Sample records for deposit bathurst mining

  1. Hydrogeochemical, isotopic, and rare earth element evidence for contrasting water–rock interactions at two undisturbed Zn–Pb massive sulphide deposits, Bathurst Mining Camp, N.B., Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I Leybourne; W. D Goodfellow; D. R Boyle

    1998-01-01

    A detailed hydrochemical study at two undisturbed Ordovician massive sulphide (Zn–Pb) deposits (Restigouche and Halfmile Lake deposits, Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick) was initiated to elucidate the processes controlling the oxidation and dissolution of sulphide minerals, the subsequent dispersion of metals in ground and surface waters, and the precipitation of secondary minerals. Groundwater hydrogeochemical signatures are different for the two

  2. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

  3. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  4. Scaling behavior and the effects of heterogeneity on shallow seismic imaging of mineral deposits: A case study from Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghi, Saeid; Malehmir, Alireza; Bellefleur, Gilles; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the scaling behavior of compressional-wave velocity and density logs from an exploration borehole that extends down to about 700 m depth in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada. Using statistical methods, vertical and horizontal scale lengths of heterogeneity were estimated. Vertical scale length estimates from the velocity, density and calculated acoustic impedance are 14 m, 33 m, and about 20 m, respectively. Although the estimated scale length for the acoustic impedance implies a weak scattering environment, elastic finite difference modeling of seismic wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media demonstrates that even this weak scattering medium can mask seismic signals from small, but yet economically feasible, massive sulfide deposits. Further analysis of the synthetic seismic data suggests that in the presence of heterogeneity, lenticular-shaped targets may only exhibit incomplete diffraction signals whereby the down-dip tails of these diffractions are mainly visible on the stacked sections. Therefore, identification of orebody generated diffractions is much easier on the unmigrated stacked sections than on migrated stacked sections. The numerical seismic modeling in 2D heterogeneous media indicates that in the presence of large horizontal, but small vertical scale lengths (structural anisotropy), identification of massive sulfide deposits is possible, but their delineation at depth requires detailed velocity modeling and processing algorithms which can handle the anisotropy.

  5. Hydraulic mining technique for recovering bitumen from tar sand deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Redford

    1976-01-01

    Viscous petroleum including bitumen may be recovered for subterranean petroleum containing unconsolidated said formations such as tar sand deposits by hydraulic mining. Hot water or steam is introduced into the subterranean deposit with sufficient velocity to dislodge bitumen and particles of sand therefrom. The process is a single wellbore operation using rotatable vertically moveable injection string with one or more

  6. The Saqisan Mine — a paleokarst uranium deposit, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-Z Min; X.-Z Luo; S.-L Mao; D.-Y Zheng; B.-P Shen

    2002-01-01

    The Saqisan uranium deposit, located in Guangxi Province, South China, is hosted mainly by a dark-gray limestone, solution-breccia unit, and paleocavern-fill sedimentary rocks. The deposit is the largest known breccia-hosted uranium deposit in China and was initially described as of synsedimentary shallow-marine origin. However, recent open-pit operations at the Saqisan mine have uncovered new exposures that necessitate a thorough change

  7. Engineering geology of a mudslide at Bracebridge Inlet, Bathurst Island, Northwest Territories, Canada 

    E-print Network

    Mayer, Terry Ann

    1980-01-01

    Formation- limestone, qtz. sandstone, siltstone Blue Fiord Formation- limestone Eids Formation-limestone, siltstone, shale Disappointment Bay Formation - dolomite Cl&f:: Stuart Bay Formation-siltstone, shale Dst 8 Dba Bathurst Island Formation... the slip surface will be considerably less than the surrounding unsheared soil. The shear surfaces occur on slopes which are inclined at such a low angle that landsliding is not possible unless pore water pressures exceed those which correspond...

  8. Microbiological and Geochemical Characterization of Fluvially Deposited Sulfidic Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Wielinga, Bruce; Lucy, Juliette K.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Seastone, October F.; Gannon, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated. PMID:10103249

  9. Geology and ore deposits of the Whitepine area, Tomichi mining district, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    The Tomichi mining district is on the western slope of the Continental Divide near the southern end of the Sawatch Range in southeastern Gunnison County, Colorado. The most productive part of the Tomichi district was the Whitepine area. It is estimated that since the discovery of ore in 1879 the area has produced approximately $7,000,000, principally in lead and zinc, with lesser amounts of silver, copper, and gold. Geologically, the Whitepine area is a faulted syncline of Paleozoic rocks that was intruded by Tertiary igneous rocks. The oldest rock of the area is the Silver Plume granite of pre-Cambrian age. Deposited upon this successively were the Sawatch quartzite (Late Cambrian), Manitou dolomite (Early Ordovician), Harding quartzite (Middle Ordovician), Fremont dolomite (Lade Ordovician), Chaffee formation (Late Devonian), Leadville limestone (Late Mississippian), and Beldon shale (Late Pennsylvanian); a total thickness of about 1,450 feet. During the Laramide Revolution, the sedimentary rocks were folded into a broad northward-plunging syncline, faulted, and intruded by a series of igneous rocks. The igneous rocks, in order of relative age from oldest to youngest, are: a rhyolite stock, the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith, quartz monzonite or quartz latite porphyry dikes, and rhyolite or pitchstone porphyry dikes. The ore deposits of the Whitepine area may be classified into replacement deposits, vein deposits, and contact metamorphic deposits. The replacement deposits may be further subdivided into deposits along faults and bedded deposits. Of the types of deposits, the most productive have been the replacement deposits along faults. The major replacement deposits along faults are those of the Akron, Morning Star, and Victor mines. The ore deposits of these mines are in the foot wall of the Star faults in the Akron mine in the Manitou dolomite and in the Morning Star and Victor mines in the Leadville limestone. The chief bedded replacement deposits are those of the Erie, North Star, and Tenderfoot mines. In the Erie mine the ore deposits are in the Leadville limestone at, or just below, its contact with the Belden shale. In the North Star and Tenderfoot mines the ore bodies are in the Manitou dolomite along the crest of an anticline and the trough of a syncline, respectively. The vein deposits occur in the Silver Plume granite, Princeton quartz monzonite, and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The only vein of commercial importance was that of the Spar Copper mine, which is in the Silver Plume granite. Contact metamorphic minerals are found chiefly in the top of the Leadville limestone in the vicinity of the Erie mine, and in the limestone of the Belden shale. Magnetite is the only ore mineral and it was produced only from the Iron King mine. The replacement deposits consist, in general, of sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and chalcopyrite in a gangue of siliclfied limestone or dolomite, quartz, and calcite. The veins, for the most part, consist of pyrite and quartz with only minor amounts of galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. In both types of deposits gold is believed to be associated with the pyrite and sphalerite and silver with the galena. Oxidized ore was the chief product of the early mining. This ore consists of calamine, cerussite, smithsonite, or anglesite, or a combination of these minerals, in a gangue of siliceous limestone or silicified limestone or dolomite. Oxidation did not extend, in most cases, for more than 150 feetbelow the surface. The ore deposits are believed to be genetically related to the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith. Ore-bearing solutions derived from the cooling of magma are believed to have migrated upwards along the pre-existing faults replacing favorable zones in the sedimentary rocks, or depositing quartz and ore minerals in open fissures in the igneous rocks.

  10. A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

  11. Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Fu, X. W.; Li, P.

    2012-02-01

    A long-term mining history introduced a series of environmental problems in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were investigated using RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during day time and night time in May 2010, which showed that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in Wanshan Hg mining area. Meanwhile, both precipitation and throughfall samples were collected weekly at Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng from May 2010 to May 2011, respectively. Our data showed that the concentrations of different Hg species varied with a large range, and the annual volume-weighted mean total mercury (THg) concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng L-1 and 977.8 ng L-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng L-1and 3392.1 ng L-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng L-1 and 9641.5 ng L-1 at Supeng, respectively. Besides, THg concentrations in all throughfall samples were 1-7 folds higher than those in precipitation samples. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in Wanshan Hg mining area since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in Wanshan Hg mining area.

  12. Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Tailing Deposits: the Case of Raibl Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto, Meriggi; Marco, Del Fabbro; Erica, Blasone; Erica, Zilli [Department of Georesources and Territory, University of Udine Via Cotonificio, 114, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    Over the last few years, many embankments and levees have collapsed during strong earthquakes or floods. In the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy), the main source of this type of risk is a slag deposit of about 2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} deriving from galena and lead mining activity until 1991 in the village of Raibl. For the final remedial action plan, several in situ tests were performed: five boreholes equipped with piezometers, four CPTE and some geophysical tests with different approaches (refraction, ReMi and HVSR). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples: geotechnical classification, triaxial compression tests and constant head permeability tests in triaxial cell. Pressure plate tests were also done on unsaturated slag to evaluate the characteristic soil-water curve useful for transient seepage analysis. A seepage analysis was performed in order to obtain the maximum pore water pressures during the intense rainfall event which hit the area on 29th August 2003. The results highlight that the slag low permeability prevents the infiltration of rainwater, which instead seeps easily through the boundary levees built with coarse materials. For this reason pore water pressures inside the deposits are not particularly influenced by rainfall intensity and frequency. Seismic stability analysis was performed with both the pseudo-static method, coupled with Newmark's method, and dynamic methods, using as design earthquake the one registered in Tolmezzo (Udine) on 6{sup th} May 1976. The low reduction of safety factors and the development of very small cumulative displacements show that the stability of embankments is assured even if an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 and a daily rainfall of 141.6 mm occur at the same time.

  13. Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume I. Oil shale deposits, mining methods, and environmental concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Jee; J. D. White; S. K. Bhatia; D. Nicholson

    1977-01-01

    This volume describes and discusses oil shale deposits of the U.S., applicable methods for mining the shale, and the environmental concerns associated with oil shale technologies. Mining is required to supply shale to the retorts of aboveground processes. The majority of oil shale mining is expected to be by the underground room-and-pillar method. Surface mining (i.e., open pit mining) may

  14. Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Sommar, J.; Li, P.; Fu, X. W.

    2012-07-01

    The legacy of long-term mining activities in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China including a series of environmental issues related to Hg pollution. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were monitored using a mobile RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during daytime and night time in May 2010. The data imply that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in WMMA. For a full year (May 2010 to May 2011), sampling of precipitation and throughfall were conducted on a weekly basis at three sites (Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng) within WMMA. Hg in deposition was characterized by analysis of total Hg (THg) and dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations. The corresponding data exhibit a high degree of variability, both temporarily and spatially. The volume-weighted mean THg concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng l-1 and 977.8 ng l-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng l-1and 3392.1 ng l-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng l-1and 9641.5 ng l-1 at Supeng, respectively. THg was enhanced in throughfall compared to wet deposition samples by up to a factor of 7. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in WMMA since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in WMMA.

  15. Effects of historical and modern mining on mercury deposition in southeastern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Samuel A.; Jackson, Brian P.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Stroup, Justin S.; Landis, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Both modern anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg), primarily from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and preindustrial anthropogenic emissions from mining are thought to have a large impact on present-day atmospheric Hg deposition. We study the spatial distribution of Hg and its depositional history over the past ~400 years in sediment cores from lakes located regionally proximal (~90–150 km) to the largest ASGM in Peru and distal (>400 km) to major preindustrial mining centers. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediments from fourteen lakes are typical of remote regions (10–115 ng g?1). Hg fluxes in cores from four lakes demonstrate preindustrial Hg deposition in southeastern Peru was spatially variable and at least an order of magnitude lower than previously reported fluxes in lakes located closer to mining centers. Average modern (A.D. 2000–2011) Hg fluxes in these cores are 3.4–6.9 ?g m?2 a?1, compared to average preindustrial (A.D. 1800–1850) fluxes of 0.8–2.5 ?g m?2 a?1. Modern Hg fluxes determined from the four lakes are on average 3.3 (±1.5) times greater than their preindustrial fluxes, similar to those determined in other remote lakes around the world. This agreement suggests that Hg emissions from ASGM are likely not significantly deposited in nearby downwind regions. PMID:24124645

  16. Seismic response of ore deposits in Kevitsa and Outokumpu mining areas: new insights from data mining and seismic forward modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellqvist, Niina; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Tuomi, Hilkka; Malehmir, Alireza; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Heikkinen, Pekka; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE disseminated sulfide deposit is hosted by the Kevitsa mafic to ultramafic intrusion located within the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland. The Outokumpu semi-massive to massive polymetallic (Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au) sulfide deposits are hosted by ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks within the Raahe-Ladoga Belt in eastern Finland. Extensive, excellent quality 2D reflection seismic data have been collected at both sites in the 2000s. In addition, there is a 3D seismic data set available from Kevitsa. The ore deposits of Kevitsa and Outokumpu have different mineralization styles, grades and scales and thus have different kinds of seismic responses as well. Imaging disseminated ore deposits with the reflection seismic method is complicated, as, for example, the Kevitsa disseminated ore itself does not have dimensions detectable with the method. However, it has been suggested that subtle localised magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion controls the sub-horizontal layering and spatial extent of the disseminated sulfides, and that this magmatic layering is detectable with the reflection seismic method. Initial results from data mining via SOM (Self-Organizing Maps) analysis and seismic forward modeling of the magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion are used to test these hypotheses. In the case of Outokumpu-type deposits seismic forward modeling results confirm that the semi-massive to massive ore could potentially be seen directly in the seismic data, if the deposits meet the size, thickness, and presentation constraints required for reflection or diffraction.

  17. Development of a dust deposition forecast model for a mine tailings impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovern, Michael

    Wind erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter can have significant impacts on the environment. It is observed that about 40% of the global land area and 30% of the earth's population lives in semiarid environments which are especially susceptible to wind erosion and airborne transport of contaminants. With the increased desertification caused by land use changes, anthropogenic activities and projected climate change impacts windblown dust will likely become more significant. An important anthropogenic source of windblown dust in this region is associated with mining operations including tailings impoundments. Tailings are especially susceptible to erosion due to their fine grain composition, lack of vegetative coverage and high height compared to the surrounding topography. This study is focused on emissions, dispersion and deposition of windblown dust from the Iron King mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site. The tailings impoundment is heavily contaminated with lead and arsenic and is located directly adjacent to the town of Dewey-Humboldt. The study includes in situ field measurements, computational fluid dynamic modeling and the development of a windblown dust deposition forecasting model that predicts deposition patterns of dust originating from the tailings impoundment. Two instrumented eddy flux towers were setup on the tailings impoundment to monitor the aeolian and meteorological conditions. The in situ observations were used in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to simulate the transport of windblown dust from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The CFD model simulations include gaseous plume dispersion to simulate the transport of the fine aerosols, while individual particle transport was used to track the trajectories of larger particles and to monitor their deposition locations. The CFD simulations were used to estimate deposition of tailings dust and identify topographic mechanisms that influence deposition. Simulation results indicated that particles preferentially deposit in regions of topographic upslope. In addition, turbulent wind fields enhanced deposition in the wake region downwind of the tailings. This study also describes a deposition forecasting model (DFM) that can be used to forecast the transport and deposition of windblown dust originating from a mine tailings impoundment. The DFM uses in situ observations from the tailings and theoretical simulations of aerosol transport to parameterize the model. The model was verified through the use of inverted-disc deposition samplers. The deposition forecasting model was initialized using data from an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the forecast deposition patterns were compared to the inverted-disc samples through gravimetric, chemical composition and lead isotopic analysis. The DFM was verified over several month-long observing periods by comparing transects of arsenic and lead tracers measured by the samplers to the DFM PM27 forecast. Results from the sampling periods indicated that the DFM was able to accurately capture the regional deposition patterns of the tailings dust up to 1 km. Lead isotopes were used for source apportionment and showed spatial patterns consistent with the DFM and the observed weather conditions. By providing reasonably accurate estimates of contaminant deposition rates, the DFM can improve the assessment of human health impacts caused by windblown dust from the Iron King tailings impoundment.

  18. High arsenic and boron concentrations in groundwaters related to mining activity in the Bigadiç borate deposits (Western Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünsal Gemici; Gültekin Tarcan; Cahit Helvac?; A. Melis Somay

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the environmental impacts of borate mines in Bigadiç district, which are the largest colemanite and ulexite deposits in the world. Borate-bearing formations have affected the concentrations of some contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality is directly related to the borate zones in the mines as a result of water–rock interaction processes. Calcium is the dominant cation and waters

  19. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum. Although much has been learned about these deposits since the time this study was conducted, in 1966, a great deal more study will by required to completely elucidate their geologic history.

  20. Depositional Influences on Porewater Arsenic in Sediments of a Mining-Contaminated Freshwater Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Toevs, G.; Morra, M.J.; Winowiecki, L.; Strawn, D.; Polizzotto, M.L.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated.

  1. Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonnie N. Tracy

    1984-01-01

    Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining.

  2. Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 ?g/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 ?g/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 ?g/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 ?g/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 ?g/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 ?g/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 ?g/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 ?g/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 ?g/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 ?g/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 ?g/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 ?g/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 ?g/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water exceeded the chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms of 1000 ?g/L for Fe. There has been extensive remediation of mined areas in the ICB, but because some mine waste remaining in the area contains highly elevated Cu, Co, As and Fe, inhalation or ingestion of mine waste particulates may lead to human exposure to these elements.

  3. Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2) electric and vibration noise due to populated areas and roads, as well as a rock crusher working close to the line, (3) significant static variations (due to the variable nature of the terrain: forest, roads, open pit filled with 10s of meters of unconsolidated materials...), make this dataset similar to a city-kind dataset. Preprocessing of the data first required the cable- and wireless- recorded sub-datasets to be merged using GPS time stamps (nanoseconds accuracy) registered in the active data. Vertical shift and stack was then carried out to stack all data available at each shot point. Preliminary results from brute stacks exhibit evidences of reflections or diffractions. It is anticipated that further processing, involving especially appropriate static corrections and velocity analysis, would help interpreting such seismic events in relation to the ore body and its surrounding structures. Possible along-profile compartmentalization is also detected; further processing is however necessary before interpreting such features in terms of recent faulting. Acknowledgements: Formas, Grängesberg Iron AB, Spendrups and Geological Survey of Sweden

  4. The Hadamengou Mine: A Typical Gold Deposit in the Archean Granulite Facies Terrane of the North China Craton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-F. Gan; Y.-M. Qiu; H.-Y. Yang; D. D. Van Reenen

    1994-01-01

    Gold deposits in Archean high-grade terranes are either syngenetic or epigenetic. In the North China craton, the high-grade metamorphic rocks are considered to be the main source of gold for the formation of gold deposits formed during the Proterozoic or Mesozoic eras.The Hadamengou mine is located in the E-W-trending Archean Daqingshan granulite belt at the northern margin of the North

  5. 26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. 1.611-2 Section...or thousands of cubic feet of natural gas. (2) As used in this paragraph...section. (4) In the case of a natural gas well where the annual...

  6. 26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. 1.611-2 Section...or thousands of cubic feet of natural gas. (2) As used in this paragraph...section. (4) In the case of a natural gas well where the annual...

  7. 26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. 1.611-2 Section...or thousands of cubic feet of natural gas. (2) As used in this paragraph...section. (4) In the case of a natural gas well where the annual...

  8. CHANGES IN GRADE, VOLUME AND CONTAINED GOLD DURING THE MINING LIFE-CYCLE OF GOLD PLACER DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Orris, G.J.; Menzie, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of gold placer data throughout the world suggests that gold grades and volumes cannot be used to distinguish between most types of gold placers. Only the alluvial plain and fan placers are significantly different among the types of gold placers considered. Gold grades and volumes change when working placers go from small-volume methods to large-volume methods. The odds that a placer will be dominantly worked using small-volume methods at the surface are about 5:3. Once small-volume mining has occurred, the odds against subsequent large-volume mining are about 4:1. If a deposit is suitable for large-volume mining and the amount of gold produced from small-volume mining was reported, an estimate of the remaining gold (log//1//0kg) can be made using an equation.

  9. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for about 0.5 mm, then declines to about 1.5 ppm at the surface. The increase in U concentration coincided with a significant decrease in d234U initial values (Siklosy et al., 2008) suggesting contribution from a U source different from the natural weathering input. This is also supported by a change in the P/U ratio and much weaker correlation of the U concentrations with P in the U-enriched section of the stalagmite ("mining-period"). According to the average growth rate of the stalagmite, this period represents the last 30-50 years. Dendrochemical data covered the 1914-2004 period. The trace element time series derived from tree rings are characterized by plateaux-like maxima during the late-1960s and the 1985-95 period. This elevated events closely coupled to opening of two different uranium mine pits. Two prominent peaks emerged in the U-record coinciding the 1968 and 1991 tree rings. Dendrochemical data show abrupt increase in trace elemets (most pronounced in metals) from the tree ring dated to 1966 while the sudden decrease positioned to 1998 tree-ring. The perfect agreement between the dendrochronological dates of major changes in the chemistry of the wood and the onset-offset dates of mining history gives high probability that the mining activity is the main agent responsible for this environmental change. The possible source of U is therefore the 40-year-old Mecsek uranium mine, which produced ca. 500 tons of U concentrate per year and has reworked millions of tons of solid material (Bánik et al., 2002). Acknowledgements — This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA T 049713 and K 67583). Measurements of U-Th isotopic compositions and and 230Th dates were supported by the National Science Council grants (94-2116-M002-012, 97-2752-M002-004-PAE & -005-PAE to C.C.S.). Bánik, J., Csicsák, J. and Berta, Zs. 2002: Experience on application of continuous drain trench during the remediation of tailings ponds in Hungary. In: Broder J. M., et al. (Eds), Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III, 913-921. Sikló

  10. Preliminary Study of Formation Mechanism of the Erdenetiin Ovoo Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Deposit and Environmental Effects of Erdenet Mine, Northern Mongolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Munkhtsengel; M. Ohara; O. Gerel; S. Dandar; N. Tsuchiya

    2006-01-01

    The Erdenetiin ovoo is a biggest porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit in Mongolia, which is situated in Northern Mongolia. The deposit has been mined since 1978 at an annual rate of approximately 20 Mt of ore. As it plays important role to country’s economy and still have controversies calling researchers interest. Ore formation mechanism of the Erdenetiin Ovoo deposit and environmental impacts

  11. Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, R.R., II; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, A.N.; Piatak, N.M.; Wandless, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO42 -, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O2 as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry.

  12. Post-depositional behavior of Cu in a metal-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada).

    PubMed

    Martin, Alan J; Jambor, John L; Pedersen, Tom F; Crusius, John

    2003-11-01

    The post-depositional behavior of Cu in a gold-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada) was assessed after mine closure by examination of porewater chemistry and mineralogy. The near-surface (upper 1.5 cm) sediments are enriched in Cu, with values ranging from 0.4 to 2 wt %. Mineralogical examination revealed that the bulk of the Cu inventory is present as authigenic copper sulfides. Optical microscopy, energy-dispersion spectra, and X-ray data indicate that the main Cu sulfide is covellite (CuS). The formation of authigenic Cu-S phases is supported by the porewater data, which demonstrate that the sediments are serving as a sink for dissolved Cu below sub-bottom depths of 1-2 cm. The zone of Cu removal is consistent with the occurrence of detectable sulfide and the consumption of sulfate. The sediments can be viewed as a passive bioreactorthat permanently removes Cu as insoluble copper sulfides. This process is not unlike that which occurs in other forms of bioremediation, such as wetlands and permeable reactive barriers. Above the zone of Cu removal, dissolved Cu maxima in the interfacial porewaters range from 150 to 450 microg L(-1) and reflect the dissolution of a Cu-bearing phase in the surface sediments. The reactive phase is thought to be a component of treatment sludges delivered to the lake as part of cyanide treatment. Flux calculations indicate that the efflux of dissolved Cu from the sediments to the water column (14-51 microg cm(-2) yr(-1)) can account for the elevated levels of dissolved Cu in lake waters (approximately 50 microg L(-1)). Implications for lake recovery are discussed. PMID:14620820

  13. Post-Depositional Behavior of Cu in a Metal-Mining Polishing Pond (East Lake, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, A.J.; Jambor, J.L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Crusius, J.

    2003-01-01

    The post-depositional behavior of Cu in a gold-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada) was assessed after mine closure by examination of porewater chemistry and mineralogy. The near-surface (upper 1.5 cm) sediments are enriched in Cu, with values ranging from 0.4 to 2 wt %. Mineralogical examination revealed that the bulk of the Cu inventory is present as authigenic copper sulfides. Optical microscopy, energy-dispersion spectra, and X-ray data indicate that the main Cu sulfide is covellite (CuS). The formation of authigenic Cu-S phases is supported by the porewater data, which demonstrate that the sediments are serving as a sink for dissolved Cu below sub-bottom depths of 1-2 cm. The zone of Cu removal is consistent with the occurrence of detectable sulfide and the consumption of sulfate. The sediments can be viewed as a passive bioreactor that permanently removes Cu as insoluble copper sulfides. This process is not unlike that which occurs in other forms of bioremediation, such as wetlands and permeable reactive barriers. Above the zone of Cu removal, dissolved Cu maxima in the interfacial porewaters range from 150 to 450 ??g L-1 and reflect the dissolution of a Cu-bearing phase in the surface sediments. The reactive phase is thought to be a component of treatment sludges delivered to the lake as part of cyanide treatment. Flux calculations indicate that the efflux of dissolved Cu from the sediments to the water column (14-51 ??g cm-2 yr-1) can account for the elevated levels of dissolved Cu in lake waters (???50 ??g L-1). Implications for lake recovery are discussed.

  14. Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, L.N.

    1984-04-01

    Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining. Summed operating costs are then divided by the units of recoverable product anticipated. The resulting value (on a per unit basis) is then assigned to the individual hole being evaluated, and can be used directly in preliminary mine planning. Profitability can also be determined for each hole by multiplying the difference between the unit cost and the market value of the recovered product by the amount of recovered product. Mine planning can then proceed by evaluating the quantity of favorable holes within a given area, their continuity, and the overall cost and profitability relative to desired or available market and production conditions.

  15. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Pb, Zn and Ag Mine Tailings Originating From Carbonate-Rich Deposits 

    E-print Network

    McClure, Roberta 1981-

    2012-11-29

    Mining for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico has been ongoing since 1576. Unsecured tailings heaps and associated acid mine drainage have presented problems related to soil quality, water quality, and dust emission...

  16. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A least squared comparison between the calculated and observed gravity is used to determine the best fitting gravity vectors and the best susceptibility for the assemblage of polygonal prisms. The survey is expected to identify the geophysical anomalies found at the Copper Flat deposit in order to identify the alteration that surrounds that part of the ore body. The understanding of the anomalies needs to be reevaluated in order to have a sharper model of Copper Flat, and to understand the relations of the different structures that shaped this copper porphyry deposit.

  17. Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

  18. Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.

    PubMed

    Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

    2014-01-01

    The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended. PMID:24912237

  19. Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining

    PubMed Central

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings. PMID:25075337

  20. Plant macroscopic remains from recent sediments of Banks Island, Northwest Territories, and Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada, and the interpretation of Quaternary cold stage plant macroscopic assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Richard G.; Pettit, Mary E.

    2000-02-01

    Macroscopic plant remains were extracted from recent sediments of streams on Banks Island and Bathurst Island. Analyses of the samples are given and their general relation to the vegetation is described. Problems of interpretation of the contemporary and Quaternary cold stage macroscopic assemblages include the variation of the representation of taxa, the significance of taphonomy, especially under fluvial conditions, and the origin of the assemblages in a mosaic of vegetation. The contribution of analyses of macroscopic remains to interpretations of vegetation and environment based on pollen analysis is emphasised.

  1. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated comparative leaching characteristics of acidophilic bacterial strains under shifting environmental conditions at proposed two stages as formation stage or post acidic mine drainage (AMD) generation. At the first stage, initial reactions associated with AMD generation was simulated in shaking flasks containing massive pyritic chalcopyrite ore by using a pure strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus sp. mostly dominated by A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans at 26oC. At the second stage, long term bioleaching experiments were carried out with the same strains at 26oC and 40oC to investigate the leaching characteristics of pyritic chalcopyrite ore under elevated heavy metal and temperature conditions. During the experiments, physicochemical characteristics (e.i. Eh, pH, EC) metal (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn) and sulfate concentration of the experimental solution were monitored during 180 days. Significant acid generation and sulfate release were determined during bioleaching of the ore by mixed acidophilic cultures containing both iron and sulfur oxidizers. In the early stage of the experiments, heavy metal release from the ore was caused by generation of acid due to accelerated bacterial oxidation of the ore. Generally high concentrations of Co and Cu were released into the solution from the experiments conducted by pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans whereas high Zn and Fe was released into the solution from the mixed culture experiments. In the later stage of AMD generation and post AMD, chemical oxidation is accelerated causing excessive amounts of contamination, even exceeding the amounts resulted from bacterial oxidation by mixed cultures. Acidithibacillus ferrooxidans was found to be more effective in leaching Cu, Fe and Co at higher temperatures in contrary to mixed acidophiles that are more prone to operate at optimal moderate conditions. Moreover, decreasing Fe values are noted in bioleaching experiments with mixed acidophiles at higher temperatures. Further depleted Fe(III) values coinciding with decreasing pH may point to precipitation of secondary phases (i.e. jarosite). This study revealed that the metals (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) released during short term leaching of the ore (34 days) are generally caused by acid produced by dissolution reactions rather than oxidation. In the long term experiments a more complex biogeochemical reactions (oxidation and dissolution) take place in conjunction. Key words: Bioleaching, AMD, heavy metal release, environment, acidophilic bacteria, Küre copper ore deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

  2. Experimental studies of dispersion and deposition of fine particles in a wind tunnel and mine airway. Volume 1. Experiments, results, and analyses. Final research report, September 1988-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ramani, R.V.; Boede, K.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this research study was to provide a better understanding of airborne dust flow in mine airways, particularly with regard to the diffusion coefficients and the deposition rates and deposition velocities of mine dusts. Another objective was to generate basic data from both wind tunnel and in-mine experiments on diffusion and deposition phenomena. The study had four components: (1) a review of literature concerned with diffusion and deposition in the field of aerosol science and literature related to mining engineering; (2) an experimental study in a wind tunnel to obtain concentration and deposition patterns of dusts typically found in wind tunnels; (3) an experimental study in a mine airway to gather similar information on concentration and deposition, and real-time concentration data; and (4) a comparative analysis of the data obtained in the wind tunnel and the mine airway, and related findings in the literature survey.

  3. Distribution of the platinum group elements in peat deposit near a historic lead and silver mining district.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Ladislav; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Barsová, Linda; Zuna, Milan; Sebek, Ondrej

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) and Ag were studied in a minerotrophic peat deposit near a historic Pb-Ag mining district (Príbram, Czech Republic). The PGE determinations were performed by quadrupole ICP-MS after NiS fire assay procedure. In the individual peat layers (dated by measurement of (210)Pb activity) the PGE concentrations were low and ranged from 0.015 ng g(-1) (Ir) to 11.8 ng g(-1) (Pt). The enrichment of PGE (especially Pt) compared to the Earth crust contents were observed during two periods. The peak in the second half of 19th century was explained by massive increase of ore mining and affinity of PGE to concentrate in molten lead during Pb processing. The recent PGE enrichment in peat layers might be explained by automobile (with catalytic converters) exhaust fumes or processing of computer electronic parts by the smelter. PMID:18373043

  4. Distribution of the Platinum Group Elements in Peat Deposit Near a Historic Lead and Silver Mining District

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladislav Strnad; Martin Mihaljevi?; Vojt?ch Ettler; Linda Barsová; Milan Zuna; Ond?ej Šebek

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) and Ag were studied in a minerotrophic peat deposit near a historic Pb–Ag\\u000a mining district (P?íbram, Czech Republic). The PGE determinations were performed by quadrupole ICP-MS after NiS fire assay\\u000a procedure. In the individual peat layers (dated by measurement of 210Pb activity) the PGE concentrations were low and ranged from 0.015 ng g?1 (Ir) to 11.8 ng g?1

  5. Depositional models in coal exploration and mine planning in Appalachian region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Horne; J. C. Ferm; F. T. Caruccio; B. P. Baganz

    1978-01-01

    Geologic studies in the Appalachian region have shown that many parameters of coal beds (thickness, continuity, roof and floor rock, sulfur, and trace-element content, and ash) can be attributed to the depositional environment in which the peat beds formed and to the tectonic setting at the time of deposition. With an understanding of the depositional setting of the coal seam

  6. Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

  7. Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.

    PubMed

    Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods. PMID:23813094

  8. Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in soils affected by mine dust deposition.

    PubMed

    Shock, S S; Bessinger, B A; Lowney, Y W; Clark, J L

    2007-07-01

    Barium is a heavy metal to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in various settings--for example, in mineral extraction industries where the mining and milling of ores occurs. Aluminum is also an element abundant in soil and dust to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in association with such industries. This study investigated the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in simulated gastric fluids using an in vitro test method previously validated for lead. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of a mine and transport road that generated fugitive dust containing barium as barite (BaSO4). It was found that barium bioaccessibility in different tundra soil and fugitive dust source materials varied greatly, between 0.07 and 66.0%, depending on sample location, grain size, solid-to-fluid ratio used in the in vitro experiments, and the analytical method selected for determining total barium concentrations in the sample substrates. For X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analytical methods and a solid-to-fluid ratio of 1:100, barium bioaccessibility from the barite-rich mine waste rock and gyro crusher ore dust source materials was very low (0.07-0.36%). By contrast, the bioaccessibility of barium in tundra soil samples affected by fugitive dust deposition ranged from 3.8 to 19.5%. The relative solubility of barium measured in the simulated gastric fluids of this study is consistent with time-dependent dissolution of barite in mine waste rock and ore dust, and the presence of more soluble chemical forms in tundra soil. Laboratory XRF analysis was the only analytical method used in this study that accurately characterized total barium concentrations for all sample substrates. Aluminum bioaccessibility was distinguished from barium bioaccessibility by its generally lower values and smaller dependence on grain size and solid-to-fluid ratios. The range of aluminum bioaccessibility values (0.31-4.0%) is consistent with the predominance of aluminum in relatively insoluble aluminosilicate minerals. PMID:17695934

  9. Apatite (U-Th)\\/He age constraints on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the Bathurst region, New South Wales: evidence for antiquity of the continental drainage divide along a passive margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Persano; P. Bishop; F. M. Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The apatite (U – Th)\\/He and fission track thermochronometers are combined to constrain the Mesozoic and Cenozoic denudational history of the Bathurst region in New South Wales. New apatite (U – Th)\\/He ages across the continental drainage divide range from 83 ± 14 to 114 ± 18 Ma (±2?), supporting the evidence from previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data that the region underwent a period of rapid denudation

  10. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  11. Pb–Zn mineralization in a Miocene regional extensional context: The case of the Sidi Driss and the Douahria ore deposits (Nefza mining district, northern Tunisia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Decrée; Christian Marignac; Thierry De Putter; Etienne Deloule; Jean-Paul Liégeois; Daniel Demaiffe

    2008-01-01

    The Sidi Driss and Douahria sulfide ore deposits and showings are located in the Nefza mining district, northern Tunisia. The ores are hosted within Upper Miocene (Messinian) basins, within carbonate lenses composed of Fe–Mn-enriched dedolomite partially or totally replaced by early barite and celestite. The ore mainly consists of galena and spherulitic\\/colloform sphalerite (partially replaced by later Fe-sulfides). It is

  12. Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A

    2014-09-15

    The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of < 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure. PMID:25222928

  13. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  14. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and zinc typically are adsorbed to the surface coatings of streambed-sediment grains. Mine waste and mill tailings contain high concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in a quartz-rich matrix. Most of the waste sites that were sampled had low acid-generating capacity, although one site (fine-grained mill tailings from the Nellie Grant mine deposited in the upper part of lower Frohner Meadows) had extremely high acid-generating potential because of abundant fine-grained pyrite. Two distinct sites were identified as metal sources based on streambed-sediment samples, cores in the meadow substrate, and mine and mill-tailings samples. The Frohner mine and mill site contribute material rich in arsenic and lead; similar material from the Nellie Grant mine and mill site is rich in cadmium and zinc.

  15. Deep electromagnetic imaging of the Bathurst No. 12 deposit: 3-D forward modeling, 2-D inver-sion and sensitivity tests

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    mineral targets, and of methods of optimizing data acquisition. Different condi- tions were analyzed, but at low frequencies only those responses for current flow perpendicular to the body (TM mode in 2-D- mendations for field survey design and data interpretation. Our choice of an ore body for this study required

  16. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Mercury dispersal in water, sediments and aquatic biota of a gold mining tailing deposit drainage in pocone, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Lacerda; W. C. Pfeiffer; R. V. Marins; S. Rodrigues; C. M. M. Souza; W. R. Bastos

    1991-01-01

    In the Pocone district, Brazil, Hg distribution was studied in a small watershed which drains tailings from a 10 yr old gold mining operation. Heavy regional rains are responsible for continuous weathering, thereby making it possible to transport Hg into the ecologically important Pantanal area. Mercury concentrations in creek sediments range from -1. The highest concentrations occur close to the

  18. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...patented under the Act, for the purpose of prospecting for the coal or other mineral therein...crops on the land by reason of such prospecting. Under the Act of June 21, 1949...value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  19. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...patented under the Act, for the purpose of prospecting for the coal or other mineral therein...crops on the land by reason of such prospecting. Under the Act of June 21, 1949...value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  20. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...patented under the Act, for the purpose of prospecting for the coal or other mineral therein...crops on the land by reason of such prospecting. Under the Act of June 21, 1949...value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  1. 43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...patented under the Act, for the purpose of prospecting for the coal or other mineral therein...crops on the land by reason of such prospecting. Under the Act of June 21, 1949...value of the land for grazing by such prospecting for, mining, or removal of...

  2. Depositional environment of Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation, in Gulf Mariano Lake mine, McKinley County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Jr. Jenkins; S. B. Cunningham

    1980-01-01

    The Mariano Lake mine, McKinley County, New Mexico, is developed in the lower portion of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). The sandstones typically are arkosic to subarkosic, moderately to poorly sorted, medium to coarse grained, subrounded, carbonaceous, and silica cemented. Early emplacement of uranium minerals occurred along geochemical boundaries in a roll-front geometry. In the

  3. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.

    2010-02-01

    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (?34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (?18OH2O = -5.9‰ to 10.9‰, ?D = -102‰ to -87‰) of the ore-forming fluids indicate that the fluids were derived from magmatic sources and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water by limited water-rock exchange and by partly degassing in uplift zones during mineralization. While most features of the Samgwang mine are consistent with classification as an orogenic gold deposit, isotopic and fluid chemistry indicate that the veins were genetically related to intrusions emplaced during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Daebo orogeny.

  4. Sampling Tsunami Deposits

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Starin Fernanda, Geological Survey & Mines Bureau of Sri Lanka, preparing a trench for sampling of tsunami deposit. Leaves on the surface days or weeks after the tsunami and blanket the sand deposited by the tsunami....

  5. Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 ± 27.9 and 376.7 ± 73.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncan’s multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 ± 138.3 and 495.8 ± 115.5 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 ± 45.5 and 24.9 ± 5.6 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 ± 127.2 and 1009.7 ± 263.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Alberta’s bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Alberta’s bogs (~80%).

  6. The lichen transplant methodology in the source apportionment of metal deposition around a copper smelter in the former mining town of Karabash, Russia.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B J; Purvis, O W; Mikhailova, I N; Spiro, B; Udachin, V

    2008-06-01

    The lichen transplant monitoring methodology has been tested for source apportionment of metal deposition around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash. Transplants of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., collected from a 'control' site in July 2001, were set up at 10 stations along a 60 km NE-SW transect centred on Karabash. Samples were collected after 2 and 3 month monitoring periods and analysed using established wet-chemical techniques. The sources of particulate investigated were the smelter blast furnace and converter, floatation tailings, metallurgical slags, local road dusts, top soils and ambient airborne total suspended particulate. From multi-element least-squares modelling the blast furnace was the main source of particulate in transplants close to the smelter (<10 km). Particulate from the converter, with relatively high Pb and Zn, was found to be more widely dispersed, being finer-grained and so having a longer atmospheric residence time. Ambient airborne particulate, sampled in Karabash town using air-pump apparatus, was almost entirely derived from the converter, very different to the lichen transplants from the same area which mainly contained blast furnace particulate. It is proposed that lichens close to the smelter mainly trapped larger blast furnace-derived particulate as they have a low capture efficiency for smaller (converter) particles. The study demonstrates the utility of lichen transplants for monitoring atmospheric deposition and highlights the caution required in their use to assess ambient air quality in human health studies. PMID:17876714

  7. Environmental Studies of Mineral Deposits in Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes environmental geochemical studies of metallic mineral deposits in Alaska, including sulfide, gold, mercury, chromium, and uranium mines and deposits. The studies report metal and acid concentrations in samples collected around such mines and deposits, and evaluate environmental effects of the deposits. An introduction explains geochemical processes, how metals enter environments downstream from mineral deposits, and background geochemical studies. Other articles are: Studies of Mineral Deposits Rich in Heavy Metals; Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Southwestern Alaska; Environmental Geochemistry of Alaskan Gold Deposits; Geochemistry of Surface Waters Draining Alaskan Chromite Deposits; and Radioactivity Concerns of Uranium and Thorium Deposits at Bokan Mountain, Southeastern Alaska.

  8. Mechanism of sulfide mineralization through successive metasomatic replacement stages of zoned host dolomite in Cracow-Silesian Zn-Pb deposits (Mississippi Valley type), Pomorzany Mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, A.; Piestrzy?ski, A.

    1989-01-01

    Replacement of dolomite rhombs is zone selective in Cracow-Silesian Zn-Pb deposits. The discussed replacement of dolomite by sphalerite occurs as spotted sphalerite ore constituting about one-fourth of the economic sulfide mineralization of the Pomorzany Mine. Replacement is controlled by two factors, i.e., microporosity and chemical composition. The epigenetic host dolomite rhombs are zoned into three main zones, i.e., the outer rhombohedral rim which is hard and Fe rich with remarkable Zn content, the inner zone which is porous and Zn rich but usually low in Fe content, and the core of the dolomite rhombs which is Fe free but may contain some Zn. Zones rich in Zn were the first to be replaced by sphalerite; the same holds true for zones with higher microporosity showing a high degree of crystallographic disorder of cations. The other zones seem to be intact. There are four successive replacement stages, i.e., partial, moderate, intense, and advanced. During replacement the intact parts become more Zn-rich, consequently being replaced completely in the later stages, the greater the zinc content in the host dolomite is, the more reactive it is to replacement by sphalerite. The liberated iron from replaced Fe-rich zones is fixed as finely crystalline pyrite.

  9. On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

  10. Using geophysical methods to characterize an abandoned uranium mining site, Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ramalho; J. Carvalho; S. Barbosa; F. A. Monteiro Santos

    2009-01-01

    A major plan for Portugal Mainland is being envisaged to use old open pits from abandoned uranium mining sites as “Waste Containment Deposits”. These areas will store mining waste from other adjacent mines. The old mining sites classification to this kind of usage is carried out accordingly to its location, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions. Mining waste deposition in the

  11. Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spier, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Barros; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2008-02-01

    Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30% < Fe < 64%) hematite ores. Based on their mineralogical composition, three major types of itabirites occur in the QF: siliceous, dolomitic, and amphibolitic itabirite. Unlike other mines in the QF, the Águas Claras Mine contained mainly high-grade ores hosted within dolomitic itabirite. Two distinct types of high-grade ore occurred at the mine: soft and hard. The soft ore was the most abundant and represented more than 85% of the total ore mined until it was mined out in 2002. Soft and hard ores consist essentially of hematite, occurring as martite, anhedral to granular/tabular hematite and, locally, specularite. Gangue minerals are rare, consisting of dolomite, sericite, chlorite, and apatite in the hard and soft ores, and Mn-oxides and ferrihydrite in the soft ore where they are concentrated within porous bands. Chemical analyses show that hard and soft ores consist almost entirely of Fe2O3, with a higher amount of detrimental impurities, especially MnO, in the soft ore. Both hard and soft ores are depleted in trace elements. The high-grade ores at the Águas Claras Mine have at least a dual origin, involving hypogene and supergene processes. The occurrence of the hard, massive high-grade ore within “fresh” dolomitic itabirite is evidence of its hypogene origin. Despite the contention about the origin of the dolomitic itabirite (if this rock is a carbonate-rich facies of the Cauê Formation or a hematite-carbonate precursor of the soft high-grade ore), mineralogical and geochemical features of the soft high-grade ore indicate that it was formed by leaching of dolomite from the dolomitic itabirite by meteoric water. The comparison of the Águas Claras, Capão Xavier and Tamanduá orebodies shows that the original composition of the itabiritic protore plays a major role in the genesis of high- and low-grade soft ores in the QF. Under the same weathering and structural conditions, the dolomitic itabirite is the more favorable to form high-grade deposits than siliceous itabirite. Field relations at the Águas Claras and Capão Xavier deposits suggest that it is not possible to form huge soft high-grade supergene deposits from siliceous itabirite, unless another control, such as impermeable barriers, had played an important role. The occurrence in the Tamanduá Mine of a large, soft, high-grade orebody formed from siliceous itabirite and closely associated with hypogene hard ore suggests that large, soft, high-grade orebodies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which occur within siliceous itabirite, have a hypogene contribution in their formation.

  12. Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF WEATHERING OF MINE ROCK PILES: EXAMPLE FROM THE QUESTA MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia T. McLemore; Lynn Heizler; Kelly Donahue; Nelia Dunbar

    The Questa mine (Chevron Mining Inc. or CMI, formerly Molycorp, Inc.), a porphyry molybdenum deposit in New Mexico, USA, constructed nine mine waste rock piles between 1969 and 1982. The evidence for weathering in the Goathill North (GHN) rock pile includes some combination of: 1) color changes, 2) bulk texture changes, 3) mineralogy changes, 4) mineral texture changes, and 5)

  14. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  15. The application of an improved multi-scale computational modelling techniques to predict fugitive dust dispersion and deposition within and from surface mining operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Lowndes; S. A. Silvester; S. W. Kingman; D. M. Hargreaves

    The extraction and processing of minerals from surface mines and quarries can produce significant fugitive emissions as a result of site activities such as blasting, unpaved road haulage, loading, primary crushing and stockpiling. Uncontrolled fugitive dust emissions can present serious environmental, health, safety and operational issues impacting both site personnel and the wider community. Simulation technology is finding increasing use

  16. Mine Waters and Their Usage in the Upper Silesia in Poland. Examples from Selected Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lidia Razowska-Jaworek; Irena Plut; Anna Chmura

    In the Upper Silesia 162.8 million m3 of mine waters are pumped from the operating and abandoned coal mines, but only 32.4 % of these waters is used. Mine waters are used as a source of drinking water, for sanitations, technological processes and in the hydraulic transport and the deposition of fumitory dusts in the abandoned mine workings. Mine waters

  17. Applied depositional modeling for developing western coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, J.M.; Tifft, R.D. III; Vaninetti, G.E.

    1984-07-01

    Geologic data from Mesaverde Group (Upper Cretaceous) strata in the Rocky Mountain region indicate that two major depositional models can be used to evaluate the geology and mining conditions of many western coal deposits. Continentally deposited strata in the roof and floor of coal seams require closely spaced data points for predicting geologically related mining conditions due to the lenticularity of the component beds. Fluvial sandstones are commonly associated with wants, rolls, water inflows, and thinned coal. Channel-margin strata are notorious for roof control problems. Mudstones deposited in interchannel areas are prone to rapid decomposition with the introduction of water, humidity, and stress release. Marine-deposited strata enclosing coal seams require less closely spaced data points than continentally deposited strata for predicting mining conditions because of the lateral continuity of such strata. Roof and floor strata and mining conditions are characteristically uniform over wide areas except near the termination of strata. Shoreline sandstones form very competent roofs and floors although they are locally associated with reduced seam thicknesses. The immediate association of marine-deposited strata and coal commonly results in higher sulfur values at the contacts of these strata. Where marine and continental strata interfinger, the prediction of mining conditions becomes complex and requires an understanding of the depositional and erosive capabilities of the associated facies.

  18. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold–silver deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

    2010-01-01

    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It\\u000a consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian\\u000a granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized,\\u000a temporally separated by a major

  19. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)---a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

    2010-01-01

    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major

  20. 43 CFR 3833.33 - How may I transfer, sell, or otherwise convey an association placer mining claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...association placer mining claim? 3833.33...OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES...greater number of mining claimants. If you...discovered a valuable mineral deposit before...

  1. Cost estimation handbook for small placer mines

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1974 the Bureau of Mines began a systematic assessment of U.S. mineral supplies under its Minerals Availability Program. To aid in this program, a technique was developed to estimate capital and operating costs associated with various mining methods. Subsequently, it was noted that few provisions were made for estimating the costs of small-scale mining and milling methods typically associated with placer mining. Accordingly, this publication presents a method for estimating capital and operating costs associated with the exploration, mining, and processing of placer deposits.

  2. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  3. Data Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  4. Chapter 3. Volume and Characteristics of Uranium Mine Wastes Uranium has been found and mined in a wide variety of rocks, including sandstone, carbonates1

    E-print Network

    accessible ore deposits became depleted, mining had to be performed at increasing depths by either open-pit, overburden, plus barren or waste rock. The amount of overburden that may be removed during open-pit mining3-1 Chapter 3. Volume and Characteristics of Uranium Mine Wastes Uranium has been found and mined

  5. JPRS report: Science and technology, [March 16, 1992]. Central Eurasia: Engineering and equipment -- Conversion of uranium mining enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-03-16

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on uranium mining in Central Eurasia. Titles include: Round Table: Conversion Problems of Mining Enterprises of the USSR Ministry of Nuclear Engineering and the Nuclear Power Industry; Priugarskiy Mining-Chemical Combine; Eastern Mining-Enrichment Combine; Upgrading Technology for Open-Pit Mining of Uranium Deposits; Housing Construction in the Vicinity of Mining Enterprises and Questions of Radiation Safety; Geotechnologist Mining Engineer; Special Methods of Geotechnological Preparations; and others.

  6. USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

  7. Pollution of Water and Stream Sediments Associated with the Vale De Abrutiga Uranium Mine, Central Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. S. C. Pinto; M. M. V. G. Silva; A. M. R. Neiva

    2004-01-01

    The Vale de Abrutiga uranium deposit, located in Central Portugal near the Aguieira dam reservoir, was surface mined. Low-grade ore and waste rock were deposited on permeable ground, close to the mine, and were not revegetated. A lake has formed in the open pit. Surface waters draining the mine site are acidic, have high conductivity, and high concentrations of U,

  8. VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

  9. Environmental impact of metals derived from mining activities: Processes, predictions, prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Salomons

    1995-01-01

    Mining activities affect relatively small areas but can have a large local impact on the environment. Release of metals from mining sites occurs primarily through acid mine drainage and erosion of waste dumps and tailings deposits. The available methods for predicting acid mine drainage the fate of released metals are briefly reviewed. Results of one case study, a geochemical model

  10. MERCURY IN MINING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury deposits in mines have shown to pose a significant hazard to residents and wildlife where drainage from these deposits enters the ecosystem through streams and rivers. For this reason, the extent of mercury contamination in the United States is of significant environment...

  11. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part IV, source of fluids, from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of fluids responsible for formation of the near-surface silver-base metal vein deposits at Creede was measured by direct analysis of inclusion fluids in sphalerite, quartz, and rhodochrosite and was estimated from analyses of illite and chlorite. The oxygen isotopic composition was determined directly on inclusion fluids in sphalerite and was estimated from analyses of quartz, illite, rhodochrosite, siderite, and adularia. The carbon isotopic composition was estimated from analyses of rhodochrosite and siderite. The ranges in isotopic composition for water and CO2 in the fluids associated with the formation of each of the minerals is given below (number of determinations given in parentheses):Mineral delta D (sub H2) O ppm delta 18 O (sub H2) O ppm delta 13 C (sub CO2) ppmSphalerite -81 to -54 (4) -10.1 to -4.5 (4)Quartz -97 to -86 (4) -5.9 to 1.8 (18)Illite -62 to -50 (8) -1.6 to 1.2(7)Chlorite -64 to -55 (10) -2.2 to 0.8 (10)Adularia 4.2 (1)Rhodochrosite -82 to -78 (2) 4.2 to 9.4 (9) -5.7 to -4.2 (9)Siderite 4.9 to 9.9 (6) -6.9 to -2.7 (6)The delta D (sub H2) O and delta 18 O (sub H2) O values of fluids associated with the formation of sphalerite, quartz, illite/chlorite, and carbonate minerals differ substantially from one another, and these differences appear to have been maintained throughout the depositional history, regardless of the positions of the minerals in the paragenetic sequence.The data suggest that waters from three coexisting reservoirs fed the vein system alternately and episodically during vein formation, and apparently there was little mixing of the fluids from the different reservoirs. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotope data suggest that the carbonate waters were deep seated, probably dominantly magmatic, in origin. The sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters must have been dominantly meteoric in origin and substantially oxygen shifted by exchange with the volcanic country rocks. The quartz waters were also oxygen shifted meteoric waters but were some 40 per mil lower in deuterium content than the sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters.We propose that the quartz fluids entered the vein system from reservoirs beneath the mountainous areas to the north in the vicinity of the present Continental Divide, but that the sphalerite and illite/chlorite fluids entered the vein system from a topographically low area to the south along the structural moat of the Creede caldera. The difference in delta D between the two meteoric waters may reflect differences in altitude of the recharge areas for the two reservoirs or may be clue to isotopic evolution of the closed-basin lake and interstitial waters in the moat surrounding the Creede caldera.

  12. Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Kirkham; W. OLeary; J. W. Warner

    1980-01-01

    Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb\\/yr (227,000 kg\\/yr) of yellowcake also

  13. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  14. MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

  15. Audio Mining

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology.To get an idea of what audio mining is and how it can be used, people can read this article from the Cutter Consortium (1). It lists six broad areas that can benefit from using the technology and briefly discusses each one. A more detailed introduction is offered on the Leavitt Communications Web site (2). This article delves into how audio mining works by giving a basic technical understanding of the process. A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper (3). A publication from the Compaq Cambridge Research Laboratory (4) discusses ways of collecting and analyzing information from an audio file. It also mentions SpeechBot, a Web-based tool for multimedia retrieval. Several papers can be downloaded from the home page of a research project studying the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (5). The repository is comprised of massive historical audio content, and the team at the University of Colorado is investigating phrase recognition to index the data. Have you ever had a tune stuck in your head, but not known the name of the artist or song title? The Musical Audio-Mining project (6) is working on ways to search for information about a song simply by humming part of it. Audio mining can also be used in the War on Terrorism, as is described in this article of Federal Computer Week (7). Massive amounts of recorded phone conversations are intercepted by the government each day, and audio mining would be an efficient way to sort through irrelevant material and catch suspicious activity. The World Wide Web Consortium released this draft of the Voice Extensible Markup Language (8), which could have applications for the audio mining community.

  16. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, David J.

    A proactive stance towards improving the effectiveness and consistency of risk assessments has been adopted recently by mining companies and industry. The next 10-20 years forecasts that ore deposits accessible using shallow mining techniques will diminish. The industry continues to strive for success in "deeper" mining projects in order to keep up with the continuing demand for raw materials. Although the returns are quite profitable, many projects have been sidelined due to high uncertainty and technical risk in the mining of the mineral deposit. Several hardrock mines have faced rockbursting and seismicity problems. Within those reported, mines in countries like South Africa, Australia and Canada have documented cases of severe rockburst conditions attributed to the mining depth. Severe rockburst conditions known as "burst-prone" can be effectively managed with design. Adopting a more robust design can ameliorate the exposure of workers and equipment to adverse conditions and minimize the economic consequences, which can hinder the bottom line of an operation. This thesis presents a methodology created for assessing the design risk in burst-prone mines. The methodology includes an evaluation of relative risk ratings for scenarios with options of risk reduction through several design principles. With rockbursts being a hazard of seismic events, the methodology is based on research in the area of mining seismicity factoring in rockmass failure mechanisms, which results from a combination of mining induced stress, geological structures, rockmass properties and mining influences. The methodology was applied to case studies at Craig Mine of Xstrata Nickel in Sudbury, Ontario, which is known to contain seismically active fault zones. A customized risk assessment was created and applied to rockburst case studies, evaluating the seismic vulnerability and consequence for each case. Application of the methodology to Craig Mine demonstrates that changes in the design can reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

  17. Mining and the national park system

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Mining in the Parks Act of 1976 closes National Park Service lands to new mineral claims and requires strict monitoring of mineral extraction to preserve them in their natural condition. The number of valid claims has diminished each year as a result, and production is concentrated in areas where the value of deposits warrants mining. Recent political trends emphasizing economic and mineral needs over long-term environmental goals, however, are disturbing. It remains for a diligent public to ensure that the rights in the Mining in the Parks Act do not abuse the environment because of administrative efforts to undercut its enforcement. 62 references.

  18. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, C.F.

    1981-11-03

    A mining machine is disclosed in which a cutting drum undercuts a vein of coal and side relief cutters make vertical kerfs in the vein upwardly from the undercut. A chisel plate is forced into the coal vein and breaks loose the material above the undercut and between the side relief cuts. The coal falls into conveyors and is loaded into mine shuttle cars for removal from the mine. The side relief cutters and chisel assembly are progressively raised to extract higher levels of coal from the vein until the desired roof height has been reached. The tramming track assembly, which propels the machine, may be rotated 90/sup 0/ to permit extraction from the vein immediately adjacent the initial extraction. All power supplied near the working face of the vein is hydraulic to minimize the risk of fire or explosion, and a water spray system minimizes dust circulation. Hydraulic roof and floor jacks are provided to increase the stability of the mining machine when exceptionally hard material is encountered in the coal vein.

  19. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  20. Underground mining methods handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hustrulid, W.A. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Sections discuss: mine design considerations; stopes requiring minimum support (includes room-and-pillar mining and sublevel stoping); stopes requiring some additional support other than pillars (includes shrinkage stoping, cut-and-fill stoping, undercut-and-fill mining, timber-supported system, top-slice mining, longwall mining and shortwall mining); caving methods (sublevel and block caving); underground equipment; financial considerations; design; and mine ventilation.

  1. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National Agency for Mineral Resources (NAMR) manages, on behalf of the state, the mineral resources. Waste management framework Nowadays, Romania, is trying to align its regulation concerning mining activity to the European legislation taking into consideration waste management and their impact on the environment. Therefore the European Waste Catalog (Commission Decision 2001/118/EC) has been updated and published in the form of HG 856/2002 Waste management inventory and approved wastes list, including dangerous wastes. The HG 349/2005 establishes the legal framework for waste storage activity as well as for the monitoring of the closing and post-closing existing deposits, taking into account the environment protection and the health of the general population. Based on Directive 2000/60/EC the Ministry of Waters Administration, Forests and Environment Protection from Romania issued the GO No 756/1997 (amended by GO 532/2002 and GO 1144/2002),"Regulations for environment pollution assessment" that contains alarm and intervention rates for soil pollution for contaminants such as metals, metalloids (Sb, Ag, As, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, TI, V, Zn) and cyanides. Also GO No 756/1997 was amended and updated by Law No 310/2004 and 112/2006 in witch technical instructions concerning general framework for the use of water sources in the human activities including mining industry, are approved. Chemical compounds contained in industrial waters are fully regulated by H. G. 352/2005 concerning the contents of waste water discharged. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC is transposed into the national law of the Romanian Government under Decision No 856/2008. The 856/2008 Decision on the management of waste from extractive industries establishes "the legal framework concerning the guidelines, measures and procedures to prevent or reduce as far as possible any adverse effects on the environment, in particular water, air, soi

  2. Environmental impacts of mining of Ni-Mo black shale-hosted deposits in the Zunyi region, southern China: Preliminary results of the study of toxic metals in the system rock-soil-plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taiji Luo

    2003-01-01

    TheZunyi region in Guizhou province (southern China) is well known by the occurrences of Mo-Ni-polyelement black shales that are locally mined and processed for Mo. The preliminary results of our environmentally oriented study covering the vicinity of the Xiao-Zhu mine, Jiepo-Ling and Tuan Shan Bao Mo-Ni prospects can be summarized as follows: (1) The studied surface soil samples from all

  3. Acid In Situ Leach Uranium Mining : 1 - USA and Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin M. Mudd

    The technique of In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. The history and problems of acid ISL sites

  4. BENTONITE MINE SPOIL REVEGETATION AND LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abandoned bentonite mine spoils are prehaps the most difficult material to successfully rehabilitate because of the nature of the spoil and the climate of the region where bentonite is mined. The major U.S. deposits of bentonite are in the tri-state region of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming, an a...

  5. Effect of acid mine drainage on a karst basin: a case study on the high-As coal mining area in Guizhou province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuzhen TaoPan; Pan Wu; Changyuan Tang; Hong Liu; Jing Sun

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common pollution in mining areas due to the oxidation of pyrite and associated sulfide minerals\\u000a at mines, tailings and mine dumps. Elevated metals (Fe, Mn, Al) and metalloids (As, Hg) in AMD would deteriorate the local aquatic\\u000a environment and influence the water supply. A carbonate basin with deposits of high-arsenic coal in Xingren County,

  6. The Mechanization of Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

  7. Mine mapping and layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Chapters cover: cartographic techniques used in mine map production; fundamentals of mine surveying; standard drafting room practice and guidelines on mine map symbolization and production; methods of achieving functional performance, safety and reliability in mine layout; layout techniques; and ventilation, haulage, water control and electrical power systems layouts. An appendix gives mine mapping symbols. An index is provided.

  8. HYPERSPECTRAL SENSING OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE - TWO COLORADO CASE STUDIES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phoebe L. Hauff; Douglas C. Peters; David W. Coulter; Matthew A. Sares; David A. Bird; Frederick B. Henderson; Eric C. Prosh

    The upper Arkansas River basin of central Colorado contains watersheds that are affected by acid rock drainage (ARD) from both natural and mining induced sources, including the Leadville mining district. Hyperspectral, high-resolution remote sensing technology is being used to characterize and map the source mineralogy of ARD, changes in downstream water quality, and the fluvial deposition of mine tailings downstream.

  9. Environmental Impact of Drainage from Abandoned Mercury Mines in Tributaries of Caudal River (Northern Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Loredo; Jesús López; Verónica Silva; Almudena Ordóñez; Rodrigo Alvarez; Raquel Larios; Isabel Rucandio

    In Asturias (Northern Spain) mercury mines have been operated from pre-roman times. As a consequence of the international mercury crisis in the 1970's, all mines were abandoned without remediation works. The potential environmental impact of the abandoned mine sites is enhanced by the presence of specific and non specific arsenic minerals in the ore deposits together with the targeted mercury

  10. Mercury Contamination and Biogeochemical Cycling Associated with the Historic Idrija Mining Area of Slovenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hines; J. J. Bonzongo; T. Barkay; M. Horvat; J. Faganeli

    2001-01-01

    The Idrija Mine is the second largest Hg mine in the world, which operated for 500 years before recently closing. More than five million tons of ore were mined with only 73% recovered. Hg-laden tailings still line the banks. Exhausts from stacks and mineshafts caused elevated levels of airborne Hg, most of which was deposited in the Idrija basin leading

  11. OPEN-CUT MINING OF URANIUM ORE IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Baker; R. H. Toole; F. A. Bemis; D. R. Hill; R. A. Lindblom

    1958-01-01

    Cost of mining by open pit in influenced by many factors such as type of ; deposit, amount and type of overburden, and scale of operations, and may range ; from 80 to .00 per ton of ore. By comparison, the cost range for ; underground mining is between 25 and .00. Other advantages of open-pit ; mining are lower

  12. Enhanced mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings by humic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic and heavy metal mobilization from mine tailings is an issue of concern as it might pose potential groundwater or ecological risks. Increasing attention recently has been focused on the effects of natural organic matter on the mobility behavior of the toxicants in the environment. Column experiments were carried out in this research study to evaluate the feasibility of using humic acid (HA) to mobilize arsenic and heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Pb and Zn) from an oxidized Pb-Zn mine tailings sample collected from Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. Capillary electrophoresis analyses indicated that arsenate [As(V)] was the only extractable arsenic species in the mine tailings and the addition of HA at pH 11 did not incur the oxidation-reduction or methylation reactions of arsenic. A 0.1% HA solution with an initial pH adjusted to 11 was selected as the flushing solution, while distilled water (initial pH adjusted to 11) was used as the control to account for the mobilization of arsenic and the heavy metals by physical mixing and the effect of pH. It was found that the HA could significantly enhance the mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals simultaneously from the mine tailings. After a 70-pore-volume-flushing, the mobilization of arsenic, copper, lead and zinc reached 97, 35, 838 and 224 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mobilization of arsenic and the heavy metals was found to be positively correlated with the mobilization of Fe in the presence of the HA. Moreover, the mobilization of arsenic was also correlated well with that of the heavy metals. The mobilization of co-existing metals to some extent might enhance arsenic mobilization in the presence of the HA by helping incorporate it into soluble aqueous organic complexes through metal-bridging mechanisms. Use of HA in arsenic and heavy metal remediation may be developed as an environmentally benign and possible effective remedial option to reduce and avoid further contamination. PMID:18977015

  13. Mine drainage water from the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman, IR Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shahabpour; M. Doorandish

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on stream and mine waters in the area of one of the world largest porphyry copper\\u000a deposit located in the southeastern Iran, the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Trace metals are present as adsorption on\\u000a Fe and Mn oxide and hydroxide particles, as sulfate, simple metal ions, and scarcely as adsorption on

  14. Resedimented salt deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  15. Getty mines oil sands in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rintoul

    1983-01-01

    A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields,

  16. Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

  17. Electrophoretic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, David

    Electrophoresis is the migration under the influence of an electric field of charged particles held in a dispersion. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is then the deposition of these migrating particles onto a deposition electrode or porous membrane [1]. At a deposition electrode the charge on the particles is neutralized by the current flowing through the conducting electrode, while in a porous membrane it is the electrolyte in the part of the cell that is separated by the membrane from the dispersion that carries the neutralizing current. The two geometries are shown schematically in Fig.5.1. Deposition membranes are formed from a microporous non-conductor, while deposition electrodes have to have sufficient conductivity to carry the deposition current. In either case, the deposit closely follows the surface topology of the deposition electrode or membrane, and quite complex shapes have been produced which may either be detached from the substrate, as a freestanding component, or form an adherent surface coating.

  18. Radioactive wastes from uranium mining enterprises and their environmental effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Mosinets

    1991-01-01

    content in the ore and the activity of the geochemical processes occurring in the deposit prior to mining, particularly natural leaching resulting from the shift in the equilibrium of uranium with regard to its decay products [i]. The level of radioactivity of the wastes from the exploitation of known uranium deposits is usually low, especially if it is compared with

  19. Evaluating role mining algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Molloy; Ninghui Li; Tiancheng Li; Ziqing Mao; Qihua Wang; Jorge Lobo

    2009-01-01

    While many role mining algorithms have been proposed in recent years, there lacks a comprehensive study to compare these algorithms. These role mining algorithms have been evaluated when they were proposed, but the evaluations were using dierent datasets and evaluation criteria. In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive framework for eval- uating role mining algorithms. We categorize role mining algorithms

  20. Atmospheric Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen C. Weathers; Alexandra G. Ponette-González

    \\u000a Atmospheric deposition plays a key role in the biogeochemistry of temperate, tropical, and boreal forests. Many essential\\u000a macro- and micronutrients as well as pollutants are delivered from the atmosphere to forest ecosystems: (1) dissolved in rain\\u000a and snow (wet deposition); (2) directly as particles and gases (dry deposition); and (3) dissolved in cloud droplets (cloud,\\u000a occult, or fog deposition, hereafter

  1. The influence of radionuclides released by Silesian coal mine activity on the natural environment in the Upper Vistula basin (Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. POCIASK-KARTE CZKA; M. JASINSKA; J. W. MIETELSKI

    Increasing human radiation exposure associated with hard coal mining activity is one of the most serious problem in the Silesia region (in the Upper Vistula basin) of Poland. The high radioactivity of coal, and waters circulating in geological strata and deposits are the main sources of radiation in mines and in the natural environment where mine waters are pumped in

  2. Study of the rock mass stressed state in the ‘centralnaya’ mine of the don ore-dressing combine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Skripchenko; Yu. P. Shupletsov

    1993-01-01

    An increase in the capacity of underground ore mining in mines of the Don Ore-Dressing combine will be accomplished in the near future as a result of exploring and introducing effective technology which takes account of the complex mining and geological conditions of the deposit. The comprehensive program of scientific research work on underground subjects includes a separate stage of

  3. Acid Mine Drainage: the case of the Lafayette mine, Rapu Rapu (Philippines)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Cotter; Kevin Brigden

    2006-01-01

    Summary Acid streams resulting from mining activities from certain types of mineral deposits such as those at Rapu Rapu in the Philippines are highly toxic to the aquatic environment. The extreme acidity is harmful to most aquatic life and, even after neutralisation, the precipitate formed continues to affect aquatic organisms. Toxic elements, such as copper, cadmium and zinc are often

  4. Release of toxic elements from rocks and mine wastes at the Furtei gold mine (Sardinia, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Da Pelo; Elodia Musu; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau; Pierfranco Lattanzi

    2009-01-01

    The Furtei gold mine in Sardinia (Italy) exploits a volcanic-hosted high-sulphidation epithermal deposit. Large amounts of materials derived from exploitation are present in open pits, waste rock dumps and cyanidation tailings impoundment. Mineralized rocks in outcrops and waste dumps contain significant amounts of sulphides (mainly pyrite and enargite). These materials have a high potential for acid drainage generation and release

  5. Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The USGS has recently released the report Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The 95-page open file report is an inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in the country that resources that include metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. The data was compiled from published literature and digital files of the members of the National Industrial Minerals project, and are presented in tables that list mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields. This site is also reviewed in the May 3, 2002 Scout Report.

  6. Geochemistry of leachates from selected coal mining and combustion wastes. Project completion report, July 1977September 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Kopsick; E. E. Angino

    1981-01-01

    During the mining of coal, large amounts of inorganic material (gob) are removed with the coal. After cleaning of the coal, this waste is deposited adjacent to the mined area. One of these gob piles, located in Barton County, Missouri, is evaluated as to chemical composition of the waste, leaching characteristics of the waste and mineralogy of secondary minerals deposited

  7. Floodplain storage of mine tailings in the Belle Fourche river system: a sediment budget approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marron, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated mine tailings that were discharged into Whitewood Creek at Lead, South Dakota, from 1876 to 1978, were deposited along the floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. The resulting arsenic-contaminated floodplain deposit consists mostly of overbank sediments and filled abandoned meanders along Whitewood Creek, and overbank and point-bar sediments along the Belle Fourche River. Arsenic concentrations of the contaminated sediments indicate the degree of dilution of mine tailings by uncontaminated alluvium. About 13% of the 110 ?? 106 Mg of mine tailings that were discharged at Lead were deposited along the Whitewood Creek floodplain. -from Author

  8. Environmental impact of mining waste disposal on a tropical lowland river system: a case study on the Ok Tedi Mine, Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hettler; G. Irion; B. Lehmann

    1997-01-01

    The 1000 km long Ok Tedi\\/Fly River system receives about 66 Mt\\/year of mining waste from the Ok Tedi copper-gold porphyry\\u000a mine. Mine input has increased the suspended sediment load of the Middle Fly River about 5–10 times over the natural background.\\u000a A significant yet unknown amount of copper-rich material deposits unevenly in the extensive tropical lowland floodplain. Recent\\u000a alluvial

  9. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

  10. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  11. Integrated Mine Evaluation — Implications for Mine Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G D Nicholas; S J Coward; M Armstrong; A Galli

    2006-01-01

    Mine management is often expected to make rapid evaluation decisions at different stages of projects based on limited and uncertain data. The challenge is exacerbated by having to distil technical complexity into a financial model that is usually designed to produce only one or two key indicators, eg net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR). Mining is a

  12. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  13. of Mining & Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    element of safety in any mine, whether it is surface or underground, is the stability of the rockDepartment of Mining & Geological Engineering www.mge.arizona.edu EXPAND Tel: 520.621.6063 Fax: 520.621.8330 Engr-mining@email.arizona.edu ONLINE GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM 15 UNITS YOUR CAREER GEOMECHANICS #12

  14. of Mining & Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    .621.8330 Engr-mining@email.arizona.edu ONLINE GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM 15 UNITS YOUR CAREER HEALTH & SAFETY 526 Mine Health and Safety (1 unit) CPH 553 Toxicology and Chemical Exposures (3 units) ELECTIVE trained health and safety professionals in high-risk industries. In the mining industry alone

  15. Coal Mine Noise Standard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH A. LAMONICA

    1972-01-01

    Various aspects of implementing the noise standards in the coal mining industry are discussed. These aspects include a history of the noise regulations, training of mining industry and Bureau of Mines enforcement personnel, requirements of the industry and the Bureau, and the treatment of violations. Those areas that are particularly troublesome and the research they have generated are presented in

  16. DATA MINING LANGUAGES STANDARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasile BODEA; Cetin ELMAS

    2009-01-01

    The increasing of the database dimension creates many problems, especially when we need to access, use and analyze data. The data overflow phenomenon in database environments imposes the application of different data mining methods, in order to find relevant information from large databases. A lot of data mining tools emerged in the last years. The standardization of data mining languages

  17. Reclamation at Anaconda's open pit uranium mine, new mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Reynolds; M. J. Cwik; N. E. Kelley

    1978-01-01

    Nearly 22 years of open pit uranium mining in the semi-arid grasslands of northwestern New Mexico resulted in 1052 ha of surface disturbance before mining ceased in 1978. A reclamation program to rehabilitate this surface disturbance includes overburden analysis, separation and selective deposition, and physical-vegetational stabilization procedures. Initial short-term revegetation pilot projects indicate that certain types of overburden can support

  18. Amyloid deposits

    PubMed Central

    Treusch, Sebastian; Cyr, Douglas M.; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases ranging from Alzheimer disease and polyglutamine diseases to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with the aggregation and accumulation of misfolded proteins. In several cases the intracellular and extracellular protein deposits contain a fibrillar protein species called amyloid. However while amyloid deposits are hallmarks of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, their actual role in disease progression remains unclear. Especially perplexing is the often poor correlation between these deposits and other markers of neurodegeneration. As a result the question remains whether amyloid deposits are the disease-causing species, the consequence of cellular disease pathology or even the result of a protective cellular response to misfolded protein species. Here we highlight studies that suggest that accumulation and sequestration of misfolded protein in amyloid inclusion bodies and plaques can serve a protective function. Furthermore, we discuss how exceeding the cellular capacity for protective deposition of misfolded proteins may contribute to the formation of toxic protein species. PMID:19411847

  19. Metagenomic mining for microbiologists.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

  20. [Cu-hyperaccumulators in mining area].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Shi, Weiyong; Yang, Xiaoe; Fu, Chengxin; Chen, Weiguang

    2002-07-01

    Plant species distributing in three Cu-mining area were investigated, and Cu concentrations in soils and plants were analyzed. The results showed that Cu ore deposit mostly was distributed at the altitude of about 630 m. Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were distributed only on the Cu ore deposit or the place with high Cu concentration, and the maximum Cu concentrations in these two plants were 1060 mg.kg-1 DW and 1006 mg.kg-1 DW, which reached the critical of hyperaccumulator. Cu accumulations in Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were positively and closely correlated with Cu concentration in soil. PMID:12385229

  1. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    PubMed

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

  2. An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J.M.; Ferreira, R.F.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  4. Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 1. USA and Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin M. Mudd

    2001-01-01

    The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulfuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. Test sites in the USA were required to

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE URANIUM MINING ACTIVITY IN THE BIHOR DISTRICT (BUCHAREST, ROMANIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Aurelian; Dan Petre Georgescu; Mihai Popescu; Margareta Stela Florescu

    The development of the uranium mining industry in Romania started in 1950. The exploitation of Bihor region, one of the most important metallogenic zones of the country, began in 1962. Uranium exploitation activities were ceased in 1995 due to the exhaustion of the ore deposits. Between 2001 and 2002, due to the entire mining zone closure, ecological rehabilitation and decommissioning

  6. Acid In Situ Leach Uranium Mining : 2 - Soviet Block and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin M. Mudd

    The technique of In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. The history and problems of acid ISL sites

  7. Riparian shrub metal concentrations and growth in amended fluvial mine tailings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluvial mine tailing deposition has caused extensive riparian damage throughout the western United States. Willows are often used for fluvial mine tailing revegetation, but some species accumulate excessive metal concentrations which could be detrimental to browsers. In a greenhouse experiment, gr...

  8. Ground Water Control Techniques for Safe Exploitation of the Neyveli Lignite Deposit, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Anandan; S. N. Sahay; T. K. Ramabadran; S. Shiv Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Dewatering in deep opencast mines generally focuses on extraction of seepage water from the phreatic zones above the ore\\/mineral\\u000a deposits and storm water that collects in mine pits. But at the Neyveli lignite deposit in the Cuddalore District, there was\\u000a a danger of the mine floor bursting due to the hydrostatic head pressures in the underlying thick confined aquifers, a

  9. Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included rocks of the Wood River assemblage. We suggest that elevated HFSE and REE trace-element contents of metavolcanic rocks, whose major-element composition may have been altered, are an important prospecting tool for rocks of VMS deposit potential in east-central Alaska.

  10. Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geosciences Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA; Hammack, R.W.

    2006-12-28

    Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive amounts of cultural electromagnetic noise that obscured the subtle mine pool anomalies. However, post-survey modeling suggested that thicker, more conductive mine pools might be detected at a more suitable location. The current study sought to identify the best time domain electromagnetic sensor for detecting mine pools and to test it in an area where the mine pools are thicker and more conductive that those in southwestern Virginia. After a careful comparison of all airborne time domain electromagnetic sensors (including both helicopter and fixed-wing systems), the SkyTEM system from Denmark was determined to be the best technology for this application. Whereas most airborne time domain electromagnetic systems were developed to find large, deep, highly conductive mineral deposits, the SkyTEM system is designed for groundwater exploration studies, an application similar to mine pool detection.

  11. Mine Inspection Data Analysis System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winthrop F. Watts Jr; Douglas R. Parker

    1995-01-01

    In 1980, the U.S. Bureau of Mines developed the Mine Inspection Data Analysis System. It is a computerized industrial hygiene database capable of statistically analyzing Mine Safety and Health Administration compliance data collected in coal and noncoal mines and mills. Data are collected by inspectors and mine operators, and are provided to the Bureau annually on magnetic tape. The Bureau

  12. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

    E-print Network

    Novak, Petra Kralj

    Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Part of Jozef Stefan IPS Programme - ICT3 and UL Programme. Introduction Data Mining in a Nutshell Predictive and descriptive DM techniques Data Mining and KDD process Technologies I. Introduction: First generation data mining Data Mining in a nutshell Predictive

  13. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Moore; David J. Sutherland

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake.

  14. COMPARISON OF DATA FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE AND DIRECT SAMPLING OF ACID DRAINAGE FROM MINE WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY TRANSPORT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and progressed to shaft, then open pit techniques to obtain mercury. Mining has resulted in deposition of approximately ...

  15. Geology of the Golden Zone mine area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, C.C.; Clark, Allen L.; Benfer, J. Alan

    1968-01-01

    The Golden Zone mine area, in the upper Chulitna district, is underlain mainly by siltstone and tuff, volcanic conglomerate and breccia, and limestone. These rocks were invaded, probably in the Tertiary, by dikes and a small stock of porphyry. The ore deposits of the area are the Golden Zone breccia pipe, a nearly vertical body about in the center of the porphyry stock, and steeply dipping veins. Most veins strike north to northeast and are commonly only 1-5 feet thick, but locally are as much as 15 feet thick. Both pipe and vein deposits are gold deposits of low to moderate grade that are characterized by abundant arsenopyrite; some contain possibly economic amounts of copper, lead and zinc minerals. Of the deposits of the mine area, only the Golden Zone has been explored to any extent, and both it and some of. the veins deserve further exploration to determine their potential.

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  17. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  18. The Lifecycle of a Mineral Deposit: A Teache's Guide for Hands-On Mineral Education Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide provides an introduction to the process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering it, and reclaiming the mined area (sometimes called 'beneficiation' or 'life cycle'). Topics include what a mineral deposit is; how they are identified and measured, how the minerals are extracted; and how the mining site is reclaimed. There is also discussion of how minerals and mineral resources are processed and how they are used in everyday life. The guide includes ten activities that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals.

  19. Speleothems and pine trees as sensitive indicators of environmental pollution – A case study of the effect of uranium-ore mining in Hungary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltan Siklosy; Zoltan Kern; Attila Demeny; Sebastian Pilet; Szabolcs Leel-Ossy; Ke Lin; Chuan-Chou Shen; Eva Szeles; Daniel Breitner

    2011-01-01

    Four decades of U ore production in Hungary provides an opportunity to study the possible environmental effects of mining. The study reveals significant changes in chemical composition of a stalagmite (cave deposit). The good fit between U content changes in the studied deposit and the U ore production rate support the assumption of the relationship with mining activity. An independent

  20. Bibliography Antoine Mine

    E-print Network

    Miné, Antoine

    CousotEtAl-LNCS-v2566-p85-108-2002.pdf. [BCC+ 03] B. Blanchet, P. Cousot, R. Cousot, J. Feret, L. Mauborgne, A. Min´e, D 2003. http://www.di.ens.fr/~mine/ publi/pldi045-blanchet.pdf. [BCC+ 09] O. Bouissou, E. Conquet, P 2009. http://www.di.ens.fr/~mine/publi/ article-bouissou-al-dasia09.pdf. [BCC+ 10] J. Bertrane, P

  1. Cycles in mining seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcak, Henryk

    2013-07-01

    Stochastic models of self-organized criticality and intermittent criticality are used to describe the structure of seismic catalogs. The intermittent models introduce three phases of the seismic cycle: increase in seismic energy, seismic relaxation, and seismic quiescence after the final relaxation. In this paper, seismic mining catalogs from a deep copper mine are searched to find these three phases of the seismic cycle. In spite of the differences between the seismic records from earthquakes and the building of stresses in the mine, the cycles can be estimated in mining seismicity.

  2. Annual report on mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This is the 1980 annual report on mining activities. The report includes information on anthracite and bituminous coal mining activities, pits and quarries within the Commonwealth. The report includes mining production, fatalities, accidents, employees for both coal types. (DP)

  3. Coal and coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.

    1980-06-01

    The subjects of formation of mine drainage, mine drainage treatment, abatement and control of mine drainage, coal cleaning, and coal transportation and storage are discussed in this literature review. (DAD)

  4. Coal and coal mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olem

    1980-01-01

    The subjects of formation of mine drainage, mine drainage treatment, abatement and control of mine drainage, coal cleaning, and coal transportation and storage are discussed in this literature review. (DAD)

  5. Deposition Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

  6. SPECIAL MINING MANAGEMENT ZONE - CLEAR CREEK, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Esparza, Leon E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys, a substantiated resource potential for sediment-hosted cobalt-copper-gold-silver deposits has been identified in the Elkhorn and upper Garden Creek areas of the Special Mining Management Zone - Clear Creek, Idaho. Areas of favorable host rock, but with less strong evidence of mineralization, were classified as having probable resource potential for the same kind of deposit. A probable resource potential for porphyry-type copper-molybdenum deposits is assigned to areas along Clear Creek and upper Squaw Gulch based on the presence of extensive stockwork fracturing and alteration of the nonporphyritic granite, introduced disseminated magnetite, and the close proximity of known Tertiary plutons. The nature of the geologic terrain makes the occurrence of organic fuels on geothermal resources extremely unlikely.

  7. PURIFICATION OF WATERS DISCHARGED FROM POLISH LIGNITE MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exploitation of lignite deposits is linked with the necessity of lowering the groundwater table and dewatering the mine of precipitation. A large percentage of the discharge waters requires purification prior to delivery of receiving streams. The chief pollutants of these wat...

  8. Mining Chains of Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foto N. Afrati; Gautam Das; Aristides Gionis; Heikki Mannila; Taneli Mielikäinen; Panayiotis Tsaparas

    2005-01-01

    Traditional data mining applications consider the prob- lem of mining a single relation between two attributes. For example, in a scientific bibliography database, authors are related to papers, and we may be interested in discovering association rules between authors. However, in real life, we often have multiple attributes related thoughchains of relations. For example, authors write papers, and papers concern

  9. Biotreatment of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.; Phillips, R. [Microbial Aquatic Treatment Systems, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several experiments and field tests of microbial mats are described. One study determined the removal rate of Uranium 238 and metals from groundwater by microbial mats. Free floating mats, immobilized mats, excised mats, and pond treatment were examined. Field tests of acid coal mine drainage and precious metal mine drainage are also summarized. The mechanisms of metal removal are briefly described.

  10. Data Mining Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arati Kadav; Jaya Kawale; Pabitra Mitra

    In this survey paper we have consolidated all the current data mining standards. We have categorized them in to process standards, XML standards, standard APIs, web standards and grid standards and discussed them in considerable detail. We have also designed an application using these standards. We later also analyze the standards their influence on data mining application development and later

  11. Mining with Rare Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Weiss

    2005-01-01

    Rare cases are often the most interesting cases. For example, in medical diagnosis one is typically interested in identifying relatively rare diseases, such as cancer, rather than more frequently occurring ones, such as the common cold. In this chapter we discuss the role of rare cases in data mining. Specific problems associated with mining rare cases are discussed, followed by

  12. Pitfalls in Aspect Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Mens; Andy Kellens; Jens Krinke

    2008-01-01

    The research domain of aspect mining studies the prob- lem of (semi-)automatically identifying potential aspects and crosscutting concerns in a software system, to improve the system's comprehensibility or enable its migration to an aspect-oriented solution. Unfortunately, most proposed as- pect mining techniques have not lived up to their expecta- tions yet. In this paper we provide a list of problems

  13. Acid Mine Drainage Remediation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-10

    In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

  14. Mining Glossary and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  15. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

  16. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  17. Unexpected Consequences: Gold Mining in Peru and Trace Metal Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; Pinedo-Gonzalez, P.; Clark, K. E.; West, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal miners in the Peruvian Amazon, especially in the Madre de Dios region, are targeting fluvial deposits along riverbanks as part of a modern-day gold rush. These miners often use mercury, causing Hg pollution and ecological damage. Research on the environmental consequences of these mines has focused primarily on the fate of Hg, and to date little work has considered whether mining river sediments affects the release and cycling of other trace metals. This project measures trace metal concentrations in soil and vegetation samples developed on fluvial sediments at one mine site and two non-mine (control) sites across gradients in natural plant succession and riverbank composition. Some metals, including Pb and Mo, showed leachable metal concentrations (determined using EPA Method 2050B and ICP-MS analysis) that were lower in mine site soils than control site soils, but higher in mine site vegetation than control site vegetation. These results held across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. This suggests that metals may be preferentially mobilized from the soil and taken up by surrounding vegetation as a result of mining activities. Soils were also treated with a sequential leach to separate metals that are exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe and Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and in the residual phase. Initial data shows that trace metal concentrations are generally lower in all phases from mine soils vs. control soils, across all gradients in natural plant succession and soil composition. Trace metal mobilization due to mining is facilitated by changing pH or redox conditions - e.g., by exposing buried minerals to water and oxygen. Fluvial sediments at these studied sites were already exposed during their erosion and transport, but anoxic conditions following deposition may allow a build-up of metals that are mobilized once sediments are re-worked by mining. It is also possible that Hg affects the mobility of other metals, like through almagation and/or changing acidity, since Hg acts as a Bronsted-Lowry acid when speciated in water. The results of this study indicate that Hg-intensive fluvial gold mining may facilitate trace metal pollution and hopes to inspire further research into the mechanisms and consequences behind illegal gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon.

  18. Brackish water in unsaturated confining beds at a Texas lignite mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Deposits of low permeability are hydrologic barriers between reclaimed land and juxtaposed aquifers and should limit the impact of mining on ground-water quality. Claystone and mudstone in argillaceous facies of the Calvert Bluff Formation (lower Eocene, Wilcox Group) function as confining beds in the East Texas Basin. In the subsurface and at the outcrop, water in argillaceous deposits is brackish

  19. Water contamination downstream from a copper mine in the Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Milu; J. L. Leroy; C. Peiffert

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on stream and mine waters in the area of the largest porphyry copper deposit in the Apuseni Mountains (western Romania), the Rosia Poieni ore deposit. The research was focused on two aspects of environmental impact: (1) evaluation of the release of toxic elements into the environment through studying the mineralogical and chemical

  20. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

  1. Feasibility study of marine CSEM survey for exploration of submarine massive sulphides deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Goto; N. Tada; J. Takekawa; H. Mikada

    2009-01-01

    The recent growth of world-wide requirement of metals demands advanced explorations for finding metal mine and deposits. Especially, the submarine massive sulphides (SMS) have attracted mining companies because of its compactness with high grades. However, few exploration techniques were developed to evaluate the thickness of SMS and to find the buried SMS. Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey can give us

  2. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

    E-print Network

    Novak, Petra Kralj

    Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Part of Jozef Stefan IPS "ICT" Programme and "Statistics. Introduction " Data Mining in a Nutshell " Predictive and descriptive DM techniques " Data Mining and KDD (Kononenko Ch. 12.3) " V. Relational Data Mining " RDM and Inductive Logic Programming (Dzeroski & Lavrac Ch

  3. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  4. Bibliography Antoine Mine

    E-print Network

    Miné, Antoine

    /BlanchetCousotEtAl-LNCS-v2566-p85-108-2002.pdf. [BCC+ 03] B. Blanchet, P. Cousot, R. Cousot, J. Feret, L. Mauborgne, A. Min´e, D://www.di.ens.fr/~mine/ publi/pldi045-blanchet.pdf. [BCC+ 09] O. Bouissou, ´E. Conquet, P. Cousot, R. Cousot, J. Feret, K://www.di.ens.fr/~mine/publi/ article-bouissou-al-dasia09.pdf. [BCC+ 10a] J. Bertrane, P. Cousot, R. Cousot, J. Feret, L. Mauborgne, A

  5. Facies architecture of the upper Calvert Bluff Formation exposed in the highwall of Big Brown Mine, Fairfield, Texas

    E-print Network

    Sturdy, Michael Dale

    2006-10-30

    of Big Brown Mine, near Fairfield, Texas. Observed bedding and facies architecture are interpreted in terms of temporal changes, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphic setting. A three dimensional grid of 89 subsurface logs is correlated...

  6. Sulphide-mining impacts in the physical environment: Sierra de Cartagena–La Unión (SE Spain) case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Robles-Arenas; R. Rodríguez; C. García; J. I. Manteca; L. Candela

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact and potential-risk assessment of an abandoned sulphide-mining site in a semiarid climate is presented here, by the study case of Sierra de Cartagena–La Unión (SE Spain), a 2,500-year-old mining district extending over an area of 100 km2. The regional map illustrates the existence of 12 open-pits, 1,902 mining wells, 2,351 waste deposits, including 89 tailing dams and waste

  7. Environmental geochemistry and mineralogy of lead at the old mine area of Baccu Locci (south-east Sardinia, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Frau; Carla Ardau; Luca Fanfani

    2009-01-01

    About a century of exploitation of the galena-arsenopyrite deposit of Baccu Locci in Sardinia (Italy) has caused a severe, persistent arsenic contamination that extends downstream from the mine for several kilometres. Differently from As, the contamination of lead in surface waters is only localised in the upper part of the mine despite very high Pb concentrations in geologic materials (waste

  8. Mercury Benthic Flux: A Comparison Between 3 Mining-Impacted Water Bodies in the Western United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Topping; J. S. Kuwabara; M. C. Marvin-Dipasquale; J. L. Agee; L. H. Kieu; J. R. Flanders; F. Parchaso

    2004-01-01

    The legacy of mining in the Western United States has left an indelible environmental imprint on terrestrial and aquatic systems. On both sides of the Sierra Nevada mountain range (Sierras), mercury was used copiously in the amalgamation of gold and silver. Mercury deposits in close proximity to San Francisco Bay (e.g., the New Almaden mining district) provided much of the

  9. Coal deposits of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Nelson W.

    1987-01-01

    The coal fields of the Unites States can be divided into six major provinces. The Appalachian and Interior Provinces contain dominantly bituminous coal in strata of Pennsylvanian age. The coal seams are relatively thin and are mined both by surface and underground methods. Sulfyur content is low to moderate in the Appalachian Province, generally high in the Interior province. The Gulf Coastal Plain Province, in Texas and neighboring states, contains lignite of Eocene age. The seams are 3-25 ft (0.9-7.5 m) thick and are minded in large open pits. The Northern Great Plains Province has lignite and subbituminous coal of Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene age. The coal, largely very low in sulfur, occurs in beds up to 100 ft (30 m) thick and is strip-mined. The Rocky Mountain Province contains a great variety of coal deposits in numerous separate intermontane basins. Most of it is low-sulfur subbituminous to bituminous coal iof Creatceous and early Tertiary age. The seams range from a few feet to over 100 ft (30 m) thick. Strip-mining dominates but underground mines are important in Utah and Colorado. The Pacific Coast Province, which includes Alaska, contains enormous cola resources but has seen little mining. The coal is highly diverse in physical character and geologic setting. ?? 1987.

  10. Ekati Diamond Mine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The page on the Ekati Diamond Mine, which is located in the Northwest Territories and is North America's only operating diamond mine, presents a satellite image and informational text. A detailed map of the region is also included which will allow users to compare the satellite image to what the area looks like on a map. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

  11. Bibliography Antoine Mine

    E-print Network

    Miné, Antoine

    CousotEtAl­LNCS­v2566­p85­108­2002.pdf. [BCC + 03] B. Blanchet, P. Cousot, R. Cousot, J. Feret, L. Mauborgne, A. Min Press, June 2003. http://www.di.ens.fr/ ~ mine/ publi/pldi045­blanchet.pdf. [BCC + 09] O. Bouissou, E--7. ESA, May 2009. http://www.di.ens.fr/ ~ mine/publi/ article­bouissou­al­dasia09.pdf. [BCC + 10] J

  12. Department of MINING ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    AS A MINING ENGINEER IMAGINE IMAGINE Department of MINING ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH www Requirement Hours 5 WRTG 2010 3 4 4 CHEM 1210, 1215 MATH 1210 LEAP 1501 3 3 2 4 1 MATH 1220 LEAP 1500 GEO 1110 CVEEN 2010 3 2 3 3 3 3 GEO 3060 American MG EN 4990 0.5 0.5 MG EN 3015 ( week before school starts

  13. GENERATION OF ACID DRAINAGE IN AN URANIUM ORE DEPOSIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Groudev; T. Mitrov; M. Nicolova; I. Spasova; K. Komnitsas; I. Paspaliaris

    The mining operations in the uranium deposit Curilo were ended in 1990 but since that time the deposit is a permanent source of acid drainage waters. These waters have a low pH (usually in the range of 2-3) and contain uranium, radium, some toxic heavy metals, arsenic and sulphates as main pollutants. The concentrations of these pollutants are usually 2-5

  14. Ubiquitous Mining with Interactive Data Mining Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin-Dong Wu; Xing-quan Zhu; Qi-jun Chen; Fei-yue Wang

    2009-01-01

    Due to the increasing availability and sophistication of data recording techniques, multiple information sources and distributed\\u000a computing are becoming the important trends of modern information systems. Many applications such as security informatics\\u000a and social computing require a ubiquitous data analysis platform so that decisions can be made rapidly under distributed and\\u000a dynamic system environments. Although data mining has now been

  15. Underground mine communications: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

  16. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly traded diamond companies may be due to investors losing patience with the slow pace or absence of new promising discoveries and switching into shares of base metals and fertilizers for agriculture (potash and phosphates).

  17. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

  18. Kaolin deposits and occurrences in Africa: Geology, mineralogy and utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georges-Ivo E. Ekosse

    2010-01-01

    Kaolin exploitation remains a financially sustained profit making mining industry that continues to contribute positively to national economies of the world. Its occurrence in Africa is not properly documented and adequately investigated. This work presents a summary of the geology, mineralogy, chemistry and usage of over two hundred and fifty kaolin deposits and occurrences in Africa including Algeria, Botswana, Burundi,

  19. Investigation of heavy-mineral deposits using multispectral satellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chandrasekar; P. Sheik Mujabar; G. V. Rajamanickam

    2011-01-01

    Mineral deposit mapping is essential for sustainable and eco-friendly exploitation of natural resources. The south Tamil Nadu coast of India is rich in minerals. Currently the beach sands are extracted for export entirely in raw form without any value addition. Due to unsustainable sand mining, there are negative environment impacts, which lead to various coastal hazards such as erosion, salinization

  20. Mining the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Substances extracted from the earth - stone, iron, bronze - have been so critical to human development that historians name the ages of our past after them. But while scholars have carefully tracked human use of minerals, they have never accounted for the vast environmental damage incurred in mineral production. Few people would guess that a copper mining operation has removed a piece of Utah seven times the weight of all the material dug for the Panama Canal. Few would dream that mines and smelters take up to a tenth of all the energy used each year, or that the waste left by mining measures in the billions of tons - dwarfing the world's total accumulation of more familiar kinds of waste, such as municipal garbage. Indeed, more material is now stripped from the earth by mining than by all the natural erosion of the earth's rivers. The effects of mining operations on the environment are discussed under the following topics: minerals in the global economy, laying waste, at what cost cleaning up, and dipping out. It is concluded that in the long run, the most effective strategy for minimizing new damage is not merely to make mineral extraction cleaner, but to reduce the rich nations needs for virgin (non-recycled) minerals.

  1. Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

  2. Mine Dewatering Studies at Jwaneng Open Pit Diamond Mine - Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Mafa

    The geological environment at Jwaneng Mine in Botswana is characterized by a complex faulting system that preceded the emplacement of kimberlite into the Transvaal sedimentary sequence. Mine dewatering studies at Jwaneng have previously focused on identifying water bearing structures on the faulting systems that transgress the current mine pit excavations and also on the hypothesis that dolomites occurring at depths

  3. Maskless deposition of ZnO films Uma Choppali a*1

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Ceramics, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA for depositing ZnO thin films on surface modified glass substrates. The parameters for deposition using M3 DTM semiconductor with important technological applications in the areas of transparent conducting electrodes

  4. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950.

  5. Mangroves, Coral, and the Search for a Paleotsunami Deposit Along the Andaman Coast of Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rhodes; K. Jankaew; M. Kirby

    2007-01-01

    Finding a preserved paleotsunami deposit along Thailand's Andaman coast has proven to be a major challenge. The coastline is tectonically stable precluding the preservation of tsunami deposits due to sudden sea level changes. Much of the coast is fringed by wide beach plains that have been thoroughly disturbed during a long history of placer tin mining. In the rare undisturbed

  6. Geology of the Old Hickory Heavy Mineral Sand Deposit, Dinwiddie and Sussex Counties, Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Claiborne Newton; Andrew J. Romeo

    Old Hickory is a heavy mineral sand deposit located 60 km south of Richmond, Virginia, USA. It has been an active mine since 1997, operated by Iluka Resources, Inc. The deposit is one of several known large occurrences of heavy mineral sand along the \\

  7. Coal and coal mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olem

    1982-01-01

    This review of recent literature covers the formation of coal mine drainage and its environmental effects, treatment and control of mine drainage, coal cleaning wastes, and coal transport and storage.

  8. Coal and coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.

    1982-06-01

    This review of recent literature covers the formation of coal mine drainage and its environmental effects, treatment and control of mine drainage, coal cleaning wastes, and coal transport and storage.

  9. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  10. Seismic modeling of a rising mine water table

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Orlowsky; Bobo Lehmann

    2007-01-15

    In former deep coal mining areas in Germany the mine water table is regulated by a water pump system such that the drinking water at the earth's surface is not influenced. For the modelling of possible changes at the earth's surface using the so called box model, a finite element model of the hydrogeologic situation in the Ruhr Area has been developed. To observe the depth of the mine water table usually old shafts or exploration drill holes are used at selected locations. Nevertheless, there are to less observation stations for a detailed modelling of the complete Ruhr Area so that additional observation locations are needed. To avoid the construction of expensive and complicated drill holes down to more than 1000 m depth an alternative technique to monitor the rising of the mine water table could be the time-lapse seismic (TLS) which is routinely used to monitor the effects of the exploitation of oil and gas deposits. It is expected, that the mine water table will not be detected directly as an additional reflector of seismic waves, due to the fact, that the impedance contrast between saturated carbonate rock and none saturated rock is too weak. Nevertheless, the reflectivity function of the layers in the underground will change, due to the water saturation process such that it might be possible to observe the rising of the mine water table using the TLS method. To define the requirements for the acquisition instrumentation and for the seismic field geometry extensive seismic modelling was performed to investigate, if it is possible to identify the rising of the mine water table. In a first step the influence of water saturation on the reflectivity and the velocities of seismic waves in carbonate rocks have to be determined. If the mine water table can be monitored, a direct input of the seismic results into a geological model should be possible to forecast critical changes at the surface. 5 refs.

  11. Searching for Pre-2004 Tsunami Deposits in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, M.; Alam, S.; Atwater, B.; Charoentitirat, T.; Charusiri, P.; Choowong, M.; Fernando, S.; Jankaew, K.; Jittanoon, V.; Kongko, W.; Maxcia, C.; Pailoplee, S.; Phantuwongraj, S.; Rajendran, K.; Rhodes, B.; Srichan, N.; Tejakusuma, I.; Yulianto, E.

    2007-05-01

    We found only one candidate for a pre-2004 tsunami deposit during a ten-day search in July 2006 of four coastal sites in Phangnga Province. Although our initial field effort was limited, the paucity of pre-2004 tsunami deposits suggests that either there have been few Late Holocene tsunamis like the 2004 event or that the identification of paleotsunami deposits will be challenging in this region. Our investigations at Ban Bang Neang, Ban Lang Ong, Ban Nauk Nai, and Khlong Phru Sai involved examining soils and sediments 30 to 250 cm below the surface in cutbank exposures, gouge-core samples, and excavations. We targeted swales between beach ridges in areas undisturbed by tin mining and where tsunami deposits might have accumulated and been preserved. As shown in previous studies, the deposits of the 2004 tsunami extend as much as 1.5 km inland, thin over high ground, and thicken in swales. The deposits are composed of 1 to 4 beds, ranging from coarse to very fine sand, that commonly fine upward and locally contain parallel laminations. Where estuaries are relatively unprotected by mangroves, the 2004 tsunami deposits extend farther inland. Where mangroves fringe estuaries for 100s of meters, the deposits are concentrated in areas of mangrove damage. Crabs have already destroyed much of the tsunami deposits by mixing it with underlying peaty soil. At Ban Nauk Nai, we found a candidate for a pre-2004 tsunami deposit about 1.1 km inland at the back edge of the coastal plain adjacent to a steep hillslope. The deposit, identified over a distance of 60 meters, consists of a 10-cm-thick, silty, fining-upward coarse to fine sand about 25 cm below the bottom of a shallow pond and the adjoining area. In the same area, the overlying 6 to 13- cm-thick 2004 tsunami deposit consists of a normally graded fine to very fine sand. At the other sites, we found coarse, medium, and fine sand beds typical of coastal plain beach deposits. Although tsunami deposits may occur within the beach deposits, we were not able to identify any with confidence. In future searches, it may be beneficial to target natural ponds near upland areas where accumulation of organics and fines may help to separate tsunami deposits from other sandy deposits. Our findings suggest that the apparent scarcity of pre- 2004 tsunami deposits in Phangnga Province may be due in part to extensive placer mining of the coastal plain, bioturbation of mangrove soils, and difficulty in distinguishing tsunami from beach deposits.

  12. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  13. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  14. Coal and coal mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Boyer; V. E. Gleason

    1977-01-01

    The review cited some bibliogrphies such as the abstract series on coal mine drainage prepared annually since 1964 by Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. The treatment of acid mine drainage was discussed, the most common method being lime neutralization. If limestone could be used however, significant savings might occur. In treating coal mine drainage, iron removal was as much a concern

  15. ANU MLSS 2010: Data Mining

    E-print Network

    Christen, Peter

    ) · Change in data characteristics: Concept drift · Stream data mining tasks · Frequent patterns in data Lecture outline Mining data streams Characteristics of data streams Stream data applications Data stream management system Challenges and methodologies of data stream processing Stream data mining versus stream

  16. Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Nevers, Noel

    1982-01-01

    An oilwell drilling rig accidentally drilled into an underground salt mine, draining a lake and filling the mine, with water jetting out of the mine 400 feet into the air. An explanation of the jetting phenomenon is offered in terms of the laws of fluid dynamics, with supporting diagrams and calculations. (Author/JN)

  17. Statistical Data Mining Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Andrew W., Ph.D.

    These tutorial, created by Professor Andrew Moore at Carnegie-Mellon University, cover a range of topics in statistical data mining "including the foundations of probability, the foundations of statistical data analysis, and most of the classic machine learning and data mining algorithms." Decision Trees, Information Gain, and Cross-Validation are just a few of the items presented here. Each topic contains a set of tutorial slides in PDF, excellent for converting into a classroom presentation or left as they are for a classroom handout or online learning resource.

  18. Problems with flooding in the Ronneburg mining district

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, M. [Wismut GmbH, Gera (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    One of the most important uranium deposits of Wismut, the biggest uranium producer of the eastern world, was the Ronneburg mining area, located 10 km east of Gera in the central part of Germany. 110,000 t of uranium were produced in this ore field from 1950 to 1989. Mining in the Ronneburg ore field requires a knowledge of the hydrodynamic relationships during and after ground water recharge and preplanning of the flooding sequence in the mine. The technology necessary for recharge of the ground water layer and the open pit were established by flow models. Calculations were made of the transport of radioisotopes in the ground water. Preliminary results of these calculations are reported in this paper.

  19. Vein and stratabound gold deposits of northern Zaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavreau, J.

    1984-04-01

    Seventy years of gold mining in the North Zaire region resulted in a total output of ca. 350 t of metal, half of this amount coming from recent placer deposits. All deposits are linked to volcano-sedimentary series and associated granitoid bodies constituting the granite-green-stone terrane of northern Zaire. The actual metallotects are tectonic shear structures cutting across various rock types and giving rise either to quartz veins or to quartz-free tabular deposits, thereby obscuring the original stratabound (or rock-type bound) character of the subeconomic mineralization. Both the Archaean magmatic activity and the late Precambrian tectonics have played a role in gold concentration.

  20. Remediation of acid mine drainage from the Santa Fe tin mine, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Daniel; Zamora Echenique, Gerardo; Alfonso, Pura; Casado, Jordi; Trujillo, Elvys; Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Garcia-Valles, Maite

    2015-04-01

    The Santa Fe mine, department of Oruro, is located in the Andean Tin belt, is exploited for tin, zinc, lead and silver. This in an underground mine mined up to the -108 level. Today it is only mined up to the -50 level. Under this level the table water covers the mine. Water reaches the surface with a very acidic composition, with a high content in potentially toxic elements. This water drains directly to the Santa Fe River and contribute to the pollution present in this river that directly affect to the aquatic communities. In addition, population of this area have problems in the supply of drinking water, so remediation by obtaining cleaning water is a priority for this area. This study presents a neutralization-precipitation treatment with lime to the acid water inside the mine. The ore mineralogy of the Santa Fe mined deposit consists mainly in cassiterite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite argentite and sulphosalts. The host mineral is mainly quartz, with a minor content in feldspars and tourmaline. Alteration minerals as alunite, goethite and pumbojarosite are abundant and indicate the occurrence of reactions that lead to the formation of acid mine drainage. The mean pH of water drained from the Santa Fe mine is 2.2 and chemical analyses show high contents in potentially toxic elements: 27-295 ppm Zn, 0.05-0.2 ppm Pb, 0.06-0.09 ppm Cd, 04-0.12 ppm Cu, 113-165 ppm Fe, 4 ppm Mn and 564-664 ppm S. As and Sb were under 0.5 ppm. A settler tank inside the mine was designed by means of seal a selected gallery to clean the mine water. The function of this gallery is to sediment the sludge resulting from the neutralization - precipitation treatment process to obtain a clear water overflow continuously to the outside. The neutralization tests indicate that 0.65g/L of lime and 2ml of flocculant should be added to neutralize water up to pH 6-7. A flow rate of 80 L /s was considered. After a geotechnical study, a chamber located in the mine was selected to locate the settler. The volume of the settling tank was determined from sedimentation tests in order to obtain the adequate sedimentation time. According to these results and the availabolity of galleries the dimensions of the settler tank will be 160x1.8x1.9m. Sludges will be treated by a process of solidification and used to provide physical stability to the gallery. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, the SGR 2009SGR-00444 and the Centre de Cooperació al Desenvolupament (CCD-UPC).

  1. Geologic factors affecting coal mine roof stability in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.F. (Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Milici, R.C. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Gathright, T.M. II (Virginia Div. of Mineral Resources, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Roof falls in underground coal mines are a continuing source of trouble for mine operators. Fatalities and injuries are a prominent concern, but lost time due to cleanup and disruption of mining operations presents an economic problem as well. Many geologic and geomechanical factors contribute to mine roof instability. These may be seen in rock core during exploration, or in the roof as mining progresses. Once these features are recognized, remedial action can then be taken. Geologic parameters attributed to roof falls in underground coal mines include both lithologic and structural discontinuities. The roof may be weakened where different lithologic materials are in contact with one another, such as paleochannels, scours, rider seams, clay veins, or crevasse splay deposits. Fractures, i.e., joints and faults, also contribute to roof falls. The trend, dip angle, and density of fractures, and the presence of slickensides are important in determining roof stability. Stress fields underground, both tectonic and mining-induced, not only can determine whether failure will occur, but also the mode of such failure. Detrimental features of a more localized nature include kettlebottoms, coal balls, and moisture fluctuations. The use of paleoenvironmental studies is important in determining hazardous roof conditions. Particular hazards are more likely to be present in one paleoenvironment than another. When that environment is determined in advance of mining, precautions can be taken during the mine-planning phase.

  2. Trace and Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry of the Karalar (Gazipafla—Antalya) Barite-Galena Deposits, Southern Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GÜLCAN BOZKAYA; AHMET GÖKÇE; Nadir Toprak; Element Jeokimyas; Güney Türkiye

    2004-01-01

    The Karalar barite-galena deposits are typical examples of carbonate-hosted barite-galena deposits that occur widely in the central Taurides. Recent mining activity has been concentrated in the Büyük and Boyal›k mine areas. The mineralisation occurs as ore veins along fault zones and as ore-filled breccia zones along the strongly deformed lower walls of limestone blocks in the Permian limestones of the

  3. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  4. Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.L.; Schroeder, P.D.; Nagle, S.M.; Zelazny, L.W.; Alley, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Significant deposits of mineral sands were discovered in Virginia's Upper Coastal Plain in 1989. The Old Hickory deposit is the largest ore body in the state (>2,000 ha) and supports a productive rowcrop agriculture on prime farmlands. field experiments were installed on pilot-scale (25 m x 60 m) mining pits in the late summer of 1995 and replicated on an adjacent undisturbed area. Half of each mining pit was topsoiled (25 cm) while the remaining half was left as either (1) mixed tails/slimes or (2) re-graded subsoil over tails/slimes to simulate various pit closure scenarios. Both non-topsoiled areas received 112 Mg/ha of yard waste compost as a soil building amendment. The entire area was ripped/disked to ameliorate compaction and incorporate lime and fertilizer additions. The experiment was cropped through a wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton rotation over the 1995 to 1998 growing seasons. Taken as a whole, these combined results clearly indicate that mining and reclamation of these prime farmlands will lead to a substantial decrease in rowcrop productivity, at least over the initial years following pit closure and reclamation. For the rotation studied, post-mining productivity was estimated by this experiment to be reduced by 23%, 3%, 27%, and 20% for each crop (wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton) in sequence. For a given crop in a given year, response to topsoiling versus compost addition to the surface varied, and neither treatment appeared superior. Corn and cotton yields on the mined land treatments were reduced despite the application of irrigation. Cotton quality was also adversely affected by the mining reclamation treatments. Results of these controlled experiments are somewhat encouraging. However, the implementation of protocols will be complicated in practice if tailings and slimes cannot be re-blended to generate a reasonably uniform final reclaimed surface.

  5. Mines and mineral deposits of Whatcom County, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moen

    1969-01-01

    Whathom County, in the NW. part of Washington, is composed of approx. 66% federal lands, 6% state lands, and 28% privately owned lands. The rocks of the county range from Recent to Devonian in age. The Recent Pleistocene rocks serve as sources for sand and gravel and common clay. The lower Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which consist mainly of the Chuckanut

  6. A jewel in the desert: BHP Billiton's San Juan underground mine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-12-15

    The Navajo Nation is America's largest native American tribe by population and acreage, and is blessed with large tracks of good coal deposits. BHP Billiton's New Mexico Coal Co. is the largest in the Navajo regeneration area. The holdings comprise the San Juan underground mine, the La Plata surface mine, now in reclamation, and the expanding Navajo surface mine. The article recounts the recent history of the mines. It stresses the emphasis on sensitivity to and helping to sustain tribal culture, and also on safety. San Juan's longwall system is unique to the nation. It started up as an automated system from the outset. Problems caused by hydrogen sulfide are being tackled. San Juan has a bleederless ventilation system to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion of methane and the atmospheric conditions in the mine are heavily monitored, especially within the gob areas. 3 photos.

  7. Age of uranium mineralization at the Highland mine, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, as indicated by UPb isotope analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Santos; K. R. Ludwig

    1983-01-01

    Most of the uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at various stratigraphic levels in the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age, but pollen and spores found in the Highland mine host rocks indicate that the deposits here may be in the upper part of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Analyses of U-Pb isotopes in several samples of

  8. Using geophysical methods to characterize an abandoned uranium mining site, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, E.; Carvalho, J.; Barbosa, S.; Monteiro Santos, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    A major plan for Portugal Mainland is being envisaged to use old open pits from abandoned uranium mining sites as "Waste Containment Deposits". These areas will store mining waste from other adjacent mines. The old mining sites classification to this kind of usage is carried out accordingly to its location, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions. Mining waste deposition in the open pits may however cause environmental problems related with geological and hydrogeological features that must be predicted and prevented before a particular site is chosen. Therefore, the identification of faults and conductive zones that may promote groundwater circulation and the spread of contaminated waters is of great importance, since the surrounding area is highly populated. The possible negative environmental impacts of the presence of such potential waste disposal sites are therefore being assessed using geophysical methods and geological outcrop studies in several geological and hydrogeological critical areas. The abandoned Quinta do Bispo uranium mine is one of such places. This old open pit, chosen as one of the sites to be used in the near future as a "Waste Containment Deposit" (accordingly to the above mentioned criteria), needs to be characterized at depth to prevent any possible negative environmental impacts. Thus, the acquisition, processing and interpretation of electromagnetic, electrical and both seismic refraction and reflection have been carried out. 2D schematic models have been constructed, showing alteration and faults zones at depth. These fault zones control groundwater circulation and therefore, future water circulation problems with negative environmental impact may be predicted and prevented.

  9. Data Mining Mining Data: MSHA Enforcement Efforts, Underground Coal Mine Safety, and New Health Policy Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Kniesner; John D. Leeth

    2004-01-01

    Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact.

  10. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B. [Studsvik EcoSafe, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished.

  11. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  12. Data Mining na Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparecido Jorge Jubran; Flávio Almeida de Magalhães

    This study consists of a four phase outlining for the development of a Data Mining for e-commerce environment. At first it is proposed the modeling and structuring o f t he database, which will support t he project. Then, the forms of i ncorporation o f i nformation to the data ba se object will be described. In the third

  13. Mining outer space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gaffey; T. B. McCord

    1977-01-01

    The need to develop new mineral resources as terrestrial supplies are depleted could lead to mining efforts in outer space, where other bodies can be found with materials similar to those of the earth. The high cost of direct sampling requires that earth-based observations be made first, followed by unmanned flights and landing missions. The surface composition of over 100

  14. Mineral mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, H.

    1980-11-25

    A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

  15. Mountaintop mining under scrutiny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Proposed new regulations call for mountaintop surface coal mining in U.S. Appalachian states to reduce “burying” and other adverse impacts on streams and watersheds.The draft regulations, issued on 29 May by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies, affect a 12-million-acre area encompassing parts of Kentucky West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee.

  16. Mining: Ramex Tunneler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Poole; L. Recca

    1999-01-01

    According to the fact sheet, this more energy-efficient mining technique eliminates the expensive and energy-intensive use of drill holes required to place explosives. Other advantages include energy savings of up to 65% (compared to using the traditional explosives), reduced air pollution, and improved safety and control of the tunneling process.

  17. Plutonium mining for cleanup.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, E T

    1988-08-01

    Cleanup is the act of making a contaminated site relatively free of Pu so it may be used without radiological safety restrictions. Contaminated ground is the focus of major cleanups. Cleanup traditionally involves determining Pu content of soil, digging up soil in which radioactivity exceeds guidelines, and relocating excised soil to a waste-disposal site. Alternative technologies have been tested at Johnston Atoll (JA), where there is as much as 100,000 m3 of Pu-contaminated soil. A mining pilot plant operated for the first 6 mo of 1986 and made 98% of soil tested "clean", from more than 40 kBq kg-1 (1000 pCi g-1) to less than about 500 Bq kg-1 (15 pCi g-1) by concentrating Pu in 2% of the soil. The pilot plant is now installed at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site for evaluating cleanup of other contaminated soils and refining cleanup effectiveness. A full-scale cleanup plant has been programmed for JA in 1988. In this paper, previous cleanups are reviewed, and the mining endeavor at JA is detailed. "True soil cleanup" is contrasted with the classical "soil relocation cleanup." The mining technology used for Pu cleanup has been in use for more than a century. Mining for cleanup, however, is unique. It is envisioned as being prominent for radiological and other cleanups in the future. PMID:3410718

  18. Mine winding and transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Changes in size and power available to miming transport equipment, combined with improved means of control involving leaking feeder radio and computers, demands a new look at the problem of mine winding and transport. This book covers the design and application of steel wire ropes to a variety of industrial applications along with the various pulleys and drums necessary. It

  19. Example Building Damage Caused by Mining Exploitation in Disturbed Rock Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowska, Lucyna

    2013-06-01

    Issues concerning protection of buildings against the impact of underground coal mining pose significant scientific and engineering challenges. In Poland, where mining is a potent and prominent industry assuring domestic energy security, regions within reach of mining influences are plenty. Moreover, due to their industrial character they are also densely built-up areas. Because minerals have been extracted on an industrial scale in majority of those areas for many years, the rock mass structure has been significantly disturbed. Hence, exploitation of successive layers of multi-seam deposits might cause considerable damage - both in terms of surface and existing infrastructure networks. In the light of those facts, the means of mining and building prevention have to be improved on a regular basis. Moreover, they have to be underpinned by reliable analyses holistically capturing the comprehensive picture of the mining, geotechnical and constructional situation of structures. Scientific research conducted based on observations and measurements of mining-induced strain in buildings is deployed to do just that. Presented in this paper examples of damage sustained by buildings armed with protection against mining influences give an account of impact the mining exploitation in disturbed rock mass can have. This paper is based on analyses of mining damage to church and Nursing Home owned by Evangelical Augsburg Parish in Bytom-Miechowice. Neighbouring buildings differ in the date they were built, construction, building technology, geometry of the building body and fitted protection against mining damage. Both the buildings, however, have sustained lately significant deformation and damage caused by repeated mining exploitation. Selected damage has been discussed hereunder. The structures have been characterised, their current situation and mining history have been outlined, which have taken their toll on character and magnitude of damage. Description has been supplemented with photographic documentation.

  20. Methodology for optimal selection of cutoff grades and production rates of underground uranium mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    The optimizing criterion is assumed to be the maximum net present value of the project. The following summarizes the significant conclusions. (1) Over a large range of discount rates, mining and milling of the mineral deposit at a constant cutoff grade and a constant production rate consistently results in smaller annual discounted cash flows than the optimal schedule determined by the dynamic programming model (dpm) where the cutoff grade and mining rate are allowed to vary in response to fluctuating product price. (2) With an increasing discount rate, under the dpm the annual discounted cash flows decrease at a slower rate than if the mineral inventory is mined and milled at a constant cutoff grade and a constant production rate. (3) Cuttoff grade increases only where higher equity ore is available. Thus, to maintain the mill feed requirement, the mining rate also increases. (4) Not withstanding an anamolous mineral deposit of high quality, the mining rate determined by the dpm generally tends to approximate the nominal mill capacity. (5) The conclusions reached from the evaluation of the results are generally consistent with most of the earlier microeconomic studies of production arbitrate in open pit mining operations. However, under the restrictive operating parameters in underground mining operations, the results, as summarized in 3 and 4, differ from earlier studies.

  1. Metal-residence sites in mine tailings in the Magdalena District, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Larocque, A.C.L. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Chapin, C.E. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Laughlin, A.W. [ICF Kaiser Ltd., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickmott, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Mineralization in the Kelly Mining Camp is hosted by the Mississippian Kelly Limestone and comprises Zn-Pb skarn, replacement, and vein deposits related to Tertiary intrusive activity. The ore consists of primary (hypogene) sulfide mineralization which has been oxidized near surface to form secondary (supergene) mineralization. A zone of secondary sulfide-enrichment separates the sulfide and oxide ores. Mine tailings in the camp contain primary sulfide, oxide and gangue minerals, secondary (supergene) minerals formed during weathering of the primary ore, and tertiary minerals formed by alteration of hypogene and supergene assemblages after deposition in the tailings impoundment.

  2. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  3. Asturian mercury mining district (Spain) and the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; Loredo, J

    2013-11-01

    Mercury is of particular concern amongst global environmental pollutants, with abundant contaminated sites worldwide, many of which are associated with mining activities. Asturias (Northwest of Spain) can be considered an Hg metallogenic province with abundant epithermal-type deposits, whose paragenetic sequences include also As-rich minerals. These mines were abandoned long before the introduction of any environmental regulations to control metal release from these sources. Consequently, the environment is globally affected, as high metal concentrations have been found in soils, waters, sediments, plants, and air. In this paper, a characterization of the environmental affection caused by Hg mining in nine Asturian mine sites is presented, with particular emphasis in Hg and As contents. Hg concentrations found in the studied milieu are similar and even higher than those reported in previous studies for other mercury mining districts (mainly Almadén and Idrija). Furthermore, the potential adverse health effects of exposure to these elements in the considered sites in this district have been assessed. PMID:23589252

  4. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  5. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

  6. Filtration and retention of mineral processing slurries with pumice and common clay: low-cost materials for environmental applications in the small-scale mining industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kelm; V. Sanhueza; C. Guzman

    2003-01-01

    The sixth region of Chile hosts the giant El Teniente porphyry copper deposit and several polymetallic districts exploited in small mine works; the latter are situated and processed in a predominantly agricultural area. This mining activity has a potential for environmental damage caused by infiltration of mineral processing slurries. As possible low-cost material for environmental applications, a local common clay

  7. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

  8. Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Social Media Mining: Fundamental Issues and Challenges Mohammad Ali Abbasi, Huan Liu, and Reza.net December 10, 2013 #12;2Social Media Mining Measures and Metrics 2Social Media Mining ICDM 2013 Tutorial;3Social Media Mining Measures and Metrics 3Social Media Mining ICDM 2013 Tutorial · Everyone can

  9. Mobile robots in mine rescue and recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBIN R. MURPHY; Jeffery Kravitz; SAMUEL L. STOVER; Rahmat Shoureshi

    2009-01-01

    Mining accidents have occurred since the early days of mining. Therewere a total of 525 mining disasters (incidents with five or more fatalities) in both coal and metal\\/nonmetal mines from 1900 through 2007 in the United States, resulting in 12,823 fatalities. Most of these disasters involve mine rescue teams, which are specially trained to perform search and rescue operations in

  10. Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu

    E-print Network

    Fu, Yongjian

    Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu Department of Computer Science University mining. We explain what distri­ bution data mining is and why distributed data mining is interesting. Problems and progress in distributed data mining are also discussed. 1 Introduction Facing a rapidly

  11. www.miningengineeringmagazine.com Mining engineering FEBRUARY 2014 33 Student Mine Rescue Training

    E-print Network

    of mine rescue in an occupational health and safety lecture and take a basic, one-day mine rescue training and mine safety by giving them hands-on learning experiences before entering the mining industry. Coloradowww.miningengineeringmagazine.com Mining engineering FEBRUARY 2014 33 Student Mine Rescue Training

  12. THE IMPACT OF A URANIUM MINING SITE ON THE STREAM SEDIMENTS (CRUCEA MINE, ROMANIA)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE IMPACT OF A URANIUM MINING SITE ON THE STREAM SEDIMENTS (CRUCEA MINE, ROMANIA) Petrescu L. 1 methods were used to evaluate the impact of uranium mine dumps on the stream sedi- ments from Crucea uranium mine show that the impact of Crucea mine on water quality downstream of mining area

  13. Optical coatings deposited using ion assisted deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. McNally; K. C. Jungling; F. L. Williams; J. R. McNeil

    1987-01-01

    The properties of TaâOâ and AlâOâ optical coatings deposited using oxygen-ion assisted deposition (IAD) were investigated. Previously, we reported preliminary results for TaâOâ and AlâOâ coatings deposited using IAD. In this paper, we present results illustrating the effects of oxygen-ion bombardment on film optical constants, environmental durability, and laser damage resistance. The coatings were bombarded with 200-, 300-, 500-, and

  14. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Mine roof bolt

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, H.D.

    1993-07-27

    A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

  16. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an estimated 653 university students. In 2012 more students and the public will be engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. The various designs will be cataloged and categorized to provide information to future Lunabotics mining robot designers and competitors. It is also expected to be of value for actual future space missions, as knowledge is gained from testing many innovative prototypes in simulated lunar regolith.

  17. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  18. Fungus speeds mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    A bacterial fungus, Pislothus tinctorius is showing potential in coal-mine reclamation. The fungus typically appears as puffballs, and roots of pine, spruce, cedar, fir, yew and oak are found to increase in size because of the fungus and are better able to absorb moisture and nutrients and thus to survive in adverse conditions. Research is being undertaken at the US Forest Service into inoculating pine seedlings with the fungus.

  19. A Mining Symposium The mining sector is growing as metal prices and consumption increases. Mining is often presented as

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    A Mining Symposium The mining sector is growing as metal prices and consumption increases. Mining in Hydropower Regulated Systems in Sweden" May-Britt Öhman ­ PhD Technoscience/Centre for Gender Research

  20. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  1. Tourmaline in Appalachian - Caledonian massive sulphide deposits and its exploration significance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several types of stratabound mineral deposits, including some massive base-metal sulphide ores of the Appalachian - Caledonian orogen. It is most abundant (sometimes forming massive foliated tourmalinite) in sediment-hosted deposits, such as those at the Elizabeth Cu mine and the Ore Knob Cu mine (North Carolina, USA). Trace amounts of tourmaline occur associated with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Piedmont and New England and also in the Trondheim district. Tourmaline associated with the massive sulphide deposits are Mg- rich dravites with major- and trace-element compositions significantly different from schorl. It is suggested that the necessary B was produced by submarine exhalative processes as a part of the same hydrothermal system that deposited the ores. An abundance of dravite in non-evaporitic terrains is believed to indicate proximity to former subaqueous fumarolic centres.-R.A.H.

  2. Cambrian rocks of the Pioche mining district, Nevada, with a section on Pioche shale faunules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, Charles Warren; Palmer, Allison R.

    1964-01-01

    The Pioche mining district in the Ely Range, southeastern Nevada, is one of several districts in the Great Basin where Cambrian rocks are hosts of important ore deposits. Cambrian strata underlying the Ely Range are intruded by porphyritic granite and other dikes. Tertiary volcanic rocks and Pliocene fresh-water clastic deposits of the Panaca Formation occupy adjacent valleys and extend over the Cambrian strata on the south and east.

  3. New Equipment for Mine Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

  4. Data Mining in Social Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Barbier; Huan Liu

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a The rise of online social media is providing a wealth of social network data. Data mining techniques provide researchers and\\u000a practitioners the tools needed to analyze large, complex, and frequently changing social media data. This chapter introduces\\u000a the basics of data mining, reviews social media, discusses how to mine social media data, and highlights some illustrative\\u000a examples with an emphasis

  5. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures that the relative global avaliability of minerals and other values are considered, and can also promote adaptive efficiency by publicizing creative local solutions, providing technical support, and funding useful research. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  6. Data Mining for Financial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Vityaev, Evgenii

    This chapter describes Data Mining in finance by discussing financial tasks, specifics of methodologies and techniques in this Data Mining area. It includes time dependence, data selection, forecast horizon, measures of success, quality of patterns, hypothesis evaluation, problem ID, method profile, attribute-based and relational methodologies. The second part of the chapter discusses Data Mining models and practice in finance. It covers use of neural networks in portfolio management, design of interpretable trading rules and discovering money laundering schemes using decision rules and relational Data Mining methodology.

  7. Data mining applications in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions. PMID:15869215

  8. Data mining on grids. Maarten Altorf

    E-print Network

    Emmerich, Michael

    Data mining on grids. Maarten Altorf maltorf@yahoo.com Universiteit Leiden August 2007 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Data mining 4 2.1 KDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Data mining tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Models

  9. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  10. Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

    1972-01-01

    The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

  11. DRY DEPOSITION MODULE FOR REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to compute surface dry deposition velocities for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, ozone, NO plus NO2, and nitric acid vapor over much of the North American continent have been developed for use with atmospheric numerical models of long-range transport and deposition. The resultin...

  12. DISCOVERY AND GEOLOGY OF THE CERRO BAYO AND MARTHA LOW SULFIDATION EPITHERMAL GOLD-SILVER DEPOSITS, SOUTHERN CHILE-ARGENTINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Krewedl; Coeur d'Alene

    The Cerro Bayo and Martha mines are located on the western portion of the Patagonian Massif in southern Chile and Argentina. Both are recently discovered low sulfidation epithermal gold and silver deposits hosted within Jurassic age fel- sic volcanics. Both deposits have similar geologic characteristics and are part of the emerging Patagonian precious met- als province, which includes premier epithermal

  13. Depositional environments as ore controls in salt wash member, Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Carrizo Mountains area, Arizona and New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Jr. Huffman; A. R. Kirk; R. J. Corken

    1980-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in the Carrizo Mountains area are closely related to depositional facies. In the vicinity of the Eastside mines, southeastern Carrizo Mountains, the Salt Wash Member consists of a lower part, 30 to 50 ft (9 to 15 m) thick, and an upper part, 180 to 200 ft (55 to

  14. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500...

  3. An experimental investigation of mine burial penetration in soft sediments

    E-print Network

    Munim, Mohammed Abdul

    2003-01-01

    of that of actual mines. The factors selected for the investigation were mine weight, preburial condition of the mine, mine orientation, impact velocity of the mine and shear strength and creep characteristics of the soil. Only the geotechnical aspects...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND...19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE...19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars...

  6. Getty mines oil sands in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-11-01

    A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

  7. GROUND TRUTH WITH MINE COOPERATION Minnesota Taconite Mines

    E-print Network

    Stump, Brian W.

    in 1890. The iron ores are composed of high-grade, soft materials which early on were relatively easy arrangement has been developed with a large taconite mine in the Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. Explosives are used to fracture relatively hard rock formations in order to facilitate the recovery of iron. The mine

  8. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  9. In-mine evaluation of smart mine fire sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Franks; G. F. Friel; J. C. Edwards; A. C. Smith

    An evaluation of a nuisance-emissions-discriminating smart mine fire sensor system was made in an operating coal mine. These field evaluations were conducted to determine the sensor system's ability to discern nuisance emissions, such as diesel exhaust, emissions from flame cutting and welding operations, or hydrogen gas from a charging station, from real fires and to compare the number of falsely

  10. In mine evaluation of discriminating mine fire sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Edwards; R. A. Franks; G. F. Friel; C. P. Lazzara; J. J. Opferman

    A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) mine fire detection re- search project was undertaken to evaluate multiple mine fire sensor types for nuisance alarm discrimination. The response of multiple fire sensor types to three small coal fire and three small conveyor belt fires in the presence of diesel emissions was evaluated in NIOSH's Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL)

  11. Mine electrical systems evaluation: mine power system performance. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Stefanko; L. A. Morley

    1974-01-01

    The report covers a literature review, description of continuous miner research, cable temperature measurements, and traction locomotive research. The literature review considers induction motor performance, motor characteristics, effect of temperature on resistance, voltage regulation, and previous Pennsylvania State mine electrical systems studies. Instrumentation and analysis techniques developed over a three-year period are described. Numerous data from mine measurements are analyzed.

  12. PlanMine: Sequence Mining for Plan Failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Neal Lesh; Mitsunori Ogihara

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the P LANMINE sequence mining algo- rithm to extract patterns of events that predict failures in databases of plan executions. New techniques were needed because previous data mining algorithms were overwhelmed by the staggering number of very frequent, but entirely un- predictive patterns that exist in the plan database. This paper combines several techniques for pruning out

  13. Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1

    E-print Network

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    that normal views in databases are only computed at query time, and only to the extent necessary for answeringMining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1 , Toon Calders2 , Elisa Fromont1 Eindhoven, The Netherlands 3 Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium Abstract. We propose a relational database

  14. DTC DATA MINING CONSORTIUM MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY DRUG DISCOVERY BUSINESS SALES & MARKETING AUTOMOTIVE CRM GOVERNMENT CYBER SECURITY Creation Analysis Optimization Scalable Database Mining Auto-Mining Agents CUTTING-EDGE CAPABILITIES

  15. Soviet coal mining shows progress

    SciTech Connect

    Khudin, Yu.L.

    1980-11-01

    With over half of the world's known coal reserves, the Soviet Union is one of the world's most important coal producers. Coal production has been on an upswing for the last 10 years; production in 1970 was 615,300,000 tons, 1975 production was 694,600,000 tons, and in 1979, 712,900,000 tons were mined. A primary consideration in the future of the Soviet coal industry is better production rates for the surface mines in the eastern regions of the country where the development of gasification, liquefaction, and electricity generating complexes is planned. Surface mining output has increased by 57 percent over the last 10 years with an average increase in production for each new open pit mine amounting to 4,000,000 tons. Conditions in the underground mines of the Soviet Union vary greatly. Panel mining accounts for 77 percent of coal production longwall mining accounts for 11 percent, and inclined slicing accounts for 6 percent. The following trends for improvement in development work are foreseen: (1) increased percentage of heading machine operations; (2) increased number of workings driven by drill and blast methods using drilling and loading machines; and (3) the use of supports, belt conveyors, and monorails in conjunction with the above mentioned methods. Further advances in underground transportation involve the following areas: new designs for underground transport systems, conveyor transportation away from the face, and improvements in locomotive transportation. Labor productivity in open pit mines is now 800 to 1000 tons per man per month and, in the future, developments in mining technology will raise this figure up to 2500 or 3000 tons per man per month. Increased production for surface mines is planned, particularly with the development of the mining and power complexes now under construction in the Ekibastuz and Kansk-Achinsk regions.

  16. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  17. Precision extruding deposition and

    E-print Network

    Sun, Wei

    Precision extruding deposition and characterization of cellular poly-e- caprolactone tissue a novel precision extruding deposition (PED) process technique to directly fabricate cellular poly scaffolds is always a challenged subject in regenerative medicine, particularly for load bearing scaffolds

  18. Peculiarities of soil structure in urban, industrial and mining areas and their effects on soil functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BURGHARDT Wolfgang

    In part the soil structure of urban, industrial and mining areas has been strongly changed. Numerous peculiar structures occure. The reasons are transport and deposition of substrates, young age of the soils, lack of bio-turbation, man-made materials, compaction, mixing and stratification of soils, skeleton content, crystallization. From import of sand and stones soils with single grain structure are wide spread

  19. Origin and distribution of biomarkers in the sulphur rich Utrillas coal basin – Teruel mining district – Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Olivella; R. Gorchs; F. X. C. de las Heras

    2006-01-01

    The Utrillas coal facies are located in the Maestrazgo basin in NE Spain. This mining district of Teruel contains sub-bituminous deposits from the Middle Albian (Lower Cretaceous 105Ma) in areas near a delta estuary with abundant sulphur. The high sulphur content is due to an influx of sulphate caused by the geological recycling of Triassic gypsum from the catchment area

  20. Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

    The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

  1. CAN WE RETURN HEAVY MINERAL SANDS MINES IN VIRGINIA TO PRODUCTIVE AGRICULTURAL USES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. LEE DANIELS

    Significant deposits (> 4,000 ha) of heavy mineral sands were discovered in the USA Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina in 1989. The majority of these lands support highly productive row crop agriculture, and the development of restoration protocols that would return these lands to agricultural use was deemed to be critical to the long term sustainability of mining

  2. High performance ground penetrating radar with up to 1 KM range on coal-mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilgis Ibragimov; Elena Ibragimova

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present our new technology called RADIANT (RADar Innovation ANtenna Technology). It uses sparse tensor decomposition and inverse Maxwell solver for signal processing and highly powerful transmitter. It allows to see the profile of ground at a distance up to 1 km on coal-mine deposits and can be used in a number of industries such as oil

  3. 76 FR 40875 - Cedar Gulch Mine, Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Josephine County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...impacts connected with extracting gold from placer deposits within a 4.25-acre...proposal under the name of Tracy Placer Mine, on April 21, 2006, Volume...to reflect the actual name of the placer claim, rather than the claim...

  4. Methodology for optimal selection of cutoff grades and production rates of underground uranium mining operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathi

    1986-01-01

    The optimizing criterion is assumed to be the maximum net present value of the project. The following summarizes the significant conclusions. (1) Over a large range of discount rates, mining and milling of the mineral deposit at a constant cutoff grade and a constant production rate consistently results in smaller annual discounted cash flows than the optimal schedule determined by

  5. Mining Social Media: Looking Ahead Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab November 2, 2014 Beijing 1

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Mining Social Media: Looking Ahead Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab November 2, 2014 Beijing 1 Mining Social Media: LookingBp://dmml.asu.edu/ #12;Mining Social Media: Looking Ahead Arizona State University Data Mining

  6. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of magnesium, sulfate, and manganese and have the potential to be physically unstable.

  7. Airflow obstruction and mining

    SciTech Connect

    Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

  8. Logistics of underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J.J.; Visovsky, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book investigates and analyzes the major logistical functions associated with underground coal mining in the U.S.--the activities and services that indirectly support the producing sections of a mining operation. These logistics activities include transportation of personnel, supplies, and equipment; transporation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. The book provides an understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. The support services for underground coal mine production are so essential that no coal would be produced without them. Since no two mines are alike, logistics problems can be quite varied. Developing and improving systems which, not only directly but indirectly, affect production is an extremely important factor in mining economics. This book presents extensive analytical data which demonstrate the significance of logistical controls on the profitability of coal production. Numerous aspects of underground mine logistics and the costs of various logistical functions are investigated; cost analyses of the major logistics categories clearly identify a particular category's effects on various equipment combinations and seam heights. Current mining practices and problems are reviewed, accompanied by opinions and comments from mining industry representatives; and short- and long-term areas for further research are suggested. The book contains an extensive set of tables for illustrative purposes.

  9. Haiku: interactive comprehensible data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Beale; Andy Pryke

    This paper discusses a novel data mining system devised and developed at Birmingham, which attempts to provide a more effective data mining system. It ties in with the workshop goals in a number of different areas. The system tries to allow users to see the big picture and not get caught up in irrelevant detail too early; it uses perception-based

  10. Image Mining: Trends and Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wynne Hsu; Mong Li Lee; Ji Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Advances in image acquisition and storage technology have led to tremendous growth in very large and detailed image databases. These images, if analyzed, can reveal useful information to the human users. Image mining deals with the extraction of implicit knowledge, image data relationship, or other patterns not explicitly stored in the images. Image mining is more than just an extension

  11. Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information and Computing Sciences-year functional programming course using the Helium compiler. The mining of such a collection is not trivial a type error. 1 #12;1 Introduction and motivation When the Helium compiler for learning Haskell

  12. Trace Clustering in Process Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minseok Song; Christian W. Günther; Wil M. P. Van Der Aalst

    2008-01-01

    Process mining has proven to be a valuable tool for analyzing operational process executions based on event logs. Existing techniques perform well on structured processes, but still have problems discovering and visualizing less structured ones. Unfortunately, process mining is most interesting in domains requiring exibilit y. A typical example would be the treatment process in a hospital where it is

  13. The mine hunter/killer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanfield, Ricky W.

    1997-07-01

    The term 'mine hunter/killer' has frequently served as a catch-all for almost any discussion of the integration of mine detection and neutralization technology. With the Army's recent approval of the mine hunter/killer advanced technology demonstration, the term now takes on a specific set of challenges and goals. In this paper, the author discusses the developing operational and functional requirements for the mine hunter/killer, the mine types considered as targets for the system, and the implications of these factors for detection systems and neutralizers alike. The issue of 'stand-off' is explored with an emphasis on the trade-offs that must be made between it and overall system effectiveness. The author further discusses recent developments in both detection and neutralization technology that make the notion of a stand-off mine detection and neutralization system more realistic. This discussion includes a summary of forward looking radar, forward looking IR sensors, and advanced signal processing architectures and algorithms. However, it focuses on stand-off neutralization technology and fire control techniques, their stand-off and area kill capabilities, and the synergism between them and the detection suites. Recent neutralizer test results are provided as a basis for considering the requirements of stand-off mine detection systems for probability of detection, detection halo, and false alarm rate. The author concludes with a review of the mainstream mine hunter/killer concept.

  14. Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Chen

    Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities Gary William Flake flake@research.nj.nec.com NEC Research Institute #12;Motivation for Web Mining More than 1B web pages and 20TB of raw data. Even more content will always be disorganized (or at best self-organized). In the future, everything will be on the web

  15. Implications of Emerging Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulathuramaiyer, Narayanan; Maurer, Hermann

    Data Mining describes a technology that discovers non-trivial hidden patterns in a large collection of data. Although this technology has a tremendous impact on our lives, the invaluable contributions of this invisible technology often go unnoticed. This paper discusses advances in data mining while focusing on the emerging data mining capability. Such data mining applications perform multidimensional mining on a wide variety of heterogeneous data sources, providing solutions to many unresolved problems. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages arising from the ever-expanding scope of data mining. Data Mining augments human intelligence by equipping us with a wealth of knowledge and by empowering us to perform our daily tasks better. As the mining scope and capacity increases, users and organizations become more willing to compromise privacy. The huge data stores of the ‚master miners` allow them to gain deep insights into individual lifestyles and their social and behavioural patterns. Data integration and analysis capability of combining business and financial trends together with the ability to deterministically track market changes will drastically affect our lives.

  16. Literature mining in molecular biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berry de Bruijn; Joel Martin

    2002-01-01

    Literature mining is the process of extracting and combining facts from scientific publications. In recent years, many studies have resulted in computer programs to extract various molecular biology findings using Medline abstracts or full text articles. This article describes the range of techniques that have been applied in literature mining. In doing so, it divides automated reading into four general

  17. Mining data streams: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Medhat Gaber; Arkady B. Zaslavsky; Shonali Krishnaswamy

    2005-01-01

    The recent advances in hardware and software have enabled the capture of different measurements of data in a wide range of fields. These measurements are generated continuously and in a very high fluctuating data rates. Examples include sensor networks, web logs, and computer network traffic. The storage, querying and mining of such data sets are highly computationally challenging tasks. Mining

  18. Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alec Bodzin

    2003-05-01

    Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania is a science-technology-society (STS) role playing debate simulation. In this activity, learners investigate the abandoned mine drainage (AMD) issue from differing perspectives. In their investigation, they identify AMD problems, search for a solution, evaluate options, and decide on a course of action to treat and clean up AMD in Pennsylvania.

  19. Deposition Overview - Part II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), provides an overview of the deposition processes used to fabricate micro-sized devicesâ??. The lecture runs for 10:33 seconds and covers "a brief overview of chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and electrodeposition." More information on desposition can be found on the SCME website. 

  20. Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

  1. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of the Pea Ridge FeP deposit and related rocks, southeast Missouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Marikos; M. D. Barton

    1993-01-01

    Pea ridge is a discordant Middle Proterozoic Fe-P deposit hosted in rhyolite tuffs and flows of the 1.4--1.5 Ga St. Francois terrane. Host rocks and the deposit are cut by basalt and aplite\\/pegmatite dikes. The deposit overlies a blind pluton which is partially surrounded by a trachytic ring complex. In the deposit, which is mined for Fe, early Qtz+Amph+Mag+Ap rock

  2. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  3. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOEpatents

    Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  4. Brackish water in unsaturated confining beds at a Texas lignite mine

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A surface lignite mine in Texas was studied to identify the origin of the brackish water, containing up to 8000 mg TDS/l, which occurred near the outcrop of argillaceous sediments. Data on the hydrogeology of the area and the chemical composition of rainwater and groundwater are presented and discussed, and it is concluded that the brackish water probably originated as Eocene sea water. The effects of dilution and ion exchange on this water are estimated, and changes to the system caused by mining operations are discussed. Such argillaceous deposits underlying surface mines might act as natural barriers of low permeability which should restrict movement of water from reclaimed land into nearby aquifers, and thus minimise the effect of mining on groundwater quality.

  5. Biogeochemical evolution of sulfide ore mine tailings profiles under semi-arid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mining represents a principal form of earth surface disturbance in the anthropocene. Weathering reactions that ensue following tailings deposition are strongly affected by climatic forcing and tailings composition, and these also affect the weathering-induced transformations of the associated mineral assemblages and metal(loid) contaminants. The presence or absence of plants and associated microbiota can have a profound influence on these weathering trajectories. We employed field, laboratory and modeling approaches to resolve the impact of (bio)geochemical weathering reactions on the transformation of mine tailings parent materials into soil over the time following mining cessation. Using controlled experiments, we have evaluated the impacts of plants and associated rhizosphere microbiota on these reactions, hydrologic fluxes, and the molecular speciation of mining derived contaminants. Plant establishment is shown to alter site ecohydrology and biogeochemical weathering processes leading to distinctly different weathering products and patterns.

  6. Impact of potential phosphate mining on the hydrology of Osceola National Forest, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James A.; Hughes, G.H.; Hull, R.W.; Vecchioli, John; Seaber, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Potentially exploitable phosphate deposits underlie part of Osceola National Forest, Fla. Hydrologic conditions in the forest are comparable with those in nearby Hamilton County, where phosphate mining and processing have been ongoing since 1965. Given similarity of operations, hydroloigc effects of mining in the forest are predicted. Flow of stream receiving phosphate industry effluent would increase somewhat during mining, but stream quality would not be greatly affected. Local changes in the configuration of the water table and the quality of water in the surficial aquifer will occur. Lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer because of proposed pumpage would be less than five feet at nearby communities. Flordian aquifer water quality would be appreciably changed only if industrial effluent were discharged into streams which recharge the Flordian through sinkholes. The most significant hydrologic effects would occur at the time of active mining: long-term effects would be less significant. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Utility of EXAFS in characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive mining of large mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in mercury contamination of both the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, dispersal, and ultimate fate of mercury are all affected by its chemical speciation, which can be most readily determined in a direct fashion using EXAFS spectroscopy. EXAFS spectra of mine wastes collected from several mercury mines in the California Coast Range with mercury concentrations ranging from 230 to 1060 mg/kg (ppm) have been analyzed using a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. While some calcines have been found to consist almost exclusively of mercuric sulfide, HgS, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. This experimental approach can provide a quantitative measurement of the mercury compounds present and may serve as an indicator of the bioavailability and toxicity levels of mercury mine wastes.

  8. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  9. Heavy metal pollution and lake acidity changes caused by one thousand years of copper mining at Falun, central Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna S. Ek; Ingemar Renberg

    2001-01-01

    One thousand years of mining of sulfurous ores at the Falun copper mine, central Sweden, and the resulting atmospheric emissions of metals and sulfur dioxide, gives a unique opportunity to study long-term responses to acid deposition. Copper production peaked in the 17th century, when Falun supplied 2\\/3 of the world's copper production. Thereafter production and associated emissions have declined, and

  10. Measurement and scaling of air-surface mercury exchange from substrates in the vicinity of two Nevada gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S; Eckley, Chris S

    2011-09-01

    The state of Nevada has extensive mineral resources, and is the largest producer of gold in the USA as well as fourth in world gold production. Mercury (Hg) is often present in the hydrothermal systems that produce gold deposits, and can be found in elevated concentrations in gold ore. As a result, mining of gold ore in Nevada has been shown to release Hg to the atmosphere from point and non-point sources. This project focused on measurement of air-soil Hg exchange associated with undisturbed soils and bedrock outcrops in the vicinity of two large gold mines. Field and laboratory data collected were used to identify the important variables controlling Hg flux from these surfaces, and to estimate a net flux from the areas adjacent to the active mines as well as that occurring from the mined area pre-disturbance. Mean daily flux by substrate type ranged from 9 ng m(-2) day(-1) to 140 ng m(-2) day(-1). Periods of net deposition of elemental Hg were observed when air masses originating from a mine site moved over sampling locations. Based on these observations and measured soil Hg concentrations we suggest that emissions from point and non-point sources at the mines are a source of Hg to the surrounding substrates with the amount deposited not being of an environmental concern but of interest mainly with respect to the cycling of atmospheric elemental Hg. Observations indicate that while some component of the deposited Hg is sequestered in the soil, this Hg is gradually released back to the atmosphere over time. Estimated pre-disturbance emissions from the current mine footprints based on field data were 0.1 and 1.7 kg yr(-1), compared to that estimated for the current non-point mining sources of 19 and 109 kg yr(-1), respectively. PMID:21741677

  11. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. L. Pettersson; J. Koperski

    1991-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of ²³⁸U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along

  12. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations

    PubMed Central

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 ?m aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 ?m diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

  13. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Origins of Halophilic Microorganisms in Ancient Salt Deposits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry McGenity

    This eight-page review article considers the evidence for and against long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms in ancient salt deposits. Included sections are hypersaline environments and their inhabitants, haloarchaea and halite precipitation, isolations of microorganisms from brines in salt mines, isolations of microorganisms from ancient rock salt, isolations of microorganisms directly from fluid inclusions, relationship of subsurface haloarchaea to surface isolates, dispersal of haloarchaea, and long-term survival of haloarchaea inside salt crystals.

  15. Small mammal-heavy metal concentrations from mined and control sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1982-01-01

    Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

  16. ENVIMINE - developing environmental and geodynamical safety related to mine closure in the Barents region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Ulpu; Kupila, Juho; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Konukhin, Vladimir; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    A project of mining environmental research in the Barents region was carried out in 2012-2014, in cooperation between Geological Survey of Finland, Mining Institute of Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The study areas were the active chrome mine of Kemi in Northern Finland, and the closed mines of Umbozero in Murmansk region, Northwestern Russia, and Laver in Northern Sweden. Umbozero mine, producing rare earth metals, was in operation 1984-2004. Laver mine with iron sulphide ore, producing copper, was in operation 1936-1946. The objectives of the project were to develop a methodology for environmentally safe mine closure by cross border cooperation, and to produce information of the mining environment for target groups. The aim was also to find out solutions for minimizing environmental impacts and to develop multilateral relations between Finnish, Russian and Swedish organizations, responsible for environmental management. The studies were carried out by sampling and analyzing of groundwater and surface water, surficial deposits and organic sediments of streams in the mine sites and reference areas. Composition of deposits in the tailings was carried out by means of geophysical measurements (GPR, XRF). Research data of Kemi mine indicate diminished emissions, especially after open pit mining was finished in 2006. The results in Laver, Sweden, indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains in the tailings. Problems in Umbozero are seismic instability, high pH values of waters (max. 10.4), fluorine and aluminum concentrations in the mine site, due to the rock type. Concentrations were decreasing downstream, also heavy metal concentrations were low. Results of the project are the basis for updated database of environmental condition of the study areas and for assessment of environmental impacts. Database will be used for developing recommendations for providing environmental and geodynamical safety of Umbozero. The project was partly funded by the European Union.

  17. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the lower topographic elevations. Several mine adits, waste rock dumps are located along the main stream and a large tailings dump is found next to village Baiut just above the receiving floodplain. Predominant land cover is coniferous and mixed forests with agricultural lands on the downstream floodplain. METHODS Six samples at vaious depths were collected from the two major waste rock dumps in the headwater area, and the large tailings dump was also sampled for heavy metal source characterisation. 11 stream sediment samples were collected along the main surface water contamination transport pathway, and a further 11 soil samples were collected in 2 boreholes in the receptor floodplain in October 2008. Besides background stream sediment samples, samples from the exposed rock formations were also collected in order to capture natural background geochemistry in the studied mineralised area. The collected waste rock, stream sediment, soil and rock samples are analysed for total chemical composition (major elements and heavy metals) by ICP-MS spectroscopy, and XRD is used for the determination of mineralogical composition. Rock sample mineralogy is further investigated in thin-sections by petrological microscopy. According to EU legislation expectations, a special emphasis is taken on the determination of metal mobility from the waste rock dumps and various leaching tests are performed and compared including US EPA, USGS and ISO methods. A simple cathcment-based distributed sediment transport model (Jordan et al, 2005; Jordan et al. 2005, 2008) is used to decribe the pathways and quantities of particle-bound contamination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that (1) sediments are an efficient means for the preliminary inventory of mine contamination as a preparation for the more detailed hydrological sampling and assessment, and (2) the risk-based contamination assessment of mining sites often located in diverse geological, hydrological and landcover environment requires careful and successive sampling design and a tiered assessment approach. Leaching tests are show

  18. Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.

    PubMed

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jaros?aw; van Doorn, Natalie S

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks. PMID:24176697

  19. Studying and controlling mine water in xishmen iron mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huanzong Wu; Shixuan Chen

    1987-01-01

    Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a In hydrogeology, the Xishimen Iron Mine is characterized mainly by the heterogeneous permeability of the aquifer, the periodic\\u000a feeding and the semi-closed boundary conditions. Development of the mine is faced with both water hazards and water shortages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The hydrogeological prospecting in the mine was aimed at investigating the water feeding source, boundaries and passages-the\\u000a three basic factors

  20. Analysis of Mining Induced Strains J. Barbato, Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants

    E-print Network

    Blennerhassett, Peter

    Analysis of Mining Induced Strains J. Barbato, Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants S. A. Sisson the potential impacts resulting from mine subsidence movements. However, strain resulting from mine subsidence), resulting from mine subsidence, and does not attempt to address the more complex interaction with shear

  1. Research on the aged coal mine identification and coal mine lifecycle system simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lu; Y. B. Sun; W. Cheng; J. Hai

    2009-01-01

    It gave the conception and meanings of the aged coal mine by summing up related names of the aged coal mine. In order to set up the criteria for a coal mine, it chose mine remaining service life as identification standard to identify whether a coal mine is aged or not on the basis of correlation analysis between many influence

  2. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  3. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  4. Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai

    2002-01-01

    The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources...MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine map. The operator shall maintain an accurate and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources...MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine map. The operator shall maintain an accurate and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources...MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine map. The operator shall maintain an accurate and...

  8. AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

  9. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  10. GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING APPLICATIONS IN MINING HYDROGEOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Rapantová; Arnost Grmela; David Vojtek; Josef Halir; Bedrich Michalek

    In the presented paper some specific features and problems of numerical modelling applications in mining environment are briefly discussed. The issues discussed are documented by three modelling case studies. Two of the applications are aimed at mine dewatering problems in active coal mines. The first represents the underground hard coal mining region in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian

  11. Ensemble Mine Impact Burial Naval Postgraduate School

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    To Universal Counter Drop Angle Control Device #12;Mine Attitude (Psi) Coordinate System -Z X Y Z X -Y X Mine mine hunting mission Determining depth of burial, and height, area and volume protruding upon impact dm zc = Ç z dm / Ç dm #12;Six Parameters for Determination of Mine Position Coordinate of Center

  12. Mapping rehabilitated coal mine soils in South Africa using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, D. G.

    2000-04-01

    Open-cast mining, involving severe disturbance, of shallow coal deposits has taken place in Mpumalanga, South Africa for some time with little control until recently. Current legislation requires soil investigations. The soils are agriculturally productive and merit effective rehabilitation, but several problems in this process can occur, leading to drastically reduced agricultural productivity. GPR investigation of these mine soils can help with the mapping of the depth to spoil after rehabilitation, on a significantly more cost-effective basis than traditional point observations. A field trial was carried out as part of a research project at Kleinkopje Colliery where it was shown that, despite wet conditions due to irrigation, GPR was able to map spoil depth around six times faster than augering. There is substantial scope in South Africa for GPR to make a significant contribution in this field.

  13. Clay deposits of the Tierra Colorado district, southern Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

    1953-01-01

    The clay of this district is being mined for fire brick by the Vitrofrax Corporation. Much of the clay contains 35 percent or more of alumina and between 1 and 2 percent of iron oxide. Production is largely from an underground mine as the best clay deposit known in the district occurs on the side of a steep hill with more than 100 feet of sandstone overlying most of it. The good clay deposits occur at the base of an Eocene sandstone formation, and overlie mottled clays with a high iron content that are residual deposits formed on an old weathered surface. Mapping indicates that the clay deposits are very lenticular, though all occur at the same stratigraphic position, and they grade laterally into sandy clay and quartz sand. Topographic relief and the dip of the strata preclude finding large areas where the clay strata have relatively little overburden.

  14. 77 FR 16863 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...Collection; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening, Closing, and Reopening of Mines (Formerly, Record of Mine Closures, Opening & Reopening of Mines) AGENCY: Mine...titled ``Record of Mine Closures, Opening and Reopening of Mines'' when...

  15. The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown treasures". A conservative estimate based on SGU databases is that in this province alone, there are over 6500 mineralisations/deposits. A majority of these have associated mine dumps and in the case of more recently mined deposits, different types of tailings. Initial results highlight the high average contents of REÉs and identify their mineralogical and textural distribution in apatite-iron oxide ore present in both dumps and tailings. In addition, we report the occurrence of previously undetected mineralisation of indium and tungsten in different mine dumps in the western part of the province.

  16. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; ?eref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential, feasibility, groundwater chemistry

  17. Data Mining SIAM Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok; McIntosh, Dawn; Castle, Pat; Pontikakis, Manos; Diev, Vesselin; Zane-Ulman, Brett; Turkov, Eugene; Akella, Ram; Xu, Zuobing; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document describes the data mining system developed at NASA Ames. Many NASA programs have large numbers (and types) of problem reports.These free text reports are written by a number of different people, thus the emphasis and wording vary considerably With so much data to sift through, analysts (subject experts) need help identifying any possible safety issues or concerns and help them confirm that they haven't missed important problems. Unsupervised clustering is the initial step to accomplish this; We think we can go much farther, specifically, identify possible recurring anomalies. Recurring anomalies may be indicators of larger systemic problems. The requirement to identify these anomalies has led to the development of Recurring Anomaly Discovery System (ReADS).

  18. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  19. Longwall mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, H.; Erwien, H.; Grundken, D.; Kerklies, B.; Kumor, B.; Linke, H.; Mainusch, R.; Mohn, U.; Wleklinski, B.

    1983-06-21

    A mineral mining installation comprises a longwall conveyor, a plough movable to and fro along a guide fixed to the face side of the longwall conveyor, and a drive station at one end of the longwall conveyor. The drive station includes a drive frame supporting drive means for driving the longwall conveyor. A support beam is provided at the goaf side of the drive station. The support beam extends substantially parallel to the drive frame. A floor plate extends beneath the drive frame. The goafside end portion of the floor plate is supported on the support beam by means of a lifting device, whereby the goaf-side end portion of the floor plate can be moved up and down relative to the support beam by the lifting device.

  20. Mining human antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

  1. US enacts new mine safety policies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-06-15

    New legislation in the USA requires mine operators to be prepared, increases funding for safety equipment research, strengthens mine rescue teams, and raises the limits for penalties. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act represents the efforts of industry and politicians in reaction to recent mining tragedies. S.2803 was signed on 15 June 2006. The article discusses the content of the Act and its implications for coal mine operators. 2 figs.

  2. Investigation on the Nanjing Gypsum Mine Flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangya Wang; Guanlin You; Yulin Xu

    Nanjing Gypsum Mine, or NGM, is encountering some engineering challenges in deep underground mining. The major challenges\\u000a that affect the underground mine geomechanics and geoenvironment are attributed to groundwater, rock properties and geological\\u000a structures, such as faults. A catastrophic mine flooding, triggered at NGM on 11 Sept. 2006, inundated the entire underground\\u000a mine. The causes of this geological disaster are

  3. Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

  4. Knowledge Management, Data Mining, and Text Mining in Medical Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsinchun Chen; Sherrilynne S. Fuller; Carol Friedman; William Hersh

    In this chapter we provide a broad overview of selected knowledge management, data mining, and text mining techniques and\\u000a their use in various emerging biomedical applications. It aims to set the context for subsequent chapters. We first introduce\\u000a five major paradigms for machine learning and data analysis including: probabilistic and statistical models, symbolic learning\\u000a and rule induction, neural networks, evolution-based

  5. Mine design: Long term effects of high extraction mining

    SciTech Connect

    Jeran, P.W. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A consideration when designing a high extraction coal mine is the effects that mining will have on the ground above the mine. This becomes particularly important when the surface has been improved or is inhabited. Surface owners are concerned about; when the effects will begin? how large will they be? and how long they will last? Each of these should be addressed by the designer. For more than a decade, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) has been monitoring subsidence at various sites. Based upon the data gathered, some inferences may be made regarding the above stated questions. Essentially surface movement begins with undermining. The magnitude of the movements are proportional to the thickness extracted and the width of the mined area, and inversely proportional to the depth of the mine below surface. The duration of the subsidence process in the northern Appalachian Basin is approximately one year. The USBM has developed a computer model which predicts the final subsidence profile across a longwall panel in the northern Appalachian Coal Basin. USBM studies on the dynamic development of subsidence have shown that the magnitude of the deformations developed during the subsidence process never exceed those exhibited in the final subsidence profile. Use of the model will provide engineers with a starting point in the design process.

  6. Exploring for Copper Deposits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-02-11

    In this activity, students assume the role of a geologist prospecting for copper deposits. From the background material, they will learn what ore deposits are and some important factors in their origin; and learn about a type of ore deposit known as a porphyry copper deposit. They will plot data from a table onto maps and use a geologic map, a soil geochemistry map, and a sediment geochemistry map to help locate the porphyry copper deposit. As a result of this activity, the students will be able to calculate an ore grade and determine whether or not an ore deposit is economically profitable based on its grade, size, and production costs. Worksheets and data tables are included.

  7. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND...

  10. Data mining mining data: MSHA enforcement efforts, underground coal mine safety, and new health policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kniesner, T.J.; Leeth, J.D. [Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States). Center for Policy Research

    2004-09-15

    Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact. Even using results most favorable to the agency, MSHA is not currently cost effective. Almost 700,000 life years could be gained for typical miners if a quarter of MSHA's enforcement budget were reallocated to other programs (more heart disease screening or defibrillators at worksites).

  11. Position monitor for mining machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubich, J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit at output of incremental transducer records progress of longwall shearer. In contrast to mechanical shaft encoders, electronic circuit can be easily packaged to withstand shock and vibration of mining machine as it cuts across coal seam.

  12. Dried Acid Mine Drainage Residuals

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dried acid mine drainage residuals that are formed during treatment of the drainage.  The USGS has pioneered a new use for these residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, using them to filter phosphorus from agricultural and municipal wastewaters....

  13. Tracking acid mine-drainage in Southeast Arizona using GIS and sediment delivery models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, L.M.; Gray, F.; Guertin, D.P.; Wissler, C.; Bliss, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the application of models traditionally used to estimate erosion and sediment deposition to assess the potential risk of water quality impairment resulting from metal-bearing materials related to mining and mineralization. An integrated watershed analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based tools was undertaken to examine erosion and sediment transport characteristics within the watersheds. Estimates of stream deposits of sediment from mine tailings were related to the chemistry of surface water to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to assess the risk of acid mine-drainage being dispersed downstream of abandoned tailings and waste rock piles. A watershed analysis was preformed in the Patagonia Mountains in southeastern Arizona which has seen substantial mining and where recent water quality samples have reported acidic surface waters. This research demonstrates an improvement of the ability to predict streams that are likely to have severely degraded water quality as a result of past mining activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Honeybun, Russell; Rosman, Kevin; Martin, Paul

    2006-08-01

    Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one seasonal cycle using a low volume diaphragm pump. Lead isotope ratios in dust deposited on leaves overestimate the relative amount of mine origin airborne lead, most likely due to a difference of the size distribution of particles collected on leaves and true aerosol size distribution. Seasonal measurements show that the annual average mine contribution to airborne lead concentrations in Jabiru East, approximately 2.5 km northwest of the mine, amounted to 13%, with distinct differences between the wet and dry season. The relative contribution of mine origin lead deposited on leaves in the dry season drops to less than 1% at a distance of 12.5 km from the mine along the major wind direction. An approach is outlined, in which lead isotope ratios are used to estimate the effective radiation dose received from the inhalation of mine origin radioactivity trapped in or on dust. Using the data from our study, this dose has been calculated to be approximately 2 microSv year(-1) for people living and working in the area. PMID:16388836

  15. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation. Stratiform chromite deposits are found throughout the world, but the chromitite seams of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, are the largest and most intensely researched. The chromite ore is located primarily in massive chromitite seams and, less abundantly, in disseminated chromite-bearing layers, both of which occur in the ultramafic section of large, layered mafic-ultramafic stratiform complexes. These mafic-ultramafic intrusions mainly formed in stable cratonic settings or during rift-related events during the Archean or early Proterozoic, although exceptions exist. The chromitite seams are cyclic in nature as well as laterally contiguous throughout the entire intrusion. Gangue minerals include olivine, pyroxenes (orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene), plagioclase, sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, bornite), platinum group metals (mainly laurite, cooperite, braggite), and alteration minerals. A few deposits also contain rutile and ilmenite. The alteration phases include serpentine, chlorite, talc, magnetite, kaemmererite, uvarovite, hornblende, and carbonate minerals, such as calcite and dolomite. Stratiform chromite deposits are primarily hosted by peridotites, harzburgites, dunites, pyroxenites, troctolites, and anorthosites. Although metamorphism may have altered the ultramafic regions of layered intrusions postdeposition, only igneous processes are responsible for formation. From a diagnostic standpoint and for assessment purposes, they have no temporal or spatial relation to sedimentary rocks. The exact mechanisms responsible for the development of stratiform chromite deposits and the large, layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions where they are found are highly debated. The leading argument postulates that a parent magma mixed with a more primitive magma during magma chamber recharge. The partially differentiated magma could then be forced into the chromite stability field, resulting in the massive chromitite layers found in stratiform complexes. Contamination of the parent magma by localized assimilation of felsic country rock at the roof of the magma chamber has also been proposed as a mechanism of formation. Others suggest that changes in pressure or oxygen fugacity may be responsible for the occurrence of massive chromitite seams in layered mafic, ultramafic intrusions. The massive chromitite layers contain high levels of chromium and strong associations with platinum group elements. Anomalously high magnesium concentrations as well as low sodium, potassium, and phosphorus concentrations are also important geochemical features of stratiform chromite deposits. The presence of orthopyroxenite in many of the deposits suggests high silica and high magnesium concentrations in the parent magma. Most environmental concerns associated with the mining and processing of chromite ore focus on the solubility of chromium and its oxidation state. Although trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient for humans, hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is highly toxic. Chromium-bearing solid phases that occur in the chromite ore-processing

  16. Shedding of ash deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Zbogar; Flemming Frandsen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Peter Glarborg

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of

  17. The Deposition Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation of the chemical vapor deposition process. Objective: Identify the process of chemical vapor deposition. This simulation is from Module 054 of the Process & Equipment I Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

  18. Facing Tiles Based on Feldspar Material and Cambrian Clay from Chekalovskoe Deposit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Il’ina; G. P. Ozerova; G. A. Lebedeva

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of using feldspar material from the Chupinskii mining and concentration works in mixtures for the production of ceramic facing tiles is considered. The effect of this material on shrinkage, water absorption, and strength of articles based on Cambrian clays from the Chekalovskoe deposit is studied, and their properties are compared with samples of the mixture used at the

  19. Identification of hydrothermal alteration minerals for exploring of porphyry copper deposit using ASTER data, SE Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Beiranvnd Pour; Mazlan Hashim

    2011-01-01

    The NW–SE trending Central Iranian Volcanic Belt hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits in Iran. It becomes an interesting area for remote sensing investigations to explore the new prospects of porphyry copper and vein type epithermal gold mineralization. Two copper mining districts in southeastern segment of the volcanic belt, including Meiduk and Sarcheshmeh have been selected in the present study.

  20. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Stratiform chromite deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2010-01-01

    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  2. Constraints on the genesis of gold mineralization at the Homestake Gold Deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota from rhenium-osmium sulfide geochronology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan M. Morelli; Chris C. Bell; Robert A. Creaser; Antonio Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    The Homestake gold deposit, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA, is one of the largest known hydrothermal gold deposits globally, with total mining production exceeding 40 Moz Au. Rhenium-osmium geochronology of ore-associated arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite was performed in an effort to delineate the timing of gold mineralization in relation to known tectonothermal events in the northern Black Hills.

  3. 76 FR 64110 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration...for Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of public...Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. [FR...

  4. Proceedings, 24th international conference on ground control in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G.; Tadolini, S.; Wahab Khair, A.; Heasley, K. (eds.) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Topics covered: longwall mining; multiple seam mining; pillar/pillar extraction; surface subsidence; roof falls; geology; high horizontal stresses; highwall mining/slope stability; mine/roof support design; roof bolting; and detection of ground conditions.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines)....

  6. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines)....

  7. 30 CFR 57.22305 - Approved equipment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22305 Approved equipment (III mines)....

  8. 30 CFR 57.22305 - Approved equipment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22305 Approved equipment (III mines)....

  9. 30 CFR 57.22305 - Approved equipment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22305 Approved equipment (III mines)....

  10. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines)....

  11. 30 CFR 57.22305 - Approved equipment (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22305 Approved equipment (III mines)....

  12. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines)....

  13. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines)....

  14. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines)....

  15. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

  16. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  17. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  18. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  19. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  1. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  2. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  3. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  4. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  5. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  6. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  7. 25 CFR 214.29 - Prospecting; abandonment of mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prospecting; abandonment of mines. 214.29 Section...MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.29 Prospecting; abandonment of mines. All prospecting or mining operations or the abandonment...

  8. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  9. 36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005...COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location of mining...

  11. The Sudbury Mining District

    E-print Network

    Bedell, Frank G.

    1906-06-01

    n P r e s e n t e d t o the F a c u l t y o f the SCHOOL OP ENGINEERING i n the UNIVERSITY OP KANSAS. F o r the Completion o f a Course i n MINING ENGINEERING. fey Prank G. B e d e l l . June 1906. PREFACE• I n t h i s paper w i l l be g i... v e n a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the Sudbury M i n i n g D i s t r i c t and something o f the g e o l o g y and ore d e p o s i t s o f the same; a l s o , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i n i n g and m e t a l l u r g i c a l methods used...

  12. Evaluation of Aster Images for Characterization and Mapping of Amethyst Mining Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoski, P. R.; Rolim, S. B. A.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), subsystems VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) images, for discrimination and mapping of amethyst mining residues (basalt) in the Ametista do Sul Region, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This region provides the most part of amethyst mining of the World. The basalt is extracted during the mining process and deposited outside the mine. As a result, mounts of residues (basalt) rise up. These mounts are many times smaller than ASTER pixel size (VNIR - 15 meters and SWIR - 30 meters). Thus, the pixel composition becomes a mixing of various materials, hampering its identification and mapping. Trying to solve this problem, multispectral algorithm Maximum Likelihood (MaxVer) and the hyperspectral technique SAM (Spectral Angle Mapper) were used in this work. Images from ASTER subsystems VNIR and SWIR were used to perform the classifications. SAM technique produced better results than MaxVer algorithm. The main error found by the techniques was the mixing between "shadow" and "mining residues/basalt" classes. With the SAM technique the confusion decreased because it employed the basalt spectral curve as a reference, while the multispectral techniques employed pixels groups that could have spectral mixture with other targets. The results showed that in tropical terrains as the study area, ASTER data can be efficacious for the characterization of mining residues.

  13. Investigation of coal deposits in the Fairview and Coal City basins, Coosa Field, St. Clair County, Ala.: reserves, petrography, and chemical properties of coals: washability characteristics of coal from Fairview bed: geology of area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toenges, Albert L.; Turnbull, Louis A.; Jolley, Theodore R.; Shields, Joseph J.; Smith, H.L.; O'Donnell, H. J.; Cooper, H.M.; Abernethy, R.F.; Gandrud, B.W.; Riley, H.L.; Rothrock, Howard E.

    1949-01-01

    Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the coal deposits in Saint Clair County, Alabama. Investigations of the estimated reserves and analyses of the coal fields in this area are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.

  14. Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning Lab April 22, 2014 1

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    Some Challenging Problems in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Problems in Mining Social Media Huan Liu Joint work with Ali Abbasi Shamanth in Mining Social Media Arizona State University Data Mining and Machine Learning

  15. 43 CFR 3594.4 - Development on leased lands through adjoining mines as part of a mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...leased lands through adjoining mines as part of a mining unit. 3594.4 Section 3594.4 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.4 Development on...

  16. 43 CFR 3594.4 - Development on leased lands through adjoining mines as part of a mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...through adjoining mines as part of a mining unit. 3594.4 Section 3594...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods §...

  17. System for depositing thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tashbar, P. W. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for depositing a thin film of one material on another is described. A mass filter is interposed between the source of material being deposited and the object upon which deposition is being made.

  18. Mining equipment safety: a review, analysis methods and improvement strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2009-01-01

    This article presents facts and figures on mining equipment safety and reviews various important aspects of mining equipment safety including quarry accidents, electrical accidents, equipment fires, maintenance-related mining accidents, causes of mining equipment accidents and major ignition sources for mining equipment fires. A number of methods considered useful for performing mining equipment safety analysis are also presented. Useful strategies to

  19. Coal mining under aquifers in China: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jincai Zhang; Baohong Shen

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogeological conditions are very complex in many coal mines in China. Water inrushes from aquifers near mining coal seams occur frequently, and coal mines often suffer from serious water disasters during coal extraction. Therefore, mining safety from groundwater hazards is a common concern of both mine operators and researchers. It is of vital importance to determine mining-induced strata failure

  20. Aerosol deposition in human respiratory-tract casts

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.

    1981-09-01

    To assess the health hazard to the human presented by airborne particulate matter in the mining and industrial work environment, information is needed concerning total dose deposition and its distribution. Data has been obtained by depositing monodisperse ammonium fluorscein aerosols in respiratory system simulators consisting of combined human replica larynx casts and single-pathway trachebronchial (TB) tue models. Since they have only two airways in each generation distal to the trachea, airflow rates and patterns could be controlled in a practical manner with rotometers. Larynx configurations correspond to inspiratory flow rates of 15, 30 and 60 lmin. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the aerosols ranged from 3.0 ..mu..m to 10.6 ..mu..m with geometric standard deviations of 1.11 to 1.16. Total larynx and TB deposition measurements could be expressed in terms of a single parameter, the particle Stokes number. Intrabronchial dose distribution results indicated relatively large tracheal losses, attributed to the laryngeal jet. Some airway bifurcations were sites of enhanced deposition. Such hot spots would indicate very high dosage to epithelial cells of workers' airways and have important implications regarding the establishment of threshold exposure values. Findings are in agreement with aerosol deposition data from replica TB casts. Inhalation exposure tests support the use of the single-pathway TB model as a suitable surrogate in studies of factors affecting aerosol behavior and deposition in the human.

  1. Pumice deposits in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1952-01-01

    Three principal areas of pumice deposition have been found in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region: Katmai National Monument, Augustine Island, and the Veniaminof-Aniakchak area. Vast quantities of pumice were deposited in Katmai National Monument resulting from the eruption of Mt. Katmai and related volcanic action in 1912. The principal deposits in the coastal areas of the Monument occur in the valley of the Katmai River and in the Amalik Bay-Kukak Bay area. Several areas of pumice deposition have been found on the south and west sides of Augustine Island, located 200 miles southwest of Anchorage. Mining was carried on by the Alaska Katmalite Corporation during the period 1946-1949, but no production has taken place since that time. Pumice deposits found in the Aniakchak-Veniaminof area have probably been derived from three principal sources: Aniakchak Crater, Mt. Veniaminof and Purple Crater. The limited data available indicate the deposits of chief interest occur in the valley of the Aniakchak River and in areas adjacent to Chignik Bay.

  2. Mining Through H2S Seam Gas Zones in Underground Coal Mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. M. Harvey; Sean Cory

    Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) has been encountered in several collieries in the Bowen Basin coal reserves located in Central Queensland, Australia. Significant occurrences have been found in the underground workings at Collinsville No 2 Mine, Oaky Creek No 1 Mine and Southern Colliery. Longwall panels at Oaky Creek and Southern Colliery have recently mined through H2S zones, and mining will intersect

  3. Autonomy and operator-assistance technologies optimize mining processes and mining equipment operation.

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Abhinav

    health and safety hazards to mining workers. The first untethered robot for inspecting pipelines#12;· Autonomy and operator-assistance technologies optimize mining processes and mining equipment body. · Operators can use autonomy and operator assistance to supervise mining equipment from a safe

  4. Treatment efficiency of acid mine drainage by the Ho-Nam Coal Mine passive treatment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Woo Ji; Gil-Jae Lim; Young-Wook Cheong; Kyoungkeun Yoo

    2012-01-01

    The Ho-nam coal mine passive treatment system, which consists of an oxidation pond, successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and aerobic wetland, was investigated to estimate the treatment efficiency of the entire system and each treatment step. After the acid mine drainage of Ho-nam coal mine moves through the entire system, metal concentration and acidity decreases and alkalinity increases. Acid mine

  5. The effects of bio-mechanisms on acidic mine drainage in coal mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Atkins; F. D. Pooley

    1982-01-01

    The paper outlines the effects of acid mine drainage on the ecology of the surface environment and describes the details of a laboratory test programme that investigated the actual role of micro-organisms in the formation of acid mine water. An example of the corrosive effects of acid mine water on mine pumping equipment is given. The paper enumerates various techniques

  6. Failure mechanism of pump chambers and their optimized design in deep mining at Qishan Coal Mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming SUN; Chuangzhou WU; Feng CAI

    2010-01-01

    Pump chambers, normally used as dominant structures in mining engineering to insure the safety and production of underground coal mines, become generally deformed under conditions of deep mining. Given the geology and engineering condition of Qishan Coal Mine in Xuzhou, the failure characteristics of pump chambers at the ?1000 m level show that the main cause can be attributed to

  7. THE EFFECTS OF BIO-MECHANISMS ON ACIDIC MINE DRAINAGE IN COAL MINING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Atkins; F. D. Pooley

    2006-01-01

    The paper outlines the effects of acid mine drainage on the ecology of the surface environment and describes the details of a laboratory test programme that investigated the actual role of micro-organisms in the formation of acid mine water. An example of the corrosive effects of acid mine water on mine pumping equipment is given. The paper enumerates various techniques

  8. Towards educational data mining: Using data mining methods for automated chat analysis to understand and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards educational data mining: Using data mining methods for automated chat analysis. In this paper we investigate the application of data mining methods to provide learners with real-time adaptive derived two mod- els for classifying chat messages using data mining techniques and tested

  9. V. Kumar Data Mining for Earth Science Data 1 Data Mining for Earth Science Data

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Vipin

    © V. Kumar Data Mining for Earth Science Data 1 Data Mining for Earth Science Data Vipin Kumar Army and Army High Performance Computing Center #12;© V. Kumar Data Mining for Earth Science Data 2 Research and the land. event modeling #12;© V. Kumar Data Mining for Earth Science Data 3 Sources of Earth Science Data

  10. Mine waste water management and treatment in coal mines in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Mien

    2012-01-01

    At present, Vietnam National Coal and Mineral Industries Holding Corporation Limited (VINACOMIN) controls 35 coal mines, including 10 underground mines and 25 open pits in Quang Ninh coal basin. The coal mining area in Quang Ninh has a very special characteristic that its coal seams are located near the coast of Ha Long Bay and many coal mines are situated

  11. Ash deposit workshop: Class outline

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

  12. Mechanism of microearthquakes within the Cigar Lake mine, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamova, Petra; Šílený, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The moment tensor (MT) used today as a universal tool for descriptions of the mechanism, captures general balanced dipole sources. However, in the case of small-scale earthquakes, the moment tensor needs not always be reliably determined. In an effort to fit the data, there may be notable non-shear components caused by a low quality of input data. Implementation of a constrained model of the mechanism, described by less parameters than the traditional MT, can reduce the error in the retrieved source mechanism. In addition, constraining the source model to determine directly a simpler one is convenient for describing the physical phenomena expected for a particular focus. An opening of new fractures can be described, to a first approximation, by a tensile crack, optionally combined with a shear slip. The reverse motion describes a closing of a vacancy. This model, alternative to the MT, is called a shear-tensile crack (STC) source model. The combination is practical, and can be used both to identify events that reflect purely mode-I (tensile/implosion) failure and to determine the dilation angle of the fracture undergoing shear. Its application is useful in situations where there is a physical reason to expect volume changes in the foci of seismogenic events, which is the case of many processes taking place in induced seismicity. The Cigar Lake mine is the second largest high grade uranium deposit in the world: it is located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. A microseismic monitoring system was installed as a tool to locate potential ground movements during or after the mine dewatering process. The microseismic monitoring system initially included six monitoring boreholes. Each site is equipped with four three-component geophones stationed between 275 - 575 meters in depth. The seventh borehole is configured with eight geophones: four near surface string and the other four in a lower positioned string. The approximate surveillance coverage of the microseismic monitoring system spans a 600 square meter area in map view and is situated around the vicinity of the mine infrastructure. The particular reason for the study of the mechanisms of microearthquakes at Cigar Lake is the relationship of these events to the specific technological operation performed in the mine. In order to reduce water inflow during extraction, a portion of the deposit was frozen. Due to the tensional loading imposed by the expanding ice, tensional fracturing can be expected. We studied five events from the mine using the two different source models, namely MT and STC. All of the events display large non-DC components and we focused on studying their reliability with the aim to assess their correspondence to the tensile fracturing of the rock-mass.

  13. Web Mining for Web Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Li, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2001-01-01

    Presents a prototype system for image retrieval from the Internet using Web mining. Discusses the architecture of the Web image retrieval prototype; document space modeling; user log mining; and image retrieval experiments to evaluate the proposed system. (AEF)

  14. Automatic mine detection based on multiple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ssu-Hsin; Gandhe, Avinash; Witten, Thomas R.; Mehra, Raman K.

    2000-08-01

    Recent research sponsored by the Army, Navy and DARPA has significantly advanced the sensor technologies for mine detection. Several innovative sensor systems have been developed and prototypes were built to investigate their performance in practice. Most of the research has been focused on hardware design. However, in order for the systems to be in wide use instead of in limited use by a small group of well-trained experts, an automatic process for mine detection is needed to make the final decision process on mine vs. no mine easier and more straightforward. In this paper, we describe an automatic mine detection process consisting of three stage, (1) signal enhancement, (2) pixel-level mine detection, and (3) object-level mine detection. The final output of the system is a confidence measure that quantifies the presence of a mine. The resulting system was applied to real data collected using radar and acoustic technologies.

  15. Manufacture & management information system of mine enterprise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Zhang; Fusheng Lan

    2002-01-01

    The speciality of manufacture & management system of mine enterprise is analysed. The design principle of the system is discussed. With an example, the main functions of manufacture & management information system of mine enterprise are introduced in detail.

  16. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables.

  17. Application of biosolids in mineral sands mine rehabilitation: use of stockpiled topsoil decreases trace element uptake by plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew W. Rate; Karen M. Lee; Peter A. French

    2004-01-01

    Mineral sands mining involves stripping topsoil to access heavy-mineral bearing deposits, which are then rehabilitated to their original state, commonly pasture in south-west Western Australia. Organic amendments such as biosolids (digested sewage sludge) can contribute organic carbon to the rehabilitating system and improve soil chemical fertility and physical conditions. Use of biosolids also introduces the risk of contamination of the

  18. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  19. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    PubMed Central

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  20. Enhanced deposition rates in plasma sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Charles, C.; Brault, P.; Laure, C.; Boswell, R.

    1998-08-01

    Langmuir probe and emission spectroscopic measurements are performed in a high frequency (100 MHz) argon plasma used for the sputter deposition process of thin films of palladium (dedicated to catalysis applications). The metal source is a helicoidal palladium wire which is negatively biased with respect to the plasma potential. This induces sputtering by the ions present in the plasma. The probe results show that the presence of the helicoidal wire in the chamber does not affect the total ion flux at the substrate location. However, as the bias voltage on the wire and/or the argon pressure are increased, a secondary direct current (DC) discharge is created inside the helicoidal wire which follows a Paschen-like law; the breakdown voltage is lower than in the case of a conventional Ar discharge, probably as a result of the presence of primary electrons generated by the main high frequency (HF) plasma. This second discharge is characterized by a strong 0963-0252/7/3/002/img8 flux peak inside the helicoidal wire, which probably arises from a hollow cathode type discharge. From emission spectroscopy and deposition analysis, it is shown that this secondary plasma causes an increase of the sputtered Pd atom number and, consequently, an enhanced deposition rate.

  1. Postaccident Mine Communications and Tracking Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Novak; David P. Snyder; Jeffery L. Kohler

    2010-01-01

    Recent mine disasters in the U.S. exposed various inadequacies and gaps in mine-safety technology. Congress responded to these tragedies by enacting the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which resulted in the most significant change to mine-safety laws in 30 years. To help meet the requirements of the MINER Act and to help eliminate future

  2. Wise Mining Method through Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxiong Yang; Junzo Watada

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for data mining named Pheromone-Miner (ant-colony-based data miner). The algorithm is inspired by both researches on the behavior of real ant colonies and data mining concepts as well as principles. The goal of Pheromone-Miner is to extract more exact knowledge from a database. Pheromone-based mining breaks through limitations of other mining approaches. We compare the

  3. Using mine waters for heating and cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Schubert; M. J. McDaniel

    1982-01-01

    In northeastern Pennsylvania, two heat-pump systems are now operational and another is being constructed. These systems use waters pumped from flooded underground anthracite mines to heat and cool buildings. During winter, mine water is pumped out at about 15°C, circulated through a heat-pump system, and returned at about 11.5°C to the underground mines. Energy derived from the mine waters is

  4. Selection and optimization of mine pumping systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E W Bridgwood; R N Singhn; A S Atkins

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes various factors which affect the design of a pumping system for a mining layout. Variation of the make\\u000a and quality of mine water with respect to mine layout and developments are important factors to be considered in the design\\u000a of a pumping system. The main pumping duties which can be assigned to a mine dewatering system are

  5. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section...75.829 Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section...use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from...

  6. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section...75.829 Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section...use. Tramming the continuous mining machine in and out of the mine and from...

  7. Data Mining Citizen Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discovery from big data is enabled through multiple channels, including data mining (through the application of machine learning algorithms) and human computation (commonly implemented through citizen science tasks). We will describe the results of new data mining experiments on the results from citizen science activities. Discovering patterns, trends, and anomalies in data are among the powerful contributions of citizen science. Establishing scientific algorithms that can subsequently re-discover the same types of patterns, trends, and anomalies in automatic data processing pipelines will ultimately result from the transformation of those human algorithms into computer algorithms, which can then be applied to much larger data collections. Scientific discovery from big data is thus greatly amplified through the marriage of data mining with citizen science.

  8. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  9. Reconstructing the history of mining and remediation in the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Mining District using lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Morra, Matthew J; Carter, Meghan M; Rember, William C; Kaste, James M

    2015-09-01

    Mining that began in the late 1800s intensified during World War II contaminating Lake Coeur d'Alene sediments with potentially toxic elements. We used 80y of the sediment record to reconstruct metal(loid) loadings to the lake and quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of tailings management. Sediment core analysis for pollen, chronological markers, and metal(loid)s permitted stratigraphic reconstruction showing that contaminant loading decreased after tailings pond construction, but that most metal(loid) concentrations exceed recommended limits. Arsenic concentrations (250-450mgkg(-)(1)) at the sediment-water interface are potentially toxic; however, low P concentrations in recent sediments (1.0-1.4mgkg(-)(1)) inhibit eutrophication and the concomitant release of soluble As. Zinc (3gkg(-)(1)), Cd (10mgkg(-)(1)), Ag (10mgkg(-)(1)), and Cu (90mgkg(-)(1)) concentrations are now lower than in sediments deposited during active mining, but remain an environmental concern. Sedimentary Cr and Pb concentrations have not changed in the last 50y, because tailings continue to enter the lake. Although modern Cr concentrations (40mgkg(-)(1)) are unlikely to cause toxicity, current Pb concentrations (4gkg(-)(1)) exceed acceptable limits, creating challenges for remediation. Strategies to manage other mining-contaminated watersheds should include consideration of elemental differences when evaluating remediation effectiveness. PMID:25966938

  10. The life cycle of a mineral deposit: a teacher's guide for hands-on mineral education activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, Dave; Galloway, John; Assmus, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This teacher's guide defines what a mineral deposit is and how a mineral deposit is identified and measured, how the mineral resources are extracted, and how the mining site is reclaimed; how minerals and mineral resources are processed; and how we use mineral resources in our every day lives. Included are 10 activitybased learning exercises that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals. The guide is intended for K through 12 Earth science teachers and students and is designed to meet the National Science Content Standards as defined by the National Research Council (1996). To assist in the understanding of some of the geology and mineral terms, see the Glossary (appendix 1) and Minerals and Their Uses (appendix 2). The process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering the resource, also known as beneficiation, and reclaiming the land mined can be described as the “life cycle” of a mineral deposit. The complete process is time consuming and expensive, requiring the use of modern technology and equipment, and may take many years to complete. Sometimes one entity or company completes the entire process from discovery to reclamation, but often it requires multiple groups with specialized experience working together. Mineral deposits are the source of many important commodities, such as copper and gold, used by our society, but it is important to realize that mineral deposits are a nonrenewable resource. Once mined, they are exhausted, and another source must be found. New mineral deposits are being continuously created by the Earth but may take millions of years to form. Mineral deposits differ from renewable resources, such as agricultural and timber products, which may be replenished within a few months to several years.

  11. Placer tin deposits in central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Robert Mills; Coats, Robert Roy; Payne, Thomas G.

    1963-01-01

    Placer tin, in the form of cassiterite (Sn02) and (or) tinstone (fragments including cassiterite and some vein or rock material), is known or reported in deposits that have been prospected or mined for placer gold in four areas adjacent to the Yukon River in central Alaska, 120 to 240 miles west of Fairbanks. These areas are: the Morelock Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 30 miles upstream from Tanana; the Moran Dome area, about 16 miles north of the Yukon River and 25 miles northwest of Tanana; the Mason Creek area, on the north side of the Yukon River about 36 miles west of Tanana; and the Ruby-Long area, on the south side of the Yukon River near Ruby and about 40 miles east of Galena. The only extensive placer mining in these areas has been in the Ruby-Long area. Other placer deposits including some cassiterite are known in central Alaska but are not discussed in this report. Bedrock in these areas is predominantly schist of various types with some associated greenstone and other metamorphic rocks. Some granite is exposed in the Moran Dome and Ruby-Long areas and in areas close to Morelock and Mason Creeks. Barren, milky quartz veins and veinlets transecting the metamorphic rocks are common. No cassiterite was found in the bedrock, and no bedrock source of the tin has been reported. In the Moran Dome and Mason Creek areas, and in part of the Ruby-Long area, tourmaline is present in the rocks of the tin-bearing drainage basins, and apparently absent elsewhere in these areas. The placer deposits are in both valley floor and bench alluvium, which are predominantly relatively thin, rarely exceeding a thickness of 30 feet. Most of the alluvium deposits are not perennially frozen. In the Morelock Creek area tin-bearing deposits are 5 to 5? miles above the mouth of the creek, and meager evidence indicates that cassiterite and gold are present in Morelock Creek valley and some of the tributaries both upstream and downstream from these deposits. The concentrates recovered in samples average about 57 percent tin, and the gold averages about 922 fine. Prospecting indicates that the placer tin deposits are small and of relatively low grade, and that the greater part of the value of the deposits is the gold. In the Moran Dome area the known tin-bearing deposits are in the valley floor and bench gravels along upper Tozimoran Creek. Much of the alluvium is unfrozen, but the deeper portions of the bench gravels and the gravels some distance from the streams are in part frozen. Tin-bearing samples have been obtained from prospect pits and drill holes at a number of sites on Tozimoran Creek between its head and the confluence with Slate Creek. Gold recovered from some of these samples has a fineness of 835. The presence of cassiterite and gold on Ash Creek has been confirmed by sampling. Cassiterite and gold reportedly occur on upper Melozimoran Creek, and several other stream valleys in this area may be tin bearing. In the Mason Creek area cassiterite has been reported in the valley floor and bench alluvial deposits on Mason Creek, but its presence could not be confirmed in the brief field examinations of creek and dump-pile gravel that were made. The limited number of pits and cuts available precluded a valid sampling without additional drilling, pitting, or trenching. In the Ruby-Long area the valleys of Midnight, Birch, and Big Creeks are known to have appreciable concentrations of cassiterite in the gold-bearing placer deposits. The alluvial deposits in the valleys of Ruby, Glacier, Flint, Trail, Long, Fifth of July, Short, Flat, Greenstone, and Monument Creeks contain some cassiterite, but sufficient information could not be obtained to make an evaluation of these occurrences. Cassiterite concentrates, reportedly ranging from 52 to 70.24 percent tin, have been recovered in connection with gold mining operations on Midnight, Birch, and Big Creeks.

  12. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Deposits AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and...U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury...

  13. World oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, C.O.; Russell, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The article estimates resources in-place and their oil equivalent. The major deposits are described in the U.S., Australia, USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Morocco, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Europe and South America. 2 refs.

  14. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  15. AIR QUALITY AND DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution climate of an area is influenced by meteorology and emissions of air pollutants at local and regional scales. he physical and chemical state of the atmosphere determines pollutant transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and ultimately deposition. n many cases ...

  16. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth processes. Summarizing, this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology reflects the rapidly growing interest in the ALD growth method and demonstrates the wide range of possible practical applications of ALD-grown materials, not only of high-k dielectrics, but also of a range of different materials (e.g. ZnO). Finally, I would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support and efforts in making this special issue possible.

  17. CATAWISSA CREEK MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of flooding underground coal mine workings in an isolated basin of coal, thereby restoring or partially restoring the groundwater table in the basin and reducing the production of acid mine drainage. Flooding the mined ...

  18. 76 FR 81761 - Mine Safety Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...information about mining-related fatalities...public via MSHA's data retrieval system...Cost-Benefit Analysis A. Introduction We are adopting...actions, and mining-related fatalities...available on MSHA's data retrieval system...information about mining-related fatalities...public via MSHA's data retrieval...

  19. 75 FR 80374 - Mine Safety Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...information via MSHA's data retrieval system...disclosure of mining-related fatalities...Cost-Benefit Analysis A. Introduction and Objectives...actions, and mining-related fatalities...available on MSHA's data retrieval system...disclosure of mining-related fatalities...public through its data retrieval...

  20. Mining interesting knowledge using DM-II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma; Shu Chen

    1999-01-01

    Data mining aims to develop a new generation of tools to intelligently assist humans in analyzing mountains of data. Over the past few years, great progress has been made in both research and applications of data mining. Data mining systems have helped many businesses by exposing previously unknown patterns in their databases, which were used to improve profits, enhance customer

  1. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Droppo

    1985-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To

  2. Data Mining for Imprecise Temporal Associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Vincenti; Robert J. Hammell II; Goran Trajkovski

    2005-01-01

    The field of data mining is dedicated to the analysis of data in order to find underlying connections and the discovery of new patterns. Since the volume of data to be analyzed is sometimes quite significant, there is the need for efficient data mining algorithms to be implemented. The market-basket algorithm can represent a breakthrough in data mining techniques. As

  3. Data Mining: The Big Ideas David Banks

    E-print Network

    Data Mining: The Big Ideas David Banks Department of Statistical Science Duke University 1 #12 important hidden structure, and data mining is a suite of statistical tools that provide ways to discover-Dimensional Data has drawn together some of the world's experts in data mining, and this talk tries to lay out

  4. Data Mining of Machine Learning Performance Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remzi Salih Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    ith the development and penetration of data mining within different fields andindustries, many data mining algorithms have emerged. The selection of a gooddata mining algorithm to obtain the best result on a particular data set has become veryimportant. What works well for a particular data set may not work well on another. Thegoal of this thesis is to find associations

  5. Accelerating data mining workloads: current approaches

    E-print Network

    Choudhary, Alok

    is appearing to be the next big challenge in computing. Data mining is the process of automated extrac- tionOverview Accelerating data mining workloads: current approaches and future challenges in system as coprocessors for data mining applications, allowing the CPU to offload computationally intensive tasks

  6. Parallel Data Mining Revisited. Better, Not Faster

    E-print Network

    Berthold, Michael R.

    into two main themes: "big data" type analyses, where the goal is still the efficient mining of insightsParallel Data Mining Revisited. Better, Not Faster Zaenal Akbar, Violeta N. Ivanova, and Michael R is to tune data mining algorithms to produce better results in the same time rather than producing similar

  7. Data Mining and Discovery of Chemical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wencong, Lu

    In this chapter, the Data mining methods adopted are briefly introduced. The main focuses are on the successful applications of data mining methods in chemistry and chemical engineering. The discoveries of chemical knowledge cover the formation of ternary Intermetallic compounds, structure activity relationships of drugs, and industrial optimization based on chemical data mining methods, especially by using statistical pattern recognition and support vector machine.

  8. Categorizing and mining concept drifting data streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Zhang; Xingquan Zhu; Yong Shi

    2008-01-01

    Mining concept drifting data streams is a defining challenge for data mining research. Recent years have seen a large body of work on detecting changes and building prediction models from stream data, with a vague understanding on the types of the concept drifting and the impact of different types of concept drifting on the mining algorithms. In this paper, we

  9. Hydrodynamics of Falling Mine in Water Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Chu; Anthony F. Gilles; Chenwu Fan; Peter Fleischer

    The hydrodynamic features of a falling mine into the water column is investigated experimentally. The experiment consisted of dropping three cylindrical model mines of various lengths into a pool where the trajectories were filmed from two angles. The controlled parameters were, mine parameters (length to diameter ratio, center of mass location), and initial conditions (initial velocity, and drop angle). Results

  10. Methodological and practical aspects of data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Feelders; H. Daniels; M. Holsheimer

    We describe the different stages in the data mining process and discuss some pitfalls and guidelines to circumvent them. Despite the predominant attention on analysis, data selection and pre-processing are the most time-consuming activities, and have a substantial influence on ultimate success. Successful data mining projects require the involvement of expertise in data mining, company data, and the subject area

  11. Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Hartman; J. M. Mutmansky; R. V. Ramani; Y. J. Wang

    1998-01-01

    This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and

  12. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  13. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

  14. Monitoring environmental impacts of surface coal mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Rathore; R. Wright

    1993-01-01

    Coal mining generates a number of significant environmental impacts. Due to its synoptic coverage and repetitive data acquisition capabilities, remote sensing has been extensively used to monitor effects of surface mining. Availability of low cost and high resolution data in recent years has focused increased attention on the use of satellite data for monitoring surface mining activity. This article presents

  15. Data Mining for Scientific & Engineering Applications

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Vipin

    Data Mining for Scientific & Engineering Applications Robert Grossman, Laboratory for Advanced. Kamath, V. Kumar Data Mining for Scientific and Engineering Applications Ch 1/ 3 Goals of Chapter 1 l What are some model problems? l What are the challenges? l What is the data mining process? #12;© R

  16. Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data

    E-print Network

    Malerba, Donato

    Mining Sequential Patterns from Temporal Streaming Data A. Marascu and F. Masseglia INRIA Sophia.Marascu,Florent.Masseglia}@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. In recent years, emerging applications introduced new con- straints for data mining methods of our knowledge, no method has been proposed for mining sequential patterns in data streams. We argue

  17. DATA MINING IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS Gary M. Weiss

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Gary

    DATA MINING IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS Gary M. Weiss Department of Computer and Information Science data, which describes the telecommunication customers. This chapter describes how data mining can be used to uncover useful information buried within these data sets. Several data mining applications

  18. Data stream management and mining Georges HEBRAIL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Data stream management and mining Georges HEBRAIL TELECOM ParisTech, CNRS LTCI Paris, France Abstract. This paper provides an introduction to the field of data stream management and mining. These approaches cover both querying and mining data. Keywords. Data processing, data streams, querying data

  19. Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications

    E-print Network

    Tung, Anthony Kum Hoe

    Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications Anthony Tung() School of Computing National #12;11/30/2007 Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications 2 Main objectives of this course: · Data mining is a diverse field which draw its foundation from many research areas like databases

  20. Face ventilation for oil shale mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Thimons; C. E. Brechtel; M. E. Adam; J. F. T. Agapito

    1986-01-01

    This Bureau of Mines report presents expected levels of air pollutants in the face ares of oil shale mines, based upon data collected by the authors and previous investigators. Ventilation requirements to maintain these pollutant levels below their threshold limit values and Federal and local mine air quality standards are discussed. Two practical face ventilation systems are discussed in terms

  1. Data mining in medical Anna Szymkowiak Have

    E-print Network

    Data mining in medical databases Anna Szymkowiak Have LYNGBY 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-121 IMM #12;#12;Data mining in medical databases Anna Szymkowiak Have LYNGBY 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-121 IMM #12;TECHNICAL of Philoso- phy Title: Data mining in medical databases Author: Anna Szymkowiak Have TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

  2. Justification and Hypothesis Selection in Data Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan-fang Fan; Duen-ren Liu; Churn-jung Liau

    2005-01-01

    Data mining is an instance of the inductive methodology. Many philosophical considerations for induction can also be carried out for data mining. In particular, the justification of induction has been a long-standing problem in epistemology. This article is a recast of the problem in the context of data mining. We formulate the problem precisely in the rough set-based decision logic

  3. Biomedical Literature Mining for Biological Databases Annotation

    E-print Network

    Malerba, Donato

    the upsurge of interest in text mining techniques which enable various degrees of automation in the analysis of OpenAccessDatabasewww.intechweb.org Source: Data Mining in Medical and Biological Research, Book edited #12;Data Mining in Medical and Biological Research268 scientific literature, such as identification

  4. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OConnell

    1983-01-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and

  5. Electricity's Part in Open Cut Copper Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Corfield

    1931-01-01

    This paper is intended to describe the electrification of the world's largest open cut copper mine, and also covers briefly main line transportation and miscellaneous uses of electrical energy at the concentrating plants, that are located approximately 18 miles from the mine. This electrification project was an economical and progressive step in copper mining and developed some very interesting engineering

  6. European Commission stakeholder consultation on seabed mining

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    European Commission stakeholder consultation on seabed mining Fields marked with * are mandatory. As such there is no intrinsic commercial interest in seabed mining from a NOC Association perspective, the community has with the environmental impact of seabed mining and the seafloor mineral resource assessment through deep sea exploration

  7. Mining Evidences for Named Entity Disambiguation

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Mining Evidences for Named Entity Disambiguation Mining Evidences for NED ØAims at Solving: a Document Label yd & Word Label zdi ØIncremental Evidence Mining Introduction Ø Named Entity Disambiguation explicit information to help disambiguate a mention to the right entity, which is not true in most cases

  8. Data mining for government construction procurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeng-Horng Perng; Chui-Lung Chang

    2004-01-01

    A new data-mining model for government construction procurement was developed to consider data preparation, domain knowledge and a conceptual model to reflect the needs of the knowledge economy. Prototype experiments and analysis were performed to test the data mining using information from a typical Taiwanese local construction procurement unit. The application of the data-mining algorithm to this construction procurement management

  9. Teleoperation User Interfaces for Mining Robotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hainsworth

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for user interfaces for teleoperation of mining vehicles and systems. The current status of teleoperation in mining is outlined. Current commercial interfaces are relatively unsophisticated, evolving from line-of-sight remote control systems with the addition of video displays. The user interfaces for two experimental teleoperated systems, the Numbat emergency response vehicle and remote highwall mining systems

  10. 77 FR 37440 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...Request; Mine Mapping and Records of Opening, Closing, and Reopening of Mines ACTION...titled, ``Mine Mapping and Records of Opening, Closing, and Reopening of Mines...Collection: Mine Mapping and Records of Opening, Closing, and Reopening of Mines....

  11. Chemical characteristics and acid drainage assessment of mine tailings from Akara Gold mine in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chulalak Changul; Chakkaphan Sutthirat; G. Padmanahban; Chantra Tongcumpou

    2010-01-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a great concern in many abandoned mines because of its adverse effect on the environment. In mining\\u000a processes, many kinds of wastes are produced. These wastes may become eventually sources of environmental degradation. The\\u000a focus of this study is the geochemical characterization of the end-processed tailings generated by Akara Gold Mine, the biggest\\u000a gold mine

  12. Analysis of mining-induced microseismic events at Strathcona Mine, Subdury, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Young; S. Talebi; D. A. Hutchins; T. I. Urbancic

    1989-01-01

    Rockbursts and mining-induced seismic events have serious socio-economic consequences for the Canadian mining industry, as their mines are extended to greater depths. Automatic multichannel monitoring systems (Electro-Lab MP250s) are routinely, used to detect the arrival times of seismic waves radiated by mining-induced events and sensed on an array of single component transducers installed throughout a mine. These arrival times are

  13. Turnaround team revitalizes mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-11-01

    Starting from scratch, the Broe Companies' Century Coal trains the next generation. The article describes how the newly created Century Coal LLC, controlled by Denver-based Broe Companies investment firm, is rebuilding and expanding its highwall mining operations, increasing production from a current 1 million tons to 5 to 6 million tons in 2006 and 2007. The company has a $100,000 outreach program with 95% of these funds going to local communities. Present coal mining operations are spread around Bell, Clay, Harlan Knox and Leslie Counties. A priority is the renovation of the WenLar preparation plant in Bell County. 5 photos.

  14. Data Mining for Target Marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Nissan; Zahavi, Jacob

    Targeting is the core of marketing management. It is concerned with offering the right product/service to the customer at the right time and using the proper channel. In this chapter we discuss how Data Mining modeling and analysis can support targeting applications. We focus on three types of targeting models: continuous-choice models, discrete-choice models and in-market timing models, discussing alternative modeling for each application and decision making. We also discuss a range of pitfalls that one needs to be aware of in implementing a data mining solution for a targeting problem.

  15. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  17. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  18. Geologic setting and characteristic of mineral deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Base- and precious-metal deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains southeast of Salt Lake City were mined for more than 100 years beginning in 1868. Deposits present in the Park City, Little Cottonwood, and Big Cottonwood mining districts include Ag-Pb-Zn ± Cu ± Au replacement and veins, a low-grade porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Cu-bearing skarns, a quartz monzonite-type (low F) porphyry Mo deposit, and high sulfidation (quartz-alunite) Au deposits. Most production came from polymetallic replacement and vein deposits in the Park City mining district, which has a recorded production of more than 1.4 million oz Au , 253 million oz Ag, 2.7 billion lbs Pb, 1.5 billion lbs Zn, and 129 million lbs Cu from 1872 to 1978. Production in the Little and Big Cottonwood districts, mostly from Pb-Ag replacement deposits, was much smaller. Most mineral deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains are genetically related to the Wasatch igneous belt, a series of high-K calc-alkaline stocks and cogenetic volcanic rocks that formed about 41(?) to 30 Ma. The mineral deposits mostly formed near the end of magmatic activity between about 36 to 31.4 Ma. A subeconomic porphyry Mo deposit in the Little Cottonwood stock is notably younger having formed about 26 to 23.5 Ma. The intrusive rocks were emplaced mostly along the westward extension of the west-trending Uinta arch during a period of NW-SE-directed extension, and much of the mineralization in the Park City district controlled by ENE-striking normal faults. About 15 degrees of eastward tilting of the central Wasatch Mountains during Late Cenozoic Basin and Range extension has resulted in progressively deeper levels of exposure from <1 km on the east to about 11 km on the west and in profound variations in the types of minerals deposits exposed in different parts of the range. Most deposits formed at paleodepths ?5 km, and the most productive deposits in the Park City district formed at depths of 1 to 2 km. The prophyry Mo deposit in the Little Cottonwood stock formed at greater depths of about 6 km.

  19. The Positive Environmental Contribution of Jarosite by Retaining Lead in Acid Mine Drainage Areas

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Maria-Ondina; da Silva, Teresa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Jarosite, KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, is a secondary iron sulphate often found in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, particularly in mining wastes from polymetallic sulphide ore deposits. Despite the negative environmental connotation usually ascribed to secondary sulphate minerals due to the release of hazardous elements to aquifers and soils, jarosite acts as an efficient remover and immobilizer of such metals, particularly lead. The mineral chemistry of jarosite is reviewed and the results of a Fe K-edge XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) study of K-, Na- and Pb-jarosite are described and discussed within the context of the abandoned old mines of São Domingos and Aljustrel located in southern Portugal, in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). PMID:21655138

  20. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-04-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.