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Sample records for deposit bathurst mining

  1. Gold in the Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Evidence from bulk ore analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS data on sulfide phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenaghan, Sean H.; Lentz, David R.; Martin, Jillian; Diegor, Wilfredo G.

    2009-07-01

    The 329-Mt Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (total resource of 163 Mt at 10.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, 0.34% Cu, and 115 g/t Ag) is hosted within a Middle Ordovician bimodal volcanic and sedimentary sequence. Massive sulfides are for the most part syngenetic, and the bulk of the sulfide ore occurs as a Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies that forms an intimate relationship with a laterally extensive Algoma-type iron formation and defines the Brunswick Horizon. Zone refining of stratiform sulfides is considered to have resulted in the development of a large replacement-style Cu-rich basal sulfide facies, which is generally confined between the banded sulfide facies and an underlying stringer sulfide zone. Complex polyphase deformation and associated lower- to upper-greenschist facies regional metamorphism is responsible for the present geometry of the deposit. Textural modification has resulted in a general increase in grain size through the development of pyrite and arsenopyrite porphyroblasts, which tend to overprint primary mineral assemblages. Despite the heterogeneous ductile deformation, primary features have locally been preserved, such as fine-grained colloform pyrite and base and precious metal zonation within the Main Zone. Base metal and trace element abundances in massive sulfides from the Brunswick No. 12 deposit indicate two distinct geochemical associations. The basal sulfide facies, characterized by a proximal high-temperature hydrothermal signature (Cu-Co-Bi-Se), contains generally low Au contents averaging 0.39 ppm ( n = 34). Conversely, Au is enriched in the banded sulfide facies, averaging 1.1 ppm Au ( n = 21), and is associated with an exhalative suite of elements (Zn-Pb-As-Sb-Ag-Sn). Finely laminated sulfide lenses hosted by iron formation at the north end of the Main Zone are further enriched in Au, averaging 1.7 ppm ( n = 41) and ranging up to 8.2 ppm. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of

  2. [Phytopharmacological review of bathurst burr (Xanthium spinosum L.)].

    PubMed

    Domokos Erzsébet; Kursinszki, Lászlo; Kelemen, Hajnal; Varga, Erzétbet

    2016-01-01

    Bathurst burr (Xanthium spinosum L.) is an invasive species that is also known as a medicinal plant. Our goal is to make known the plant and its therapeutic effects in larger scale. The plant has been used in the Romanian folk medicine for urinary problems and various prostate diseases. The most important substances in Xanthii spinosi herba are: flavones and their derivates (quercetin, pendulin, iocein, centaurin and patuletin), polyphenols (caffeic- and chlorogenic acid and their derivates), sesquiterpene lactones (xanthinin, xanthatin-xanthanol-xanthumin derivates), diterpenes (atractyloside and derivates) and phytosterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol). The beneficial effect of the herb was proved in the 80's by Petcu and his collaborators. The plants infusion and tincture had positive effects on induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of the plant are attributed to the sesquiterpene lactone, xanthatin. Our preliminary experiments showed the presence of the xanthatin in the toluol, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts. PMID:27295875

  3. Undersea safety mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-xiang; Dang, Wen-gang; He, Xian-qun

    2012-07-01

    The exploration of undersea resources becomes popular as land resources decrease. Researches were conducted with emphasis on the safety and efficiency of undersea mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine. A series of tests for the physical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass were carried out, and the three-dimensional geo-stress distribution was tested in the mining area. Further, a similar experimental simulation platform, which revealed the mechanism of water inrush and ascertained the reasonable thickness of the safety isolate layer, was established for the undersea mining. Meanwhile, the feasibility of cancelling the ore pillars and the safety conditions was checked by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that it is safe to exploit the ore body below the -85 m level (presently, the exploitation level is below -160 m in Xinli District), and the ore pillars can be cancelled below the -560 m level. Furthermore, a novel backfill method was designed to reduce the rock strata disturbance and settlement, and the settlement of roof strata was monitored during the mining process. Engineering practice shows that the settlement of roof strata was small and that no disaster happened. This indicates that the undersea safety mining technology of the large gold deposit is achieved in Xinli District.

  4. Revegetation of Fluvial Mine Tailing Deposits: The Use of Five Riparian Shrub Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluvial deposition of mine tailings has caused extensive damage to riparian ecosystems throughout the West. Willows are often used for revegetation of fluvial mine tailing deposits but some species accumulate toxic concentrations of metals in leaves and stems. A greenhouse experiment was conducted ...

  5. Microbiological and Geochemical Characterization of Fluvially Deposited Sulfidic Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Wielinga, Bruce; Lucy, Juliette K.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Seastone, October F.; Gannon, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated. PMID:10103249

  6. Microbiological and geochemical characterization of fluvially deposited sulfidic mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Wielinga, B.; Lucy, J.K.; Moore, J.N.; Seastone, O.F.; Gannon, J.E.

    1999-04-01

    The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

  7. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites. PMID:26897590

  8. Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard

    2006-02-01

    From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH. PMID:16509314

  9. Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Tailing Deposits: the Case of Raibl Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, Meriggi; Marco, Del Fabbro; Erica, Blasone; Erica, Zilli

    2008-07-08

    Over the last few years, many embankments and levees have collapsed during strong earthquakes or floods. In the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy), the main source of this type of risk is a slag deposit of about 2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} deriving from galena and lead mining activity until 1991 in the village of Raibl. For the final remedial action plan, several in situ tests were performed: five boreholes equipped with piezometers, four CPTE and some geophysical tests with different approaches (refraction, ReMi and HVSR). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples: geotechnical classification, triaxial compression tests and constant head permeability tests in triaxial cell. Pressure plate tests were also done on unsaturated slag to evaluate the characteristic soil-water curve useful for transient seepage analysis. A seepage analysis was performed in order to obtain the maximum pore water pressures during the intense rainfall event which hit the area on 29th August 2003. The results highlight that the slag low permeability prevents the infiltration of rainwater, which instead seeps easily through the boundary levees built with coarse materials. For this reason pore water pressures inside the deposits are not particularly influenced by rainfall intensity and frequency. Seismic stability analysis was performed with both the pseudo-static method, coupled with Newmark's method, and dynamic methods, using as design earthquake the one registered in Tolmezzo (Udine) on 6{sup th} May 1976. The low reduction of safety factors and the development of very small cumulative displacements show that the stability of embankments is assured even if an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 and a daily rainfall of 141.6 mm occur at the same time.

  10. A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

  11. Characterization of cores from an in-situ recovery mined uranium deposit in Wyoming: Implications for post-mining restoration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Cheshire, M.; Reimus, P.; Heikoop, J.; Conradson, S. D.; Batuk, O.; Havrilla, G.; House, B.; et al

    2014-10-08

    In-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium (U) from sandstone-type roll-front deposits is a technology that involves the injection of solutions that consist of ground water fortified with oxygen and carbonate to promote the oxidative dissolution of U, which is pumped to recovery facilities located at the surface that capture the dissolved U and recycle the treated water. The ISR process alters the geochemical conditions in the subsurface creating conditions that are more favorable to the migration of uranium and other metals associated with the uranium deposit. There is a lack of clear understanding of the impact of ISR mining on themore » aquifer and host rocks of the post-mined site and the fate of residual U and other metals within the mined ore zone. We performed detailed petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses of several samples taken from about 7 m of core of the formerly the ISR-mined Smith Ranch–Highland uranium deposit in Wyoming. We show that previously mined cores contain significant residual uranium (U) present as coatings on pyrite and carbonaceous fragments. Coffinite was identified in three samples. Core samples with higher organic (> 1 wt.%) and clay (> 6–17 wt.%) contents yielded higher 234U/238U activity ratios (1.0–1.48) than those with lower organic and clay fractions. The ISR mining was inefficient in mobilizing U from the carbonaceous materials, which retained considerable U concentrations (374–11,534 ppm). This is in contrast with the deeper part of the ore zone, which was highly depleted in U and had very low 234U/238U activity ratios. This probably is due to greater contact with the lixiviant (leaching solution) during ISR mining. EXAFS analyses performed on grains with the highest U and Fe concentrations reveal that Fe is present in a reduced form as pyrite and U occurs mostly as U(IV) complexed by organic matter or as U(IV) phases of carbonate complexes. Moreover, U–O distances of ~ 2.05 Å were noted, indicating the

  12. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  13. Leading a double life in 17th-century Oxford: Ralph Bathurst (1620-1704), physician-physiologist and cleric.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jean M

    2006-02-01

    Ralph Bathurst spent most of his working life in Trinity College, Oxford. Strongly influenced by William Harvey, he was a friend and colleague of Thomas Willis, Robert Boyle and many other eminent experimentalists. His intended career as an Anglican priest and theologian was frustrated during the Commonwealth. Instead, he trained as a physician and practised in Abingdon in Berkshire and in the Navy. His examination papers for the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine survived and were printed many years after his death. This paper, summarizing the three Latin lectures on respiration given for his doctoral degree in 1654, throws light on the physiological research carried out in Oxford at that time. The lectures included clinical observations, the results of experiments performed by himself and others, and speculations on the chemistry of air in the era before Joseph Priestley. PMID:16435028

  14. Quantifying silica in filter-deposited mine dusts using infrared spectra and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Andrew Todd; Miller, Arthur L; Griffiths, Peter R; Bayman, Sean J

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of measuring airborne crystalline silica (α-quartz) in noncoal mine dusts using a direct-on-filter method of analysis is demonstrated. Respirable α-quartz was quantified by applying a partial least squares (PLS) regression to the infrared transmission spectra of mine-dust samples deposited on porous polymeric filters. This direct-on-filter method deviates from the current regulatory determination of respirable α-quartz by refraining from ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the analyte prior to quantification using either infrared spectrometry for coal mines or x-ray diffraction (XRD) from noncoal mines. Since XRD is not field portable, this study evaluated the efficacy of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for silica determination in noncoal mine dusts. PLS regressions were performed using select regions of the spectra from nonashed samples with important wavenumbers selected using a novel modification to the Monte Carlo unimportant variable elimination procedure. Wavenumber selection helped to improve PLS prediction, reduce the number of required PLS factors, and identify additional silica bands distinct from those currently used in regulatory enforcement. PLS regression appeared robust against the influence of residual filter and extraneous mineral absorptions while outperforming ordinary least squares calibration. These results support the quantification of respirable silica in noncoal mines using field-portable infrared spectrometers. PMID:24830397

  15. Seismic response of ore deposits in Kevitsa and Outokumpu mining areas: new insights from data mining and seismic forward modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellqvist, Niina; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Tuomi, Hilkka; Malehmir, Alireza; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Heikkinen, Pekka; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE disseminated sulfide deposit is hosted by the Kevitsa mafic to ultramafic intrusion located within the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland. The Outokumpu semi-massive to massive polymetallic (Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au) sulfide deposits are hosted by ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks within the Raahe-Ladoga Belt in eastern Finland. Extensive, excellent quality 2D reflection seismic data have been collected at both sites in the 2000s. In addition, there is a 3D seismic data set available from Kevitsa. The ore deposits of Kevitsa and Outokumpu have different mineralization styles, grades and scales and thus have different kinds of seismic responses as well. Imaging disseminated ore deposits with the reflection seismic method is complicated, as, for example, the Kevitsa disseminated ore itself does not have dimensions detectable with the method. However, it has been suggested that subtle localised magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion controls the sub-horizontal layering and spatial extent of the disseminated sulfides, and that this magmatic layering is detectable with the reflection seismic method. Initial results from data mining via SOM (Self-Organizing Maps) analysis and seismic forward modeling of the magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion are used to test these hypotheses. In the case of Outokumpu-type deposits seismic forward modeling results confirm that the semi-massive to massive ore could potentially be seen directly in the seismic data, if the deposits meet the size, thickness, and presentation constraints required for reflection or diffraction.

  16. Deposit subscribe Prediction using Data Mining Techniques based Real Marketing Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Safia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, economic depression, which scoured all over the world, affects business organizations and banking sectors. Such economic pose causes a severe attrition for banks and customer retention becomes impossible. Accordingly, marketing managers are in need to increase marketing campaigns, whereas organizations evade both expenses and business expansion. In order to solve such riddle, data mining techniques is used as an uttermost factor in data analysis, data summarizations, hidden pattern discovery, and data interpretation. In this paper, rough set theory and decision tree mining techniques have been implemented, using a real marketing data obtained from Portuguese marketing campaign related to bank deposit subscription [Moro et al., 2011]. The paper aims to improve the efficiency of the marketing campaigns and helping the decision makers by reducing the number of features, that describes the dataset and spotting on the most significant ones, and predict the deposit customer retention criteria based on potential predictive rules.

  17. Development of a dust deposition forecast model for a mine tailings impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovern, Michael

    Wind erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter can have significant impacts on the environment. It is observed that about 40% of the global land area and 30% of the earth's population lives in semiarid environments which are especially susceptible to wind erosion and airborne transport of contaminants. With the increased desertification caused by land use changes, anthropogenic activities and projected climate change impacts windblown dust will likely become more significant. An important anthropogenic source of windblown dust in this region is associated with mining operations including tailings impoundments. Tailings are especially susceptible to erosion due to their fine grain composition, lack of vegetative coverage and high height compared to the surrounding topography. This study is focused on emissions, dispersion and deposition of windblown dust from the Iron King mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site. The tailings impoundment is heavily contaminated with lead and arsenic and is located directly adjacent to the town of Dewey-Humboldt. The study includes in situ field measurements, computational fluid dynamic modeling and the development of a windblown dust deposition forecasting model that predicts deposition patterns of dust originating from the tailings impoundment. Two instrumented eddy flux towers were setup on the tailings impoundment to monitor the aeolian and meteorological conditions. The in situ observations were used in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to simulate the transport of windblown dust from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The CFD model simulations include gaseous plume dispersion to simulate the transport of the fine aerosols, while individual particle transport was used to track the trajectories of larger particles and to monitor their deposition locations. The CFD simulations were used to estimate deposition of tailings dust and identify topographic mechanisms

  18. Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R.

    2007-01-15

    A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

  19. Exploring the techno-economic feasibility of mine rock waste utilisation in road works: The case of a mining deposit in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Stephen; Ampadu, Samuel I K

    2016-02-01

    Mine rock waste, which is the rock material removed in order to access and mine ore, is free from gold processing chemical contaminants but presents a significant environmental challenge owing to the large volumes involved. One way of mitigating the environmental and safety challenges posed by the large volume of mine rock waste stockpiled in mining communities is to find uses of this material as a substitute for rock aggregates in construction. This article reports on a study conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of such a mine deposit to determine its suitability for use as road pavement material. Samples of mine rock waste, derived from the granitic and granodioritic intrusive units overlying the gold-bearing metavolcanic rock and volcano-clastic sediments of a gold mining area in Ghana, were obtained from three mine rock waste disposal facilities and subjected to a battery of laboratory tests to determine their physical, mechanical, geotechnical, geometrical and durability properties. The overall conclusion was that the mine rock waste met all the requirements of the Ghana Ministry of Transportation specification for use as aggregates for crushed rock subbase, base and surface dressing chippings for road pavements. The recommendation is to process it into the required sizes for the various applications. PMID:26526020

  20. Multitemporal satellite data in mine waste monitoring of Medet copper deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno; Banushev, Banush

    2012-10-01

    The anthropogenic impact of the mining industry on the environment is seen all over the world. In the last decades several mining areas and corresponding waste disposal sites in Bulgaria are being monitored for ongoing reclamation processes. In this research we were focused on one environmental status of one of the most important copper producing fields for our country - Medet deposit. The objectives of the study were: (1) to analyze multispectral satellite images for 1980 - 2000 in order to assess the environmental pollution from the mining activity in the Medet open pit mine in temporal perspective; (2) to prove that by means of remote sensing an integrated environmental impact assessment can be made. After ceasing its exploitation in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period. We consider that revealing the potential of satellite multispectral and multitemporal imagery will provide valuable information on the impact of this long-term mining activity on the environment. One of the first tasks was to prepare thematic maps for several, non-successive years of the affected areas at regional scale. On the next step change detection methods were used to assess the short-term reclamation activities by examination of vegetation cover status in the areas surrounding the mine. To complete this tasks data from Landsat TM/ETM+ instruments combined with in-situ measured data was used. For data processing several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  1. Research and implementation of mining GIS software for unstratified mineral deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Yajing; Mao, Shanjun

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a professional mining GIS software called Geological and Surveying Spatial Management Information System (GSSMIS) was designed and implemented. Due to restriction of mine design and computerization level, geostatistics and 3D block model were not fully applied in metal mining. The geologists interpreted drill holes and delimit mineral boundaries on the 2D plane and section. Unlike other 3D mining software, a 2D & 3D integration technological architecture for unstratified mineral deposit was proposed considering the conventional exploration and exploitation approaches. The whole system contains 3 modules: geological and surveying database module, 2D MGIS module and 3D modeling and visualization module. Database module input, manage, store and extract all kinds of geological and surveying data. 2D MGIS module provide lots of toolbox for plotting all sorts of engineering maps and processing advance analysis such as geostatistical and uncertain analysis, reserve computation and mining economic estimation. GSSMIS has a typical COM GIS configuration with 5 different developing levels. The 5 level structure has advantage of less coding, easier maintenance and management, good ability of extension and secondary development, adding or subtracting the modules according to user's need. Also, 5 important system characters were introduced in the article, which were: 1) 2D auto-mapping; 2) interactive interpretation of geological boundaries; 3) mutual modifications of plane and section; 4) 3D solid modeling; 5) section profile cutting. Finally, the article presented the implement of GSSMIS in Laixin Iron, Shandong Province. The system changed traditional handcraft mapping mode thoroughly, relieved the heavy burden of engineers and promoted the process of computerization and informatization in China.

  2. Depositional Influences on Porewater Arsenic in Sediments of a Mining-Contaminated Freshwater Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Toevs, G.; Morra, M.J.; Winowiecki, L.; Strawn, D.; Polizzotto, M.L.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated.

  3. Depositional influences on porewater arsenic in sediments of a mining-contaminated freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Toevs, Gordon; Morra, Matthew J; Winowiecki, Leigh; Strawn, Daniel; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Fendorf, Scott

    2008-09-15

    Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated. PMID:18853795

  4. Reactive Iron deposition and ground water inflow control neutralization processes in acidic mine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, C.

    2002-12-01

    The controls on the internal neutralization of highly acidified waters by iron sulphide accumulation are yet poorly understood. To elucidate the influence of ground water inflow on neutralization processes, inventories of solid phase iron and sulphur, pore water profiles and rates of ferrous iron and sulphate production and consumption were analyzed in different areas of an acidic mine lake. Ground water inflow had previously been determined by ground water modelling and chamber measurements (Knoll et al., 1999). The investigated sediments adjacent to mine tailings, which were subject to the inflow of groundwater (10-30 L d-1 m-2), were richer in dissolved ferrous iron iron (30 vs. 5 mmol L-1) and sulphate (30 vs. 10 mmol L-1) and showed higher pH values (6 vs. 4) than the sediments in areas of the lake not being influenced by groundwater inflow. Sediments adjacent to the mine tailings also showed higher rates of sulphate reduction and iron sulphide accumulation (Fig. 1). From these data it is suggested that neutralization processes in iron rich, acidic mine lakes neutralization processes primarily occur in areas influenced by the inflow of acid mine groundwater. These waters usually have considerably higher pH values than the surface waters in the lakes due to buffering processes in the tailings. The seepage of this water through the sediment might thus lead to higher pH values and thus to a higher thermodynamic competitiveness of sulfate reduction vs. iron reduction (Blodau and Peiffer 2002). This causes increased neutralization rates. These findings have consequences for remediation measures in highly acidic lakes. In areas influenced by the inflow of mine drainage increases in carbon availability, for example by the deposition of particulate organic matter, should enhance iron sulphide formation rates, whereas in other areas increases in carbon availability would only result in enhanced rates of iron reduction without a lasting gain in alkalinity. Blodau, C

  5. Geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste materials taken from abandoned mine deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Ji, Sang Woo; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    According to the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy in Korean (MOTIE), approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread in the Republic of Korea, but almost 80% mines are still left without any proper remediation and cleanup. The physic-chemical properties of waste materials in the mountainous area are strongly affected by heavy rainfall. Failed sediments pose the largest threat to the mountain communities and environments. In particular, a significant amount of heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead etc., is introduced to soil systems. This study examined the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials collected from mine deposits, located in Imgi-ri, Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. We used a ring shear apparatus for geotechnical properties and a rheometer for rheological properties. The materials collected from mines are classified as gravelly sand soils. A series of drained and undrained ring shear tests were performed to examine the stress characteristics with regard to (i) shearing time dependency, (ii) shear speed dependency, and (iii) normal stress dependency. In addition, the grain crushing in the shear zone was examined to explain a high mobile failed masses. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced debris flows. From the rheological tests, the materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the debris flow potential. There are positive relationships between the volumetric concentration of sediment ranging from 50% to 65% and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological parameters is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries between ball and vane

  6. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered. PMID:26832863

  7. Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

  8. Geology of dolomite-hosted uranium deposits at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester upthrust zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only rock type that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse-fault zone. Other rocks tended to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls on uranium deposition are subtle and appear chiefly to involve coprecipitation of FeS/sub 2/ as pyrite and marcasite, suggesting that sulfide ion may be the reductant. (JMT)

  9. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  10. Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies. PMID:21097582

  11. [Spatial distribution and ecological significance of heavy metals in soils from Chatian mercury mining deposit, western Hunan province].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Yong-Hu; Ji, Yan-Fang; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2009-04-15

    Ores, waste tailings and slag, together with three typical soil profiles (natural soil profiles far from mine entrance and near mine entrance, soil profile under slag) in Chatian mercury mining deposit (CMD), western Hunan province were sampled and their concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) were determined by HG-ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and correlation analysis were taken to investigate the origins, distribution and migration of Hg, as well as other heavy metals in the CMD. The results show that Hg is enriched in the bottom of the soil profile far from mine entrance but accumulated in the surface of soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag. The soil profiles near mine entrance and under slag are both contaminated by Hg, while the latter is contaminated more heavily. In the soil profile under slag, Hg concentration in the surface soil, Hg average concentration in the total profile, and the leaching depth of soil Hg are 640 microg x g(-1), (76.74 +/- 171.71) microg x g(-1), and more than 100 cm, respectively; while 6.5 microg x g(-1), (2.74 +/- 1.90) microg x g(-1), and 40 cm, respectively, are found in the soil profile near mine entrance. Soil in the mercury mine area is also polluted by Cd, As, Pb, Zn besides metallogenic element Hg, among which Cd pollution is relatively heavier than others. The mobility of the studied heavy metals in soil follows the order as Hg > Cd > As > Zn approximately equal to Pb. The leaching depth of the heavy metals is influenced by total concentration in the surface soil and soil physico-chemical parameters. The origins, distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil profile in the mining area are related to primary geological environment, and strongly influenced by human mining activities. PMID:19545023

  12. CHANGES IN GRADE, VOLUME AND CONTAINED GOLD DURING THE MINING LIFE-CYCLE OF GOLD PLACER DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Orris, G.J.; Menzie, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of gold placer data throughout the world suggests that gold grades and volumes cannot be used to distinguish between most types of gold placers. Only the alluvial plain and fan placers are significantly different among the types of gold placers considered. Gold grades and volumes change when working placers go from small-volume methods to large-volume methods. The odds that a placer will be dominantly worked using small-volume methods at the surface are about 5:3. Once small-volume mining has occurred, the odds against subsequent large-volume mining are about 4:1. If a deposit is suitable for large-volume mining and the amount of gold produced from small-volume mining was reported, an estimate of the remaining gold (log//1//0kg) can be made using an equation.

  13. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY THE MINISTER FOR EDUCATION AND SCIENCE TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH A COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION AT BATHURST. VOLUMES I AND II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    VOLUME I OF THIS STUDY IN SUPPORT OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION IN BATHURST, AUSTRALIA, CONTAINS THE TEXT OF THE RESEARCH, ARGUMENTS, AND PROPOSALS. THE APPENDIXES IN VOLUME II INCLUDE THE AMPLIFYING CHARTS, TABLES, QUESTIONNAIRES, SURVEY RESULTS, ETC. THIS PROPOSED COLLEGE DIFFERS IN CONCEPT FROM THE USUAL AMERICAN…

  14. Molecular identification of indigenous manganese solubilising bacterial biodiversity from manganese mining deposits.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shreya; Mohanty, Sansuta; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Sukla, Lala B; Das, Alok P

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) ranks twelfth among the most exuberant metal present in the earth's crust and finds its imperative application in the manufacturing steel, chemical, tannery, glass, and battery industries. Solubilisation of Mn can be performed by several bacterial strains which are useful in developing environmental friendly solutions for mining activities. The present investigation aims to isolate and characterize Mn solubilising bacteria from low grade ores from Sanindipur Manganese mine of Sundargh district in Odisha state of India. Four morphologically distinct bacterial strains showing visible growth on Mn supplemented plates were isolated. Mn solubilising ability of the bacterial strains was assessed by visualizing the lightening of the medium appearing around the growing colonies. Three isolates were gram negative and rod shaped while the remaining one was gram positive, coccobacilli. Molecular identification of the isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA sequencing and the bacterial isolates were taxonomically classified as Bacillus anthrasis MSB 2, Acinetobacter sp. MSB 5, Lysinibacillus sp. MSB 11, and Bacillus sp. MMR-1 using BLAST algorithm. The sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP635223, KP635224, KP635225 and JQ936966, respectively. Manganese solubilisation efficiency of 40, 96, 97.5 and 48.5% were achieved by MMR-1, MSB 2, MSB 5 and MSB 11 respectively. The efficiency of Mn solubilisation is suggested with the help of a pH variation study. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in Manganese solubilisation efficiency of bacterial isolates. PMID:26471873

  15. Post-depositional behavior of Cu in a metal-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada).

    PubMed

    Martin, Alan J; Jambor, John L; Pedersen, Tom F; Crusius, John

    2003-11-01

    The post-depositional behavior of Cu in a gold-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada) was assessed after mine closure by examination of porewater chemistry and mineralogy. The near-surface (upper 1.5 cm) sediments are enriched in Cu, with values ranging from 0.4 to 2 wt %. Mineralogical examination revealed that the bulk of the Cu inventory is present as authigenic copper sulfides. Optical microscopy, energy-dispersion spectra, and X-ray data indicate that the main Cu sulfide is covellite (CuS). The formation of authigenic Cu-S phases is supported by the porewater data, which demonstrate that the sediments are serving as a sink for dissolved Cu below sub-bottom depths of 1-2 cm. The zone of Cu removal is consistent with the occurrence of detectable sulfide and the consumption of sulfate. The sediments can be viewed as a passive bioreactorthat permanently removes Cu as insoluble copper sulfides. This process is not unlike that which occurs in other forms of bioremediation, such as wetlands and permeable reactive barriers. Above the zone of Cu removal, dissolved Cu maxima in the interfacial porewaters range from 150 to 450 microg L(-1) and reflect the dissolution of a Cu-bearing phase in the surface sediments. The reactive phase is thought to be a component of treatment sludges delivered to the lake as part of cyanide treatment. Flux calculations indicate that the efflux of dissolved Cu from the sediments to the water column (14-51 microg cm(-2) yr(-1)) can account for the elevated levels of dissolved Cu in lake waters (approximately 50 microg L(-1)). Implications for lake recovery are discussed. PMID:14620820

  16. Characterization of cores from an in-situ recovery mined uranium deposit in Wyoming: Implications for post-mining restoration

    SciTech Connect

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Cheshire, M.; Reimus, P.; Heikoop, J.; Conradson, S. D.; Batuk, O.; Havrilla, G.; House, B.; Simmons, A.; Clay, J.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; Brown, S. T.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2014-10-08

    In-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium (U) from sandstone-type roll-front deposits is a technology that involves the injection of solutions that consist of ground water fortified with oxygen and carbonate to promote the oxidative dissolution of U, which is pumped to recovery facilities located at the surface that capture the dissolved U and recycle the treated water. The ISR process alters the geochemical conditions in the subsurface creating conditions that are more favorable to the migration of uranium and other metals associated with the uranium deposit. There is a lack of clear understanding of the impact of ISR mining on the aquifer and host rocks of the post-mined site and the fate of residual U and other metals within the mined ore zone. We performed detailed petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses of several samples taken from about 7 m of core of the formerly the ISR-mined Smith Ranch–Highland uranium deposit in Wyoming. We show that previously mined cores contain significant residual uranium (U) present as coatings on pyrite and carbonaceous fragments. Coffinite was identified in three samples. Core samples with higher organic (> 1 wt.%) and clay (> 6–17 wt.%) contents yielded higher 234U/238U activity ratios (1.0–1.48) than those with lower organic and clay fractions. The ISR mining was inefficient in mobilizing U from the carbonaceous materials, which retained considerable U concentrations (374–11,534 ppm). This is in contrast with the deeper part of the ore zone, which was highly depleted in U and had very low 234U/238U activity ratios. This probably is due to greater contact with the lixiviant (leaching solution) during ISR mining. EXAFS analyses performed on grains with the highest U and Fe concentrations reveal that Fe is present in a reduced form as pyrite and U occurs mostly as U(IV) complexed by organic matter or as U(IV) phases of carbonate complexes. Moreover, U–O distances

  17. Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, R.R., II; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, A.N.; Piatak, N.M.; Wandless, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO42 -, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O2 as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry.

  18. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 μg/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 μg/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 μg/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 μg/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 μg/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 μg/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 μg/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 μg/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 μg/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 μg/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 μg/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 μg/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 μg/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water

  19. Gas-exchange chamber analysis of elemental mercury deposition/emission to alluvium, ore, and mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-07-01

    Deposition of mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere is an important source of this contaminant to terrestrial ecosystems. Once deposited, all forms of Hg can be retained or emitted back to the atmosphere. Distinguishing between volatilization of geogenic or indigenous Hg and that deposited from the atmosphere is difficult. Field flux measurements in the general area of two industrial scale gold mining operations, showed local deposition of Hg emitted from point and nonpoint sources, and subsequent re-emission. The work presented in this paper investigated deposition/emission of elemental Hg to and from alluvium and two mine materials before, during, and after exposure to high air concentrations, for both wet and dry conditions, using a laboratory gas exchange chamber and a Hg permeation source. In general, results showed a range in mean elemental Hg deposition velocities ranging from 0.13 to 0.46 cm s(-1) that varied with material. A significant influence of atmospheric ozone (O3) on flux was observed that depended on the material and whether wet or dry. A synergistic relationship existed between O3 and light promoting Hg flux, and flux was also influenced by material grain size, chemistry, and primary mineralogy. PMID:25880343

  20. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  1. [Prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, P.R. China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Peng, Qian; Liu, Hong-wei; Wen, Meng-liang; Cui, Xiao-long; Yang, Ya-ling; Duan, Dong-cheng; Chen, Wei; Deng, Lan; Li, Qin-yuan; Chen, Yi-guang; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ren, Zhen; Liu, Ji-hui

    2007-04-01

    The prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, PR China was investigated using PCR-DGGE and rRNA approaches. Total community DNA was extracted and purified by a direct method, which yielded amplified DNA of high molecular weight for samples. A variable region of 16S rRNA gene was then amplified by PCR with bacterial and archaeal primers and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Twenty-seven major bands were detected in the bacterial DGGE profile of the sample, but only one band of pure culture strains of bacteria isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with one band of sample. No band of pure culture strains of archaea isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with 18 major bands of sample. The results indicated that most of microbes in this environment are likely uncultivable. Clones on the plate were not the predominant species in the community. Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (bacteria and archaea) were also constructed, and 36 and 20 clones were selected for amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). ARDRA with enzymes Afa I, Hha I, Hae III revealed 10 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with three most abundant OTUs accounting for 38.9%, 25.0%, 16.7% of all the bacterial 16S rDNA clones, respectively. The remaining 7 OTUs presented at low levels, were represented by a single clone. Eight archaeal OTUs were obtained but no predominant OTUs. Some clones were sequenced and each sequence was compared with all nucleotide sequences in GenBank database. Examination of 16S rDNA clones showed that the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain with members of three major lineages represented: alpha-proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, especially Pseudomonas. Surprisingly, we recovered a variety of sequence closely related to Actinobacteria which was not found in other

  2. Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

  3. Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining.

    PubMed

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85 000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding

  4. Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining

    PubMed Central

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85 000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding

  5. Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.

    PubMed

    Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

    2014-01-01

    The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended. PMID:24912237

  6. Distinguishing and characterising point-source mining dust and diffuse-source dust deposits in a semi-arid district of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, Stephen R.; Hemi, Karl; Pearson, Garry L.; Sanderson, Todd

    The routine monitoring of dust deposition around mines does not typically distinguish between allochthonous and locally-sourced dust. In this paper, contemporary aeolian dust deposition within a semi-arid part of eastern Australia is examined to determine the contribution of an open-pit gold mine to local dust dynamics. Over a 2.5 year period, monthly deposited dust samples were obtained from 12 sites located around the Cowal Gold Mine (CGM), and analysed for inorganic and organic proportions and granulometric properties. Although there was considerable variation in deposition between the gauges and sampling periods, there was a moderate and statistically significant seasonal trend, with mineral dust deposition lowest in winter. Imprinted over this seasonal pattern was a distinct spatial pattern of dust deposition, with gauges downwind of the CGM receiving significantly more dust than those gauges upwind (20 t/km2/yr). This effect was most pronounced adjacent to the mine (dust deposition of 60 t/km2/yr), where coarse-grained particles comprised a large proportion of the deposited dust, and diminished with distance east of the mine. Such a spatial trend is typical of a point source of dust. Average dust deposition at gauges located 8 km downwind of the mine was only slightly greater than that of gauges upwind of the mine. The 'background' dust populations captured at the upwind locations were dominated by fine particles, with modal particle diameters of 3-5 and 13-16 μm common. The macro-organic component of dust deposits also tended to vary seasonally, but the spatial distribution of this material was quite erratic.

  7. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated comparative leaching characteristics of acidophilic bacterial strains under shifting environmental conditions at proposed two stages as formation stage or post acidic mine drainage (AMD) generation. At the first stage, initial reactions associated with AMD generation was simulated in shaking flasks containing massive pyritic chalcopyrite ore by using a pure strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus sp. mostly dominated by A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans at 26oC. At the second stage, long term bioleaching experiments were carried out with the same strains at 26oC and 40oC to investigate the leaching characteristics of pyritic chalcopyrite ore under elevated heavy metal and temperature conditions. During the experiments, physicochemical characteristics (e.i. Eh, pH, EC) metal (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn) and sulfate concentration of the experimental solution were monitored during 180 days. Significant acid generation and sulfate release were determined during bioleaching of the ore by mixed acidophilic cultures containing both iron and sulfur oxidizers. In the early stage of the experiments, heavy metal release from the ore was caused by generation of acid due to accelerated bacterial oxidation of the ore. Generally high concentrations of Co and Cu were released into the solution from the experiments conducted by pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans whereas high Zn and Fe was released into the solution from the mixed culture experiments. In the later stage of AMD generation and post AMD, chemical oxidation is accelerated causing excessive amounts of contamination, even exceeding the amounts resulted from bacterial oxidation by mixed cultures. Acidithibacillus ferrooxidans was found to be more effective in leaching Cu, Fe and Co at higher temperatures in contrary to mixed acidophiles that are more prone to operate at optimal moderate conditions. Moreover, decreasing Fe values are noted in bioleaching

  8. Distribution of the platinum group elements in peat deposit near a historic lead and silver mining district.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Ladislav; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Barsová, Linda; Zuna, Milan; Sebek, Ondrej

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) and Ag were studied in a minerotrophic peat deposit near a historic Pb-Ag mining district (Príbram, Czech Republic). The PGE determinations were performed by quadrupole ICP-MS after NiS fire assay procedure. In the individual peat layers (dated by measurement of (210)Pb activity) the PGE concentrations were low and ranged from 0.015 ng g(-1) (Ir) to 11.8 ng g(-1) (Pt). The enrichment of PGE (especially Pt) compared to the Earth crust contents were observed during two periods. The peak in the second half of 19th century was explained by massive increase of ore mining and affinity of PGE to concentrate in molten lead during Pb processing. The recent PGE enrichment in peat layers might be explained by automobile (with catalytic converters) exhaust fumes or processing of computer electronic parts by the smelter. PMID:18373043

  9. Metal and fluid sources in a potential world-class gold deposit: El-Sid mine, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmy, Hassan; Zoheir, Basem

    2015-04-01

    Lode gold mineralization at the El-Sid mine area is associated with the ca. 600 Ma Fawakhir granite intrusion, which cuts the ~737 Ma ophiolite nappes in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The mineralized quartz veins are hosted by ~E- and NE-trending fault/fracture sets cutting the western boundary of the intrusion and sheared ophiolites. The results of electron microprobe analyses of gold-associated hydrothermal sulfide and silicate minerals suggest that Au was mobilized alongside Ni, Co, Cr and As from the adjacent ophiolitic serpentinite. After granite emplacement, hydrothermal fluids interacted with the sheared serpentinite, leaching metals and re-depositing them in the faults/fractures and adjacent wall rock in a cyclic process. Low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with significant quantities of volatile species (CO2, CH4, and N2 ± H2S) leached and transported Au from deep to shallow crustal levels. Carbon dioxide had a buffering effect on the Au-bearing hydrothermal solution, maintaining its pH within a narrow near-neutral range, where elevated gold concentration was transported by complexation with reduced magmatic sulfur in a reducing environment. Gold deposition along fault/fracture conduits in the Fawakhir granite and adjacent serpentinite resulted from interplay of pressure drop, fluctuations in oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and exsolution of the volatile phases. Infiltration of meteoric water may have contributed to the formation of the late stage gold-sulfide mineralization that formed at shallower levels during terrane uplift. Sulfidation of the Fe-rich magmatic minerals was, on the other hand, the overriding process in the wall rock as evidenced by abundant disseminated sulfides with gold inclusions. Considering the structural control by regional shear zones (fluid conduits) and the voluminous granitic and ophiolitic rocks (metal sources), a high tonnage gold deposit amenable to open pit mining at the El-Sid mine area is very likely.

  10. Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.

    PubMed

    Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, Mackenzie R; King, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. PMID:24552963

  11. Paragenetic link between organic matter and late-stage ore deposition in the Sweetwater mine, Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Niewendorp, C.A. ); Clendenin, C.W.

    1993-03-01

    At the Sweetwater mine bitumen exudes from mine walls as a tacky liquid and is present as spherical blebs in vugs throughout the Bonneterre Formation. Bitumen blebs occur as overgrowths on older mineral phases and are frequently over-grown by late vug-filling sulfides. Slickensided bitumen interlayered with deformed galena occurs in Middle Bonneterre Formation collapse breccias. Anthraxolite, a coal-like bitumen, has also been identified in these collapse breccias and is commonly overgrown by cubic-form galena in vugs. Petrographic examination, verified by SEM analysis, reveals inclusions of dendritic-form galena intimately intergrown in such anthraxolite samples; pyrite and chalcopyrite also occur as inclusions. The presence of sulfide inclusions in anthraxolite establishes a direct paragenetic link between organic matter and ore deposition. Generation of bituminous material appears to correspond to a major period of solution-induced brecciation during main-stage mineralization. Observations indicate that precipitation of dendritic-form galena in anthraxolite coincides with subsequent deposition of cubic-form galena. Such a paragenetic link supports the proposal that nonbiologic sulfate reduction by organic matter has occurred and is a precipitation mechanism for sulfide ores in the Viburnum Trend.

  12. Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek basin, west-central Arizona (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek basin area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.

  13. Uranium deposits at the Jomac mine, White Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, A.F.; Hadd, G.A.

    1955-01-01

    azurite, and chalcanthite occur locally with the uranium minerals. Principal ore guides at the Jomac mine are channels, and scours at the bottom of these channels coal-bearing sandstone or conglomerate at the base of the Shinarump conglomerate, coal, and jarosite.

  14. Modelling atmospheric bulk deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted Flavocetraria nivalis lichens.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Asmund, Gert

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) was investigated near the former Black Angel Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland during 2010-2011. Thalli of the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis were transplanted from an uncontaminated site into sites near the mine and collected the following year. At 20 of the total 21 sites, concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were significantly elevated in lichens after 1 year of transplantation compared to initial concentrations. Elevated concentrations were observed within a distance of approx. 20 km from the mining area. Concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the mine and the relation was well described using a power function with a negative exponent (r(2)=0.90; 0.83 and 0.83 for Pb; Zn and Cd). To examine the relation between metal concentrations/uptake in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk deposition, 10 Bergerhoff dust samplers were placed near lichen transplants and samplers and lichens were collected after a 7-weeks exposure period. A significant linear correlation was observed between metal concentrations in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk metal deposition (r(2)=0.94; 0.88 and 0.89 for Pb; Zn and Cd). Combining the results and including an area distribution within a defined metal deposition area, the "annual" deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd as dust was estimated during the 2010-2011 snow-free period (∼5 months). The results reveal that 20 years after mine closure, 770 kg Pb, 3700 kg Zn and 24 kg Cd were still being deposited as dust per year (snow-free period only) within a distance of 20 km from the mine. PMID:23211325

  15. The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damby, D. E.; Horwell, C. J.; Baxter, P. J.; Delmelle, P.; Donaldson, K.; Dunster, C.; Fubini, B.; Murphy, F. A.; Nattrass, C.; Sweeney, S.; Tetley, T. D.; Tomatis, M.

    2013-07-01

    Ashfall into heavily populated areas during the October-November 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia created anxiety regarding the growing impacts to health as the eruption escalated and the hazard zone widened. We made a preliminary assessment of the respiratory hazards to human health of the tephra deposits (ashfall, lahar, and PDC surge) from the eruption using a laboratory protocol specifically developed to study the toxic potential of volcanic ash particles. Twenty samples collected from a range of locations were analysed for health-pertinent mineralogical parameters (grain size, crystalline silica content, morphology, surface area, bulk chemistry, and leachable elements) and bio-reactivity (hydroxyl radical generation, haemolytic potential, oxidative capacity, pro-inflammatory response). The grain size pertinent to respiratory health was variable, ranging from 1.4-15.6 vol.% sub-4 μm and 3.0-28.9 vol.% sub-10 μm diameter material. No fibre-like particles were observed. Cristobalite was present in all samples, ranging from 1.9-9.5 wt.%, but surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity assays showed low reactivity for all samples tested. The risk of direct exposure to ash from fallout was in any case low due to seasonal rains limiting its re-suspension and the immediate and effective clean-up of communities by local people who supplied the ash to the Indonesian construction industry for use as aggregate. However, mining of the lahar and thick PDC deposits in the valleys draining the volcano is performed on a vast, industrial scale, which could result in high occupational exposure to thousands of sand miners at Merapi during the dry seasons. Further study of the health hazard of the mined Merapi deposits is warranted.

  16. Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2

  17. New lithogeochemical and mineralogical exploration of Li-Sn greisen mineralisation in old mining adits of the Zinnwald deposit, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neßler, Jörg; Seifert, Thomas; Gutzmer, Jens; Müller, Armin; Henker, Jan; Kühn, Kersten

    2014-05-01

    The polymetallic Zinnwald-Cínovec deposit is represented by greisen-type mineralisation hosted within the apical portion of a small granite intrusion. Similar to other granitic stocks with Sn-W mineralisation in the Erzgebirge, the Zinnwald granite intruded during the post-collisional stage of the late-Variscan (Permo-Carboniferous) magmatic evolution. These intrusions are characterised by the prominent enrichment of incompatible elements (F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Nb and Ta) and the depletion of P2O5. The deposit is located in the eastern part of the Erzgebirge region, Germany and straddles the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. It is characterised by flat dipping, sheet-like greisen ore bodies (up to 40 m in thickness) and veins (up to 1 m in thickness) located in the apical part and along the quaquaversal dipping edges of the granite stock. The greisen bodies predominantly consist of quartz, Li-Rb-Cs-bearing mica (named zinnwaldite), topaz, fluorite and accessory kaolinite and cassiterite. Historically mined for its cassiterite and wolframite ores since the 16th and 19th century, respectively, the deposit still provides access to a wide spread system of drifts and adits. Selected parts of the underground mine are now presented by the visitor's mine "Vereinigt Zwitterfeld zu Zinnwald". These local conditions are favourable for the re-examination of the exhibited greisen mineralisation. Within the framework of the ongoing Li and Sn exploration project of the SolarWorld Solicium GmbH in the German part of the deposit, an underground sampling campaign has been conducted, incorporating a series of 88 channel samples gained at two different levels (Tiefer Bünau adit = 750 m a.s.l.; Tiefe Hilfe Gottes adit = 720 m a.s.l.). Equally spaced channels of 2 m intervals and approximate dimensions of 180 x 5 x 2.5 cm have been created on pre-selected and detailed mapped walls of two different adits within the mine. The sample material has been gained for mineralogical

  18. Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.

    PubMed

    Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods. PMID:23813094

  19. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12) ≥ endosulfan sulfate (10-11) > ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7) ≥ pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6) > α-endosulfan (8.3-9.3) > chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2)  = 0.90, p = 0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation. PMID:24975230

  20. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  1. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  2. Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in soils affected by mine dust deposition.

    PubMed

    Shock, S S; Bessinger, B A; Lowney, Y W; Clark, J L

    2007-07-01

    Barium is a heavy metal to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in various settings--for example, in mineral extraction industries where the mining and milling of ores occurs. Aluminum is also an element abundant in soil and dust to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in association with such industries. This study investigated the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in simulated gastric fluids using an in vitro test method previously validated for lead. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of a mine and transport road that generated fugitive dust containing barium as barite (BaSO4). It was found that barium bioaccessibility in different tundra soil and fugitive dust source materials varied greatly, between 0.07 and 66.0%, depending on sample location, grain size, solid-to-fluid ratio used in the in vitro experiments, and the analytical method selected for determining total barium concentrations in the sample substrates. For X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analytical methods and a solid-to-fluid ratio of 1:100, barium bioaccessibility from the barite-rich mine waste rock and gyro crusher ore dust source materials was very low (0.07-0.36%). By contrast, the bioaccessibility of barium in tundra soil samples affected by fugitive dust deposition ranged from 3.8 to 19.5%. The relative solubility of barium measured in the simulated gastric fluids of this study is consistent with time-dependent dissolution of barite in mine waste rock and ore dust, and the presence of more soluble chemical forms in tundra soil. Laboratory XRF analysis was the only analytical method used in this study that accurately characterized total barium concentrations for all sample substrates. Aluminum bioaccessibility was distinguished from barium bioaccessibility by its generally lower values and smaller dependence on grain size and solid-to-fluid ratios. The range of aluminum bioaccessibility values (0.31-4.0%) is consistent with the

  3. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    PubMed

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines. PMID:26686610

  4. Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

    1977-01-01

    Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and

  5. Formation of Acid Mine Drainage Water at Sb (Au) Deposit Pezinok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Andráš, Peter; Kušnierová, Mária; Aschenbrenner, Štefan; Krnáč, Jozef; Dubiel, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the results of leaching experiments regarding the comparison of chemical and biological-chemical leaching of ores from the Sb-(Au-) base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty., the Western Carpathians) under the same conditions in solution. Discussed are the differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity. The extent and the kinetics of the biological-chemical leaching of the technogenous sediments from the setting-pits are significantly higher than those without bacteria.

  6. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  7. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    PubMed

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  8. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  9. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  10. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A

    2014-09-15

    The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of < 10 μm aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure. PMID:25222928

  11. Effects of some components of acid-mine drainage and acid deposition on the spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of low pH and the metals aluminum, zinc, and cadmium, components of acid-mine effluents and acid deposition, on spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, were investigated. Sperm were exposed to solutions of 400 ppm aluminum chloride, 50 ppm zinc chloride, 2 ppm cadmium chloride, separately and in combination, at pH values of 6.9, 4.8, and 3.8. Sperm were additionally exposed to test solutions in which the metal salt concentration was reduced by one-half and observed for changes in motility and in the ability to exclude stain. All test solutions at a low pH were deleterious, the greatest damage occurring in solutions of a combination of all 3 metal chlorides and of aluminum chloride separately. Motility tests showed that both full and reduced metal concentrations had significant effects on motility. Staining tests were supportive of motility test results and indicated that in most cases shorter exposure times did not significantly improve survival rates. It was generally found that a decrease in pH increased the effects of each metal separately and when combined. Aluminum, zinc, and cadmium chlorides appeared to act antagonistically when tested in combination. It was concluded that the components of acid waters which were tested have deleterious effects on longer spermatozoa, reducing their viability and thereby reducing reproductive success of the species.

  12. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M; Ford, J; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, E; Berryman, S; Wolk, B; Bohle, T

    2005-09-15

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mine-related activity areas. Spatial predictions were used to produce maps of concentration patterns, and to estimate the total area in 10 moss concentration categories. Heavy metal levels in moss were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil suggested that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss were not attributable to subsurface lithology at the sample points. Further, moss Pb concentrations throughout the northern half of the study area were high relative to concentrations previously reported from other Arctic Alaska sites. Collectively, these findings indicate the presence of mine-related heavy metal deposition throughout the northern portion of Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Geospatial analyses suggest that the Pb depositional area extends 25 km north of the haul road to the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills, and possibly beyond. More study is needed to determine whether higher moss heavy metal concentrations in the northernmost portion of the study area reflect deposition from mining-related activities, weathering from mineralized Pb/Zn outcrops in the broader region, or a combination of the two. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Heavy metal levels continue to diminish south of

  13. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  14. The distribution of trace elements in a range of deep-sea sulphide ore deposits and their impact on seafloor mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, E. K.; Scott, T. B.; Brooker, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Acid rock drainage is a natural weathering process that is often exacerbated by mining activities, common in onshore sulphide ore deposits, that can lead to considerable environmental impact. A similar 'weathering process' occurs at seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) ore deposits. In contrast to the onshore situation, the expected consequence in the marine environment is often considered to be oxide formation, negligible metal release and minimal net acid generation due to the high buffering capacity of seawater and low solubility of iron at near neutral pH. However, no dissolution studies exist that emulate the true composition of sulphide ore deposits that either sit passively on the seafloor or are actively mined in this colder, more saline, and alkaline environment. In particular, these deposits will include a variety of minerals, and it is the interaction of these minerals and inclusions in regards to galvanic cells that can subsequently increase the dissolution of metals into the water column. Any heavy metal release that is not balanced by subsequent oxidation and precipitation, has the potential to produce toxicity for benthic ecosystems, bioaccumulation and dispersal through currents. The present work has sought to provide a pilot investigation on the deep sea weathering of sulphide minerals, by identifying the mineral phases, trace elements and potential galvanic couples that may arise in sulphide mineral samples collected from various tectonic settings. Samples have been analysed using EMPA and LA-ICPMS in order to identify the range of trace elements and toxins that may be contributed to the water column, especially heavy metals and environmental toxins (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Sb, Sn, Hg). Our observations raise important questions about which ore deposits could have more or less environmental impact during any mining activity. These observations will be used to design oxidative dissolution experiments at deep-sea conditions utilising the

  15. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  17. Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2010-06-01

    Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

  18. Characterization of U ore from a roll-front U deposit: Implications of dominant U-Ti mineral for ore genesis and post solution-mining U immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.; Basu, A.; Christensen, J. N.; Reimus, P. W.; Heikoop, J. M.; WoldeGabriel, G. W.; Hartmann, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of dissolved U(VI) is an important process that gives rise to roll-front U deposits as well as offers a remediation strategy after in situ recovery (ISR) mining of roll-fronts by oxidative dissolution of the U ore. About 25% of the global and over 90% of all U resources in the United States consist of roll-front deposits. Accordingly, ~50% of global U mining and almost all current U mining in the United States is ISR mining. Therefore, it is important to identify the U immobilization pathways for an improved understanding of the U ore genesis and postmining U(VI) remediation. Here, we characterize (XRD, XRF, SEM/EDS, QEMSCAN) the U ore from a roll-front U deposit and sediments downgradient of the ore from an ISR site at Rosita, TX, USA. The dominant U mineral in Rosita U ore is brannerite (nominally U4+Ti2O6, up to 0.032 wt%), followed by coffinite and U-oxides. The U mineralized sand is composed of quartz (41-53%), calcite (15-30%), plagioclase (11-19%), microcline (2-9%), clinoptilolite (0.5-7%) with minor amounts of pyrite/marcasite (2-7%) and clays/micas (1-4%), and very little organic C (<0.1%). Ore zone samples contain minor amounts (<2%) of hematite, V-oxides/V-Ti-Fe-oxides and sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides with variable Fe, Ti and S ratios locally hosting low levels of U. The dominant sulfide mineral is marcasite. We observe a complex relationship between U-Ti minerals and sulfide/silicate phases where U minerals occur as inclusions, irregularly developed veins or intergrowths. Except for the U concentrations, the downgradient sediments are compositionally similar to the ore and contain abundant smectite/illite (7-45%). The predominance of brannerite implies direct reduction of U(VI) on surfaces of reduced Fe-Ti oxides as a major ore-forming mechanism. Our results reveal an as yet unidentified mechanism of ore genesis that differs from the current model that presupposes the sulfidized Fe-Ti oxides as the main reductant of U

  19. Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.

    PubMed

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited. PMID:22828923

  20. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    hundred mines and prospects in 18 mining districts. The deposits range in age from Cretaceous to Eocene, and many were developed for precious metals. Most of the deposits are in quartz veins in shear zones in granitic rocks of the batholith. Several districts were actively being explored for low-grade, bulk-minable, precious-metal deposits in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  1. Soil geochemistry of Mother Lode-type gold deposits in the Hodson mining district, central California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Hodson mining district is in the westernmost foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California, about 17 km west of the town of Angels Camp. This district is part of the West Gold Belt, which lies about 12-16 km west of, and generally parallel to, the better known Mother Lode Gold Belt in central California. The district produced several million dollars worth of Au between about 1890 and 1940. ?? 1989.

  2. Distribution of macro-infaunal communities in phosphorite nodule deposits on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific: Implications for management of seabed mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.; Torres, Leigh G.; Nodder, Scott D.; Pallentin, Arne

    2015-05-01

    Protecting the structural and functional integrity of benthic communities is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem services by the deep sea. As large scale exploitation of minerals from the deep-sea floor becomes increasingly likely, there is a growing need for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of benthic communities and their relationships with environmental variables, so that effective management practices can be developed and implemented. Here, we present the results of a survey of the macro-infaunal community on the crest of Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific, in an area rich in phosphorite nodule deposits that is proposed for future mining. Boxcore samples from the study area (~2500 km2) were used to describe macro-infaunal diversity and community structure relative to phosphorite nodule density and environmental variation, these data forming the basis for predictive models of the distribution of benthic communities. Analyses showed that variation in macro-infaunal community structure was similar at two spatial scales, within the survey areas (1-5 km) and among survey areas (5-50 km). Overall, macro-infaunal community structure was most strongly correlated with phosphorite nodule density, and was also correlated with longitude. Habitat suitability models were generated for three benthic communities using boosted regression trees. Models showed that each of these communities was associated with different seabed morphologies (i.e., uneven topography, slopes of depression features, or flat seabed), and produced contrasting predicted spatial distribution patterns among communities across the study area. One of these communities, dominated by lysianassid and phoxocephalid amphipods, was strongly associated with the presence of high-density phosphorite nodules and may represent a nodule-specific community. Macro-infaunal diversity (taxon richness) was significantly correlated with topographic variables, and was greatest in areas with uneven

  3. Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage

    PubMed Central

    Brantner, Justin S.; Haake, Zachary J.; Burwick, John E.; Menge, Christopher M.; Hotchkiss, Shane T.; Senko, John M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8–10 cm deep “iron mound” that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using “next generation” nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ≥20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2. PMID:24860562

  4. Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Brantner, Justin S; Haake, Zachary J; Burwick, John E; Menge, Christopher M; Hotchkiss, Shane T; Senko, John M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8-10 cm deep "iron mound" that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using "next generation" nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ≥20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2. PMID:24860562

  5. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  6. Gold mineralisation at the Lady Bountiful Mine, Western Australia: An example of a granitoid-hosted Archaean lode gold deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, K. F.; Bennett, J. M.

    1993-12-01

    The Lady Bountiful granitoid-hosted lode gold deposit, located in the mid-greenschist facies metamorphosed Ora Banda greenstone sequence, is hosted predominantly by the late-tectonic Liberty Granodiorite. Gold mineralisation is localised along quartz-veined, sinistral, brittle fault-zone(s) that transect the boundary between the Liberty Granodiorite and Mt Pleasant sill. Quartz vein textures indicate two stages of a single gold-related vein-development event, with high-grade gold mineralisation restricted to the second stage. Ore minerals include pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite, Au-Ag-Bi-Pb-tellurides, and native gold. Fluid infitration has resulted in narrow (<1 m) bleached wallrock alteration envelopes to the fault zones comprising albite-K-mica ±chlorite±calcite±rutile assemblages. Temperature-pressure conditions varied from Stage I (300°±50°C, ≈2 kbar) to Stage II (250°±50°C, ≈0.5 to 2 kbar), with the hydrothermal fluid in both stages characterised by X(CO2)≤0.15 and moderate salinity (≈1.28 m NaCl). Intermittent phase separation of Stage II mineralising fluids, initiated by pressure fluctuations in dilational sites, and/or fluid-dominated fluid: wallrock interaction, are invoked as the dominant depositional mechanisms. The granitoid-hosted Lady Bountiful lode gold deposit shares many features with other granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and the Superior Province. Granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits, such as the Lady Bountiful deposit, provide additional evidence that the dominant control on the localisation of gold mineralisation within a granitoid host is structure, with competency contrasts playing a significant role. Furthermore, the hydrothermal wallrock alteraction and orefluid chemistry characteristics of the granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits are comparable to those established for greenstone-hosted lode gold mineralisation.

  7. Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, S.G.; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Oscarson, R.L.; Noble, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which

  8. Hemimorphite as a natural sink for arsenic in zinc deposits and related mine tailings: Evidence from single-crystal EPR spectroscopy and hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Mao; Lin, Jinru; Pan, Yuanming

    2010-05-01

    Hemimorphite is a refractory mineral in surface environments and occurs commonly in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated hemimorphite from Mapimi (Durango, Mexico) reveal two arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO 4] 4- and [AsO 4] 2-. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses confirm this sample to contain 270 ppm As and that hemimorphite from other Zn deposits has appreciable amounts of arsenic as well. Spin Hamiltonian parameters, including matrices g, A ( 75As) and P( 75As), show that the [AsO 4] 4- radical formed from electron trapping by a locally uncompensated [AsO 4] 3- ion substituting for [SiO 4] 4-. Matrices g, A( 75As) and P( 75As) of the [AsO 4] 2- radical show it to have the unpaired spin on the bridging oxygen of an [AsO 4] 3- ion at a Si site and linked to a monovalent impurity ion. This structural model for the [AsO 4] 2- radical is further supported by observed 29Si and 1H superhyperfine structures arising from interactions with a single Si atom (A/g eβe = ˜1 mT at B// c) and two equivalent H atoms (A/g eβe = ˜0.3 mT at B∧ b = 10°), respectively. Hydrothermal experiments at 200 °C and ˜9.5 MPa show that hemimorphite contains up to ˜2.5 wt% As 2O 5 and suggest that both the arsenate concentration and the pH value in the solution affect the As content in hemimorphite. These results demonstrate that hemimorphite is capable of sequestering arsenate in its crystal lattice, hence is a natural sink for attenuating As in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Moreover, results from hemimorphite potentially have more far-reaching implications for major silicates such as zeolites in the immobilization and removal of arsenic in surface environments.

  9. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.

    2010-02-01

    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (δ34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O

  10. On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

  11. Isotopic evidence for timing and mechanism of deposition of the Pb-Ag veins of the Sunshine Mine, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, G.F.; Criss, R.E. . Dept. of Geology); Fleck, R.J. )

    1993-04-01

    The Pb-Ag ores of the Sunshine Mine, located in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of northern Idaho, occur within steeply-dipping, tabular siderite veins that cross-cut the overturned northern limb of the Big Creek Anticline. However, these veins are parallel to the major normal and reverse faults of the Lewis and Clark line that cut through the center of the district, and to the well formed cleavage of the host Belt Supergroup metasediments. The siderite gangue has [delta][sup 18]O values of +13.1 to 17.7% rel SMOW, [delta][sup 13]C values of [minus]9.9 to [minus]6.4% rel PDB, and extremely high initial [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of 0.85 to 1.5. Late-stage quartz veins, which sometimes run parallel to the veins but more commonly form cross-cutting ladders, have [delta][sup 18]O [equals] +13.4 to +15.5, and these and the wallrocks are several per mil too low to be in isotopic equilibrium with the siderite. Detailed traverses across two veins show U-shaped'' isotopic trends, with the [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O values being more enriched at vein margins. These small-scale variations were caused by changing fluid composition or temperatures, possibly involving explosive pressure release and CO[sub 2] effervescence during decompression, and account for the lack of a systematic variation of [sup 18]O with depth in the vein systems. The [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios have a weak negative correlation with the [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O values. The isotopic inhomogeneity of Sr in the veins documents their multi-stage formation, probably from fluid batches derived from different sources. The structural simplicity of the veins supports Sr isotopic evidence that the veins are geologically youthful, and were not formed during the Kootenay orogeny at 850 Ma, nor during deposition and diagenesis of the Belt sediments.

  12. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  13. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  14. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  15. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  16. Multi-element association analysis of stream sediment geochemistry data for predicting gold deposits in Barramiya gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harraz, Hassan Z.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.; El-Mamoney, Mohamed H.

    2012-06-01

    The use of traditional statistical methods can provide suitable indicators of geochemical element dispersion, and aids in targeting potential areas for mineral exploration. Analyzes of stream sediments from an ophiolite suite of ophiolitic mélange matrix and metasediments belt are used for regional geochemical prospecting of gold in the Barramiya mining district, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The principal rocks exposed in the study area are Late-Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences intruded by serpentinite, small bodies of Older and Younger Granitoids, all injected by dykes of various compositions. Gold production derived mainly from shear zone with Au-bearing quartz veins hosted by ultramafic schists and serpentinites at fault intersections or along the basal décollement of the major thrusts, especially where granitoid massifs and stocks are common. Orebodies are mainly sulfide-bearing quartz and quartz-carbonate lodes associated with graphite-schist, listvenite and marble exposures, showing signs of structural control expressed in preferable orientation and consistent meso- and microfabrics. The area has two known gold deposits where several chromite mines are present. Auriferous veins are confined along E and ENE fracture systems and zones in a passive tectonic contact between the serpentinites and the metasediments. Results of 425 stream sediment samples from an area of ˜73 km2 analyzed for 13 trace elements are presented using simple statistical and R-mode factor methods. The overall sample density achieved by the survey is ˜6 samples/km2. Significant variations in background metal contents are recorded near the known mineralized sites. Preliminary visual interpretation of individual spatial distribution patterns of Ag, As, Au, Cu, Mo, Pb, and W show clear-cut relationships with known gold mineralization in the study area. Geochemical patterns of these elements delineate drainage basins with anomalous concentration of elements genetically related to gold

  17. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  18. Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

  19. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  20. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  1. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  2. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  3. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part VI. Maximum duration for mineralization of the OH vein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.R.; Barton, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    The rate at which ore deposits form is one of the least well established parameters in all of economic geology. However, increased detail in sampling, improved technology of dating, and sophistication in modeling are reducing the uncertainties and establishing that ore formation, at least for the porphyry copper-skarn-epithermal base and precious metals deposit package, may take place in surprisingly brief intervals. This contribution applies another approach to examine the duration of mineralization. The degree to which compositional gradients within single crystals has flattened through solid-state diffusion offers a measure of the thermal dose (that is temperature combined with time) that the crystals have been subjected to since deposition. Here we examine the steepness of gradients in iron content within individual single sphalerite crystals from the epithermal silver-lead-zinc deposit in the OH vein at Creede, Colorado. Two initial textures are considered: growth-banded crystals and compositionally contrasting overgrowths that succeed crosscutting dissolution or fractured surfaces. The model used estimates the maximum possible time by assuming a perfectly sharp original compositional step, and it asks how long it would take at a known temperature for the gradient measured today to have formed. Applying the experimentally determined diffusion rates of Mizuta (1988a) to compositional gradients (ranging from 0.4-2.2 mol % FeS/??m) measured by the electron microprobe in 2-??m steps on banded sphalerite formed early in the paragenetic history yields a maximum duration of less than ???10,000 yr. Sphalerite from a solution unconformity in a position midway through the paragenetic sequence is indistinguishable from instantaneous deposition, supporting the conclusion of rapid ore formation. While this formation interval seems very brief, it is consistent with less well constrained estimates using entirely different criteria. ?? 2005 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  4. Scheelite geochemical signatures by LA-ICP-MS and potential for rare earth elements from Hutti Gold Mines and fingerprinting ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Hart, Craig J. R.; Sangurmath, P.

    2016-02-01

    Scheelite (CaWO4), with gold and REE enrichments, is found in appreciable concentrations in the world class Hutti Gold deposit, Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), India. We used in situ Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to determine the rare earth elements in scheelite and utilize results to fingerprint the extensions/continuity of auriferous ore shoots/lodes/reefs. The Hutti Gold deposit is briefly compared to southern African gold deposits and corroborates in terms of geochemistry, structural, chemical alterations and REE contents in scheelite etc… The scheelite samples from Hutti are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) up to 11 ppm and depleted in heavy rare earth elements(HREE) up to 6.50 ppm with positive to negative europium anomaly. The total REE (∑ REE + Y) of the scheelite samples is up to 35 ppm. The ratio of LREE/HREE values is 1.80. The results for the REEs indicate: (1) considerable differences in the ΣREEs amongst the sample suite (2) most samples are dominated by a single chondrite-normalized (CN) pattern, but rarely a second pattern is present; 3) although the type of CN REE patterns vary (e.g., convex MREE, LREE enrichment), there is a similarity among deposit types; and 4) both positive and negative 'Eu' anomalies are observed; 5) positive correlations between MREE and HREE suggesting a strong influence of magmatic fluids. These initial results suggest that the minor and trace-element chemistry of scheelite may offer the potential to discriminate and identify deposit types based on its geochemical fingerprinting.

  5. Design of supports in mines

    SciTech Connect

    Biroen, C.; Arioglu, E.

    1983-01-01

    Much information is available on rock mechanics and some on mine supports but a need has been identified in the area of design and calculation of the actual dimensions of mining supports. A variety of roof support systems are described. Information is included on wooden supports, steel gallery supports, roof bolts and trusses, steel longwall supports, and concrete supports. A chapter is also included on stowing or filling the openings made by extraction of the seams of mineral deposits.

  6. Chemical and mineralogical changes of waste and tailings from the Murgul Cu deposit (Artvin, NE Turkey): implications for occurrence of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Emine Selva; Akçay, Miğraç

    2016-04-01

    Being one of the largest copper-producing resources in Turkey, the Murgul deposit has been a source of environmental pollution for very long time. Operated through four open pits with an annual production of about 3 million tons of ore at an average grade of about 0.5% Cu, the deposit to date has produced an enormous pile of waste (exceeding 100 million tons) with tailings composed of 36 % SiO2, 39% Fe2O3 and 32% S, mainly in the form of pyrite and quartz. Waters in the vicinity of the deposit vary from high acid-acid (2.71-3.85) and high-extremely metal rich (34.48-348.12 mg/l in total) in the open pits to near neutral (6.51-7.83) and low metal (14.39-973.52 μg/l in total) in downstream environments. Despite low metal contents and near neutral pH levels of the latter, their suspended particle loads are extremely high and composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals with highly elevated levels of Fe (3.5 to 24.5% Fe2O3; 11% on average) and S (0.5 to 20.6% S; 7% on average), showing that Fe is mainly in the form of pyrite and lesser hematite. They also contain high concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Waters collected along the course of polluted drainages are supersaturated with respect to Fe phases such as goethite, hematite, maghemite, magnetite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite. Secondary phases such as Fe-sulphates are only found near the pits, but not along the streams due to neutral pH conditions, where pebbles are covered and cemented by Fe-oxides and hydroxides indicating that oxidation of pyrite has taken place especially at times of low water load. It follows, then, that the pyrite-rich sediment load of streams fed by the waste of the Murgul deposit is currently a big threat to the aquatic life and environment and will continue to be so even after the closure of the deposit. In fact, the oxidation will be enhanced and acidity increased due to natural conditions, which necessitates strong remedial actions to be taken. PMID:26637995

  7. Mine system

    SciTech Connect

    Stoppani, B.R.

    1983-10-04

    A mine system comprises at least one mining machine adapted to haul itself, in a reciprocating manner, along a mineral face, and a control box housing means to control the various electrical elements of the machine(s), the box being located in a mine roadway at one end of the mineral face along which the machine(s) is reciprocating, and the box being electrically connected to a terminal box housed in a body of the machine(s).

  8. Resource targets for advanced underground coal-extraction systems. [Identification of location and geology of deposit for which greatest savings can be realized by advanced mining systems in 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, J.H.; Whipple, D.W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report identifies resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems. In contrast to previous research, which focused on a particular resource type, this study made a comprehensive examination of both conventional and unconventional coals, with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry. The major thrust of the targeting analysis was forecasting which coals would be of clear commercial significance at the beginning of the 21st century under three widely different scenarios for coal demand. The primary measure of commercial importance was an estimate of the aggregate dollar savings realized by consumers if advanced technology were available to mine coal at prices at or below the price projected for conventional technology in the year 2000. Both deterministic and probabilistic savings estimates were prepared for each demand scenario. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat-lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat-lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). The rather substantial deposits of bituminous coal in North Alaska and the deeply buried lignites of the Gulf Coast present transportation and ground control problems which appear to postpone their commercial importance well beyond 2000. Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions or sub-regions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  9. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

  10. African mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  11. Tracking the Mineralogical Fate of Arsenic in Weathered Sulfides from the Empire Mine Gold-Quartz Vein Deposit by using Microbeam Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, T.; Alpers, C. N.; Foster, A. L.; Brown, A.; Hammersley, L. C.; Petersen, E.

    2010-12-01

    Several complementary microbeam analytical techniques are being employed to determine the mineralogical fate of arsenic (As) released by weathering of primary sulfide minerals from waste rock at a California gold mine. Because of the known association of As with Fe-oxides, special attention was paid to the fate of Fe during weathering of arsenian pyrite [Fe(S,As)2], arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and ferroan dolomite [Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2]. Samples were collected from waste rock dumps at the Empire Mine State Historic Park in Grass Valley, California, and polished thick (60-μm) sections were prepared for analysis. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) investigations at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) involved mapping element distribution at the 100-μm pixel scale (beamline 10-2) and 2-µm pixel size (beamline 2-3) at four energies spanning the range of As valence states (11,867-11,890 eV). The maps provide spatial data on several elements (As, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S, and Zn), but without standardization this information remains qualitative. Good correspondence was found between the results of principal component analysis of the maps and the distribution of the two main As valence states, As(III) and As(V). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra collected on beamline 2-3 at the As and Fe K-edges show reduced and oxidized species of both elements and no evidence for secondary arsenate phases such as scorodite (FeAsO4 ● 2H2O). Spectra of As(III) were rare, and not often mixed with As(V). The same thick sections were also analyzed by electron microbeam methods. Chemical and element analysis using a Cameca SX-100 microprobe quantified mineral compositions at selected spots in the sections by comparison to well-characterized reference materials. Concentrations of As in pyrite ranged from less than 0.01% to 3.1 wt. % and pyrite and was heterogeneous at the sub-µm scale. Arsenopyrite and ferroan dolomite were also found to be heterogeneous in composition

  12. Geochemistry of Ordovician Keli Group basalts associated with Besshi-type Cu-Zn deposits from the southern Trondheim and Sulitjelma mining districts of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. D.; Farquhar, J. S.; Smith, P.

    1990-01-01

    Besshi-type volcanogenic Cu-Zn deposits in the Scandinavian Caledonides are hosted by Ordovician metabasalts and clastic sediments of the Storen, Fundsjo and Sulitjelma groups. The basalts are transitional between T-MORB and marginal basin tholeiites in composition and are characterised by Nd and Pb isotopic compositions which overlap the more radiogenic values of Lower Palaeozoic MORB. These features, along with the intercalation of the basalts with tuffs and continentally derived sediments, indicate an epicontinental rift or marginal basin origin, possibly analogous to the present Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts. This implies the development of a restricted ocean basin in the north of Iapetus between the Laurentian and Baltoscandian microcontinents during the Cambrian and Early Ordovician.

  13. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's tabulation of volcanogenic uranium deposits lists 100 deposits in 20 countries, with major deposits in Russia, Mongolia, and China. Collectively these deposits are estimated to contain uranium resources of approximately 500,000 tons of uranium, which amounts to 6 percent of the known global resources. Prior to the 1990s, these deposits were considered to be small (less than 10,000 tons of uranium) with relatively low to moderate grades (0.05 to 0.2 weight percent of uranium). Recent availability of information on volcanogenic uranium deposits in Asia highlighted the large resource potential of this deposit type. For example, the Streltsovskoye district in eastern Russia produced more than 100,000 tons of uranium as of 2005; with equivalent resources remaining. Known volcanogenic uranium deposits within the United States are located in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. These deposits produced an estimated total of 800 tons of uranium during mining from the 1950s through the 1970s and have known resources of 30,000 tons of uranium. The most recent estimate of speculative resources proposed an endowment of 200,000 tons of uranium.

  14. Mining outlook: the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    A guide is presented to the rich reserves of iron ore, phosphate, coal, gold, zinc, manganese and other minerals in Egypt. A map is included which shows a wide distribution of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits, suitable for mining. Negotiations are being carried out with foreign companies to form joint venture agreement for developing gold deposits. The future looks bright for expansions in iron ore, phosphate, and coal.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine... section 617(a) applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine... section 617(a) applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine... section 617(a) applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine... section 617(a) applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-16 - Mine exploration expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mine exploration expenditures. 1.1502-16... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-16 Mine exploration...(a) applies, paid or incurred with respect to mines or deposits located outside the United States...

  20. Environment of ore deposition in the creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part V. Epithermal mineralization from fluid mixing in the OH vein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayba, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed fluid inclusion studies on coarse-grained sphalerite from the OH vein, Creede, Colorado, have shown that the abrupt color changes between growth zones correspond to abrupt changes in the nature of the ore fluids. Within each growth zone, however, the composition of the fluids remained constant. The base of a distinctive orange-brown growth zone marks a sharp increase in both temperature and salinity relative to the preceding yellow-white zone. The orange-brown growth zone can be correlated along much of the vein and is believed to represent a time-stratigraphic interval. Along the vein, temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions within this interval show a systematic decrease from about 285??C and 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv near the base of the vein to about 250??C and 8 wt percent NaCl equiv, respectively, near the top of the vein. The iron concentration of this sphalerite growth zone shows a similar pattern, decreasing from about 2.8 to 1.2 mole percent FeS. When plotted on an enthalpy-salinity diagram, the fluid inclusion data define a spatial trend indicating the progressive mixing of deeply circulating hydrothermal brines with overlying, dilute ground waters. The hydrothermal brines entered the OH vein from below at a temperature, salinity, and density of approximately 285??C, 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv, and 860 kg/m3, respectively, whereas the overlying ground waters appear to have been preheated to roughly 150??C and had an assumed salinity of 0 wt percent and a density of 920 kg/m3. The greater density of the heated ground water promoted mixing with the hydrothermal brine within the open fractures, causing sphalerite deposition. Although there were also episodes of boiling during vein mineralization, boiling appears unimportant for this sphalerite. Isotopic evidence and geochemical modeling studies also indicate that mixing was the depositional mechanism for sphalerite. An important aspect of the mixing hydrology of the Creede system involves

  1. USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

  2. Mining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ingle, J.E.; Lane, A.J.; Mcgee, D.A.

    1981-03-10

    An improved mining apparatus for excavating material, such as coal, for example, from an earth formation, such as a coal seam, for example, wherein a miner, having a forward and a rearward cutter, is guided through the coal seam and excavates a borehole therein, the borehole being filled with a working fluid during the operation of the miner, the working fluid facilitating the operation of the miner and providing a vehicle for removing the mined material. Substantially all of the operations of the miner are controlled from the earth's surface thereby eliminating the necessity and accompanying hazards and costs involved in utilizing personnel underground during the mining operations.

  3. Ore Petrology and Alteration of the West Ansil Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulphide Deposit of the Noranda Mining Camp, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Stephanie M.

    The West Ansil deposit was the first Cu discovery in 25 years in the Noranda Central Camp. It has a combined indicated and inferred resource of ˜1.2 Mt. Grades for the indicated resource are 3.4% Cu, 0.4% Zn, 1.4 g/t Au and 9.2 g/t Ag. The bulk of the resource is located in three massive sulphide lenses (Upper, Middle and Lower) that are entirely within the Rusty Ridge Formation above the Lewis exhalite. The mineralization in all three ore lenses consists of massive pyrrhotite + chalcopyrite +/- magnetite. Semi-massive sphalerite is restricted to the upper and lower parts of the Middle lens. Massive magnetite occurs at the center of the Upper and Middle lenses, where it replaces massive pyrrhotite. A striking feature of West Ansil is the presence of abundant colloform and nodular pyrite (+/-marcasite) in the massive sulphides. Late-stage replacement of massive pyrrhotite by colloform pyrite and marcasite, occurs mostly along the upper and lower contacts of the lenses.

  4. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part IV, source of fluids, from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of fluids responsible for formation of the near-surface silver-base metal vein deposits at Creede was measured by direct analysis of inclusion fluids in sphalerite, quartz, and rhodochrosite and was estimated from analyses of illite and chlorite. The oxygen isotopic composition was determined directly on inclusion fluids in sphalerite and was estimated from analyses of quartz, illite, rhodochrosite, siderite, and adularia. The carbon isotopic composition was estimated from analyses of rhodochrosite and siderite. The ranges in isotopic composition for water and CO2 in the fluids associated with the formation of each of the minerals is given below (number of determinations given in parentheses):Mineral delta D (sub H2) O ppm delta 18 O (sub H2) O ppm delta 13 C (sub CO2) ppmSphalerite -81 to -54 (4) -10.1 to -4.5 (4)Quartz -97 to -86 (4) -5.9 to 1.8 (18)Illite -62 to -50 (8) -1.6 to 1.2(7)Chlorite -64 to -55 (10) -2.2 to 0.8 (10)Adularia 4.2 (1)Rhodochrosite -82 to -78 (2) 4.2 to 9.4 (9) -5.7 to -4.2 (9)Siderite 4.9 to 9.9 (6) -6.9 to -2.7 (6)The delta D (sub H2) O and delta 18 O (sub H2) O values of fluids associated with the formation of sphalerite, quartz, illite/chlorite, and carbonate minerals differ substantially from one another, and these differences appear to have been maintained throughout the depositional history, regardless of the positions of the minerals in the paragenetic sequence.The data suggest that waters from three coexisting reservoirs fed the vein system alternately and episodically during vein formation, and apparently there was little mixing of the fluids from the different reservoirs. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotope data suggest that the carbonate waters were deep seated, probably dominantly magmatic, in origin. The sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters must have been dominantly meteoric in origin and substantially oxygen shifted by exchange with the volcanic country rocks. The quartz waters were

  5. Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain Md

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals releases the extremely acidic leachate, sulfate and potentially toxic elements e.g., As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, Zn, etc. from different mine tailings and waste dumps. For the sustainable rehabilitation and disposal of mining waste, the sources and mechanisms of contaminant generation, fate and transport of contaminants should be clearly understood. Therefore, this study has provided a critical review on (1) recent insights in mechanisms of oxidation of sulfidic minerals, (2) environmental contamination by mining waste, and (3) remediation and rehabilitation techniques, and (4) then developed the GEMTEC conceptual model/guide [(bio)-geochemistry-mine type-mineralogy- geological texture-ore extraction process-climatic knowledge)] to provide the new scientific approach and knowledge for remediation of mining wastes and acid mine drainage. This study has suggested the pre-mining geological, geochemical, mineralogical and microtextural characterization of different mineral deposits, and post-mining studies of ore extraction processes, physical, geochemical, mineralogical and microbial reactions, natural attenuation and effect of climate change for sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste. All components of this model should be considered for effective and integrated management of mining waste and acid mine drainage. PMID:25979297

  6. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

  7. MERCURY IN MINING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury deposits in mines have shown to pose a significant hazard to residents and wildlife where drainage from these deposits enters the ecosystem through streams and rivers. For this reason, the extent of mercury contamination in the United States is of significant environment...

  8. Coastal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  9. Asteroid mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  10. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  11. Mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

    1981-06-23

    In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

  12. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  13. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  14. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  15. Data mining

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

  16. Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, G.J.; Bliss, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

  17. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David J.

    A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can

  18. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  19. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  20. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  1. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  2. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  3. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  4. Release of Mercury Mine Tailings from Mine Impacted Watersheds by Extreme Events Resulting from Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytuba, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    An increase in intensity and frequency of extreme events resulting from climate change is expected to result in extreme precipitation events on both regional and local scales. Extreme precipitation events have the potential to mobilize large volumes of mercury (Hg) mine tailings in watersheds where tailings reside in the floodplain downstream from historic Hg mines. The California Hg mineral belt produced one third of the worlds Hg from over 100 mines from the 1850's to 1972. In the absence of environmental regulations, tailings were disposed of into streams adjacent to the mines in order to have them transported from the mine site during storm events. Thus most of the tailings no longer reside at the mine site. Addition of tailings to the streams resulted in stream aggradation, increased over-bank flow, and deposition of tailings in the floodplain for up to 25 kms downstream from the mines. After cessation of mining, the decrease in tailings entering the streams resulted in degradation, incision of the streams into the floodplain, and inability of the streams to access the floodplain. Thus Hg tailings have remained stored in the floodplain since cessation of mining. Hg phases in these tailings consist of cinnabar, metacinnabar and montroydite based on EXAFS analysis. Size analysis indicates that Hg phases are fine grained, less than 1 um. The last regional scale extreme precipitation events to effect the entire area of the California Hg mineral belt were the ARkStorm events of 1861-1862 that occurred prior to large scale Hg mining. Extreme regional ARkStorm precipitation events as well as local summer storms, such as the July 2006 flood in the Clear Creek Hg mining district, are expected to increase in frequency and have the potential to remobilize the large volume of tailings stored in floodplain deposits. Although Hg mine remediation has decreased Hg release from mine sites in a period of benign climate, no remediation efforts have addressed the large source of

  5. Mining review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  6. Technogenically disturbed lands as a result of mining development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    East-Kazakhstan region of Kazakhstan is rich in ore deposits. The opencast method of mining was adopted since early 60th of the previous century. It was more economically effective and less toilful in comparison with the conventional pit mining. But the designers of the opencast method did not take ...

  7. MERCURY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT FROM HISTORIC MINING PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant quantities of mercury have been released to the environment as a result of historic precious metal mining. Many gold and silver deposits are enriched in mercury, which is released during mining and processing activities. Historically in the U.S., although a modern ...

  8. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE... Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons of unavailability or for purpose of discovery, the testimony of...

  9. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Hearings § 44.25 Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons...

  10. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE... Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons of unavailability or for purpose of discovery, the testimony of...

  11. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE... Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons of unavailability or for purpose of discovery, the testimony of...

  12. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Hearings § 44.25 Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons...

  13. Mercury contamination from historical gold mining in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury contamination from historical gold mines represents a potential risk to human health and the environment. This fact sheet provides background information on the use of mercury in historical gold mining and processing operations in California, with emphasis on historical hydraulic mining areas. It also describes results of recent USGS projects that address the potential risks associated with mercury contamination. Miners used mercury (quicksilver) to recover gold throughout the western United States. Gold deposits were either hardrock (lode, gold-quartz veins) or placer (alluvial, unconsolidated gravels). Underground methods (adits and shafts) were used to mine hardrock gold deposits. Hydraulic, drift, or dredging methods were used to mine the placer gold deposits. Mercury was used to enhance gold recovery in all the various types of mining operations; historical records indicate that more mercury was used and lost at hydraulic mines than at other types of mines. On the basis of USGS studies and other recent work, a better understanding is emerging of mercury distribution, ongoing transport, transformation processes, and the extent of biological uptake in areas affected by historical gold mining. This information has been used extensively by federal, state, and local agencies responsible for resource management and public health in California.

  14. Historical archaeology at the Clarkson Mine, an eastern Ohio mining complex

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, C.S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the Clarkson Mine (33BL333), an eastern Ohio coal mine complex dating to the 1910s to 1920s, situated along Wheeling Creek. The results of preliminary surveys and the subsequent mitigation of four structures at the site are presented. The historical archaeology conducted at the site demonstrates the significant research possibilities inherent at many of these early industrial mine complexes. Of particular interest is the findings of depositional patterning around residential structures that revealed the influence of architecture on where and how items were deposited on the land surface. The ceramic and faunal assemblage were analyzed and provide significant details on socioeconomic attributes associated with the workers or staff. Artifacts recovered at the site provide an excellent diagnostic framework from which other similarly aged sites can be compared and dated. The findings at the Clarkson Mine are also placed into a more regional perspective and compared with other contemporary studies.

  15. Ground water of coal deposits, Bay County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; McDonald, Michael G.

    1980-01-01

    A coal deposit in Bay County, Mich., typical of Pennsylvanian-coal deposits in the State, was studied to determine the degree to which hydrologic factors might affect future coal mining. The coal deposit, which averages about 0.5 meters in thickness, lies 50 meters below land surface. It is part of a multi-layered aquifer system that contains sandstone, shale, sand and gravel, and clay units in addition to beds of coal. Hydrologic characteristics (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) of each unit were evaluated by analyses of aquifer tests and a finite-difference groundwater flow model. A model simulating groundwater flow to a hypothetical mine was developed. Results of the study indicate that seepage will probably not be great enough to preclude mining coal. Also, pumping water to keep the mine dry will have little effect on heads in aquifers outside the mine during the first decade of mining. Although coal was mined in Michigan during 1860-1950, significant reserves remain. These deposits, part of the Saginaw Formation of Pennsylvanian age, are near the industrialized parts of the State. The quantity of pumped water needed to keep mines dry and the effect of pumping on aquifers surrounding the mines is a major factor in determining the feasibility of opening new mines. (USGS)

  16. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  17. 43 CFR 3746.1 - Mining locations for fissionable source materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locations under the mining laws of the United States may be based upon a discovery of a mineral deposit..., heretofore located under the mining laws of the United States for or based upon a discovery of a mineral... MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Fissionable Source Materials § 3746.1 Mining locations for fissionable...

  18. 43 CFR 3746.1 - Mining locations for fissionable source materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locations under the mining laws of the United States may be based upon a discovery of a mineral deposit..., heretofore located under the mining laws of the United States for or based upon a discovery of a mineral... MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Fissionable Source Materials § 3746.1 Mining locations for fissionable...

  19. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  20. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  1. Solar-Assisted Solution-Mining Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; French, R. L.; Becker, J. C. J.; Bills, J.

    1983-01-01

    Brine heated in solar pond dissolves minerals from deposits. In proposed solution-mining process, hot brine is pumped down one well and recovered at one or more other wells. Emerging brine is rich in desired mineral. Brine is evaporated in solar ponds to recover mineral.

  2. Valid mining rights and wilderness areas

    SciTech Connect

    Toffenetti, K.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for a valid right in a mining claim have been in contention since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1965. The author examines the elements of claim location, especially the discovery element. She analyzes decisions of the Department of Interior (DOI) and the federal courts to ascertain the DOI's discovery test. She then explains how wilderness designation has affected and will affect a claimant's ability to prove that he has discovered a valuable mineral deposit on or before the date of withdrawal. She concludes that the wilderness mining exception, the special concessions to the mining industry in some wildernesses, and even the Mining Law as it is now interpreted are evidence that the mineral industry is still favored in federal land policy. But concern for protection of other resources has steadily eroded its importance, and the balance is now more accommodating to the needs of present American society.

  3. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  4. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  5. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  6. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

  7. Mining lease handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Mining leases and similar agreements are some of the most common documents encountered by mining attorneys. The mining Lease Handbook contains a collection of mining lease clauses which have been organized and assembled for over 25 years. The clauses in this book have been coordinated and cross-referenced to enable the Handbook user to create a mining lease having a logical structure with consistent terminology throughout. In many cases, alternative clauses are included. The accompanying commentary provides insight into the use of the various clauses while pointing our pitfalls to be avoided. This Handbook is devoted primarily to mining leases, several chapters cover the subjects of options, subleases, and ancillary documents.

  8. Effects of three low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and pH on the mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) from mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-02-01

    Natural organic acids may play an important role in influencing the mobility of toxic contaminants in the environment. The mobilization of arsenic (As) and heavy metals from an oxidized Pb-Zn mine tailings sample in the presence of three low-molecular-weight organic acids, aspartic acid, cysteine, and succinic acid, was investigated at a mass ratio of 10 mg organic additive/g mine tailings in this study. The effect of pH was also evaluated. The mine tailings sample, containing elevated levels of As (2,180 mg/kg), copper (Cu, 1,100 mg/kg), lead (Pb, 12,860 mg/kg), and zinc (Zn, 5,075 mg/kg), was collected from Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. It was found that the organic additives inhibited As and heavy metal mobilization under acidic conditions (at pH 3 or 5), but enhanced it under neutral to alkaline conditions (at pH above 7) through forming aqueous organic complexes. At pH 11, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were mobilized mostly by the organic additives, 45, 46, 1,660, and 128 mg/kg by aspartic acid, 31, 28, 1,040, and 112 mg/kg by succinic acid, and 53, 38, 2,020, and 150 mg/kg by cysteine, respectively, whereas those by distilled water were 6, 16, 260, and 52 mg/kg, respectively. It was also found that the mobilization of As and the heavy metals was closely correlated, and both were closely correlated to Fe mobilization. Arsenic mobilization by the three LMWOAs was found to be consistent with the order of the stability of Fe-, Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-organic ligand complexes. The organic acids might be used potentially in the natural attenuation and remediation of As and heavy metal-contaminated sites. PMID:22648854

  9. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in pre-Gold Rush sediment range between 0.03 and 0.08 μg g-1. In core sediments that have characteristics of the gold deposits and were deposited during the time of hydraulic mining, mercury concentrations can be up to 0.45 μg/g. Modern sediment (post-1952 deposition) contains mercury concentrations up to 0.79 μg/g and is likely a mix of hydraulic mining mercury and mercury introduced from other sources.

  10. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  11. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  12. 43 CFR 3427.1 - Deposits subject to consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 3427.1 Deposits subject to consent. On split estate lands (43 CFR 3400.0-5(kk)) where the surface is... surface owner (43 CFR 3400.0-5(gg)) allowing entry and commencement of surface mining operations....

  13. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

  14. Mine waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation.

  15. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  16. Data Mining for CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  17. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  18. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down

  19. Metagenomic mining for microbiologists.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

  20. Metagenomic mining for microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

  1. Geochemical characterization of slags, other mines wastes, and their leachates from the Elizabeth and Ely mines (Vermont), the Ducktown mining district (Tennessee), and the Clayton smelter site (Idaho)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2003-01-01

    Waste-rock material produced at historic metal mines contains elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Two types of mine waste were examined in this study: sintered waste rock and slag. The samples were collected from the Elizabeth and Ely mines in the Vermont copper belt (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), from the Copper Basin mining district near Ducktown, Tennessee (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), and from the Clayton silver mine in the Bayhorse mining district, Idaho (polymetallic vein and replacement deposits). The data in this report are presented as a compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the slag data are presented in a companion paper. Data collected from sintered waste rock and slag include: (1) bulk rock chemistry, (2) mineralogy, (3) and the distribution of trace elements among phases for the slag samples. In addition, the reactivity of the waste material under surficial conditions was assessed by examining secondary minerals formed on slag and by laboratory leaching tests using deionized water and a synthetic solution approximating precipitation in the eastern United States.

  2. Mined area detection overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  3. Data Mining Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Paolo

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

  4. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  5. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  6. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  7. Pyroclastic deposits as sites for lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. Ray; Clark, Beth; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits may prove to be excellent sites for the establishment of a permanent lunar base for mining purposes. A wide variety of potentially useful by-products could be produced (e.g., Fe, Ti, H, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb). A number of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent has been studied. The physical properties of the regional pyroclastic units have important implications for lunar construction. These extensive, deep deposits of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic material are block-free and uncontaminated; they could be easily excavated and would be ideal for lunar mining operations. These deep, loose pyroclastic deposits would also be ideal for rapidly covering base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding.

  8. Design criteria for an underground lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siekmeier, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

  9. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish

    2016-04-01

    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  10. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  11. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  12. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  13. Floodplain storage of mine tailings in the Belle Fourche river system: a sediment budget approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated mine tailings that were discharged into Whitewood Creek at Lead, South Dakota, from 1876 to 1978, were deposited along the floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. The resulting arsenic-contaminated floodplain deposit consists mostly of overbank sediments and filled abandoned meanders along Whitewood Creek, and overbank and point-bar sediments along the Belle Fourche River. Arsenic concentrations of the contaminated sediments indicate the degree of dilution of mine tailings by uncontaminated alluvium. About 13% of the 110 ?? 106 Mg of mine tailings that were discharged at Lead were deposited along the Whitewood Creek floodplain. -from Author

  14. 43 CFR 3832.21 - How do I locate a lode or placer mining claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (deposited by gravity), or aqueous origin. (3) Establishing extralateral rights. If the minerals are... (deposited by wind), colluvium (deposited by gravity), talus, or other rock not in its original place; (iii... subject to the mineral leasing acts where a mineral subject to the General Mining Law can be extracted...

  15. 43 CFR 3832.21 - How do I locate a lode or placer mining claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (deposited by gravity), or aqueous origin. (3) Establishing extralateral rights. If the minerals are... (deposited by wind), colluvium (deposited by gravity), talus, or other rock not in its original place; (iii... subject to the mineral leasing acts where a mineral subject to the General Mining Law can be extracted...

  16. 43 CFR 3832.21 - How do I locate a lode or placer mining claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (deposited by gravity), or aqueous origin. (3) Establishing extralateral rights. If the minerals are... (deposited by wind), colluvium (deposited by gravity), talus, or other rock not in its original place; (iii... subject to the mineral leasing acts where a mineral subject to the General Mining Law can be extracted...

  17. Mercury Methylation and Environmental Effects of Inactive Mercury Mines in the Circum-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    Mercury mines worldwide contain of some the highest concentrations of mercury on earth, and as a result of local mercury contamination, these mines represent areas of environmental concern when mine-drainage enters downstream aquatic systems. The most problematic aspect of mine site mercury contamination is the conversion of inorganic mercury to highly toxic organic mercury compounds, such as methylmercury, and their subsequent uptake by aquatic organisms in surrounding ecosystems. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in sediment and water samples collected from several inactive mercury mines in Nevada, Alaska, and the Philippines, which are part of the circum-Pacific mineral belt. The mines studied represent different mercury deposit types and sizes, and climatic settings. Geochemical data collected from these mines indicate that areas surrounding hot-springs type mercury deposits generally have lower methylmercury concentrations than silica-carbonate mercury deposits. In hot-springs mercury deposits in Nevada and Alaska, ore is dominantly cinnabar with few acid-water generating minerals such as pyrite, and as a result, mine-water drainage has near neutral pH in which there is low solubility of mercury. Conversely, silica-carbonate deposits, such as Palawan, Philippines, contain abundant cinnabar and pyrite, and the resultant acidic-mine drainage generally has higher concentrations of mercury and methylmercury. Additional factors such as the proximity of mercury mines to wetlands, climatic effects, or mine wastes containing highly soluble mercury compounds potentially enhance mercury methylation. The Palawan mercury mine may be a unique example where several adverse environmental factors produced local mercury contamination, high mercury methylation, fish contamination, and mercury poisoning of humans that consumed these contaminated fish.

  18. Asian mining '85: Papers presented at the conference, Manila, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference in Asian mining. Contents include: geological characteristics and evolution of a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit at Guinaoang, Luzon, Philippines; influence of cable support in assessing open strope viability; modular processing plants to improve mineral recovery at Indonesian tin mines; development of a new cobalt recovery process at the Sungao Nickel refinery; design and construction of the Padaena zinc refinery; and, design, construction and operation of the carbon in pulp plant, Siana gold mine, Philippines.

  19. Safety Improvement Solutions In Coal Mines Using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristian; Lupu, Lucian; Edelhauser, Eduard

    2015-07-01

    Exploitation of coal from the Jiu Valley presents its own specific, in terms of coal mining deposit conditions, fact that required a continuous preoccupation for the monitoring of the work conditions, in order to ensure work-places safety. This paper intends to indicate a method of increasing the work environment safety using GIS technology, the analysis being completed at Lupeni Coal Mine, the largest Coal Mine in Jiu Valley, characterised by a low level of accidents that has taken place in there so far. It consists of an extension of accomplished studies in order to implement an intelligent dispatching system.

  20. Collaborative Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  1. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  2. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  3. Mining agreements III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

  4. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  5. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  6. Mining the hydrosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Ulrich

    1994-05-01

    , sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, S, and gypsum. These compounds, plus B, Cl, Calcium chloride, Li, and Sr (perhaps also F and U) are the best candidates for recovery from seawater because their value per ton of seawater is greater than that of other products. Further research aimed at recovering the aforementioned elements and compounds from seawater is justified and recommended. Given the many uncertainties involved, it is beyond the scope of this paper to present specific flow sheets and estimates of capital and operating costs for byproduct recovery. Rather, the purpose of this contribution is to provide a general overview of the potential benefits and problems, so that future research can be directed more fruitfully to the recovery of certain sets of elements or compounds under specific circumstances. Once a mineral commodity can be economically obtained from seawater, there is no further need to mine it on land from lower grade, deeper or more distant ore deposits (or to mine it in ecologically sensitive areas). Current producers need not excessively fear the proposed new supplies because in the past high transportation costs often prevented their nonmetallic commodities from reaching the distant potential markets that would be served by many byproduct-producing seawater processing plants. In addition, population growth and rising standards of living may well absorb much of the feared overcapacity in their spheres of influence. For traditional metals, such as Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag, byproduct recovery from seawater desalination appears to be out of reach for a long time.

  7. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  8. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  9. Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included

  10. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  11. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    PubMed

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

  12. An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J.M.; Ferreira, R.F.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  14. 43 CFR 3511.10 - Do certain leases allow me to mine other commodities as well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... phosphate lease allows you to use deposits of silica, limestone or other rock on the lease for use in the processing or refining of phosphate, phosphate rock, and associated minerals mined from the leased lands....

  15. 30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines. (a... 3 pounds except when blasting solid rock in its natural deposit. (b) The total weight of...

  16. Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R. W.

    2006-12-28

    subtle mine pool anomalies. However, post-survey modeling suggested that thicker, more conductive mine pools might be detected at a more suitable location. The current study sought to identify the best time domain electromagnetic sensor for detecting mine pools and to test it in an area where the mine pools are thicker and more conductive that those in southwestern Virginia. After a careful comparison of all airborne time domain electromagnetic sensors (including both helicopter and fixed-wing systems), the SkyTEM system from Denmark was determined to be the best technology for this application. Whereas most airborne time domain electromagnetic systems were developed to find large, deep, highly conductive mineral deposits, the SkyTEM system is designed for groundwater exploration studies, an application similar to mine pool detection.

  17. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  18. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  19. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine... that produce gold or gold bearing ores from placer deposits; and (2) The beneficiation processes...

  20. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine... that produce gold or gold bearing ores from placer deposits; and (2) The beneficiation processes...

  1. 40 CFR 440.140 - Applicability; description of the gold placer mine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the gold... CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.140 Applicability; description of the gold placer mine... that produce gold or gold bearing ores from placer deposits; and (2) The beneficiation processes...

  2. Riparian shrub metal concentrations and growth in amended fluvial mine tailings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluvial mine tailing deposition has caused extensive riparian damage throughout the western United States. Willows are often used for fluvial mine tailing revegetation, but some species accumulate excessive metal concentrations which could be detrimental to browsers. In a greenhouse experiment, gr...

  3. PRB mines mature

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-08-15

    Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

  4. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  5. 1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. 1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. 2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. Global direct pressures on biodiversity by large-scale metal mining: Spatial distribution and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Murguía, Diego I; Bringezu, Stefan; Schaldach, Rüdiger

    2016-09-15

    Biodiversity loss is widely recognized as a serious global environmental change process. While large-scale metal mining activities do not belong to the top drivers of such change, these operations exert or may intensify pressures on biodiversity by adversely changing habitats, directly and indirectly, at local and regional scales. So far, analyses of global spatial dynamics of mining and its burden on biodiversity focused on the overlap between mines and protected areas or areas of high value for conservation. However, it is less clear how operating metal mines are globally exerting pressure on zones of different biodiversity richness; a similar gap exists for unmined but known mineral deposits. By using vascular plants' diversity as a proxy to quantify overall biodiversity, this study provides a first examination of the global spatial distribution of mines and deposits for five key metals across different biodiversity zones. The results indicate that mines and deposits are not randomly distributed, but concentrated within intermediate and high diversity zones, especially bauxite and silver. In contrast, iron, gold, and copper mines and deposits are closer to a more proportional distribution while showing a high concentration in the intermediate biodiversity zone. Considering the five metals together, 63% and 61% of available mines and deposits, respectively, are located in intermediate diversity zones, comprising 52% of the global land terrestrial surface. 23% of mines and 20% of ore deposits are located in areas of high plant diversity, covering 17% of the land. 13% of mines and 19% of deposits are in areas of low plant diversity, comprising 31% of the land surface. Thus, there seems to be potential for opening new mines in areas of low biodiversity in the future. PMID:27262340

  9. COMPARISON OF DATA FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE AND DIRECT SAMPLING OF ACID DRAINAGE FROM MINE WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY TRANSPORT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and progressed to shaft, then open pit techniques to obtain mercury. Mining has resulted in deposition of approximately ...

  10. Effects of surface mining on the aquatic insects of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of surface mining on the aquatic insect community of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky, were examined. Sampling stations were established above the mine, near the mine and below the mine and selected biological and physiochemical factors were examined at these stations. Station 3 (above mine) had a higher pH, higher alkalinity, lower mineral hardness, less siltation and less ferric hydroxide deposition than either Station 2 (at mine) or Station 1 (below mine). The greatest number of specimens (81%) was collected at Station 3. There were 19 mayfly and stonefly taxa represented at Station 3. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Station 3 than at either Station 1 or Station 2. Examination of trophic relationships showed that shredders (chew and mine vascular plant tissue) were the most abundant group at Station 3, which may have been due to less ferric hydroxide deposition and thereby more vascular plant tissue available. Station 2 (at mine) had the least number of taxa collected, the lowest Shannon-Weaver diversity index value and predators were the most important (Importance Value) trophic group. Station 1 (below mine) was intermediate between Station 2 and Station 3, i.e., it seemed to be a recovery zone where the number of taxa collected began to increase and the physiochemical parameter values began to approach those of Station 3.

  11. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  12. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  13. Hydrologic Investigations Concerning Lead Mining Issues in Southeastern Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, Michael J., (Edited By)

    2008-01-01

    Good stewardship of our Nation's natural resources demands that the extraction of exploitable, minable ore deposits be conducted in harmony with the protection of the environment, a dilemma faced by many land and water management agencies in the Nation's mining areas. As ore is mined, milled, and sent to the smelter, it leaves footprints where it has been in the form of residual trace metals. Often these footprints become remnants that can be detrimental to other natural resources. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the earth's complex physical and biological processes and their interactions at increasingly smaller scales because subtle changes in one component can substantially affect others. Understanding these changes and resulting effects requires an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific approach. As ore reserves are depleted in one area, additional exploitable deposits are required to replace them, and at times these new deposits are discovered in previously unmined areas. Informed decisions concerning resource management in these new, proposed mining areas require an understanding of the potential consequences of the planned mining actions. This understanding is usually based on knowledge that has been accumulated from studying previously mined areas with similar geohydrologic and biologic conditions. If the two areas experience similar mining practices, the information should be transferable. Lead and zinc mining along the Viburnum Trend Subdistrict of southeastern Missouri has occurred for more than 40 years. Additional potentially exploitable deposits have been discovered 30 miles to the south, within the Mark Twain National Forest. It is anticipated that the observation of current (2008) geohydrologic conditions in the Viburnum Trend can provide insight to land managers that will help reasonably anticipate the potential mining effects should additional mining occur in the exploration area. The purpose of this report is to present a

  14. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  15. Strata mechanics in coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book considers the following topics: coal measure; coal seam feature; roof and floor strata; virgin strata pressure; deformation and failure of structure; room and pillar mining; longwall mining; slice mining; open slope mining; sub-level caving; and coal pillar structure.

  16. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

  18. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-11-01

    The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

  19. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  20. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  1. PURIFICATION OF WATERS DISCHARGED FROM POLISH LIGNITE MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exploitation of lignite deposits is linked with the necessity of lowering the groundwater table and dewatering the mine of precipitation. A large percentage of the discharge waters requires purification prior to delivery of receiving streams. The chief pollutants of these wat...

  2. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  3. Environmental management of solid waste: Dredged material and mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, W.; Forstner, U.

    1988-01-01

    The problems and questions mine tailings and dredged materials pose with regard to safe environmental deposition are similar: aquatic versus terrestrial disposal, revegetation, leaching of contaminants. Larger projects in the fields of both mine tailings reclamation and dredged material disposal are increasingly requiring a multidisciplinary team approach. A major part of mineral reserves are in less-developed countries with limited environmental controls. Such experience implies far-going demands from the host countries: (1) reclamation should be carried out, as far as possible, during the life of the mine; (2) technology to ameliorate long-term effects should be as self-supporting as possible; (3) simple, reliable, low-energy techniques for minimizing deleterious effects of mining should be developed. Separate abstracts are processed for 14 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  4. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  5. 78 FR 39531 - Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... July 1, 2013 Part V Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 49 Mine... Miner Act Requirements for Underground Coal Mine Operators and Mine Rescue Teams Type of mine...

  6. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  7. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  8. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mining Specifications: A Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Andreas

    Recent advances in software validation and verification make it possible to widely automate whether a specification is satisfied. This progress is hampered, though, by the persistent difficulty of writing specifications. Are we facing a “specification crisis”? In this paper, I show how to alleviate the burden of writing specifications by reusing and extending specifications as mined from existing software and give an overview on the state of the art in specification mining, its origins, and its potential.

  10. Data Stream Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Krishnaswamy, Shonali

    Data mining is concerned with the process of computationally extracting hidden knowledge structures represented in models and patterns from large data repositories. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that has its roots in databases, statistics, machine learning, and data visualization. Data mining has emerged as a direct outcome of the data explosion that resulted from the success in database and data warehousing technologies over the past two decades (Fayyad, 1997,Fayyad, 1998,Kantardzic, 2003).