natural gas. (2) As used in...

2014-04-01

65

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (?34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (?18OH2O = -5.9‰ to 10.9‰, ?D = -102‰ to -87‰) of the ore-forming fluids indicate that the fluids were derived from magmatic sources and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water by limited water-rock exchange and by partly degassing in uplift zones during mineralization. While most features of the Samgwang mine are consistent with classification as an orogenic gold deposit, isotopic and fluid chemistry indicate that the veins were genetically related to intrusions emplaced during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Daebo orogeny.

Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.

2010-02-01

66

Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8–10 cm deep “iron mound” that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using “next generation” nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ?20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2. PMID:24860562

Brantner, Justin S.; Haake, Zachary J.; Burwick, John E.; Menge, Christopher M.; Hotchkiss, Shane T.; Senko, John M.

2014-01-01

67

Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8-10 cm deep "iron mound" that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using "next generation" nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ?20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2. PMID:24860562

Brantner, Justin S; Haake, Zachary J; Burwick, John E; Menge, Christopher M; Hotchkiss, Shane T; Senko, John M

2014-01-01

68

Data mining, Data mining,  

E-print Network

18 Data mining, today and tomorrow Data mining, today and tomorrow We leave digital puddles useful information be extracted from this ever-growing ocean of data? Data mining is the science," says CS professor Johannes Gehrke, whose group has developed some of the fastest data-mining algo

Keinan, Alon

69

Mobilization of Ag, heavy metals and Eu from the waste deposit of the Las Herrerias mine (Almería, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the mobility of silver, heavy metals and europium in waste from the Las Herrerías mine in Almería (SE Spain). The most abundant primary mineral phases in the mine wastes are hematite, hydrohematite, barite, quartz, muscovite, anorthite, calcite and phillipsite. The minor phase consisted of primary minerals including ankerite, cinnabar, digenite, magnesite, stannite, siderite and jamesonite, and secondary minerals such as glauberite, szomolnokite, thenardite and uklonscovite. The soils show high concentrations of Ag (mean 21.6 mg kg-1), Ba (mean 2.5%), Fe (mean 114,000 mg kg-1), Sb (mean 342.5 mg kg-1), Pb (mean 1,229.8 mg kg-1), Zn (mean 493 mg kg-1), Mn (mean 4,321.1 mg kg-1), Cd (mean 1.2 mg kg-1) and Eu (mean 4.0 mg kg-1). The column experiments showed mobilization of Ag, Al, Ba, Cu, Cd, Eu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, Pb and Zn, and the inverse modelling showed that the dissolution of hematite, hausmannite, pyrolusite and anglesite can largely account for the mobilization of Fe, Mn and Pb in the leaching experiment. The mobility of silver may be caused by the presence of kongsbergite and chlorargyrite in the waste, while the mobility of Eu seems to be determined by Eu(OH)3, which controls the solubility of Eu in the pH-Eh conditions of the experiments. The mineralogy, pH, Eh and geochemical composition of the mine wastes may explain the possible mobilization of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the absence of contaminants in the groundwater may be caused by the carbonate-rich environment of “host-rocks” that limits their mobility.

Navarro, A.; Cardellach, E.

2009-02-01

70

The lichen transplant methodology in the source apportionment of metal deposition around a copper smelter in the former mining town of Karabash, Russia.  

PubMed

The lichen transplant monitoring methodology has been tested for source apportionment of metal deposition around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash. Transplants of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., collected from a 'control' site in July 2001, were set up at 10 stations along a 60 km NE-SW transect centred on Karabash. Samples were collected after 2 and 3 month monitoring periods and analysed using established wet-chemical techniques. The sources of particulate investigated were the smelter blast furnace and converter, floatation tailings, metallurgical slags, local road dusts, top soils and ambient airborne total suspended particulate. From multi-element least-squares modelling the blast furnace was the main source of particulate in transplants close to the smelter (<10 km). Particulate from the converter, with relatively high Pb and Zn, was found to be more widely dispersed, being finer-grained and so having a longer atmospheric residence time. Ambient airborne particulate, sampled in Karabash town using air-pump apparatus, was almost entirely derived from the converter, very different to the lichen transplants from the same area which mainly contained blast furnace particulate. It is proposed that lichens close to the smelter mainly trapped larger blast furnace-derived particulate as they have a low capture efficiency for smaller (converter) particles. The study demonstrates the utility of lichen transplants for monitoring atmospheric deposition and highlights the caution required in their use to assess ambient air quality in human health studies. PMID:17876714

Williamson, B J; Purvis, O W; Mikhailova, I N; Spiro, B; Udachin, V

2008-06-01

71

Sandstone uranium deposits in the United States: a review of the history, distribution, genesis, mining areas, and outlook. [69 References  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandstone uranium deposits account for about 94 percent of uranium reserves in the United States. Most sandstone uranium districts had been found by the mid-1950s in response to incentives promulgated by the US Atomic Energy Commission. Principal uranium resource regions in the United States are the Colorado Plateau, Wyoming Basins, and Texas Coastal Plain. Statistical data published annually by the

Crawley

1983-01-01

72

Sandstone uranium deposits in the United States: a review of the history, distribution, genesis, mining areas, and outlook. [69 References  

SciTech Connect

Sandstone uranium deposits account for about 94 percent of uranium reserves in the United States. Most sandstone uranium districts had been found by the mid-1950s in response to incentives promulgated by the US Atomic Energy Commission. Principal uranium resource regions in the United States are the Colorado Plateau, Wyoming Basins, and Texas Coastal Plain. Statistical data published annually by the US Department of Energy show trends of uranium exploration and production, estimates of resources, and distributions and characteristics of reserves. At present, US exploration and production are curtailed because of uranium oversupply, a trend that will continue for the next few years. Although the outlook is more optimistic over the longer term, it is clouded by possible competition from foreign low-cost, nonsandstone uranium. Roll-type and peneconcordant are the two principal types of sandstone uranium deposits. Roll deposits are formed at geochemical fronts where oxidizing uranium-bearing groundwater penetrates reduced sandstone. Uranium is precipitated by reduction at the front. Under mildly reducing conditions, uranium may remain in solution until it is locally precipitated by reduction, chelation, or complexing to form peneconcordant deposits. Proposed precipitating agents include carbonaceous matter, humate, pyrite, and hydrogen sulfide. The uranium is thought to have been derived from leaching of tuffaceous or arkosic sediments, or of granitic rocks.

Crawley, R.A.

1983-03-01

73

Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

2013-12-01

74

MINING METHODS AND COSTS, CONTINENTAL URANIUM, INC., CONTINENTAL NO. 1 MINE, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Continental No. 1 mine is a~ the south end of the Big Indian mining ; district, San Juan Co., Utah. A 70,000-ton uranium--vanadium ore deposit was ; discovered as a result of an exploratory drilling program completed in 1954. ; Although the Continental No. 1 mine is one of the smaller mines of the Big Indian ; district, it

Dare

1957-01-01

75

Isotopic evidence for timing and mechanism of deposition of the Pb-Ag veins of the Sunshine Mine, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Pb-Ag ores of the Sunshine Mine, located in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of northern Idaho, occur within steeply-dipping, tabular siderite veins that cross-cut the overturned northern limb of the Big Creek Anticline. However, these veins are parallel to the major normal and reverse faults of the Lewis and Clark line that cut through the center of the district, and to the well formed cleavage of the host Belt Supergroup metasediments. The siderite gangue has [delta][sup 18]O values of +13.1 to 17.7% rel SMOW, [delta][sup 13]C values of [minus]9.9 to [minus]6.4% rel PDB, and extremely high initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of 0.85 to 1.5. Late-stage quartz veins, which sometimes run parallel to the veins but more commonly form cross-cutting ladders, have [delta][sup 18]O [equals] +13.4 to +15.5, and these and the wallrocks are several per mil too low to be in isotopic equilibrium with the siderite. Detailed traverses across two veins show U-shaped'' isotopic trends, with the [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O values being more enriched at vein margins. These small-scale variations were caused by changing fluid composition or temperatures, possibly involving explosive pressure release and CO[sub 2] effervescence during decompression, and account for the lack of a systematic variation of [sup 18]O with depth in the vein systems. The [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios have a weak negative correlation with the [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O values. The isotopic inhomogeneity of Sr in the veins documents their multi-stage formation, probably from fluid batches derived from different sources. The structural simplicity of the veins supports Sr isotopic evidence that the veins are geologically youthful, and were not formed during the Kootenay orogeny at 850 Ma, nor during deposition and diagenesis of the Belt sediments.

Eaton, G.F.; Criss, R.E. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Fleck, R.J. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

76

On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

2014-05-01

77

Environmental Studies of Mineral Deposits in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of articles summarizes environmental geochemical studies of metallic mineral deposits in Alaska, including sulfide, gold, mercury, chromium, and uranium mines and deposits. The studies report metal and acid concentrations in samples collected around such mines and deposits, and evaluate environmental effects of the deposits. An introduction explains geochemical processes, how metals enter environments downstream from mineral deposits, and background geochemical studies. Other articles are: Studies of Mineral Deposits Rich in Heavy Metals; Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Southwestern Alaska; Environmental Geochemistry of Alaskan Gold Deposits; Geochemistry of Surface Waters Draining Alaskan Chromite Deposits; and Radioactivity Concerns of Uranium and Thorium Deposits at Bokan Mountain, Southeastern Alaska.

1996-01-01

78

Lunar vertical-shaft mining system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

1994-01-01

79

Multi-element association analysis of stream sediment geochemistry data for predicting gold deposits in Barramiya gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of traditional statistical methods can provide suitable indicators of geochemical element dispersion, and aids in targeting potential areas for mineral exploration. Analyzes of stream sediments from an ophiolite suite of ophiolitic mélange matrix and metasediments belt are used for regional geochemical prospecting of gold in the Barramiya mining district, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The principal rocks exposed in the study area are Late-Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences intruded by serpentinite, small bodies of Older and Younger Granitoids, all injected by dykes of various compositions. Gold production derived mainly from shear zone with Au-bearing quartz veins hosted by ultramafic schists and serpentinites at fault intersections or along the basal décollement of the major thrusts, especially where granitoid massifs and stocks are common. Orebodies are mainly sulfide-bearing quartz and quartz-carbonate lodes associated with graphite-schist, listvenite and marble exposures, showing signs of structural control expressed in preferable orientation and consistent meso- and microfabrics. The area has two known gold deposits where several chromite mines are present. Auriferous veins are confined along E and ENE fracture systems and zones in a passive tectonic contact between the serpentinites and the metasediments. Results of 425 stream sediment samples from an area of ˜73 km2 analyzed for 13 trace elements are presented using simple statistical and R-mode factor methods. The overall sample density achieved by the survey is ˜6 samples/km2. Significant variations in background metal contents are recorded near the known mineralized sites. Preliminary visual interpretation of individual spatial distribution patterns of Ag, As, Au, Cu, Mo, Pb, and W show clear-cut relationships with known gold mineralization in the study area. Geochemical patterns of these elements delineate drainage basins with anomalous concentration of elements genetically related to gold mineralization. Gold in analyzed samples ranges from <0.02 to 3.51 ppm with average 0.21 ppm. Most of the high element concentrations in stream sediments are found in the graphite-schist and serpentinized marble rocks. Application of R-mode factor analysis indicates significant components of the sample composition. These reflect lithological, environmental and mineralization controls. Preparation of factor score map for the association Ag-Au-As-Cu-Zn-Pb-Mo-W enables a more precise delineation of zones of known gold mineralization as well as areas that may contain (on geological grounds) primary gold mineralization. The exploration significance of some anomalies has not been established, but a number of these anomalies may be related to undiscovered mineralization while others may be of no economic significance. Groundwater pH influences the hydromorphic dispersion patterns of Ag, As, and Au in different ways and this requires consideration during data interpretation.

Harraz, Hassan Z.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.; El-Mamoney, Mohamed H.

2012-06-01

80

Longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

NONE

1995-03-14

81

MINING MITIGATION IN NORWAY AND FUTURE IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway has a long history of mining dating back to the Akersberg silver mine in Oslo about 1000 years ago. Larger-scale mining for copper and sulfur became common in the early 1600s. There is no active mining of massive sulfide deposits in Norway today; but the operations have left behind tailings, waste rocks and adits that in many cases discharge

Tom V. Segalstad; Ingar F. Walder; Steinar Nilssen

82

Touring mines and mining tourists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potos??, a colonial city in the highlands of Bolivia, was once the glory of the Spanish empire, with the richest mines in South America. The city's working silver mines, established in 1545, are a distinctive tourism attraction. Unlike in many other mining communities, tourists in Potos?? visit actual operations rather than museums or restored mines. Tourism provides an opportunity for

Michael Pretes

2002-01-01

83

Environment of stratiform sulphide deposition; variation in Mn:Fe ratio in host rocks at Heath Steele Mine, New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The varying response of Fe and Mn to changes in pH and Eh suggests that their ratio may be a sensitive indicator of changes in environment of deposition of sedimentary rocks. A volcanic-sedimentary model for the deposition of a massive stratiform sulphide deposit in northern New Brunswick is proposed and the physico-chemical nature of the various environments discussed. The disposition

R. E. Whitehead

1973-01-01

84

URANIUM-VANADIUM DEPOSITS OF THE COTTONWOOD WASH MINING AREA, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH. WITH A SECTION ON MINERALOGY BY E. B. Gross  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cottonwood Wash mining area was formerly one of the larger producers ; of uranium--vanadium ores from the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation of ; Jurassic age in southeastern Utah. Exposed rocks range in age from the Carmel ; fomnation of Jurassic age to the Dakota group of Cretaceous age. The strata are ; nearly flat-lying on the

Pitman

1958-01-01

85

Abiotic Oxidation Rate of Chalcopyrite: Implications for Seafloor Mining  

E-print Network

seafloor mining. Sulfuric acid production from the oxidationand increased production of sulfuric acid. That immediateacid production during mining of SMS deposits. Even so it is plausible that the sulfuric

Bilenker, Laura Danielle

2011-01-01

86

Data Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

87

Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

88

Tracking the Mineralogical Fate of Arsenic in Weathered Sulfides from the Empire Mine Gold-Quartz Vein Deposit by using Microbeam Analytical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several complementary microbeam analytical techniques are being employed to determine the mineralogical fate of arsenic (As) released by weathering of primary sulfide minerals from waste rock at a California gold mine. Because of the known association of As with Fe-oxides, special attention was paid to the fate of Fe during weathering of arsenian pyrite [Fe(S,As)2], arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and ferroan dolomite

T. Burlak; C. N. Alpers; A. L. Foster; A. Brown; L. C. Hammersley; E. Petersen

2010-01-01

89

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold–silver deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It\\u000a consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian\\u000a granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized,\\u000a temporally separated by a major

Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

2010-01-01

90

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)---a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major

Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

2010-01-01

91

Exploration for unconformity-type uranium deposits with audiomagnetotelluric data: A case study from the McArthur River mine, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconformity-type deposits supply a significant amount oftheworld'suraniumandconsistofuraniumthatisgeneral- lycodepositedwithgraphiteinafaultzone.Thelowresistiv- ityofthegraphiteproducesasignificantcontrastinelectrical resistivity, which can be located with electromagnetic EM methods. TheAthabasca Basin in Western Canada hosts sig- nificant uranium deposits, and exploration in deeper parts of the basin has required the application of new EM methods. This paper presents an evaluation of the audiomagnetotellu- ric AMT exploration method at the McArthur River

Volkan Tuncer; Martyn J. Unsworth; Weerachai Siripunvaraporn; James A. Craven

2006-01-01

92

Sustainable Development in Estonian Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance and demand of high qualified mining material (carbonate rocks, oil shale) are growing nowadays. Deposits are widespread around the world. Is it possible to create the sustainability paradigm, that helps to manage quarries adequately to improve overall effectiveness of the company in total? This study focuses especially on the mining industry. This paper will introduce modern systems and a new one, that allows to make an indexation of the company by mining sustainability index and gradation of the company by its wellness; also brings several benefits for future sustainable development.

Šommet, Julija

2013-12-01

93

Overview of the Syncrude mining operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Syncrude Canada Limited Operation has been producing synthetic crude oil from a surface oilsand deposit since 1978. The Surface Mine currently supplies an average of 300,000 tonnes per day of ore to the Extraction plant utilizing a strip mining method with draglines, bucketwheel reclaimers, and conveyors. Overburden is removed in advance of the production operation by a large fleet

Wayne N. McKee

1989-01-01

94

Extending mine life  

SciTech Connect

Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining.

Not Available

1984-06-01

95

Mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and\\/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one

Parrott

1985-01-01

96

Bacterial Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mining (biomining) represents the use of microorganisms to leach out metals from ores or mine tailings (wastes), followed by the subsequent recovery of metals of interest from the leaching solution. This leaching of metals from ores is a natural process, which can be considerably accelerated by inducing and\\/or supporting the microbial activity of certain species with the ability to

I. G. Petrisor; I. Lazar; T. F. Yen

2007-01-01

97

26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16...Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine exploration expenditures. (a) Section...applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the...

2014-04-01

98

Mining outlook: the Middle East  

SciTech Connect

A guide is presented to the rich reserves of iron ore, phosphate, coal, gold, zinc, manganese and other minerals in Egypt. A map is included which shows a wide distribution of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits, suitable for mining. Negotiations are being carried out with foreign companies to form joint venture agreement for developing gold deposits. The future looks bright for expansions in iron ore, phosphate, and coal.

Not Available

1983-11-01

99

Sustained Storage and Transport of Hydraulic Gold Mining Sediment in the Bear River, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deposits of hydraulic gold mining sediment remain in main channels of the Bear River more than 100 years after the cessation of mining. This study examines these deposits and reevaluates Gilbert's (1917) classic model of sediment transport in a symmetrical wave that is based on hydraulic mining sediment primarily in the Yuba Basin. Sustained storage and transport of hydraulic

L. Allan James

1989-01-01

100

Large scale failure of the external waste dump at the “South Field” lignite mine, Northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the failure process of the external waste dump of the South Field Mine, the major open pit mine in Greece. The waste materials of the mine were deposited in three phases, forming an average inclination slope 10% and a total height of 110 m from the ground surface. The failure occurred when the third phase of the deposit

E. Steiakakis; K. Kavouridis; D. Monopolis

2009-01-01

101

Tracking the Mineralogical Fate of Arsenic in Weathered Sulfides from the Empire Mine Gold-Quartz Vein Deposit by using Microbeam Analytical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several complementary microbeam analytical techniques are being employed to determine the mineralogical fate of arsenic (As) released by weathering of primary sulfide minerals from waste rock at a California gold mine. Because of the known association of As with Fe-oxides, special attention was paid to the fate of Fe during weathering of arsenian pyrite [Fe(S,As)2], arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and ferroan dolomite [Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2]. Samples were collected from waste rock dumps at the Empire Mine State Historic Park in Grass Valley, California, and polished thick (60-?m) sections were prepared for analysis. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) investigations at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) involved mapping element distribution at the 100-?m pixel scale (beamline 10-2) and 2-µm pixel size (beamline 2-3) at four energies spanning the range of As valence states (11,867-11,890 eV). The maps provide spatial data on several elements (As, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S, and Zn), but without standardization this information remains qualitative. Good correspondence was found between the results of principal component analysis of the maps and the distribution of the two main As valence states, As(III) and As(V). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra collected on beamline 2-3 at the As and Fe K-edges show reduced and oxidized species of both elements and no evidence for secondary arsenate phases such as scorodite (FeAsO4 ? 2H2O). Spectra of As(III) were rare, and not often mixed with As(V). The same thick sections were also analyzed by electron microbeam methods. Chemical and element analysis using a Cameca SX-100 microprobe quantified mineral compositions at selected spots in the sections by comparison to well-characterized reference materials. Concentrations of As in pyrite ranged from less than 0.01% to 3.1 wt. % and pyrite and was heterogeneous at the sub-µm scale. Arsenopyrite and ferroan dolomite were also found to be heterogeneous in composition. Mineralogical and chemical maps at the 2.5-µm pixel scale were produced using QEMSCAN, a scanning electron microscope fitted with multiple energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometers. QEMSCAN data illustrate spatial relationships between unweathered sulfides, ferroan dolomite, weathered As-rich and As-poor sulfides, and their respective As-rich and As-poor Fe-oxide weathering rims. In summary, data from X-ray and electron microbeam techniques indicate that hydrous Fe oxides containing high levels of As(V) ( > 5 wt. %) are associated with the rims of weathered arsenopyrite grains, and that the As(V) content of hydrous Fe oxides rimming pyrite is typically less than 5 wt. %.

Burlak, T.; Alpers, C. N.; Foster, A. L.; Brown, A.; Hammersley, L. C.; Petersen, E.

2010-12-01

102

VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

103

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the drive body includes a pair of forwardly projecting flanges forming air passages in proximity to the cutting edges for the convey of detritus.

Sarin, V.K.

1983-08-16

104

Mercury mobility in unsaturated gold mine tailings, Murray Brook mine, New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated concentrations of Hg are present (averaging 36?g\\/g), mainly as cinnabar, in the Murray Brook Au deposit, located in northern New Brunswick, Canada. After the mined ore was subjected to CN leaching, the tailings were deposited in an unsaturated pile, and 10 a after mine closure an estimated 4.7×103kg of CN and 1.1×104kg of Hg remain in the pile. Elevated

Sean A. Shaw; Tom A. Al; Kerry T. B. MacQuarrie

2006-01-01

105

MERCURY IN MINING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury deposits in mines have shown to pose a significant hazard to residents and wildlife where drainage from these deposits enters the ecosystem through streams and rivers. For this reason, the extent of mercury contamination in the United States is of significant environment...

106

Ore Petrology and Alteration of the West Ansil Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulphide Deposit of the Noranda Mining Camp, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Ansil deposit was the first Cu discovery in 25 years in the Noranda Central Camp. It has a combined indicated and inferred resource of ˜1.2 Mt. Grades for the indicated resource are 3.4% Cu, 0.4% Zn, 1.4 g/t Au and 9.2 g/t Ag. The bulk of the resource is located in three massive sulphide lenses (Upper, Middle and Lower) that are entirely within the Rusty Ridge Formation above the Lewis exhalite. The mineralization in all three ore lenses consists of massive pyrrhotite + chalcopyrite +/- magnetite. Semi-massive sphalerite is restricted to the upper and lower parts of the Middle lens. Massive magnetite occurs at the center of the Upper and Middle lenses, where it replaces massive pyrrhotite. A striking feature of West Ansil is the presence of abundant colloform and nodular pyrite (+/-marcasite) in the massive sulphides. Late-stage replacement of massive pyrrhotite by colloform pyrite and marcasite, occurs mostly along the upper and lower contacts of the lenses.

Boucher, Stephanie M.

107

MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER  

E-print Network

Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

Boisvert, Jeff

108

The Data Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data Mine website is an excellent place to venture into detailed and complex explorations on data mining. The site is divided up in to five topic areas, or "webs," which include: "Data Mining Software," "Data Mining Events," "Data Mining General/Misc," "People Working in Data Mining," and "Data Mining Companies and Organizations." Visitors are encouraged to add information from their data mining worlds, as well.

Pryke, Andy

2008-01-07

109

Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part IV, source of fluids, from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotope studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogen isotopic composition of fluids responsible for formation of the near-surface silver-base metal vein deposits at Creede was measured by direct analysis of inclusion fluids in sphalerite, quartz, and rhodochrosite and was estimated from analyses of illite and chlorite. The oxygen isotopic composition was determined directly on inclusion fluids in sphalerite and was estimated from analyses of quartz, illite, rhodochrosite, siderite, and adularia. The carbon isotopic composition was estimated from analyses of rhodochrosite and siderite. The ranges in isotopic composition for water and CO2 in the fluids associated with the formation of each of the minerals is given below (number of determinations given in parentheses):Mineral delta D (sub H2) O ppm delta 18 O (sub H2) O ppm delta 13 C (sub CO2) ppmSphalerite -81 to -54 (4) -10.1 to -4.5 (4)Quartz -97 to -86 (4) -5.9 to 1.8 (18)Illite -62 to -50 (8) -1.6 to 1.2(7)Chlorite -64 to -55 (10) -2.2 to 0.8 (10)Adularia 4.2 (1)Rhodochrosite -82 to -78 (2) 4.2 to 9.4 (9) -5.7 to -4.2 (9)Siderite 4.9 to 9.9 (6) -6.9 to -2.7 (6)The delta D (sub H2) O and delta 18 O (sub H2) O values of fluids associated with the formation of sphalerite, quartz, illite/chlorite, and carbonate minerals differ substantially from one another, and these differences appear to have been maintained throughout the depositional history, regardless of the positions of the minerals in the paragenetic sequence.The data suggest that waters from three coexisting reservoirs fed the vein system alternately and episodically during vein formation, and apparently there was little mixing of the fluids from the different reservoirs. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotope data suggest that the carbonate waters were deep seated, probably dominantly magmatic, in origin. The sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters must have been dominantly meteoric in origin and substantially oxygen shifted by exchange with the volcanic country rocks. The quartz waters were also oxygen shifted meteoric waters but were some 40 per mil lower in deuterium content than the sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters.We propose that the quartz fluids entered the vein system from reservoirs beneath the mountainous areas to the north in the vicinity of the present Continental Divide, but that the sphalerite and illite/chlorite fluids entered the vein system from a topographically low area to the south along the structural moat of the Creede caldera. The difference in delta D between the two meteoric waters may reflect differences in altitude of the recharge areas for the two reservoirs or may be clue to isotopic evolution of the closed-basin lake and interstitial waters in the moat surrounding the Creede caldera.

Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.

1979-01-01

110

Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden mercury mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils collected near the Almaden, Spain, mercury mine reflected increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg) with proximity to the mine due to weathered mineral deposits and to atmospheric deposition of Hg from the smelter. Extractions with NaHCOâ or NHâOAc removed small amounts of Hg from both control (20 km from the mine; total Hg = 2.3 ..mu..g\\/g) and mine site

S. E. Lindberg; D. R. Jackson; J. W. Huckabee; S. A. Janzen; M. J. Levin; J. R. Lund

1979-01-01

111

Asteroid mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

Gertsch, Richard E.

1992-01-01

112

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the bit includes forwardly projecting support lands holding a cutting insert wherein the lands have a maximum dimension as measured in a direction perpendicular to a respective side surface of the cutting insert of less than about fifteen percent of the lengthwise dimension of the insert.

Sarin, V.K.

1984-12-18

113

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the bit and drive body include complementary and mating surfaces wherein one pair of surfaces are adapted to be in overlapping relationship when the bit is twisted in a direction opposite the rotational direction for detachably mounting the bit to the drive body.

Sarin, V.K.; Oberhauser, P.

1984-01-24

114

Mining neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ore from a mine nearly a mile deep may hold a record of stellar collapses in our galaxy over millions of years, say two physicists in a new study. The results of their work could place constraints on the rate of supernova formation and the evolution of matter.Neutrinos are a key to many stellar processes, from the life of the

William Ward Maggs

1988-01-01

115

Asteroid mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the

Richard E. Gertsch

1992-01-01

116

Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

Cheung, David J.

117

Characteristics of gold bearing quartz veins at the historic Morning Star mine, Preservation Inlet, SW Fiordland, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Morning Star mine is one of numerous historically mined gold-quartz lodes in the Preservation Inlet goldfield of southwest Fiordland. The mine is hosted in Early Ordovician metasedimentary rocks that are composed predominantly of psammitic and pelitic lithologies. These rocks still contain their primary depositional features and are characterised by upper greenschist facies metamorphic grade. The Morning Star mine lies

M. J. Begbie; D. Falconer; D. Craw

118

Access Optimisation Tools in Underground Mine Design Marcus Brazil, Peter Grossman, David Lee, Hyam Rubinstein, Doreen Thomas, Nicholas  

E-print Network

the other aspects of mine planning must be brought to bear. In optimal planning of underground mines, lead, zinc, copper or polymetallic deposits. The planning of such underground mines can be viewedAccess Optimisation Tools in Underground Mine Design Marcus Brazil, Peter Grossman, David Lee, Hyam

Wormald, Nick

119

Geology and Genesis of the Natalka Gold Deposit, Northeast Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Natalka lode gold deposit, also known as the Matrosov mine, is located in the Magadan region of northeastern Russia at 61° 39? N, 147° 50? E. The deposit was discovered in 1943 and production started in 1945. The mine has produced more than 75 metric tons of gold, with an average grade 4 g\\/metric ton (mt), and has reserves

Roman A. Eremin; Sergey V. Voroshin; Viktor A. Sidorov; Vasiliy G. Shakhtyrov; Viktor A. Pristavko; Valeriy V. Gashtold

1994-01-01

120

Data mining  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

1998-12-31

121

Moon Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate how to find and mine valuable resources from a simulated lunar surface. They will gather data by spectroscopically locating simulated ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide mineral), and collect the 'ilmenite' by mining the simulated lunar surface. They will then gather data by using observations while extracting oxygen from the mineral, develop a conclusion based upon their results, and compare individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Why Return to the Moon Before Going to Mars?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

122

The Mechanization of Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

1982-01-01

123

Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National Agency for Mineral Resources (NAMR) manages, on behalf of the state, the mineral resources. Waste management framework Nowadays, Romania, is trying to align its regulation concerning mining activity to the European legislation taking into consideration waste management and their impact on the environment. Therefore the European Waste Catalog (Commission Decision 2001/118/EC) has been updated and published in the form of HG 856/2002 Waste management inventory and approved wastes list, including dangerous wastes. The HG 349/2005 establishes the legal framework for waste storage activity as well as for the monitoring of the closing and post-closing existing deposits, taking into account the environment protection and the health of the general population. Based on Directive 2000/60/EC the Ministry of Waters Administration, Forests and Environment Protection from Romania issued the GO No 756/1997 (amended by GO 532/2002 and GO 1144/2002),"Regulations for environment pollution assessment" that contains alarm and intervention rates for soil pollution for contaminants such as metals, metalloids (Sb, Ag, As, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, TI, V, Zn) and cyanides. Also GO No 756/1997 was amended and updated by Law No 310/2004 and 112/2006 in witch technical instructions concerning general framework for the use of water sources in the human activities including mining industry, are approved. Chemical compounds contained in industrial waters are fully regulated by H. G. 352/2005 concerning the contents of waste water discharged. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC is transposed into the national law of the Romanian Government under Decision No 856/2008. The 856/2008 Decision on the management of waste from extractive industries establishes "the legal framework concerning the guidelines, measures and procedures to prevent or reduce as far as possible any adverse effects on the environment, in particular water, air, soi

Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

2014-05-01

124

Statistical methods of estimating mining costs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

Long, K.R.

2011-01-01

125

ANU MLSS 2010: Data Mining  

E-print Network

ANU MLSS 2010: Data Mining Part 1: Introduction, data mining challenges, and data issues for data mining Data Mining module outline Part 1: Very short introduction to data mining Data mining process Challenges in data mining Data cleaning, integration and pre-processing Part 2: Association rule mining Part

Christen, Peter

126

Impact of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on Water Quality, Stream Sediments and Periphytic Diatom Communities in the Surrounding Streams of Aljustrel Mining Area (Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aljustrel mining area is located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, one of the greatest concentrations of massive sulphide deposits\\u000a that extends from Lousal (Portugal) to Aznalcóllar (Spain). The surrounding streams, Roxo, Água Azeda and Água Forte, are\\u000a influenced by the erosion of the tailing deposits and the input of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned Aljustrel pyrite\\u000a mines, recently

A. T. Luís; P. Teixeira; S. F. P. Almeida; L. Ector; J. X. Matos; E. A. Ferreira da Silva

2009-01-01

127

Effects of changing environmental rules: Kitsault molybdenum mine, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kitsault mine was reopened briefly in 1981–82, after prior operations in 1967–72. Initial oceanographic assessments showed that a submarine tailings disposal (STD) system similar to that at Island Copper Mine would function to produce a tailings density current that would deposit on the fjord bed. There was substantial community interest and action during the final years of the development

T. F. Pedersen; D. V. Ellis; G. W. Poling; C. Pelletier

1995-01-01

128

MERCURY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT FROM HISTORIC MINING PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant quantities of mercury have been released to the environment as a result of historic precious metal mining. Many gold and silver deposits are enriched in mercury, which is released during mining and processing activities. Historically in the U.S., although a modern ...

129

Surface mining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

Not Available

1989-06-01

130

Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the pH range of 3.2-7.1 in streams impacted by mine drainage. The dissolved fraction of both mercury species is depleted and concentrated in iron oxyhydroxide such that the amount of iron oxyhydroxide in the water column reflects the concentration of mercury species. In streams impacted by mine drainage, mercury and methylmercury are transported and adsorbed onto particulate phases. During periods of low stream flow, fine-grained iron hydroxide sediment accumulates in the bed load of the stream and adsorbs mercury and methylmercury such that both forms of mercury become highly enriched in the iron oxyhydroxide sediment. During high-flow events, mercury- and methylmercury-enriched iron hydroxide sediment is transported into larger aquatic systems producing a high flux of bioavailable mercury. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Rytuba, J.J.

2000-01-01

131

Historical archaeology at the Clarkson Mine, an eastern Ohio mining complex  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the Clarkson Mine (33BL333), an eastern Ohio coal mine complex dating to the 1910s to 1920s, situated along Wheeling Creek. The results of preliminary surveys and the subsequent mitigation of four structures at the site are presented. The historical archaeology conducted at the site demonstrates the significant research possibilities inherent at many of these early industrial mine complexes. Of particular interest is the findings of depositional patterning around residential structures that revealed the influence of architecture on where and how items were deposited on the land surface. The ceramic and faunal assemblage were analyzed and provide significant details on socioeconomic attributes associated with the workers or staff. Artifacts recovered at the site provide an excellent diagnostic framework from which other similarly aged sites can be compared and dated. The findings at the Clarkson Mine are also placed into a more regional perspective and compared with other contemporary studies.

Keener, C.S. [Archaeological Service Team, Plain City, OH (United States)

2003-07-01

132

Expansion of the Commercial Output of Estonian Oil Shale Mining and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to pofyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with smallreserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations

JACOB FRAIMAN; IGOR KUZMIV

1996-01-01

133

Effects of Stress from Mine Drainage on Diversity, Biomass, and Function  

E-print Network

Effects of Stress from Mine Drainage on Diversity, Biomass, and Function of Primary Producers- mary producers in streams under stress from mine drainage in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. Mine drainage exerts chemical stress (low pH, dis- solved metals) as well as physical stress (deposition

Lewis Jr., William M.

134

Development and Implementation of Thickened Tailings Discharge at Osborne Mine, Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osborne Mine is an underground copper-gold operation in Northern Queensland that mines an ironstone deposit which hosts magnetite and silica with chalcopyrite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite. The mine setting is arid with the majority of make-up water being supplied from boreholes located on the edge of the Great Artesian Basin, some 28 km away. The development and implementation of thickened discharge

Gordon McPhail; Alasdair Noble; George Papageorgiou; Daniel Wilkinson

2004-01-01

135

Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

2001-01-01

136

Mining engineering College of Engineering and Mines  

E-print Network

in exploration, mining or mineral beneficiation. Students are prepared for job opportunities with mining and con: operating or engineering management, government agency director or entrepreneur. Starting salaries are among, environmental law and labor management. Students will have the choice of other mining topics to make up the mi

Hartman, Chris

137

Mine waste dumps and heavy metal pollution in abandoned mining district of Boccheggiano (Southern Tuscany, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activity in the Boccheggiano-Fontalcinaldo area (Southern Tuscany) dates back at least to the 16th century AD and\\u000a lasted up to very recent times. Copper-rich hydrothermal veins, massive pyrite deposits, and their gossans were exploited.\\u000a Two mine waste dumps (Fontalcinaldo, Fontebona), one flotation tailings impoundment (Gabellino), and one roasting\\/smelting\\u000a waste dump (Merse-Ribudelli) in the study area were selected to ascertain

M. Benvenuti; I. Mascaro; F. Corsini; P. Lattanzi; P. Parrini; G. Tanelli

1997-01-01

138

Introduction to Data Mining Motivation of Data Mining  

E-print Network

1 CISC6930 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Data Mining CISC6930 2 Outline Motivation of Data Mining Concepts of Data Mining Applications of Data Mining Data Mining Functionalities Focus of Data Mining Research #12;2 CISC6930 3 Why we need Data Mining ? Data are any facts, numbers, images or text that can

Li, Yanjun "Lisa"

139

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Bradley, J.A.

1981-07-01

140

Oil Mining. Final report, Task 014  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ESCOE task report covers the production of oil by open pit mining of oil sand deposits in the United States and surface extraction of the oil. A companion area is application of the same technology to shallow oil fields in lieu of other means of enhanced oil recovery. The report surveys possible mineable domestic sites and suggests candidates for

Reed; W. F. Jr

1979-01-01

141

Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

142

Controls on pit lake water quality at sixteen open-pit mines in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five mines in Nevada currently have, or will likely have, a pit lake. The large bulk mineable deposits in Nevada mined below the water table are of several types, including Carlin-type Au, quartz-adularia precious metal, quartz-alunite precious metal and porphyry-Cu (-Mo) deposits. Of the 16 past or existing pit lakes at 12 different Nevada mines, most had near neutral pH

Lisa Shevenell; Katherine A Connors; Christopher D Henry

1999-01-01

143

Chapter 2. Uranium Mining and Extraction Processes in the United States In 1946, Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), establishing the Atomic Energy Commission  

E-print Network

2-1 Chapter 2. Uranium Mining and Extraction Processes in the United States In 1946, Congress of the uranium market and price of uranium is their role in mining industry decisions. Some of these decisions are: how to extract ore from a mineral deposit, how many and which mineral deposits should be mined

144

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

145

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

146

Subsidence from underground mining: environmental analysis and planning considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence, a universal process that occurs in response to the voids created by extracting solids or liquids from beneath the Earth's surface, is controlled by many factors including mining methods, depth of extraction, thickness of deposit, and topography, as well as the in situ properties of the rock mass above the deposit. The impacts of subsidence are potentially severe in

F. T. Lee; J. F. Jr. Abel

1983-01-01

147

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2013-04-01

148

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2012-04-01

149

Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

Rytuba, J.J.

2003-01-01

150

Data Mining: Opportunities and Challenges  

E-print Network

1 Data Mining: Opportunities and Challenges Xindong Wu University of Vermont, USA; Hefei University Systems 2004 ...... #12;3 Outline 1.1. Data Mining OpportunitiesData Mining Opportunities Major Conferences and Journals in Data Mining Main Topics in Data Mining Some Research Directions in Data Mining 2

Wu, Xindong

151

LANDMARC [land mine detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the detection of land mines. For this purpose the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LANL) has combined its micropower impulse radar and imaging technologies. The system is called the land-mine detection advanced radar concept, or LANDMARC

S. Azevedo

1998-01-01

152

Mining Montana Brett Davidheiser  

E-print Network

10/30/2008 1 Mining Montana Brett Davidheiser Stillwater Mining Company East Boulder #12 · Pentlandite hosts about 80% of the palladium · Pd/Pt ratio approx. 3:1 ­ Recovered byproducts include gold

Militzer, Burkhard

153

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

154

Zinc and Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri) is contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste (“chat”), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to

W. N. Beyer; J. Dalgarn; S. Dudding; J. B. French; R. Mateo; J. Miesner; L. Sileo; J. Spann

2004-01-01

155

Integrated Mine Evaluation — Implications for Mine Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine management is often expected to make rapid evaluation decisions at different stages of projects based on limited and uncertain data. The challenge is exacerbated by having to distil technical complexity into a financial model that is usually designed to produce only one or two key indicators, eg net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR). Mining is a

G D Nicholas; S J Coward; M Armstrong; A Galli

2006-01-01

156

Acid Mine Drainage: the case of the Lafayette mine, Rapu Rapu (Philippines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acid streams resulting from mining activities from certain types of mineral deposits such as those at Rapu Rapu in the Philippines are highly toxic to the aquatic environment. The extreme acidity is harmful to most aquatic life and, even after neutralisation, the precipitate formed continues to affect aquatic organisms. Toxic elements, such as copper, cadmium and zinc are often

Janet Cotter; Kevin Brigden

2006-01-01

157

Constraining Modern and Historic Mercury Emissions From Gold Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury emissions from both historic gold and silver mining and modern small-scale gold mining are highly uncertain. Historic mercury emissions can affect the modern atmosphere through reemission from land and ocean, and quantifying mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining can help constrain modern mining sources. While estimates of mercury emissions during historic gold rushes exceed modern anthropogenic mercury emissions in North America, sediment records in many regions do not show a strong gold rush signal. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to determine the spatial footprint of mercury emissions from mining and compare model runs from gold rush periods to sediment and ice core records of historic mercury deposition. Based on records of gold and silver production, we include mercury emissions from North and South American mining of 1900 Mg/year in 1880, compared to modern global anthropogenic emissions of 3400 Mg/year. Including this large mining source in GEOS-Chem leads to an overestimate of the modeled 1880 to preindustrial enhancement ratio compared to the sediment core record. We conduct sensitivity studies to constrain the level of mercury emissions from modern and historic mining that is consistent with the deposition records for different regions.

Strode, S. A.; Jaeglé, L.; Selin, N. E.; Sunderland, E.

2007-12-01

158

Geotechnical & Mining Engineering  

E-print Network

effective solutions to a broad range of geotechnical and mining engineering problems. Experienced staff to characterize sites and evaluate effects of mining-induced seismicity on underground excavation stability. Sw and effectiveness assessment Rockburst and mine seismicity monitoring and investigation Damage zone estimation

Chapman, Clark R.

159

Data Mining for CRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

Thearling, Kurt

160

Mining Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate operating an iron mine, from choosing property to writing an environmental impact statement to setting up the mining operation. Chocolate chip cookies (with the chocolate chips representing iron ore) are used for this experiment. Students are challenged to operate the most profitable and environmentally sound mine they can.

Cohen, Eric

161

Data Warehousing and Data Mining Conference, January 25, 1999, Singapore Data Mining:Data Mining  

E-print Network

Data Warehousing and Data Mining Conference, January 25, 1999, Singapore 1 Welcome Data Mining:Data Mining: Updates in TechnologiesUpdates in Technologies Xindong Wu Dept of Math and Computer Science Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401, USA Email: xwu@ mines.edu Home Page: http://kais.mines

Wu, Xindong

162

Geochemical characterization of slags, other mines wastes, and their leachates from the Elizabeth and Ely mines (Vermont), the Ducktown mining district (Tennessee), and the Clayton smelter site (Idaho)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waste-rock material produced at historic metal mines contains elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Two types of mine waste were examined in this study: sintered waste rock and slag. The samples were collected from the Elizabeth and Ely mines in the Vermont copper belt (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), from the Copper Basin mining district near Ducktown, Tennessee (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), and from the Clayton silver mine in the Bayhorse mining district, Idaho (polymetallic vein and replacement deposits). The data in this report are presented as a compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the slag data are presented in a companion paper. Data collected from sintered waste rock and slag include: (1) bulk rock chemistry, (2) mineralogy, (3) and the distribution of trace elements among phases for the slag samples. In addition, the reactivity of the waste material under surficial conditions was assessed by examining secondary minerals formed on slag and by laboratory leaching tests using deionized water and a synthetic solution approximating precipitation in the eastern United States.

Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul H.

2003-01-01

163

Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing  

SciTech Connect

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1996-09-01

164

MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA RENO MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY Mackay School of Mines Fifth Edition FOR NEVADA PROSPECTORS AND MINERS by Keith G. Papke and David A. Davis #12;1 MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY Fifth Edition FOR NEVADA PROSPECTORS AND MINERS

Tingley, Joseph V.

165

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30% < Fe < 64%) hematite ores. Based on their mineralogical composition, three major types of itabirites occur in the QF: siliceous,

Carlos Alberto Spier; Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Rosière; José Domingos Ardisson

2008-01-01

166

Physical dispersion of radioactive mine waste at the rehabilitated Radium Hill uranium mine site,South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radium Hill uranium deposit, in semiarid eastern South Australia, was discovered in 1906 and mined for radium between 1906 and 1931 and for uranium between 1954 and 1961 (production of 969 300 t of davidite ore averaging 0.12% U3O8). Rehabilitation was limited to removal of mine facilities, sealing of underground workings and capping of selected waste repositories. In 2002,

B. G. Lottermoser; P. M. Ashley

2006-01-01

167

Asian mining '85: Papers presented at the conference, Manila, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference in Asian mining. Contents include: geological characteristics and evolution of a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit at Guinaoang, Luzon, Philippines; influence of cable support in assessing open strope viability; modular processing plants to improve mineral recovery at Indonesian tin mines; development of a new cobalt recovery process at the Sungao Nickel refinery; design and construction of the Padaena zinc refinery; and, design, construction and operation of the carbon in pulp plant, Siana gold mine, Philippines.

Not Available

1985-01-01

168

School of Mines Graduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

Colorado School of Mines 2010­2011 Graduate Bulletin #12;To Mines Graduate Students: This Bulletin, Golden, CO 80401 Address correspondence to: Office of Graduate Studies Colorado School of Mines 1500@mines.edu 2 Colorado School of MinesGraduate Bulletin2010­2011 #12;Academic Calendar

169

[Cu-hyperaccumulators in mining area].  

PubMed

Plant species distributing in three Cu-mining area were investigated, and Cu concentrations in soils and plants were analyzed. The results showed that Cu ore deposit mostly was distributed at the altitude of about 630 m. Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were distributed only on the Cu ore deposit or the place with high Cu concentration, and the maximum Cu concentrations in these two plants were 1060 mg.kg-1 DW and 1006 mg.kg-1 DW, which reached the critical of hyperaccumulator. Cu accumulations in Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were positively and closely correlated with Cu concentration in soil. PMID:12385229

Jiang, Liying; Shi, Weiyong; Yang, Xiaoe; Fu, Chengxin; Chen, Weiguang

2002-07-01

170

Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.  

PubMed

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

171

Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines  

PubMed Central

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

172

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

173

Mining for Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students mine the chips from chocolate chip cookies. They weigh the cookies before and after mining, weigh the chips, and calculate the percent yield. This lab is designed to give students a better understanding of the processes involved in harvesting a natural resource and the impact it has on their environment and community. Analysis and conclusion questions focus on the fact that the mining of nonrenewable natural resources has a dramatic effect on our environment.

Obremski, Vince

174

Mining Your Own Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month-long project students conduct research to develop a mineral location and recovery plan. The plan must include how the minerals formed, a justification for choosing the area to be mined, and the manner in which the resource will be mined. Also important are safety, cost-effectiveness, post-mining site restoration. Each group will share with the class a written document and presentation.

2007-02-08

175

A baseline lunar mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

Gertsch, Richard E.

1992-01-01

176

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and\\u000a heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into\\u000a high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30%?

Carlos Alberto Spier; Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Rosière; José Domingos Ardisson

2008-01-01

177

Geochemical Assessment of Reclaimed Lands in the Mining Regions of Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land territories of Ukraine are remarkable for its fertility on the one hand and the existence of the mining sites useful\\u000a minerals considerable by the amount and assortment on the other hand. In most cases they are mined in the open cut mining\\u000a method. By the type of bedding in the earth’s crust the deposits are differed in flat

Mykola Kharytonov

178

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

179

Late Paleocene paleoenvironmental gradients in Wilcox Group strata, Big Brown Mine, Texas  

E-print Network

Wilcox Calvert Bluff Formation in and near the Texas Utilities' Big Brown Mine confirm that significant marine influence was present at the time of deposition. Most fine-grained sediments contain flaser, rippled, and laminated bedding, and palynological...

Klein, Jennifer Marie

2012-06-07

180

Biogeochemical Processes Contributing to Nickel Dynamics Within a Mine Tailings Impacted Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel mining in the Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada has been pursued since the late 1920's by Falconbridge and INCO. Large tailings deposits have therefore been generated and require remediation. At the Onaping mine site, Moose Lake is used as the treatment pond for tailings. The drainage released has had a profound effect on Moose Lake's geochemistry, rendering it highly

L. Bernier; L. A. Warren

2001-01-01

181

Impact of mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining: Global modeling  

E-print Network

Received in revised form 7 January 2009 Accepted 8 January 2009 Keywords: Mercury Mining Gold rush North the historical gold rush was at its highest. The resulting global mining emissions are 1630 Mg yrÃ?1 , consistent impact of the North American gold rush on global mercury deposition than previously estimated, it also

Lyatt Jaeglé

182

The Geology and History of the Bodie Mining District Jacob van Wesenbeeck  

E-print Network

brought half a million people to California in search of gold, in what is termed the Gold Rush (California, is the site of a historical gold mining operation. A magma source underground and a series of faults allowed it deposited minerals, including silver and gold in quartz veins. These veins were mined and the ore milled

Polly, David

183

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-01

184

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

185

Predicting pit water quality for the Highway Reward mine, Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open pit mining of the Highway Reward copper-gold deposit has produced a final mining void with a diameter of 600m and a depth of 280m, which will be left to fill with ground and rain water once pumping of pit water ceases. A detailed geological assessment of the pit walls indicated that the wall surface area consists of 13% sulfidic

Manfred Thienenkamp

186

Growth and Metal Accumulation of Geyer and Mountain Willow Grown in Topsoil versus Amended Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows (Salix spp.) are an integral component in the restoration of wetland plant communities that have been impacted by the fluvial deposition\\u000a of mine tailings. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare growth and metal uptake of Geyer (S. geyeriana) and mountain (S. monticola) willow grown in topsoil versus lime and biosolids amended mine tailings. Biomass, leader length, and tissue

M. J. Boyter; J. E. Brummer; W. C. Leininger

2009-01-01

187

Geology of New Mexico uranium deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the geology of the uranium deposits of New Mexico was presented. Uranium has been found in all four of the physiographic provinces in New Mexico--the Colorado Plateau, the Southern Rocky Mountains, the Basin and Range, and the Great Plains. The vast majority of uranium is mined in the San Juan Basin of the Colorado Plateau in the

Hatchell

1981-01-01

188

Environmental mobility of antimony around mesothermal stibnite deposits, New South Wales, Australia and southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony (Sb) occurs principally in stibnite (Sb2S3) in mesothermal vein deposits hosted in low-grade metamorphic belts of eastern Australia and southern New Zealand. Stibnite is commonly associated with gold. Many deposits have been mined historically, with one large deposit, at Hillgrove, New South Wales, being mined recently. Natural outcrops in the relatively rugged terrains are oxidised under humid to semiarid

P. M. Ashley; D. Craw; B. P. Graham; D. A. Chappell

2003-01-01

189

Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.  

PubMed

Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80 % of total As. PMID:24729075

Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

2014-10-01

190

Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

Jordan, Gyozo

2009-07-01

191

Human factors in mining  

SciTech Connect

This Bureau of Mines report is directed toward summarizing the application of human factors to improving safety, productivity, and the general physical and psychological working conditions of miners and toward familiarizing readers with the role of human factors in the mining industry and the benefits that car accrue by systematically applying human factors principles and data.

Sanders, M.S.; Peay, J.M.

1988-01-01

192

Mine roof collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the after noon of July 2, 1948, while returning from geological work, I took a short cut along the trail pictured across the upper edge of the view (Illustration of Mine Roof Collapse at the Mammoth Coal Mine North of Sheridan, Wyoming (EOS, 60 (3), p. 28)). I might be mistaken of the exactspot, but the slightly elongated `collapse'

Walter M. Small

1979-01-01

193

Mining outlook in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for mining in Indonesia is presented. Coal appears to be the most promising growth area for Indonesian mining interests, with production slated to reach 1.5 million t/yr by 1985, up from 0.5 million ton in 1983. Also discussed production and trends, aluminum, copper, nickel, silver, gold, tin and iron sands in Indonesia.

Not Available

1984-06-01

194

Data Mining Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. The site lists some typical tasks addressed by data mining, such as identifying cross-sell opportunities and predicting a peak load of a network. There are also some academic resources on such topics as "Anomaly Localization," "Generating Non-Linear Functions," and "Symbolic Knowledge Discovery."

2008-01-14

195

Biotreatment of mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

Several experiments and field tests of microbial mats are described. One study determined the removal rate of Uranium 238 and metals from groundwater by microbial mats. Free floating mats, immobilized mats, excised mats, and pond treatment were examined. Field tests of acid coal mine drainage and precious metal mine drainage are also summarized. The mechanisms of metal removal are briefly described.

Bender, J.; Phillips, R. [Microbial Aquatic Treatment Systems, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

196

Diagonally Subgraphs Pattern Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an efficient algorithm, called DSPM, for mining all frequent subgraphs in large set of graphs. The algorithm explores the search space in a DFS fashion, while generating candidates in advance to each mining phase just like the Apriori algorithm does. It combines the candidate generation and anti monotone pruning into one efficient operation thanks to

Moti Cohen; Ehud Gudes

2004-01-01

197

Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake.

James W. Moore; David J. Sutherland

1981-01-01

198

Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included rocks of the Wood River assemblage. We suggest that elevated HFSE and REE trace-element contents of metavolcanic rocks, whose major-element composition may have been altered, are an important prospecting tool for rocks of VMS deposit potential in east-central Alaska.

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

2007-01-01

199

PlanMine: Predicting Plan Failures using Sequence Mining \\Lambda  

E-print Network

PlanMine: Predicting Plan Failures using Sequence Mining \\Lambda Mohammed J. Zaki, Neal Lesh Department Rochester, New York 14627 Technical Report 671 July 1998 Abstract This paper presents the PlanMine sequence mining algorithm to extract patterns of events that predict failures in databases of plan

Ogihara, Mitsunori

200

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

201

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

202

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

203

Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine  

E-print Network

Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine Qian Wan and Aijun An Department. Discovering association rules is one of the important tasks in data mining. While most of the existing algorithms are developed for efficient mining of frequent patterns, it has been noted recently that some

An, Aijun

204

Cutaneous deposits.  

PubMed

: The cutaneous deposition disorders are a group of unrelated conditions characterized by the accumulation of either endogenous or exogenous substances within the skin. These cutaneous deposits are substances that are not normal constituents of the skin and are laid down usually in the dermis, but also in the subcutis, in a variety of different circumstances. There are 5 broad categories of cutaneous deposits. The first group includes calcium salts, bone, and cartilage. The second category includes the hyaline deposits that may be seen in the dermis in several metabolic disorders, such as amyloidosis, gout, porphyria, and lipoid proteinosis. The third category includes various pigments, heavy metals, and complex drug pigments. The fourth category, cutaneous implants, includes substances that are inserted into the skin for cosmetic purposes. The fifth category includes miscellaneous substances, such as oxalate crystals and fiberglass. In this article, the authors review the clinicopathologic characteristics of cutaneous deposition diseases, classify the different types of cutaneous deposits, and identify all the histopathologic features that may assist in diagnosing the origin of a cutaneous deposit. PMID:23249837

Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

2014-01-01

205

From Web Mining to Social Multimedia Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web mining is a well established field with many applications. Over the last years we experience a vast and rapidly growing amount of multimedia content that becomes available online. Web 2.0 and online social networks have dramatically influenced the growing amount of multimedia content due to the fact that users become more active producers and distributors of such multimedia context.

Georgios Lappas

2011-01-01

206

Underground at Black Diamond Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable

Higgins

1989-01-01

207

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 College Opportunity Fund. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Financial Aid and Scholarships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Dining Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Mines Park

208

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Residency Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 College Opportunity Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Dining Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Mines Park

209

Land Mines Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

1999-01-01

210

Land Mines Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

1999-01-01

211

Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping and environmental findings.

Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

1998-01-01

212

Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

2014-11-01

213

The Tuscarora Au-Ag District: Eocene Volcanic-Hosted Epithermal Deposits in the Carlin Gold Region, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tuscarora mining district contains the oldest and the only productive Eocene epithermal deposits in Nevada. The district is a particularly clear example of association of low-sulfidation deposits with igneous ac- tivity and structure, and it is unusual in that it consists of two adjoining but physically and chemically distinct types of low-sulfidation deposits. Moreover, Tuscarora deposits are of interest

STEPHEN B. CASTOR; DAVID R. BODEN; CHRISTOPHER D. HENRY; JEAN S. CLINE; ALBERT H. HOFSTRA; WILLIAM C. MCINTOSH; RICHARD M. TOSDAL

2003-01-01

214

CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining;  

E-print Network

CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining; Case Study of SACROC field, USA Abstract Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources and depositing it in a geological formation is considered as an efficient way to decrease the CO2 impacts in the atmosphere

Mohaghegh, Shahab

215

PURIFICATION OF WATERS DISCHARGED FROM POLISH LIGNITE MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The exploitation of lignite deposits is linked with the necessity of lowering the groundwater table and dewatering the mine of precipitation. A large percentage of the discharge waters requires purification prior to delivery of receiving streams. The chief pollutants of these wat...

216

Boron and boron carbide coatings by vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines investigated the formation of boron and boron-carbide coatings by vaporphase reactions. Optimum parameters\\u000a were determined for hydrogen reduction of boron trichloride and for the formation of boron-carbide coatings on graphite by\\u000a reaction with the deposited boron. At 1300°C, about 85 pct of the boron was deposited. Tungsten substrates did not react with\\u000a the boron deposit; other

Andrew A. Cochran; James B. Stephenson

1970-01-01

217

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

1996-02-01

218

Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

2006-01-01

219

MINING METHODS AND COSTS, CALYX NOS. 3 AND 8 URANIUM MINES, TEMPLE MOUNTAIN DISTRICT, EMERY COUNTY, UTAH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptions are given of the Calyx No. 3 mine operated by American ; Reduc Uranium Corp. and Calyx No. 8 operated by Cline Co. The deposits are ; composed of numerous small, irregular bodies and are worked through 36 inch Calyx ; drill holes. The U--V ores are concentrated chiefly in the lower 30 feet of the ; Moss Back

Dare

1957-01-01

220

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

221

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15

222

Algorithms for data mining  

E-print Network

Data of massive size are now available in a wide variety of fields and come with great promise. In theory, these massive data sets allow data mining and exploration on a scale previously unimaginable. However, in practice, ...

Wang, Grant J. (Grant Jenhorn), 1979-

2006-01-01

223

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

224

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

225

Topoff Mining Company Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary Laboratory exercise to demonstrate the use of TINs in GIS using an example from surface coal mining. Context Type and level of course This is one of ...

Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

226

Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors

J. K. G. Panitz; D. R. Tallant; C. R. Hills; D. J. Staley

1993-01-01

227

Ekati Diamond Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The page on the Ekati Diamond Mine, which is located in the Northwest Territories and is North America's only operating diamond mine, presents a satellite image and informational text. A detailed map of the region is also included which will allow users to compare the satellite image to what the area looks like on a map. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

228

Women in coal mining  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents views of a female mine engineer with regard to acceptance of women into America's coal industry. Topics include how attitude toward women in mining has greatly changed, how female miners eroded the ''macho'' image, and how unbalanced media coverage slowed acceptance. Suggests that the transition period is over and that women are firmly entrenched in the industry. Concludes that more should be done in the areas of motivation and safety.

Cooley, F.

1982-11-01

229

EnviroMine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a reference library of up-to-date information on mining and the environment by providing links to an abundance of resources related to the industry. There are links to environmental topics such as acid rock drainage, waste rock, dust control, water quality and many more. The site also features an image library, current news, events, publications, employment, and links to other mining-related environmental websites.

2007-01-23

230

Mining Specifications: A Roadmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

Zeller, Andreas

231

Morenci Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization.

The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

232

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions... Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

233

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions... Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

234

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

...MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...employed underground at the mine on each shift; (3) The distances from the two nearest mine rescue stations; (4) The...

2014-07-01

235

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

...MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...employed underground at the mine on each shift; (2) The distances from the two nearest mine rescue stations; (3) The...

2014-07-01

236

Acid mine drainage: Balancing environmental protection and mining realities  

SciTech Connect

A major environmental concern leading to the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) was the degradation of streams and waterways from discharges of acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal mining operations. Although SMCRA and its regulatory scheme contains specific provisions addressing the drainage of acidic water from mine sites, as do various other agencies statutes and regulations, AMD from active and abandoned mines remains a major environmental problem in the Appalachian region. The formation of acidic water during coal mining operations is pervasive and some believe impossible to prevent.

Sturgill, B.J. Jr.; Poland, K.B.

1995-12-31

237

Underground at Black Diamond Mines  

SciTech Connect

Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

Higgins, C.T.

1989-10-01

238

CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative  

SciTech Connect

Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

Hiett, J. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States). Mine Map Repository and Mine Map Information Systems

2007-07-01

239

Detour Lake mine - gold in upper greenschist-lower amphibolite terrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Detour Lake mine, Abitibi belt, Superior Province, Canada, shows many similarities and some significant disimilarities with other gold deposits in the belt. The deposit is in tholeiitic basalts, granodioritic feldspar porphyries, massive felsic units and an amphibole-carbonate-mica schist. The structural footwall of the orebody consists of well layered, pelitic metasediments. Alteration is extensive and comprises carbonatization, biotitization, sericitization, introduction

Marmont

1985-01-01

240

A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However, all water samples collected downstream from the mine site have low Pb concentrations and variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Water samples from a well on the mine site and a pipe discharging water from below the tailings dam also have non-ore Pb isotope ratios. The isotopic compositions of low-Pb samples do not lie on a mixing line between ore and local host rocks, but rather lie on a mixing line between agricultural ditch and stream waters upstream of the mine and New Calumet ore. These waters may form a groundwater system flowing under the mine site that is virtually uncontaminated by the overlying ores and tailings. Compared to the Sullivan case, metals from the New Calumet ore and tailings are only weakly mobilized into local waters, probably due to buffering of waters by carbonate-bearing host rocks. We are impressed with the fingerprinting ability of Pb isotopes to track the sources of heavy metals in water systems, and suggest that other radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd) may also be useful in environmental studies.

Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.

2004-12-01

241

Underground mine communications: a survey  

SciTech Connect

After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

2009-07-01

242

Review of characteristics of mercury speciation and mobility from areas of mercury mining in semi-arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation of mercury—including most phase minerals, secondary phases, gaseous and aqueous species—is very important for\\u000a evaluating the environmental impact and mobilization of this contaminant. Mining activities produce mercury mine waste, which\\u000a includes several types of material (mainly mine waste and calcines) with varying mercury content and speciation depending\\u000a on the ore deposit and processing technology. The main phase minerals

Andrés Navarro

2008-01-01

243

Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.  

PubMed

Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality. PMID:23872888

Atanackovi?, Nebojša; Dragiši?, Veselin; Stojkovi?, Jana; Papi?, Petar; Zivanovi?, Vladimir

2013-11-01

244

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly traded diamond companies may be due to investors losing patience with the slow pace or absence of new promising discoveries and switching into shares of base metals and fertilizers for agriculture (potash and phosphates).

Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

2009-11-01

245

String Mining in Bioinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

246

String Mining in Bioinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

247

Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 2. Exploration, reserve estimation, mining, milling, conversion, and properties of uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this module geological and geochemical data pertinent to locating, mining, and milling of uranium are examined. Chapters are devoted to: uranium source characteristics; uranium ore exploration methods; uranium reserve estimation for sandstone deposits; mining; milling; conversion processes for uranium; and properties of uranium, thorium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides.

Brookins

1981-01-01

248

Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 2. Exploration, reserve estimation, mining, milling, conversion, and properties of uranium  

SciTech Connect

In this module geological and geochemical data pertinent to locating, mining, and milling of uranium are examined. Chapters are devoted to: uranium source characteristics; uranium ore exploration methods; uranium reserve estimation for sandstone deposits; mining; milling; conversion processes for uranium; and properties of uranium, thorium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides.

Brookins, D.G.

1981-12-01

249

Ore-microscopic and geochemical characteristics of gold-tellurides-sulfide mineralization in the Macassa Gold Mine, Abitibi Belt, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Macassa Gold Mine is the only operational mine (Lac-Minerals Ltd., Macassa Division) of seven original gold producers in the Kirkland Lake camp of northern Ontario, Canada. The gold deposit is in Archaean volcanic and sedimentary rocks which have been intruded by a composite syenite stock. The mineralization has taken place in two stages. The first stage is not gold

G. Tesfaye

1992-01-01

250

Mine Dewatering Studies at Jwaneng Open Pit Diamond Mine - Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological environment at Jwaneng Mine in Botswana is characterized by a complex faulting system that preceded the emplacement of kimberlite into the Transvaal sedimentary sequence. Mine dewatering studies at Jwaneng have previously focused on identifying water bearing structures on the faulting systems that transgress the current mine pit excavations and also on the hypothesis that dolomites occurring at depths

Benjamin Mafa

251

Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas  

E-print Network

in South Texas Regional geology. McLean 5 mine, Ray Point Uranium District, Live Oak County . Mine description. GEOCHEMISTRY OF URANIUM, MOLYBDENUM, AND TITANIUM Uranium occurrence in igenous rocks Solubility of uranium in sedimentary environments... Adsorption of uranium Concentrations of uranium in natural waters Primary and secondary uranium minerals in ore deposits. Geochemistry of molybdenum Geochemistry of titanium. FORMATION OF SEDIMENTARY URANIUM DEPOSITS. Roll-type uranium deposits. Source...

Bomber, Brenda Jean

2012-06-07

252

TRACE AND POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH URANIUM DEPOSITS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmentally sensitive trace elements molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium are concentrated with uranium in ore deposits in South Texas. Cattle grazing in some pastures in mining areas have contracted molybdenosis, a cattle disease resulting from an imbalance of molybdenum an...

253

School of Mines Graduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 International Student Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Registrar's Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 International Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Student Life at CSM#12;Colorado School of Mines 2009­2010 Graduate Bulletin #12;To Mines Graduate Students

254

Gravity in a Mine Shaft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

255

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute. Final report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

256

Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.  

PubMed

Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

Zolnikov, Tara R

2012-03-01

257

Statistical Data Mining Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These tutorial, created by Professor Andrew Moore at Carnegie-Mellon University, cover a range of topics in statistical data mining "including the foundations of probability, the foundations of statistical data analysis, and most of the classic machine learning and data mining algorithms." Decision Trees, Information Gain, and Cross-Validation are just a few of the items presented here. Each topic contains a set of tutorial slides in PDF, excellent for converting into a classroom presentation or left as they are for a classroom handout or online learning resource.

Moore, Andrew W., Ph.D.

2011-04-18

258

A CASE STUDY USING INDICATOR KRIGING — THE MOUNT MORGAN GOLD-COPPER DEPOSIT, QUEENSLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1882, the Morgan brothers recognised a mineral deposit, now known as the Mount Morgan Gold-Copper Deposit. The final production figures for the mine were 250 tonnes of gold and 360,000 tonnes of copper from 50 million tonnes of ore, making the average grades 4.99g\\/t gold and 0.72% copper. A three dimensional grade model was made of the pre-mined

Ivor Jones

259

Public feelings and environmental impacts from uranium mining inside Kakadu National Park and around Grand Canyon National Park  

SciTech Connect

There are two uranium mines in the Northern Territory of Australia, Ranger and Nabarlek. The Ranger mine, the only producing operation, is located in the Kakadu National Park, which has been listed on the United Nations' World Heritage list. The park is dedicated to preserving the Australian aboriginal culture: It contains several aboriginal villages and historic sites. Uranium mining in the park has been accepted quite well by the public and the aborigines. Employees of the Ranger mine and their relatives have established a public information program that includes tours of the mining and milling operations. There is no environmental impact to the area from the mining and milling of uranium at the Ranger site. The region around the Grand Canyon contains many highgrade uranium deposits. The ore is contained in unique breccia pipe formations. The pipes, which resemble a cylinder with a diemter of {approx} 100 m and a height of {approx} 300 m, originated as limestone solution cavities located {approx} 400 m below the plateau. There are several exposed deposits along the canyon walls, but no mining operations are allowed within the park boundaries. While the real environmental impact is insignificant, the perceived impact is tremendous. Many special-interest groups have attempted to halt the mining operations. No valid environmental impacts have been predicted or observed as a result of the current mining operations. However, one mine has been delayed for religious reasons by a local tribe or native Americans.

McKlveen, J.W.; Kvasnicka, J.

1989-01-01

260

MITIGATION OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities of Rock Springs, Glenrock, and Hanna, Wyoming were built over abandoned coal mines. Over time, the rock comprising the roof of the mine begins to fracture and collapse into the open mine. This process continues until the space is either occupied by rubble or the caving reaches the surface, threatening public health and safety. To successfully mitigate the potential

Darrel V. Holmquist; Damon B. Thomas; Kent Simon

261

REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

262

Appling Parallelism in Image Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image mining deals with the study and development of new technologies that allow accomplishing this subject. A common mistake about image mining is identifying its scopes and limitations. Clearly it is different from computer vision and image processing areas. Image mining deals with the extraction of image patterns from a large collection of images, whereas the focus of computer vision

J. Fernandez; N. Miranda; R. Guerrero; F. Piccoli

263

Data Mining in Astronomical Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Virtual Observatory (VO) will enable transparent and efficient ac- cess, search, retrieval, and visualization of data across multiple data repositories, which are generally heterogeneous and distributed. Aspects of data mining that apply to a variety of science user scenarios with a VO are reviewed. 1 Science Requirements for Data Mining What is data mining and why is applicable to

Kirk D. Borne

2000-01-01

264

Link-Based Network Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Network mining is a growing area of research within the data mining community that uses metrics and algorithms from graph\\u000a theory. In this chapter we present an overview of the different techniques in network mining and suggest future research possibilities\\u000a in the direction of graph theory.

Jerry Scripps; Ronald Nussbaum; Pang-Ning Tan; Abdol-Hossein Esfahanian

265

Radar Technology for Mine Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention is being given to the challenge of detecting buried non-metallic mines and National and International programmes are underway to develop more effective detection and clearance systems. Reported results from the US national programmes on mine detection suggest that radar can outperform conventional metal detectors, which only respond to the metal content of a mine and hence are insensitive

D J Daniels; C Martel

2001-01-01

266

Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oilwell drilling rig accidentally drilled into an underground salt mine, draining a lake and filling the mine, with water jetting out of the mine 400 feet into the air. An explanation of the jetting phenomenon is offered in terms of the laws of fluid dynamics, with supporting diagrams and calculations. (Author/JN)

de Nevers, Noel

1982-01-01

267

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

268

Erodibility of strip-mine spoils  

SciTech Connect

Erosion remains one of the greatest problems in reclaiming strip-mine areas. The erodibility of spoil samples from lignite-bearing geological deposits along the Gulf Coast was evaluated, using a rainfall simulator and predictive methods developed for agricultural soils. The materials studied represented a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics. They were subjected to two 100-year 30-min rainfall events at inclinations of 2, 9, and 18%. The eroded and splashed materials were collected and quantified. The topographical factor LS in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) was adjusted to allow extrapolation from small plots to the standard unit plot. The erodibility factor K was thus determined, and the resultant values were compared with those calculated from the physical and chemical properties of the samples by the equation developed by Wischmeier. The comparison indicates that K values estimated from the physical properties of mine spoil are larger than those experimentally determined. The erodibility factor of mine spoil (K/sub m/) may be calculated as K/sub m/ = 0.339K/sub w//sup 0.48/ where K/sub w/ is the erodibility factor estimated from the physical properties of the spoil using the Wischmeier equation. 29 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Rubio-Montoya, D.; Brown, K.W.

1984-11-01

269

Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

270

Seismic modeling of a rising mine water table  

SciTech Connect

In former deep coal mining areas in Germany the mine water table is regulated by a water pump system such that the drinking water at the earth's surface is not influenced. For the modelling of possible changes at the earth's surface using the so called box model, a finite element model of the hydrogeologic situation in the Ruhr Area has been developed. To observe the depth of the mine water table usually old shafts or exploration drill holes are used at selected locations. Nevertheless, there are to less observation stations for a detailed modelling of the complete Ruhr Area so that additional observation locations are needed. To avoid the construction of expensive and complicated drill holes down to more than 1000 m depth an alternative technique to monitor the rising of the mine water table could be the time-lapse seismic (TLS) which is routinely used to monitor the effects of the exploitation of oil and gas deposits. It is expected, that the mine water table will not be detected directly as an additional reflector of seismic waves, due to the fact, that the impedance contrast between saturated carbonate rock and none saturated rock is too weak. Nevertheless, the reflectivity function of the layers in the underground will change, due to the water saturation process such that it might be possible to observe the rising of the mine water table using the TLS method. To define the requirements for the acquisition instrumentation and for the seismic field geometry extensive seismic modelling was performed to investigate, if it is possible to identify the rising of the mine water table. In a first step the influence of water saturation on the reflectivity and the velocities of seismic waves in carbonate rocks have to be determined. If the mine water table can be monitored, a direct input of the seismic results into a geological model should be possible to forecast critical changes at the surface. 5 refs.

Dirk Orlowsky; Bobo Lehmann

2007-01-15

271

The environmental impact of mine wastes — Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine wastes have been generated for several centuries, and mining activity has accelerated significantly during the 20th century. The mine wastes constitute a potential source of contamination to the environment, as heavy metals and acid are released in large amounts. A great variety of microorganisms has been found in mine wastes and microbiological processes are usually responsible for the environmental hazard created by mine wastes. However, microorganisms can also be used to retard the adverse impact of mine wastes on the environment. Conventionally, the mine drainage as well as the waste itself can be treated with alkali to increase pH and precipitate metals. The main drawback of this method is that it has to be continuously repeated to be fully effective. There may also be negative effects on beneficial microorganisms. Several other treatment methods have been developed to stop weathering processes thereby reducing the environmental impact of mine wastes. One approach has been to influence the waste deposit itself by reducing the transfer of oxygen and water to the waste. This can be achieved by covering the waste or by placing it under water. Vegetating the cover will probably also decrease the transfer of oxygen and water, and will give the deposit area a more aesthetical appearance. The other main approach to reduce the environmental impact of mine wastes is to treat the drainage water. Various methods aim at using microorganisms for this in natural or engineered systems. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, metal-transforming bacteria and metal accumulating microorganisms are some examples. Often, some kind of reactor design is needed to effectively control these processes. Recently, much interest has been focused on the use of natural or artificial wetlands for treatment since this generally is a low-cost and low-maintenance method. Bacterial sulfate-reduction and microbial metal accumulation are processes wanted in such systems. Few studies have dealt with long-term effects of wetland systems, but there are some indications that the wetland material has to be replaced for effective treatment. Furthermore, bacterial iron reduction may take place instead of sulfate-reduction in some wetlands. In general, the activity of microorganisms is neglected in the design of mine waste treatment systems, and the treatments are created merely from a technical point of view. This can result in situations where unexpected microbial processes take over, and, in the worst scenario, the overall effect is opposite to the desired.

Ledin, M.; Pedersen, K.

1996-10-01

272

SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR POST MINE CLOSURE IN GOLD MINE (PT KEM'S CASE FOR LOCAL MINING COMMUNITY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mine closure is a critical stage of a gold mine especially for a company that has maintained great attention to the environment. There is a different perception of economic value of tailings, waste and abandoned pit between the company and local mining communities (artisanal miners). Artisanal miners provide a cash based input to rural areas, adding to and assisting

B. SULISTIJO; G. CRISPIN

273

Lunabotics Mining Competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

2010-01-01

274

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

275

Mineral mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

Monks, H.

1980-11-25

276

Draa Sfar, Morocco: A Visean (331 Ma) pyrrhotite-rich, polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in a Hercynian  

E-print Network

deposit in a Hercynian sediment-dominant terrane Eric Marcouxa , Abdelhay Belkabirb , Harold L. Gibsonc by a Hercynian carbonaceous, black shale-rich succession of the Jebilet terrane, Morocco. The ore deposit and Guemassa terranes of Morocco, as well as the commencement of mining at the Draa Sfar deposit, has resulted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Significant deposits of mineral sands were discovered in Virginia's Upper Coastal Plain in 1989. The Old Hickory deposit is the largest ore body in the state (>2,000 ha) and supports a productive rowcrop agriculture on prime farmlands. field experiments were installed on pilot-scale (25 m x 60 m) mining pits in the late summer of 1995 and replicated on an adjacent undisturbed area. Half of each mining pit was topsoiled (25 cm) while the remaining half was left as either (1) mixed tails/slimes or (2) re-graded subsoil over tails/slimes to simulate various pit closure scenarios. Both non-topsoiled areas received 112 Mg/ha of yard waste compost as a soil building amendment. The entire area was ripped/disked to ameliorate compaction and incorporate lime and fertilizer additions. The experiment was cropped through a wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton rotation over the 1995 to 1998 growing seasons. Taken as a whole, these combined results clearly indicate that mining and reclamation of these prime farmlands will lead to a substantial decrease in rowcrop productivity, at least over the initial years following pit closure and reclamation. For the rotation studied, post-mining productivity was estimated by this experiment to be reduced by 23%, 3%, 27%, and 20% for each crop (wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton) in sequence. For a given crop in a given year, response to topsoiling versus compost addition to the surface varied, and neither treatment appeared superior. Corn and cotton yields on the mined land treatments were reduced despite the application of irrigation. Cotton quality was also adversely affected by the mining reclamation treatments. Results of these controlled experiments are somewhat encouraging. However, the implementation of protocols will be complicated in practice if tailings and slimes cannot be re-blended to generate a reasonably uniform final reclaimed surface.

Daniels, W.L.; Schroeder, P.D.; Nagle, S.M.; Zelazny, L.W.; Alley, M.M.

1999-07-01

278

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

Not Available

1990-08-01

279

Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-print Network

by a chemical treatment which is repeated until the spoil geochemistry becomes acceptable. This method is time-consuming and has a low cost-efficiency. The purpose of this thesis is to test the applicability of s, new methodology presented by Urban... (1984) for planning revegetation. The concept is based on studying the geology of the mine before mining, determining the various environments of deposition making up this geology, and correlating these environments with the soil geochemistry...

Parisot, Laurence D.

2012-06-07

280

Water Disaster Types and Water Control Measures of Hanxing Coal Mine Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanxing coal mine area is a typical karst high-water deposit. With further exploration of under-group coal seams, various threats of water disasters came. Coal water disasters can be divided into five types through comprehensive study on geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coal mine area. The five kinds of water disasters are surfer water disaster, coal roof aquifer water disaster,

Chao Xu; Pingping Gong

2011-01-01

281

Colorado SChool of MineS We are Colorado School of Mines. Full of pride in our distinguished history. Full  

E-print Network

® ® #12;Colorado SChool of MineS We are Colorado School of Mines. Full of pride in our and uniformly presenting Mines' graphic image -- in all printed and online communications -- we tell the world we're a unique learning community that shares a powerful vision: Colorado School of Mines

282

Vein and stratabound gold deposits of northern Zaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy years of gold mining in the North Zaire region resulted in a total output of ca. 350 t of metal, half of this amount coming from recent placer deposits. All deposits are linked to volcano-sedimentary series and associated granitoid bodies constituting the granite-green-stone terrane of northern Zaire. The actual metallotects are tectonic shear structures cutting across various rock types

J. Lavreau

1984-01-01

283

A jewel in the desert: BHP Billiton's San Juan underground mine  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo Nation is America's largest native American tribe by population and acreage, and is blessed with large tracks of good coal deposits. BHP Billiton's New Mexico Coal Co. is the largest in the Navajo regeneration area. The holdings comprise the San Juan underground mine, the La Plata surface mine, now in reclamation, and the expanding Navajo surface mine. The article recounts the recent history of the mines. It stresses the emphasis on sensitivity to and helping to sustain tribal culture, and also on safety. San Juan's longwall system is unique to the nation. It started up as an automated system from the outset. Problems caused by hydrogen sulfide are being tackled. San Juan has a bleederless ventilation system to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion of methane and the atmospheric conditions in the mine are heavily monitored, especially within the gob areas. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-12-15

284

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

285

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

286

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2010-07-01

287

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions... Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4...

2010-07-01

288

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions... Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.4...

2011-07-01

289

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

290

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

291

Subsidence from underground mining; environmental analysis and planning considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Subsidence, a universal process that occurs in response to the voids created by extracting solids or liquids from beneath the Earth's surface, is controlled by many factors including mining methods, depth of extraction, thickness of deposit, and topography, as well as the in situ properties of the rock mass above the deposit. The impacts of subsidence are potentially severe in terms of damage to surface utility lines and structures, changes in surface-water and ground-water conditions, and effects on vegetation and animals. Although subsidence cannot be eliminated, it can be reduced or controlled in areas where deformation of the ground surface would produce dangerous or costly effects. Subsidence prediction is highly developed in Europe where there are comparatively uniform mining conditions and a long history of field measurements. Much of this mining has been carried out beneath crowded urban and industrial areas where accurate predictions have facilitated use of the surface and reduced undesirable impacts. Concerted efforts to understand subsidence processes in the United States are recent. Empirical methods of subsidence analysis and prediction based on local conditions seem better suited to the current state of knowledge of the varied geologic and topographic conditions in domestic coal mining regions than do theoretical/mathematical approaches. In order to develop broadly applicable subsidence prediction methods and models for the United States, more information is needed on magnitude and timing of ground movements and geologic properties.

Lee, Fitzhugh T.; Abel, John F.

1983-01-01

292

Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.  

PubMed

Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

Dym, Warren Alexander

2008-11-01

293

Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee mine, near the western margin of Long Valley, exploits one of numerous Carlin-type gold ore bodies in the alligator Ridge mining district; all are currently owned and operated by USMX Corp.

Pinnell, M.L.; Blake, J.G. (Pioneer Oil and Gas, Midvale, UT (US)); Hulen, J.B. (Univ. of Utah Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-15

294

Environmental geochemical studies of selected mineral deposits in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental geochemical investigations at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, between 1994 and 1997 included studies of the Kennecott stratabound copper mines and mill area; historic mines and mill in the Bremner District, gold placer mines at Gold Hill; the undisturbed porphyry, Cu-Mo deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek, and the historic mines and mill at Nabesna, The study was in cooperation with the National Park Service and focused on sample media including surface water, bedload sediment, rock, mine waste, and mill tailings samples. Results demonstrate that bedrock geology and mineral deposit type must be considered when environmental geochemical effects of historic or active mine areas are evaluated.

Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Rosenkrans, Danny; Ballestrazze, Vanessa

2000-01-01

295

Mining with microbes  

SciTech Connect

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

Rawlings., D.E. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa)] [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Silver, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-08-01

296

Mineral mining installation  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining installation comprises a mechanical mining machine (such as a plough or a shearer) and a hydraulic winning machine. The hydraulic winning machine has a plurality of high pressure nozzles and a high-pressure pump for supplying the nozzles with high-pressure water (or other hydraulic fluid). Means are provided for driving each of the two winning machines independently of the other along a mineral face. This permits the mechanical winning machine to operate at its optimum, high speed rate without interference from the slower moving hydraulic winning machine. The pump is preferably a multiple radial-piston pump powered by an electric motor. Both electric power and water may be supplied to the hydraulic winning machine via pick-up arms on the machine and supply channels extending along the face.

Beckmann, K.; Grisebach, H.

1981-02-17

297

Mining Time Series Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the world's supply of data is in the form of time series. In the last decade, there has been an explosion of interest in mining time series data. A number of new algorithms have been introduced to classify, cluster, segment, index, discover rules, and detect anomalies/novelties in time series. While these many different techniques used to solve these problems use a multitude of different techniques, they all have one common factor; they require some high level representation of the data, rather than the original raw data. These high level representations are necessary as a feature extraction step, or simply to make the storage, transmission, and computation of massive dataset feasible. A multitude of representations have been proposed in the literature, including spectral transforms, wavelets transforms, piecewise polynomials, eigenfunctions, and symbolic mappings. This chapter gives a high-level survey of time series Data Mining tasks, with an emphasis on time series representations.

Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann; Lin, Jessica; Gunopulos, Dimitrios; Keogh, Eamonn; Vlachos, Michail; Das, Gautam

298

Mining science data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data from Scientific simulations, observations, and experiments are now being measured in terabytes and will soon reach the petabyte regime. The size of the data, as well as its complexity, make it difficult to find useful information in the data. This is of course disconcerting to scientists who wonder about the science still undiscovered in the data. The Sapphire Scientific data mining project is addressing this concern by applying data mining techniques to problems ranging in size from a few megabytes to a hundred terabytes in a variety of domains. In this paper, we briefly describe our work in several applications, including the identification of key features for edge harmonic oscillations in the DIII-D tokamak, classification of orbits in a Poincaré plot, and tracking of features of interest in experimental images.

Kamath, Chandrika

2006-09-01

299

Coal mine subsidence - western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence processes above underground mines consist of a gradual down-warping of the overburden into coal extraction panels, causing depressions, or a sudden collapse into individual mine openings, causing pits. Subsidence in surface mining areas is caused by compaction of rehandled overburden material, dewatering of aquifers or stress and strain readjustments. The time between mining and complete subsidence above underground mines

Dunrud

1984-01-01

300

Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu  

E-print Network

Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu Department of Computer Science University mining. We explain what distri­ bution data mining is and why distributed data mining is interesting. Problems and progress in distributed data mining are also discussed. 1 Introduction Facing a rapidly

Fu, Yongjian

301

Gold mining, gold prices and technological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mining frequently involves repeated mining at previously worked sites. This repeated mining provokes the question whether an efficient extraction path is being followed. Analysis of mining activity is conducted to determine the circumstances which would warrant deferring mining of gold. Variation in real price, costs of extraction, and the ore recovery grade all influence this decision. However the existence

Ross Cullen; David Craw

1990-01-01

302

Recent Developments in Web Usage Mining Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web Usage Mining is that area of Web Mining which deals with the extraction of interesting knowledge from logging information produced by web servers. In this paper, we present a survey of the recent developments in this area that is receiving increasing attention from the Data Mining community. Web Mining (29) is that area of Data Mining which deals with

Federico Michele Facca; Pier Luca Lanzi

2003-01-01

303

Canadian Mine Tax System Possible deductions  

E-print Network

· Canadian Mine Tax System · Possible deductions ­ Resource Allowances ­ Capital Cost Allowances MIN E 408: Mining Enterprise Economics Mine Taxation A good 2 page summary: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/mtr-rdm/mst-rps-eng.htm#lnk15 http://www.pwc.com/en_CA/ca/mining/publications/canadian-mining-taxation

Boisvert, Jeff

304

Canadian Mine Tax System Possible deductions  

E-print Network

08-1 · Canadian Mine Tax System · Possible deductions ­ Resource Allowances ­ Capital Cost Allowances MIN E 408: Mining Enterprise Economics Mine Taxation A good 2 page summary: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/mtr-rdm/mst-rps-eng.htm#lnk15 http://www.pwc.com/en_CA/ca/mining/publications/canadian-mining-taxation

Boisvert, Jeff

305

Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial  

E-print Network

14-Dec-12 Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial #12;14 December 2012 2 Potential for Mine Water sourced Treatment of coal mine waters 60 schemes in UK #12;Mine water sourced heating? Only a handful of examples others Substantial UK potential Gravity discharges 17 ­ 2877 Kwthermal* (out of 11 coal mine water

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

306

Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.  

PubMed

Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 ?S cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards. PMID:23223936

Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

2013-04-01

307

Aquifer restoration techniques for in-situ leach uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

In-situ leach uranium mines and pilot-scale test facilities are currently operating in the states of Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. This report summarizes the technical considerations involved in restoring a leached ore zone and its aquifer to the required level. Background information is provided on the geology and geochemistry of mineralized roll-front deposits and on the leaching techniques used to extract the uranium. 13 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

Deutsch, W.J.; Bell, N.E.; Mercer, B.W.; Serne, R.J.; Shade, J.W.; Tweeton, D.R.

1984-02-01

308

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

SciTech Connect

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d`Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Rember, W.C.; Erdman, T.W.; Hoffmann, M.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-11-01

309

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

1993-11-01

310

Mining with microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or

Douglas E. Rawlings; Simon Silver

1995-01-01

311

Mining Generalized Association Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the problem of mining generalized association rules. Given a large database of transactions, where each transaction consists of a set of items, and a taxonomy (is-a hierarchy) on the items, we find associations between items at any level of the taxonomy.For example, given a taxonomy that says that jackets is-a outerwear is-e clothes, we may infer a rule

Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal

1995-01-01

312

Mine countermeasures HTS magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Superconductor has designed, manufactured, and tested a model high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet system for airborne mine countermeasures (MCM) for the Office of Naval Research. The magnet has a magnetic moment of 80 kA-m2, or about one-fourth that of the full-scale magnet. The magnet is a solenoid consisting of 16 layers of laminated Bi-2223 HTS wire. The coil was manufactured

Segun O. Ige; Dawood Aized; Andy Curda; Rick Medeiros; Chris Prum; Peter Hwang; Gregory Naumovich; E. Michael Golda

2003-01-01

313

Mining Edgar Tender Offers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how use the HTMLEditorKit to perform web data mining on EDGAR (Electronic Data-Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system). EDGAR is the SEC's (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) means of automating the collection, validation, indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions. Some entities are regulated by the SEC (e.g. publicly traded firms) and are required, by law, to file with

Douglas Lyon

2008-01-01

314

Germany knows mining  

SciTech Connect

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

315

Fungus speeds mine reclamation  

SciTech Connect

A bacterial fungus, Pislothus tinctorius is showing potential in coal-mine reclamation. The fungus typically appears as puffballs, and roots of pine, spruce, cedar, fir, yew and oak are found to increase in size because of the fungus and are better able to absorb moisture and nutrients and thus to survive in adverse conditions. Research is being undertaken at the US Forest Service into inoculating pine seedlings with the fungus.

Wolf, C.H.

1982-09-01

316

Soviet surface mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Years of emphasis on the development of underground equipment have left the surface coal mining sector lacking in modern, domestically built, high-capacity machines. According to the Soviet coal industry, the following equipment is needed to meet the ambitious production increases planned for the future: (1) 20 cubic meter (26 cubic yard) shovels; (2) 12.5 and 20-cubic-meter (16 and 26-cubic-yard) hydraulic

Sealy

1981-01-01

317

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

SciTech Connect

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01

318

Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

1980-02-01

319

Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine What is MINAR? Boulby from the space exploration sector to the mining industry to improve mining safety and profitable space exploration and mining. The two day workshop (From Outer Space to Mining; Bowler, 2013) at Boulby

Strathclyde, University of

320

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining  

E-print Network

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining Jian, object-relational DBMS, data warehouse sys- tems, etc. We believe that benchmarking data mining mining systems as well. Frequent pattern mining forms a core component in mining associations

Pei, Jian

321

3D electrical structure of porphyry copper deposit: A case study of Shaxi copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Lu-Zong ore concentration area, middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, ShaXi porphyry copper deposit is a typical hydrothermal deposit. To investigate the distribution of deep ore bodies and spatial characteristics of host structures, an AMT survey was conducted in mining area. Eighteen pseudo-2D resistivity sections were constructed through careful processing and inversion. These sections clearly show resistivity difference between the Silurian sandstones formation and quartz diorite porphyry and this porphyry copper formation was controlled by the highly resistive anticlines. Using 3D block Kriging interpolation method and 3D visualization techniques, we constructed a detailed 3D resistivity model of quartz diorite porphyry which shows the shape and spatial distribution of deep ore bodies. This case study can serve as a good example for future ore prospecting in and around this mining area.

Chen, Xiang-Bin; Lü, Qing-Tian; Yan, Jia-Yong

2012-06-01

322

Formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: The Kuroko perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to identify the geochemical, hydrological, igneous and tectonic processes that led to the variations in the physical (size, geometry) and chemical (mineralogy, metal ratios and zoning) characteristics of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits with respect to space (from a scale of mining district size area to a global scale) and time (from a All

Hiroshi Ohmoto

1996-01-01

323

Impact of mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining: Global modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare a global model of mercury to sediment core records to constrain mercury emissions from the 19th century North American gold and silver mining. We use information on gold and silver production, the ratio of mercury lost to precious metal produced, and the fraction of mercury lost to the atmosphere to calculate an a priory mining inventory for the 1870s, when the historical gold rush was at its highest. The resulting global mining emissions are 1630 Mg yr -1, consistent with previously published studies. Using this a priori estimate, we find that our 1880 simulation over-predicts the mercury deposition enhancements archived in lake sediment records. Reducing the mining emissions to 820 Mg yr -1 improves agreement with observations, and leads to a 30% enhancement in global deposition in 1880 compared to the pre-industrial period. For North America, where 83% of the mining emissions are located, deposition increases by 60%. While our lower emissions of atmospheric mercury leads to a smaller impact of the North American gold rush on global mercury deposition than previously estimated, it also implies that a larger fraction of the mercury used in extracting precious metals could have been directly lost to local soils and watersheds.

Strode, Sarah; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Selin, Noelle E.

324

Ground control for highwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-09-15

325

Lunar site characterization and mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

Glass, Charles E.

326

Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

1975-01-01

327

Data Mining in Social Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of online social media is providing a wealth of social network data. Data mining techniques provide researchers and practitioners the tools needed to analyze large, complex, and frequently changing social media data. This chapter introduces the basics of data mining, reviews social media, discusses how to mine social media data, and highlights some illustrative examples with an emphasis on social networking sites and blogs.

Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

328

Privacy-Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite enormous benefits and the extremely fast proliferation of data mining in recent years, data owners and researchers\\u000a alike have acknowledged that data mining also revives old and introduces new threats to individual privacy. Many believe that\\u000a data mining is, and will continue to be, one of the most significant privacy challenges in years to come.\\u000a \\u000a We live in an

Ljiljana Brankovic; Helen Giggins

329

Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge discovery and data mining has recently emerged as an important research direction for extracting useful information\\u000a from vast repositories of data of various types. This chapter discusses some of the basic concepts and issues involved in\\u000a this process with special emphasis on different data mining tasks. The major challenges in data mining are mentioned. Finally,\\u000a the recent trends in

Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay; Ujjwal Maulik

330

New Equipment for Mine Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

1983-01-01

331

Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Rock Mechanics addresses many of the rock mechanics issues which arise in underground mining engineering, it is not a text exclusively for mining applications. This new edition has been completely revised to reflect the notable innovations in mining engineering and the remarkable developments in the science of rock mechanics and the practice of rock engineering that have taken place over the last two decades.

Brady, B. H. G.; Brown, E. T.

332

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

2006-01-01

333

Enzyme leach anomalies associated with deep Mississippi Valley-type zinc ore bodies at the Elmwood Mine, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deeply buried Mississippi Valley-type deposits that have been or are currently being mined in North America were initially discovered by drilling. Conventional geochemical methods are ineffective for detecting these `blind' deposits when they occur deep within sequences of stable-platform carbonates and shales. The `enzyme' leach is a selective analytical technique for determining trace elements associated with amorphous Mn oxide coatings

James R. Yeager; J. Robert Clark; Wallace Mitchell; Roy Renshaw

1998-01-01

334

Mine soil classification and mapping  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the history of surface coal mining and reclamation methods and equipment for the pre-Federal law, interim-Federal law, and post-Federal law periods. It discusses the difficulties with traditional mine soil mapping methods on five soils series in Illinois. These methods fail to recognize the effects of compaction and methods to ameliorate compaction. The current status of mine soil mapping methods on eight soil series in Illinois are presented. Areas where additional work is needed and future potential difficulties are identified for mine soil mapping efforts.

Darmody, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

335

Data Mining for Financial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes Data Mining in finance by discussing financial tasks, specifics of methodologies and techniques in this Data Mining area. It includes time dependence, data selection, forecast horizon, measures of success, quality of patterns, hypothesis evaluation, problem ID, method profile, attribute-based and relational methodologies. The second part of the chapter discusses Data Mining models and practice in finance. It covers use of neural networks in portfolio management, design of interpretable trading rules and discovering money laundering schemes using decision rules and relational Data Mining methodology.

Kovalerchuk, Boris; Vityaev, Evgenii

336

Metal-residence sites in mine tailings in the Magdalena District, New Mexico, USA  

SciTech Connect

Mineralization in the Kelly Mining Camp is hosted by the Mississippian Kelly Limestone and comprises Zn-Pb skarn, replacement, and vein deposits related to Tertiary intrusive activity. The ore consists of primary (hypogene) sulfide mineralization which has been oxidized near surface to form secondary (supergene) mineralization. A zone of secondary sulfide-enrichment separates the sulfide and oxide ores. Mine tailings in the camp contain primary sulfide, oxide and gangue minerals, secondary (supergene) minerals formed during weathering of the primary ore, and tertiary minerals formed by alteration of hypogene and supergene assemblages after deposition in the tailings impoundment.

Larocque, A.C.L. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Chapin, C.E. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Laughlin, A.W. [ICF Kaiser Ltd., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickmott, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-05-01

337

Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an estimated 653 university students. In 2012 more students and the public will be engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. The various designs will be cataloged and categorized to provide information to future Lunabotics mining robot designers and competitors. It is also expected to be of value for actual future space missions, as knowledge is gained from testing many innovative prototypes in simulated lunar regolith.

Mueller, Robert P.

2012-01-01

338

The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950.

Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

1952-01-01

339

The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however, women participate in the extraction process itself. Women were found to participate in the extraction of ore only when a deposit had a thin overburden layer, thus rendering the mineralized ore more accessible. When deposits required a significant degree of manual labour to access the ore due to thick overburden layers, women were typically relegated to other roles. The identification of this link encourages the establishment of an alternative research avenue in which the physical and social sciences merge to better inform policymakers, so that the most appropriate artisanal mining assistance programs can be developed and implemented.

Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

2013-01-01

340

36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the HCNRA. (1) All mining activities are prohibited...1975. (2) The impact of mining activities including...the HCNRA, the environmental effects at the source of extraction...guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the...

2012-07-01

341

36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the HCNRA. (1) All mining activities are prohibited...1975. (2) The impact of mining activities including...the HCNRA, the environmental effects at the source of extraction...guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the...

2011-07-01

342

36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the HCNRA. (1) All mining activities are prohibited...1975. (2) The impact of mining activities including...the HCNRA, the environmental effects at the source of extraction...guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the...

2010-07-01

343

36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the HCNRA. (1) All mining activities are prohibited...1975. (2) The impact of mining activities including...the HCNRA, the environmental effects at the source of extraction...guidelines of this section apply to mining activities in the...

2013-07-01

344

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2013-07-01

345

30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

346

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2010-07-01

347

30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2010-07-01

348

30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

349

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

350

30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 75.1200 Section 75.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

351

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2011-07-01

352

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2012-07-01

353

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

354

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

355

Efficient Algorithms for High Dimensional Data Mining  

E-print Network

mining of historical manuscripts [22], geology, astronomy [27][38], spacedata mining problems. Our algorithm requires linear space.space of the best known algorithm; this makes the time series shapelet discovery tractable and more useful to the data mining

Rakthanmanon, Thanawin

2012-01-01

356

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4760 Shaft mines. (a) Shaft mines shall be provided with at least one of the following means...

2014-07-01

357

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

358

Insider Threat Detection using Stream Mining and Graph Mining  

E-print Network

Insider Threat Detection using Stream Mining and Graph Mining Pallabi Parveen, Jonathan Evans, Bhavani Thuraisingham, Kevin W. Hamlen, and Latifur Khan Department of Computer Science The University of Texas at Dallas Abstract--Evidence of malicious insider activity is often buried within large data

Hamlen, Kevin W.

359

GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea, the Brain Korea 21 Project, and the Research Institute of Engineering Science, Seoul National University, Korea.

Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

2010-12-01

360

Plant community tolerant to trace elements growing on the degraded soils of São Domingos mine in the south east of Portugal: environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of trace element tolerant species is a key factor to the success of remediation of degraded mine soils. Mining activities generate a large amount of waste rocks and tailings, which get deposited at the surface. The degraded soils, the waste rocks and tailings are often very unstable and will become sources of pollution. The direct effects will be

H Freitas; M. N. V Prasad; J Pratas

2004-01-01

361

Modelling the long-term evolution of groundwater's quality in a flooded iron-ore mine using a reactive transport pipe network model  

E-print Network

of cases, the complexity of the mine structure and the lack of information on its hydrodynamic parameters modelling was carried out on the so-called South Basin (fig. 1). the lorraine iron-bearing deposit (10­65 m) with marly intercalations. Five mineralised levels were mined in the South Basin. the iron-bearing succession

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATION MI-1994  

E-print Network

. Greystone barite mine 11. Hazen diatomite mine 12. Huck salt mine 13. IMV-Floridin - clay 14. Mackie perlite perlite mine 19. Pilot Peak limestone quarry 20. Rossi barite mine 21. Silver Peak lithium carbonate 22

Tingley, Joseph V.

363

Building protection against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for polish mining industry / Problematyka ochrony obiektów budowlanych na tle sytuacji i perspektyw rozwoju górnictwa w polsce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses issues involved in protecting buildings and utilities infrastructure located on areas affected by mining exploration. They have been presented against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for Polish mining. Characteristics of Polish mineral deposits have been determined and the scale of mining-induced impact has been given as an aggregate mining areas and regions. Current situation and growth perspectives have been evaluated through analysing geological concessions granted by Ministry of the Environment. The nature of mining influences induced by underground coal - black coal being the most intensively explored mineral in the country - mining has been discussed. Building protection issues have also been presented from three angles: forecasting of mining influences, designing protections and structural health monitoring.

Florkowska, Lucyna

2012-12-01

364

Surface mining method  

SciTech Connect

The invention concerns a method of surface mining along an elongated pit using a cross-pit conveyor for transferring selected excavated material, such as topsoil, directly across the pit while using a separate overburden excavator to transfer the remaining overburden. The method uses a cross-pit transporter which is supported solely on the working bank, includes a cantilevered conveyor which extends completely across the pit, and is slewable so it can periodically swing to a non-interfering position when passing the other excavator. The method allows the selective replacement of the different overburden materials in accordance with modern reclamation practice.

Beutner, D.H.; Files, T.I.

1981-09-22

365

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

366

Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

2009-01-01

367

76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

2011-04-15

368

Automatic Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1985-01-01

369

Corona discharge initiated mine explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that lightning has initiated methane explosions in abandoned and sealed areas of underground coal mines. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) investigated several of these occurrences within recent years. The investigated explosions occurred at significant depths, ranging from 700 ft to 1200 ft. Data from the national lightning detection network indicated a strong correlation between

H. K. Sacks; Thomas Novak

2004-01-01

370

Lunar surface mine feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

Blair, Brad R.

371

Process Mining Online Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

2009-01-01

372

Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas  

E-print Network

Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas School of Information Studies, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga discuss several scalable and parallel discovery and predictive data mining tools. They successfully address many of the computational challenges associated with the analy­ sis of data sets with millions

Turlach, Berwin A.

373

Solar for Mining Hugh Rudnick  

E-print Network

Radiation Ref: R. Román, U. Chile #12;· High temperatures for PV solar panels · Dust in panels · Saline environment · Camanchaca · Fog Solar Panel Conditions in SING #12;Ref: CDEC-SING SING NCRE projects #12;MiningSolar for Mining Hugh Rudnick Professor Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile #12;Solar Energy

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

374

Mining research for enhanced competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining is very important to South Africa, contribut- ing 7% of GDP directly, and 15% indirectly and em- ploying more than 450 000 people. With the world's largest resources of gold, platinum and ferro- chrome, and major coal resources, mining will con- tinue to be important to South Africa for decades to come.

D VOGT; V Z BRINK; S DONOVAN; G FERREIRA; J HAARHOFF; G HARPER; R STEWART

375

Finding Gold in Data Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

Flaherty, Bill

2013-01-01

376

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a

1981-01-01

377

Database Mining: A Performance Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our perspective of database mining as the confluence of machine learning techniques and the performance emphasis of database technology. We describe three classes of database mining problems involving classification, associations, and sequences, and arguethat these problems can be uniformly viewed as requiring discovery of rules embedded inmassive data. We describe a model and some basic operations for the

Rakesh Agrawal; Tomasz Imielinski; Arun N. Swami

1993-01-01

378

Scalable Algorithms for Association Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association rule discovery has emerged as an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining. The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent itemsets and then, forming conditional implication rules among them. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms for the discovery of frequent itemsets which forms the compute intensive phase of the task. The algorithms utilize the structural

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2000-01-01

379

Web mining research: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the huge amount of information available online, the World Wide Web is a fertile area for data mining research. The Web mining research is at the cross road of research from several research communities, such as database, infor- mation retrieval, and within AI, especially the sub-areas of machine learning and natural language processing. How- ever, there is a lot

Raymond Kosala; Hendrik Blockeel

2000-01-01

380

Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining  

E-print Network

. A popular research topic in NLP, text mining, and Web mining in recent years (Shanahan, Qu, and Wiebe, 2006 every aspect of NLP and yet is confined. Little research in NLP/Linguistics in the past. Potentially a major technology from NLP. But it is hard. Bing Liu @ AAAI-2011, Aug. 8, 2011, San Francisco, USA 6 #12

Plotkin, Joshua B.

381

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65%

George H. Read

2009-01-01

382

Topic in Depth - Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology of growing importance.

2010-09-15

383

Movie review mining and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ?ourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and sum- marizing has become a hot research topic recently. Difier- ent from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarizing aims at extracting the features on which the re- viewers express their opinions

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-Yan Zhu

2006-01-01

384

Implications of Emerging Data Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining describes a technology that discovers non-trivial hidden patterns in a large collection of data. Although this technology has a tremendous impact on our lives, the invaluable contributions of this invisible technology often go unnoticed. This paper discusses advances in data mining while focusing on the emerging data mining capability. Such data mining applications perform multidimensional mining on a wide variety of heterogeneous data sources, providing solutions to many unresolved problems. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages arising from the ever-expanding scope of data mining. Data Mining augments human intelligence by equipping us with a wealth of knowledge and by empowering us to perform our daily tasks better. As the mining scope and capacity increases, users and organizations become more willing to compromise privacy. The huge data stores of the ‚master miners` allow them to gain deep insights into individual lifestyles and their social and behavioural patterns. Data integration and analysis capability of combining business and financial trends together with the ability to deterministically track market changes will drastically affect our lives.

Kulathuramaiyer, Narayanan; Maurer, Hermann

385

Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage  

E-print Network

Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information and Computing Sciences-year functional programming course using the Helium compiler. The mining of such a collection is not trivial a type error. 1 #12;1 Introduction and motivation When the Helium compiler for learning Haskell

Utrecht, Universiteit

386

Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities  

E-print Network

Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities Gary William Flake flake@research.nj.nec.com NEC Research Institute #12;Motivation for Web Mining More than 1B web pages and 20TB of raw data. Even more content will always be disorganized (or at best self-organized). In the future, everything will be on the web

Hu, Wen-Chen

387

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

388

Introduction to Space Resource Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

Mueller, Robert P.

2013-01-01

389

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

390

A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

2014-01-01

391

Mine Safety and Health Administration, Report of Investigation: Fatal Underground Coal Mine Explosions, No. 5 Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On September 23, 2001, two separate explosions occurred at approximately 5:20 p.m. And 6:15 p.m. in 4 Section of the Jim Walter Resources, Inc.,(JWR) No.5 Mine, resulting In fatal injuries to thirteen miners. At the time of the explosions, thirty-two mine...

R. McKinney, W. Crocco, K. G. Stricklin, K. A. Murray, S. T. Blankenship

2002-01-01

392

Cambrian rocks of the Pioche mining district, Nevada, with a section on Pioche shale faunules  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pioche mining district in the Ely Range, southeastern Nevada, is one of several districts in the Great Basin where Cambrian rocks are hosts of important ore deposits. Cambrian strata underlying the Ely Range are intruded by porphyritic granite and other dikes. Tertiary volcanic rocks and Pliocene fresh-water clastic deposits of the Panaca Formation occupy adjacent valleys and extend over the Cambrian strata on the south and east.

Merriam, Charles Warren; Palmer, Allison R.

1964-01-01

393

Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

1972-01-01

394

The Growth of Diamond Mining in Canada and Implications for Mining Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond mining in Canada began in 1998, with the first production from the Ekati mine in the Northwest Territories. Since then the Diavik mine has begun production, and two other mines are slated to begin production within two years. Canada’s share of the world value of diamond production was 15 per cent in 2003, the third largest worldwide. These mines

Jeremy Smith

2004-01-01

395

MINING ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Mining Engineering  

E-print Network

MINING ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Mining Engineering What is mining engineering? Mining engineers design, develop and implement the processes and technologies for taking minerals from the earth while minimizing the impact on the environment. Is this the program for me? Mining

Barthelat, Francois

396

Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

397

Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

398

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

399

ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE SENSOR DATA AND PHYSICAL MODELS Brian W Martin Thunder Basin Coal Company Wright, Wyoming #12;Analysis of Mining Explosion Performance 2 1 to Different Types of Mining Explosions · Single Shot · Cast Blast · Coal Fragmentation #12;Analysis of Mining

Stump, Brian W.

400

Ratio Rule Mining from Multiple Data Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both multiple source data mining and streaming data mining problems have attracted much attention in the past decade. In contrast to traditional association-rule mining, to capture the quantitative association knowledge, a new paradigm called Ratio Rule (RR) was proposed recently. We extend this framework to mining ratio rules from multiple source data streams which is a novel and challenging problem.

Jun Yan; Qiang Yang; Benyu Zhang; Qiansheng Cheng; Zheng Chen

401

Efficiently mining frequent trees in a forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent trees is very useful in domains like bioinformatics, web mining, mining semistructured data, and so on. We formulate the problem of mining (embedded) subtrees in a forest of rooted, labeled, and ordered trees. We present TREEMINER, a novel algorithm to discover all frequent subtrees in a forest, using a new data structure called scope-list. We contrast TREEMINER with

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2002-01-01

402

Integrating Classification and Association Rule Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification rule mining aims to discover a small set of rules in the database that forms an accurate classifier. Association rule mining finds all the rules existing in the database that satisfy some minimum support and minimum confidence constraints. For association rule mining, the target of discovery is not pre-determined, while for classification rule mining there is one and only

Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma

1998-01-01

403

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE #12;INTRODUCTION COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE 1 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AT THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES Emergencies safety training courses. #12;PHONE TREE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE YOU MAY

404

Collaborative Data Mining Tool for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the continuous improvement of e-learning courses allowing teachers with similar course's profile sharing and scoring the discovered information. This mining tool is oriented to be used by instructors non experts in data mining such that, its…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; Gea, Miguel; de Castro, Carlos

2009-01-01

405

A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

2011-01-01

406

A System Architecture for Database Mining Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of enhancing a database management system (DBMS) to support mining applications is twofold. First DBMSs of today have limited functionality for supporting mining applications. Second scaling traditional knowledge discovery techniques for large data sets is not straightforward. We propose a mining kernel that could be incorporated into future DBMSs. The mining kernel provides a common knowledge base encapsulated

Vijay V. Raghavan; Hayri Sever; Jitender S. Deogun

1993-01-01

407

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights  

E-print Network

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

Bai, Fengshan

408

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining  

E-print Network

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining Huan Liu, Hongjun Lu, Jun Yao Department,luhj,yaojung@iscs.nus.edu.sg Abstract. Various tools and systems for knowledge discovery and data mining are developed and available is where we should start mining. In this paper, breaking away from the conventional data mining assumption

Liu, Huan

409

Video Mining with Frequent Itemset Configurations  

E-print Network

Video Mining with Frequent Itemset Configurations Till Quack1 , Vittorio Ferrari2 , and Luc Van Gool1 1 ETH Zurich 2 LEAR - INRIA Grenoble Abstract. We present a method for mining frequently arrangements of affine covariant regions. Our mining method is based on the class of frequent itemset mining

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines  

E-print Network

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics Colorado School of Mines CGEM Dongjie Cheng #12;#12;Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics.mines.edu/cgem Defended: December 2003 Advisor: Dr. Yaoguo Li (GP

411

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines  

E-print Network

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics Colorado School of Mines CGEM Alisa Marie Green #12;Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics.mines.edu/cgem Defended: November 06, 2003 Advisor: Dr. Yaoguo Li

412

Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-09-15

413

Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

1999-07-01

414

Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

2006-08-01

415

Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.  

PubMed

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 ?m aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 ?m diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

2011-10-01

416

Mining human antibody repertoires  

PubMed Central

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

2010-01-01

417

Asymmetric mineral mining plough  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining plough for use in asymmetric ploughing, and movable to and fro alongside a conveyor, has a plough body provided with cutter means at its two ends. A first cutter means is arranged to win material when the plough is on the uphill run (That is to say when the plough moves in the opposite direction as the conveyor). A second cutter means is arranged to win material when the plough is on the downhill run. The second cutter means is mounted on the plough body for vertical movement relative to the plough body. This enables the second cutter means to be swung out of its working position (On the downhill run) to lie in a rest position (On the uphill run) in which it is in the path of travel of the first cutter means. This vertical movement of the second cutter means results in a plough of shorter length than known asymmetric ploughs.

Hauschopp, A.; Huss, H.; Rassmann, C.; Schwolow, G.

1981-07-28

418

Longwall mineral mining installation  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining installation comprises a longwall conveyor, a plough movable to and fro along a guide fixed to the face side of the longwall conveyor, and a drive station at one end of the longwall conveyor. The drive station includes a drive frame supporting drive means for driving the longwall conveyor. A support beam is provided at the goaf side of the drive station. The support beam extends substantially parallel to the drive frame. A floor plate extends beneath the drive frame. The goafside end portion of the floor plate is supported on the support beam by means of a lifting device, whereby the goaf-side end portion of the floor plate can be moved up and down relative to the support beam by the lifting device.

Beyer, H.; Erwien, H.; Grundken, D.; Kerklies, B.; Kumor, B.; Linke, H.; Mainusch, R.; Mohn, U.; Wleklinski, B.

1983-06-21

419

Shortwall mining machine  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides a shortwall mining machine comprising an assembly, which preferably is articulated and has a protective canopy. The assembly is arranged parallel to a shortwall mineral face, and a cutter is hauled along a guide on the assembly to cut the face. As the face is cut the assembly is moved towards the face by use of rams connected between the assembly and stay units located in roadways adjacent the face. The cutter may be a scraper bucket or a plough, and is hauled across the face by either one motor in one of the roadways, or by two motors, one located in each roadway. The cutter may be steered by use of jacks on the assembly located in the roadways.

MacRae, R.L.

1980-04-08

420

Data Mining SIAM Presentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document describes the data mining system developed at NASA Ames. Many NASA programs have large numbers (and types) of problem reports.These free text reports are written by a number of different people, thus the emphasis and wording vary considerably With so much data to sift through, analysts (subject experts) need help identifying any possible safety issues or concerns and help them confirm that they haven't missed important problems. Unsupervised clustering is the initial step to accomplish this; We think we can go much farther, specifically, identify possible recurring anomalies. Recurring anomalies may be indicators of larger systemic problems. The requirement to identify these anomalies has led to the development of Recurring Anomaly Discovery System (ReADS).

Srivastava, Ashok; McIntosh, Dawn; Castle, Pat; Pontikakis, Manos; Diev, Vesselin; Zane-Ulman, Brett; Turkov, Eugene; Akella, Ram; Xu, Zuobing; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi

2006-01-01

421

Ensemble Data Mining Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

Oza, Nikunj C.

2004-01-01

422

Utility of EXAFS in characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive mining of large mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in mercury contamination of both the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, dispersal, and ultimate fate of mercury are all affected by its chemical speciation, which can be most readily determined in a direct fashion using EXAFS spectroscopy. EXAFS spectra of mine wastes collected from several mercury mines in the California Coast Range with mercury concentrations ranging from 230 to 1060 mg/kg (ppm) have been analyzed using a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. While some calcines have been found to consist almost exclusively of mercuric sulfide, HgS, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. This experimental approach can provide a quantitative measurement of the mercury compounds present and may serve as an indicator of the bioavailability and toxicity levels of mercury mine wastes.

Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.

1999-01-01

423

Automated Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

424

Kentucky Mine Mapping Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geographic Information System (GIS) allows users to view and download all known mined out areas (polygons) digitized by the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet; individual reports from the Mines and Minerals database; and scanned images of engineering drawings (mine maps) submitted since January 2002, plus selected earlier maps. The maps can be viewed directly online with the use of an interactive viewer, or they can be downloaded from an FTP site. The interactive viewer shows all scanned maps and oil/gas wells (where available) for a selected area, overlain on a base map or imagery.

425

Texas earthquakes may be linked to wells for gas mining By Dan Vergano, USA TODAY  

E-print Network

pumped deep into the earth in a natural gas mining operation offers a "plausible," though not definitive fracturing" of shale layers in Texas and elsewhere. The shale is cracked by injections of high-pressure water of saltwater a day was deposited 10,000 to 14,000 feet deep. The salty "flowback" water was pumped

Huang, Shaopeng

426

Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

McCormick, K. A.; McDonald, A. M.

1999-01-01

427

Composite paste barricade performance at Goldcorp Inc. Red Lake Mine, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate strength barricades and fill fences are a necessary component of underhand cut and fill mining operations and stoping operations in general. These important structures are subject to a number of stresses and strains as a result of the deposition and curing of the backfill material. Parametric monitoring of fill fences gives the engineer the required data to predict not

P. B. Hughes; R. Pakalnis; M. Hitch; G. Corey

2010-01-01

428

The Affects of Mountain Top Removal Mining on Headwater Streams in Eastern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain Top Removal\\/Valley Fill (MTR\\/VF) coal mining is a relatively new coal extraction technology that is widely utilized throughout the Appalachian region. During this process, the mountaintop is blasted away, the coal removed and the leftover material (spoil) is then deposited into the surrounding valleys. The potential negative ecological effects of these operations on stream biodiversity has received some attention

D. A. Word; J. D. Jack; R. Kelley

2005-01-01

429

Eocene palynomorphs from the black diamond mines regional preserve, contra costa county, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynomorphs from Eocene coaly deposits of the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in California are described. Thirty?two species of spores and pollen are recognized and two of them, Graminidites scabratus and Arecipites antiochus, are regarded as new. The encountered specimens are characterized by 26% spores, 32% gymnosperm pollen, 41% angiosperm pollen, and 1% foraminifers. The climate is considered to be

Abbas Kimyai

1993-01-01

430

Potential of coal strip-mine spoils as aquifers in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tongue River Formation contains most of the strippable coal deposits in the Powder River Basin. Flat lying low sulfur coal beds up to 200 ft. thick are typically overlain by semiconsolidated shale and sandstone. Typical overburden to coal thickness ratios in working mines are 2:1. The overburden is generally dragline or scraper-dumped into the excavated pit. Pump tests were

Rahn

1976-01-01

431

Establishment and Growth of Two Willow Species in a Riparian Zone Impacted by Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fi eld study was initiated to determine survival, growth characteristics, and metal uptake of two montane riparian willow species, Geyer (Salix geyeriana Andersson) and mountain (S. monticola Bebb) willow, grown in amended fl uvial mine tailing deposits. Revegetation was done with staked and previously rooted cuttings to determine if planting method had an eff ect on successful establishment of

Melody M. Bourret; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger

2009-01-01

432

Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

433

Processes of attenuation of dissolved arsenic downstream from historic gold mine sites, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine and processing sites in the mesothermal gold deposits of the Reefton gold field, New Zealand, generate extremely high dissolved As concentrations (up to 59 mg\\/L). Attenuation of these waters takes place by at least one of the three mechanisms: (1) precipitation of the secondary arsenic mineral scorodite, (2) chemisorption onto iron oxyhydroxide (HFO) and (3) dilution with regional catchment water.

Laura Haffert; Dave Craw

2008-01-01

434

Deposition head for laser  

DOEpatents

A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

435

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the lower topographic elevations. Several mine adits, waste rock dumps are located along the main stream and a large tailings dump is found next to village Baiut just above the receiving floodplain. Predominant land cover is coniferous and mixed forests with agricultural lands on the downstream floodplain. METHODS Six samples at vaious depths were collected from the two major waste rock dumps in the headwater area, and the large tailings dump was also sampled for heavy metal source characterisation. 11 stream sediment samples were collected along the main surface water contamination transport pathway, and a further 11 soil samples were collected in 2 boreholes in the receptor floodplain in October 2008. Besides background stream sediment samples, samples from the exposed rock formations were also collected in order to capture natural background geochemistry in the studied mineralised area. The collected waste rock, stream sediment, soil and rock samples are analysed for total chemical composition (major elements and heavy metals) by ICP-MS spectroscopy, and XRD is used for the determination of mineralogical composition. Rock sample mineralogy is further investigated in thin-sections by petrological microscopy. According to EU legislation expectations, a special emphasis is taken on the determination of metal mobility from the waste rock dumps and various leaching tests are performed and compared including US EPA, USGS and ISO methods. A simple cathcment-based distributed sediment transport model (Jordan et al, 2005; Jordan et al. 2005, 2008) is used to decribe the pathways and quantities of particle-bound contamination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that (1) sediments are an efficient means for the preliminary inventory of mine contamination as a preparation for the more detailed hydrological sampling and assessment, and (2) the risk-based contamination assessment of mining sites often located in diverse geological, hydrological and landcover environment requires careful and successive sampling design and a tiered assessment approach. Leaching tests are show

Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

2009-04-01

436

Mining Text Data: Special Features and Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining is an increasingly important research field because of the necessity of obtaining knowledge from the enormous\\u000a number of text documents available, especially on the Web. Text mining and data mining, both included in the field of information\\u000a mining, are similar in some sense, and thus it may seem that data mining techniques may be adapted in a straightforward

Miguel Delgado; Maria J. Martín-bautista; Daniel Sánchez; María Amparo Vila Miranda

2002-01-01

437

Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine  

SciTech Connect

About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

2008-07-01

438

Small mammal-heavy metal concentrations from mined and control sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

1982-01-01

439

Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected that a better knowledge on growing conditions of the selected plant species will contribute to the development of a phytoremediation technique for a low-cost and sustainable restoration of the old mine sites. Moreover, this will have direct utility to other areas in the Mediterranean region, that are similarly threatened by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

2009-04-01

440

Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.  

PubMed

This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks. PMID:24176697

Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jaros?aw; van Doorn, Natalie S

2014-02-01

441

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2012-07-01

442

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2011-07-01

443

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

444

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2012-07-01

445

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2010-07-01

446

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2011-07-01

447

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

448

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2010-07-01

449

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2012-07-01

450

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2011-07-01

451

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

...Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2014-07-01

452

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2013-07-01

453

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2010-07-01

454

Geostatistical methods for the estimation of minable reserves in stratiform uranium deposits  

SciTech Connect

The ore reserve modeling of stratiform uranium deposits to be mined by selective underground mining methods must be done with consideration of the erratic nature of the ore forming processes that produced the mineralization. Estimation methods that model the uranium grade as smooth transition between high grade and low grade drillhole intercepts tend to greatly overestimate the ore tonnage. Care must be taken to first establish realistic ore pod geometries and then estimate the grade of the reserve units within the pods.

Hester, M.G.

1985-01-01

455

Data mining mining data: MSHA enforcement efforts, underground coal mine safety, and new health policy implications  

SciTech Connect

Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact. Even using results most favorable to the agency, MSHA is not currently cost effective. Almost 700,000 life years could be gained for typical miners if a quarter of MSHA's enforcement budget were reallocated to other programs (more heart disease screening or defibrillators at worksites).

Kniesner, T.J.; Leeth, J.D. [Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States). Center for Policy Research

2004-09-15

456

The Leading Edge: Data Mining  

NASA Video Gallery

When an airplane flies, hundreds of data streams fly from it every secondâ??pilot reports, incident reports, control positions, instrument positions, warning modes. NASA is mining terabytes of avia...

457

School of Mines Graduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Financial Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 International Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Health Record and Additional Steps . . . . . . . . . . . 12 International StudentsColorado School of Mines 2004­2005 Graduate Bulletin #12;To CSM Graduate Students This Bulletin

458

School of Mines Graduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 International Student Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 INTERLINK Language Center (ESL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Health Record and Additional Steps . . . . . . . . . . . 12 International StudentsColorado School of Mines 2003­2004 Graduate Bulletin #12;To CSM Graduate Students This Bulletin

459

School of Mines Graduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

.........................................................5 International Student Services .............................5 INTERLINK Language Center (ESL .................................9 Health Record and Additional Steps ....................9 International StudentsColorado School of Mines 2002-2003 Graduate Bulletin To CSM Graduate Students This Bulletin

460

Privacy-preserving data mining  

E-print Network

In the research of privacy-preserving data mining, we address issues related to extracting knowledge from large amounts of data without violating the privacy of the data owners. In this study, we first introduce an integrated baseline architecture...

Zhang, Nan

2009-05-15

461

Mining Safety and Health Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse site provides information about health and safety in the mining industry. The site features links to fact sheets, statistics, data, research projects, training materials, publications, educational and occupational software, and national laboratories.

2006-12-10

462

Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project (MMSD) is a completed, independent two-year project of research and consultation seeking to understand how the mining and minerals sector can contribute to the global transition to sustainable development. The final report, as well as various regional reports, timelines, and working papers, are available in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese. Information on a wide spectrum of topics is available, including the following: armed conflict; artisanal and small-scale mining; biodiversity; current industry practice; corporate citizenship; finance dialogue; health and safety; human rights; indigenous peoples; information dialogue; large-volume waste; life-cycle assessment; managing mineral wealth; mine closure policy; minerals availability; planning for outcomes; public participation; and resettlement and displacement.

2007-06-25

463

Topic in Depth - Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores data mining, also known as knowledge discovery in databases. Data mining is used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. It is a blend of three main subjects: statistics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Often, true data mining is characterized by a self-acting program and a unique blend of knowledge discovery and prediction that allows individuals and businesses to sort and classify very large amounts of data quickly and efficiently. Data mining programs can be tailored to meet the needs of the users, whether that need is for the forecasting of future investments, or simply the need to recognize patterns among the data being analyzed.

2010-09-06

464

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

of Student Life Financial Aid: Roger Koester, Director of Student Financial Aid 2 Colorado School of Mines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section 2­Student Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section 5­Undergraduate Information . . . . . . . 24 Admission Requirements

465

Tourmaline in Appalachian - Caledonian massive sulphide deposits and its exploration significance.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several types of stratabound mineral deposits, including some massive base-metal sulphide ores of the Appalachian - Caledonian orogen. It is most abundant (sometimes forming massive foliated tourmalinite) in sediment-hosted deposits, such as those at the Elizabeth Cu mine and the Ore Knob Cu mine (North Carolina, USA). Trace amounts of tourmaline occur associated with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Piedmont and New England and also in the Trondheim district. Tourmaline associated with the massive sulphide deposits are Mg- rich dravites with major- and trace-element compositions significantly different from schorl. It is suggested that the necessary B was produced by submarine exhalative processes as a part of the same hydrothermal system that deposited the ores. An abundance of dravite in non-evaporitic terrains is believed to indicate proximity to former subaqueous fumarolic centres.-R.A.H.

Slack, J.F.

1982-01-01

466

Wavelet methods in data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data mining (knowledge discovery in data base) is comparatively new interdisciplinary field developed by joint efforts of mathematicians, statisticians, computer scientists and engineers. There are twelve important ingredients of this field along with their applications in real world problems. In this chapter, we have reviewed application of wavelet methods to data mining, particularly denoising, dimension reduction, similarity search, feature extraction and prediction. Meteorological data of Saudi Arabia and Stock market data of India are considered for illustration.

Manchanda, P.

2012-07-01

467

Carbon Sequestration in Mine Residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining of silicate rocks produces as waste a reactive, fine-grained residue that is an ideal feedstock for mineral sequestration of carbon. Natural weathering of Mg-silicate mine tailings is rapid because of the fine grain size, and produces mineral crusts that bind carbon. Stable and radiogenic carbon isotope fingerprinting on the minerals confirms an atmospheric carbon source. In active mines that produce Mg-rich tailings, the carbon sequestration capacity of annual tailings production exceeds annual mine greenhouse gas production by a factor of 5 to 10. Hardrock mines therefore represent an ongoing industrial activity that could serve as a net carbon sink. New cation release rates from inorganic and microbially-mediated mineral dissolution experiments indicate that individual large mining operations could be engineered to sequester carbon dioxide at a rate of 10E4 to 10E6 tonnes per year. Our laboratory experiments also suggest that cyanobacteria could be employed to catalyze precipitation of Mg-carbonate minerals. Mg-silicate tailings are abundant and distributed globally. The global sequestration capacity of annual tailings production from nickel, diamond, platinum group element, and asbestos mining is approximately half a gigatonne of CO2. Parallel, but less efficient mineral sequestration pathways in other silicate tailings increase the sequestration capacity by as much as an order of magnitude. Global implementation of mineral sequestration in mine tailings could contribute as much as one of the seven "wedges" of Pacala and Socolow (2004) that are required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 content over the next 50 years.

Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.; Power, I.; Thom, J.; Wilson, S.

2005-12-01

468

Data Mining and Machine Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki. The project "develops methods and tools for analyzing large data sets and for searching for unexpected relationships in the data." They are also applying their research to text analysis to automatically create a summary of a document and locate related news items from feeds.

Mannila, Heikki

2008-01-11

469

Multisensor system for mine detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-sensor approach to buried object discrimination has been developed by Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) under a US Army handheld standoff mine detection system (HSTAMIDS) effort to produce a practical successor to currently prevalent metal detectors. The CRC multi-sensor unit integrates with standard metal detectors to enable the detection of low-metallic and non-metallic anti-tank and anti-personnel mines as well as

W. J. Steinway; M. S. Tomassi; J. E. Thomas; G. Betts; C. Morris; B. Kahn; P. Stern; S. Krywick; K. Johnson; K. Dennis; W. Simoneaux; B. Blood; John L. Miller

1998-01-01

470

Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India.  

PubMed

Clear and through-fall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coal mines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO4(2-) followed by NO3- and minimum for Cl-. Among the cations, Ca2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH4+. Na+, K+ and Mg2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in through-fall than clear-fall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. PMID:15921836

Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

2005-11-01

471

Radioactivities related to coal mining.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

2005-08-01

472

Coal Mining, Germany  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.

The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral