These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

1982-01-19

2

A 6,000-years record of atmospheric mercury accumulation in the high Arctic from peat deposits on Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in the atmospheric transport, deposition, and accumulation of anthropogenicHg in the Arctic. To quantify the impact of industrialHgemissions, the natural rate of atmosphericHg accumulalion must be known. Mercury concentration measilrements and age dating oi peatfrom the Canadian Arctic show that natural “background” Hg flux rather constant (ca. 1microgram?per?sq.?m?per?yr.) throughout the past 6,000years. Mercury concentrations in surface peat layers are much higher, but chronology ofthese changes cannot be interpreted until more age dates are available. The elevated Hgconcentrations in surface layers, however, are out of proportion withBr andSe, suggesting that there has been a significant human impact. Peat cores from southern Canada provide a record of atmospheric Hgaccumulation extending back nine thozisand years, with similar backgroundfluxes. Thus, pre-anthropogenic Hgfluxes in the High Arctic were not significantly differentfrom atmospheric Hgfluxes in the temperate Zone.

Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Goodsite, M. E.; Shotyk, W.

2003-05-01

3

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

E-print Network

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

Torgersen, Christian

4

Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

2013-02-01

5

Revegetation of Fluvial Mine Tailing Deposits: The Use of Five Riparian Shrub Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluvial deposition of mine tailings has caused extensive damage to riparian ecosystems throughout the West. Willows are often used for revegetation of fluvial mine tailing deposits but some species accumulate toxic concentrations of metals in leaves and stems. A greenhouse experiment was conducted ...

6

Microbiological and geochemical characterization of fluvially deposited sulfidic mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

Wielinga, B.; Lucy, J.K.; Moore, J.N.; Seastone, O.F.; Gannon, J.E. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1999-04-01

7

Modeling density dependence and climatic disturbances in caribou: a case study from the Bathurst Island complex,  

E-print Network

doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00257.x Abstract Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi important roles in the population dynamics of caribou and reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Solberg et al., 2001Modeling density dependence and climatic disturbances in caribou: a case study from the Bathurst

8

Investigations of newly formed sea ice in the Cape Bathurst polynya: 2. Microwave emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of newly formed sea ice geophysical state on microwave emission. Coincident with sea ice geophysical sampling, ship-based passive microwave emission data (dual-polarized at 19, 37 and 85 GHz) were collected in the Cape Bathurst Polynya during 18 October and 13 November 2003. Using polarization ratios (PRs), we found that bare thin ice was separable from

Byong Jun Hwang; Jens K. Ehn; David G. Barber; Ryan Galley; Thomas C. Grenfell

2007-01-01

9

Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Tailing Deposits: the Case of Raibl Mine  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, many embankments and levees have collapsed during strong earthquakes or floods. In the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy), the main source of this type of risk is a slag deposit of about 2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} deriving from galena and lead mining activity until 1991 in the village of Raibl. For the final remedial action plan, several in situ tests were performed: five boreholes equipped with piezometers, four CPTE and some geophysical tests with different approaches (refraction, ReMi and HVSR). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples: geotechnical classification, triaxial compression tests and constant head permeability tests in triaxial cell. Pressure plate tests were also done on unsaturated slag to evaluate the characteristic soil-water curve useful for transient seepage analysis. A seepage analysis was performed in order to obtain the maximum pore water pressures during the intense rainfall event which hit the area on 29th August 2003. The results highlight that the slag low permeability prevents the infiltration of rainwater, which instead seeps easily through the boundary levees built with coarse materials. For this reason pore water pressures inside the deposits are not particularly influenced by rainfall intensity and frequency. Seismic stability analysis was performed with both the pseudo-static method, coupled with Newmark's method, and dynamic methods, using as design earthquake the one registered in Tolmezzo (Udine) on 6{sup th} May 1976. The low reduction of safety factors and the development of very small cumulative displacements show that the stability of embankments is assured even if an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 and a daily rainfall of 141.6 mm occur at the same time.

Roberto, Meriggi; Marco, Del Fabbro; Erica, Blasone; Erica, Zilli [Department of Georesources and Territory, University of Udine Via Cotonificio, 114, 33100 Udine (Italy)

2008-07-08

10

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume I. Oil shale deposits, mining methods, and environmental concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume describes and discusses oil shale deposits of the U.S., applicable methods for mining the shale, and the environmental concerns associated with oil shale technologies. Mining is required to supply shale to the retorts of aboveground processes. The majority of oil shale mining is expected to be by the underground room-and-pillar method. Surface mining (i.e., open pit mining) may

C. K. Jee; J. D. White; S. K. Bhatia; D. Nicholson

1977-01-01

11

Status of Peary Caribou and Muskox Populations on Bathurst Island, N. W.T., August 198 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerial survey of Bathurst Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, was conducted 10-13 August 1981 to determine if Peary caribou (Rangifer taranduspearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moscharus) had recovered since die-offs in the early 1970s. Sampling intensity was 26%, except for 74% over Polar Bear Pass on central Bathurst Island. Populations of 289 Peary caribou and 208 muskoxen were estimated. The proportion

MICHAEL A. D. FERGUSON

12

Effects of historical and modern mining on mercury deposition in southeastern Peru  

PubMed Central

Both modern anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg), primarily from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and preindustrial anthropogenic emissions from mining are thought to have a large impact on present-day atmospheric Hg deposition. We study the spatial distribution of Hg and its depositional history over the past ~400 years in sediment cores from lakes located regionally proximal (~90–150 km) to the largest ASGM in Peru and distal (>400 km) to major preindustrial mining centers. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediments from fourteen lakes are typical of remote regions (10–115 ng g?1). Hg fluxes in cores from four lakes demonstrate preindustrial Hg deposition in southeastern Peru was spatially variable and at least an order of magnitude lower than previously reported fluxes in lakes located closer to mining centers. Average modern (A.D. 2000–2011) Hg fluxes in these cores are 3.4–6.9 ?g m?2 a?1, compared to average preindustrial (A.D. 1800–1850) fluxes of 0.8–2.5 ?g m?2 a?1. Modern Hg fluxes determined from the four lakes are on average 3.3 (±1.5) times greater than their preindustrial fluxes, similar to those determined in other remote lakes around the world. This agreement suggests that Hg emissions from ASGM are likely not significantly deposited in nearby downwind regions. PMID:24124645

Beal, Samuel A.; Jackson, Brian P.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Stroup, Justin S.; Landis, Joshua D.

2013-01-01

13

Engineering geology of a mudslide at Bracebridge Inlet, Bathurst Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

E-print Network

Archipelago. According to Slake (1964) Bathurst Island lacks the prominent glacial landforms, such as drumlins and eskers that characterize the more southernly islands. It does not appear to have been overridden by the Laurentide ice sheet during the last... dur1ng the summer melt period, The uniformity of r. he north valley slope and upper snow pack suggests that 1) wind driven snow is trapped along the lee of the northern valley ridge, 2', summer meltino of this snow pack prov-. ides a supply of melt...

Mayer, Terry Ann

2012-06-07

14

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-01-15

15

Geophysical Modeling of a Cu-Mo Prophry Deposit, Copper Flat Mine Hillsboro, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Copper Flat Mine is located is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877, but it was not until 1985 that Quintana Mineral started a full production copper mine there. The project is located on the eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed of Quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite after which a series of latite dikes cut the quartz monzonite and andesite creating veining along the terrain where the majority of the deposits are located. The copper flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure created by hydrothermal fluids which are greater than the confining pressure of the overlying rocks. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at Copper Flat. The most recent survey focused on Direct current (DC), Induce Polarization (IP), and Magnotellurics (MT). The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP survey and emphasizes the practical use of other geophysical methods in assessing the validity of the IP survey results. The primary methods that will used to identify the deposits are gravity and magnetic surveys with auxiliary methods that would complement and enhance the study such as microgravity, well logging and seismology. The research done at Copper Flat defines the boundary of the different structure that composes the ore deposit. The survey is expected to identify the boundaries of the four types on breccias that compose the Copper Flat deposit in order to identify the alteration that surround that part of the ore body. The understanding of the anomalies that appeared during previous IP surveys did not define clearly as well as different structure of the deposit needs to be reevaluated in order to have a sharper model of Copper Flat, to be aware of the interaction of the different structure that shape the ore deposit at Copper Flat.

Gutierrez, A. E.

2012-12-01

16

Multitemporal satellite data in mine waste monitoring of Medet copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic impact of the mining industry on the environment is seen all over the world. In the last decades several mining areas and corresponding waste disposal sites in Bulgaria are being monitored for ongoing reclamation processes. In this research we were focused on one environmental status of one of the most important copper producing fields for our country - Medet deposit. The objectives of the study were: (1) to analyze multispectral satellite images for 1980 - 2000 in order to assess the environmental pollution from the mining activity in the Medet open pit mine in temporal perspective; (2) to prove that by means of remote sensing an integrated environmental impact assessment can be made. After ceasing its exploitation in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period. We consider that revealing the potential of satellite multispectral and multitemporal imagery will provide valuable information on the impact of this long-term mining activity on the environment. One of the first tasks was to prepare thematic maps for several, non-successive years of the affected areas at regional scale. On the next step change detection methods were used to assess the short-term reclamation activities by examination of vegetation cover status in the areas surrounding the mine. To complete this tasks data from Landsat TM/ETM+ instruments combined with in-situ measured data was used. For data processing several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno; Banushev, Banush

2012-10-01

17

Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum. Although much has been learned about these deposits since the time this study was conducted, in 1966, a great deal more study will by required to completely elucidate their geologic history.

Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

1982-01-01

18

Diatoms and their relationship to environmental variables from lakes and ponds on Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline and historical environmental data are sparse in the High Arctic, however diatom assemblages preserved in high arctic lake and pond sediment profiles can provide proxy data of past environmental changes. Ecological data, however, are still sparse. Diatom taxa preserved in the surficial sediment of lakes and ponds on Bathurst Island (75° 42' N, 97° 21' W), Nunavut, Canadian High

Darlene S. S. Lim; Marianne S. V. Douglas; John P. Smol

2001-01-01

19

Research and implementation of mining GIS software for unstratified mineral deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a professional mining GIS software called Geological and Surveying Spatial Management Information System (GSSMIS) was designed and implemented. Due to restriction of mine design and computerization level, geostatistics and 3D block model were not fully applied in metal mining. The geologists interpreted drill holes and delimit mineral boundaries on the 2D plane and section. Unlike other 3D mining software, a 2D & 3D integration technological architecture for unstratified mineral deposit was proposed considering the conventional exploration and exploitation approaches. The whole system contains 3 modules: geological and surveying database module, 2D MGIS module and 3D modeling and visualization module. Database module input, manage, store and extract all kinds of geological and surveying data. 2D MGIS module provide lots of toolbox for plotting all sorts of engineering maps and processing advance analysis such as geostatistical and uncertain analysis, reserve computation and mining economic estimation. GSSMIS has a typical COM GIS configuration with 5 different developing levels. The 5 level structure has advantage of less coding, easier maintenance and management, good ability of extension and secondary development, adding or subtracting the modules according to user's need. Also, 5 important system characters were introduced in the article, which were: 1) 2D auto-mapping; 2) interactive interpretation of geological boundaries; 3) mutual modifications of plane and section; 4) 3D solid modeling; 5) section profile cutting. Finally, the article presented the implement of GSSMIS in Laixin Iron, Shandong Province. The system changed traditional handcraft mapping mode thoroughly, relieved the heavy burden of engineers and promoted the process of computerization and informatization in China.

Li, Mei; Liu, Yajing; Mao, Shanjun

2006-10-01

20

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.  

PubMed

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

Bendell, L I

2011-02-15

21

Undrained Strength of Deposited Mine Tailings Beds: Effect of Water Content, Effective Stress and Time of Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the geotechnical behaviour of mine tailings is imperative when evaluating the stability and erosional\\u000a resistance of sedimented tailings beds; as well as for the design and long-term management of tailings disposal facilities.\\u000a Laboratory testing was conducted on mine tailings beds of various ages and thicknesses, deposited from concentrated slurries.\\u000a Measured index properties allowed classifying the tailings as

Rozalina S. DimitrovaErnest; Ernest K. Yanful

22

Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 ?g/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 ?g/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 ?g/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 ?g/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 ?g/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 ?g/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 ?g/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 ?g/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 ?g/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 ?g/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 ?g/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 ?g/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 ?g/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water exceeded the chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms of 1000 ?g/L for Fe. There has been extensive remediation of mined areas in the ICB, but because some mine waste remaining in the area contains highly elevated Cu, Co, As and Fe, inhalation or ingestion of mine waste particulates may lead to human exposure to these elements.

Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

2012-01-01

23

Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2) electric and vibration noise due to populated areas and roads, as well as a rock crusher working close to the line, (3) significant static variations (due to the variable nature of the terrain: forest, roads, open pit filled with 10s of meters of unconsolidated materials...), make this dataset similar to a city-kind dataset. Preprocessing of the data first required the cable- and wireless- recorded sub-datasets to be merged using GPS time stamps (nanoseconds accuracy) registered in the active data. Vertical shift and stack was then carried out to stack all data available at each shot point. Preliminary results from brute stacks exhibit evidences of reflections or diffractions. It is anticipated that further processing, involving especially appropriate static corrections and velocity analysis, would help interpreting such seismic events in relation to the ore body and its surrounding structures. Possible along-profile compartmentalization is also detected; further processing is however necessary before interpreting such features in terms of recent faulting. Acknowledgements: Formas, Grängesberg Iron AB, Spendrups and Geological Survey of Sweden

Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

2014-05-01

24

Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

2009-04-01

25

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids

S. R. Blasch; R. M. Jr. Coveney

1988-01-01

26

The Hadamengou Mine: A Typical Gold Deposit in the Archean Granulite Facies Terrane of the North China Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits in Archean high-grade terranes are either syngenetic or epigenetic. In the North China craton, the high-grade metamorphic rocks are considered to be the main source of gold for the formation of gold deposits formed during the Proterozoic or Mesozoic eras.The Hadamengou mine is located in the E-W-trending Archean Daqingshan granulite belt at the northern margin of the North

S.-F. Gan; Y.-M. Qiu; H.-Y. Yang; D. D. Van Reenen

1994-01-01

27

Stratigraphy and mineralogy of a carbonate-hosted gold deposit: Kings Mountain gold mine, NC  

SciTech Connect

The Kings Mountain Gold Mine, Cleveland Company, North Carolina, is unique in the Appalachians in that it is carbonate-hosted, with a distinctive ore mineralogy. The mine stratigraphy is upright, younging east to west. The basal unit is a volcanic to subvolcanic chlorite, feldspar, quartz-eye porphyry, cut by a silicic porphyry, interpreted as a shallow level intrusion. Above and gradational to the chloritic porphyry, unless separated by the intrusive silicic porphyry, is a sericitic, quartz-eye porphyry, probably a metatuff. A north-thinning, graphite schists is above the sericitic porphyry. Carbonates overlie the graphite schist except to the north where they are above the sericitic porphyry. The carbonates consist of basal and upper sequences separated by a sericite, quartz-eye schists (metatuff) which is capped by a chlorite-sericite-graphite schist. Mineralization occurs within each carbonate sequence. This is overlain by interbedded chlorite and graphite schists with two horizons of exhalative iron formation (I.F.). Above the I.F. is a thick sequence of sericitic chlorite schists (turbidites). The mineralized carbonates are pervasively silicified with a disseminated assemblage of pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, gold, altaite (PbTe), tetrahedrite, and pyrargyrite in quartz and dolomite +/- fluorite gangue. We suggest that the mineralization is associated with hydrothermal activity during emplacement of the silicic porphyry and following carbonate diagenesis. Mineralization was syn- or post-depositional with respect to the I.F.

Supplee, J.; Lapoint, D.; Feiss, P.G.

1985-01-01

28

CHANGES IN GRADE, VOLUME AND CONTAINED GOLD DURING THE MINING LIFE-CYCLE OF GOLD PLACER DEPOSITS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of gold placer data throughout the world suggests that gold grades and volumes cannot be used to distinguish between most types of gold placers. Only the alluvial plain and fan placers are significantly different among the types of gold placers considered. Gold grades and volumes change when working placers go from small-volume methods to large-volume methods. The odds that a placer will be dominantly worked using small-volume methods at the surface are about 5:3. Once small-volume mining has occurred, the odds against subsequent large-volume mining are about 4:1. If a deposit is suitable for large-volume mining and the amount of gold produced from small-volume mining was reported, an estimate of the remaining gold (log//1//0kg) can be made using an equation.

Bliss, J.D.; Orris, G.J.; Menzie, W.D.

1987-01-01

29

Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site? †  

PubMed Central

Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies. PMID:21097582

Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

2011-01-01

30

Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for about 0.5 mm, then declines to about 1.5 ppm at the surface. The increase in U concentration coincided with a significant decrease in d234U initial values (Siklosy et al., 2008) suggesting contribution from a U source different from the natural weathering input. This is also supported by a change in the P/U ratio and much weaker correlation of the U concentrations with P in the U-enriched section of the stalagmite ("mining-period"). According to the average growth rate of the stalagmite, this period represents the last 30-50 years. Dendrochemical data covered the 1914-2004 period. The trace element time series derived from tree rings are characterized by plateaux-like maxima during the late-1960s and the 1985-95 period. This elevated events closely coupled to opening of two different uranium mine pits. Two prominent peaks emerged in the U-record coinciding the 1968 and 1991 tree rings. Dendrochemical data show abrupt increase in trace elemets (most pronounced in metals) from the tree ring dated to 1966 while the sudden decrease positioned to 1998 tree-ring. The perfect agreement between the dendrochronological dates of major changes in the chemistry of the wood and the onset-offset dates of mining history gives high probability that the mining activity is the main agent responsible for this environmental change. The possible source of U is therefore the 40-year-old Mecsek uranium mine, which produced ca. 500 tons of U concentrate per year and has reworked millions of tons of solid material (Bánik et al., 2002). Acknowledgements — This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA T 049713 and K 67583). Measurements of U-Th isotopic compositions and and 230Th dates were supported by the National Science Council grants (94-2116-M002-012, 97-2752-M002-004-PAE & -005-PAE to C.C.S.). Bánik, J., Csicsák, J. and Berta, Zs. 2002: Experience on application of continuous drain trench during the remediation of tailings ponds in Hungary. In: Broder J. M., et al. (Eds), Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III, 913-921. Sikló

Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

2009-04-01

31

Weathering of Mine Tailings Deposited on the Riverside and Related Impact of Heavy Metals on the River Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weathering of ore minerals is very important because it controls the migration and distribution of toxic heavy metals in the geologic environment. In general, the soils, stream water, and groundwater are severely polluted near abandoned mines. The tailings can be also moved away by natural or anthropogenic ways to the other sites and it can cause severe environmental problems especially in river near the urban areas. In Bonghwa area, Korea, the red deposits of weathered mine tailings are easily found, which are considered to be removed by flood from the abandoned mine and deposited on the riverside of the upper stream of Nakdong river more than ten years ago. We studied the weathering of deposited mine tailings and their impact on the rive water. To study the mineral compositions and weathering products in the tailing deposits, XRD and SEM with EDS were used. Quartz and feldspar with minor amount of mica were main primary minerals identified in the deposits. It was very hard to characterize some poor crystalline secondary minerals formed by weathering of ore minerals. Gypsum was identified as major sulfate minerals with minor component of bannite. From EDS analysis, Fe oxide and sulfate probably goethite and schwertmannite were the main iron minerals, indicating schwertmannite was precipitated first and transformed into goethite later by the removal of sulfate. Heavy metals such as As and Pb were detected from some secondary precipitates, probably due to the adsorption or coprecipitation with iron minerals. Mn oxide was the major secondary minerals composing black layers in the deposits. As and Pb in precipitates indicate that galena and arsenopyrite may be the main constituents of ore minerals in addition to pyrite. The behaviors of heavy metals and their influences on the river water are particularly controlled by secondary minerals and those relationship will be discussed with the results of the sequential extraction and secondary mineral compositions.

Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Kim, B.; Jeon, S.; Kim, M.

2006-12-01

32

Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO42 -, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O2 as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry.

Seal, R.R., II; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, A.N.; Piatak, N.M.; Wandless, G.A.

2008-01-01

33

Mercury contamination of active channel sediment and floodplain deposits from historic gold mining at Gold Hill, North Carolina, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reconnaissance investigation of mercury contamination associated with historic gold mining in North Carolina, USA, revealed high concentrations of mercury in channel and floodplain sediments downstream from the Gold Hill mining district. The most intense period of mining activities in this region occurred in the 1840s and 1850s when mercury amalgamation was used to recover fine gold particles from milled ore. This paper evaluates mercury concentrations measured in active channel sediments and two cores recovered from historic floodplain deposits of the lower portion of Dutch Buffalo Creek. Mercury concentrations in these cores range from 0.01 to 2.2 mg/kg, with maximum concentrations more than 35 times background levels. A later peak in copper concentrations is associated with the operation of a large copper mine between 1899 and 1906. Following the most intense periods of mining, both mercury and copper concentrations decrease upcore to constant levels of about twice pre-mining background concentrations. Results suggest that vertical trends in mercury and other trace metals provide a useful tool for interpreting rates of historic floodplain sedimentation in the Piedmont of North Carolina.

Lecce, Scott; Pavlowsky, Robert; Schlomer, Gwenda

2008-07-01

34

Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ lichens ( Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.

2010-05-01

35

Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A least squared comparison between the calculated and observed gravity is used to determine the best fitting gravity vectors and the best susceptibility for the assemblage of polygonal prisms. The survey is expected to identify the geophysical anomalies found at the Copper Flat deposit in order to identify the alteration that surrounds that part of the ore body. The understanding of the anomalies needs to be reevaluated in order to have a sharper model of Copper Flat, and to understand the relations of the different structures that shaped this copper porphyry deposit.

Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

36

Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

2011-01-01

37

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids and groundwater during mineralization. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures (Th) between 85 and 95{degree}C. Aqueous inclusions have Th values ranging from {approximately}90 to 130{degree}C for sphalerite to below {approximately}50{degree}C for barite. Primary brine inclusions in calcite at the Jumbo mine contain goethite, apparently as a daughter mineral. Goethite has also been tentatively identified in inclusions from the Fletcher mine of Missouri. If goethite is a true daughter phase, it implies the presence of oxidized fluids during mineralization. This suggests that ore deposition resulted from interactions between hydrothermal fluids and dilute groundwater.

Blasch, S.R.; Coveney, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1988-05-01

38

Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining.  

PubMed

Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings. PMID:25075337

Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

2014-05-01

39

Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining  

PubMed Central

Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings. PMID:25075337

Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

2014-01-01

40

Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained

Falkowski

1980-01-01

41

Metal and fluid sources in a potential world-class gold deposit: El-Sid mine, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lode gold mineralization at the El-Sid mine area is associated with the ca. 600 Ma Fawakhir granite intrusion, which cuts the ~737 Ma ophiolite nappes in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The mineralized quartz veins are hosted by ~E- and NE-trending fault/fracture sets cutting the western boundary of the intrusion and sheared ophiolites. The results of electron microprobe analyses of gold-associated hydrothermal sulfide and silicate minerals suggest that Au was mobilized alongside Ni, Co, Cr and As from the adjacent ophiolitic serpentinite. After granite emplacement, hydrothermal fluids interacted with the sheared serpentinite, leaching metals and re-depositing them in the faults/fractures and adjacent wall rock in a cyclic process. Low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with significant quantities of volatile species (CO2, CH4, and N2 ± H2S) leached and transported Au from deep to shallow crustal levels. Carbon dioxide had a buffering effect on the Au-bearing hydrothermal solution, maintaining its pH within a narrow near-neutral range, where elevated gold concentration was transported by complexation with reduced magmatic sulfur in a reducing environment. Gold deposition along fault/fracture conduits in the Fawakhir granite and adjacent serpentinite resulted from interplay of pressure drop, fluctuations in oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and exsolution of the volatile phases. Infiltration of meteoric water may have contributed to the formation of the late stage gold-sulfide mineralization that formed at shallower levels during terrane uplift. Sulfidation of the Fe-rich magmatic minerals was, on the other hand, the overriding process in the wall rock as evidenced by abundant disseminated sulfides with gold inclusions. Considering the structural control by regional shear zones (fluid conduits) and the voluminous granitic and ophiolitic rocks (metal sources), a high tonnage gold deposit amenable to open pit mining at the El-Sid mine area is very likely.

Helmy, Hassan; Zoheir, Basem

2014-11-01

42

Hydrogeochemistry of the vadose zone in unmined and reclaimed deposits at Big Brown Lignite Mine, East Texas  

SciTech Connect

Six sampling stations in the vadose zone - one in unmined mud, three in unmined sand, and two in reclaimed mud deposits - were operated from August 1979 to May 1981. The extent of seasonal variation in vadose-water content and in water chemical composition was studied by repeated sampling in each facies. Lithology, vadose-zone hydrology, and hydrochemistry were investigated by thin-section petrography, exchangeable-cation analysis, neutron-moisture geophysical logging, and water sampling using suction lysimeters. The author states that hydrogeochemistry of the vadose zone appears to be controlled by recharge rate, mineralogy, and history of each site. He concludes that low-permeability argillaceous deposits in the Calvert Bluff Formation most likely function as confining beds that retard vadose-water flow from reclaimed land to juxtaposed aquifiers, thus limiting the impact of mining on ground-water quality.

Dutton, A.R.

1986-01-01

43

Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek basin, west-central Arizona (U.S.A.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek basin area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.

Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.

1990-01-01

44

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site  

PubMed Central

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. PMID:24552963

Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P.; Russell, MacKenzie R.; King, Matt

2014-01-01

45

A preliminary geological and geochemical study of the Xiangquan thallium deposit, eastern China: the world's first thallium-only mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report the first example of a thallium-only deposit, which was discovered in the northeast margin of the Yangtze block, eastern China, in the transition zone between the Yangtze Block, North China Block and Dabie orogenic belt. Ore from the Xiangquan deposit will be mined, ore-dressed and smelted independently for thallium. The ore deposit is hosted in Lower Ordovician micrite, calcilutite and marl within the Dalongwang Mountain Xiao Mountain anticline. The ore zones are fold and fault controlled. Thallium occurs mainly in pyrite but minor amounts form as lorandite (TlAsS2) and hutchinsonite (TlFeS2). Fluid inclusion studies of two stages of fluorite intimately associated with ore-forming pyrite yielded homogenization temperatures of 120 to 220 °C with a salinity of 1.5 to 6.0 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Thallium was originally derived by hydrothermal emanations onto the sea floor and deposited in calcareous sediments. Subsequently in the Early Cretaceous (Yanshanian period) these source beds were reworked to form thallium enriched minerals in hydrothermal veins.

Zhou, T. F.; Fan, Y.; Yuan, F.; Wu, M. A.; Hou, M. J.; Voicu, G.; Hu, Q. H.; Zhang, Q. M.; Yue, S. C.

2005-12-01

46

The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ashfall into heavily populated areas during the October-November 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia created anxiety regarding the growing impacts to health as the eruption escalated and the hazard zone widened. We made a preliminary assessment of the respiratory hazards to human health of the tephra deposits (ashfall, lahar, and PDC surge) from the eruption using a laboratory protocol specifically developed to study the toxic potential of volcanic ash particles. Twenty samples collected from a range of locations were analysed for health-pertinent mineralogical parameters (grain size, crystalline silica content, morphology, surface area, bulk chemistry, and leachable elements) and bio-reactivity (hydroxyl radical generation, haemolytic potential, oxidative capacity, pro-inflammatory response). The grain size pertinent to respiratory health was variable, ranging from 1.4-15.6 vol.% sub-4 ?m and 3.0-28.9 vol.% sub-10 ?m diameter material. No fibre-like particles were observed. Cristobalite was present in all samples, ranging from 1.9-9.5 wt.%, but surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity assays showed low reactivity for all samples tested. The risk of direct exposure to ash from fallout was in any case low due to seasonal rains limiting its re-suspension and the immediate and effective clean-up of communities by local people who supplied the ash to the Indonesian construction industry for use as aggregate. However, mining of the lahar and thick PDC deposits in the valleys draining the volcano is performed on a vast, industrial scale, which could result in high occupational exposure to thousands of sand miners at Merapi during the dry seasons. Further study of the health hazard of the mined Merapi deposits is warranted.

Damby, D. E.; Horwell, C. J.; Baxter, P. J.; Delmelle, P.; Donaldson, K.; Dunster, C.; Fubini, B.; Murphy, F. A.; Nattrass, C.; Sweeney, S.; Tetley, T. D.; Tomatis, M.

2013-07-01

47

New lithogeochemical and mineralogical exploration of Li-Sn greisen mineralisation in old mining adits of the Zinnwald deposit, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymetallic Zinnwald-Cínovec deposit is represented by greisen-type mineralisation hosted within the apical portion of a small granite intrusion. Similar to other granitic stocks with Sn-W mineralisation in the Erzgebirge, the Zinnwald granite intruded during the post-collisional stage of the late-Variscan (Permo-Carboniferous) magmatic evolution. These intrusions are characterised by the prominent enrichment of incompatible elements (F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Nb and Ta) and the depletion of P2O5. The deposit is located in the eastern part of the Erzgebirge region, Germany and straddles the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. It is characterised by flat dipping, sheet-like greisen ore bodies (up to 40 m in thickness) and veins (up to 1 m in thickness) located in the apical part and along the quaquaversal dipping edges of the granite stock. The greisen bodies predominantly consist of quartz, Li-Rb-Cs-bearing mica (named zinnwaldite), topaz, fluorite and accessory kaolinite and cassiterite. Historically mined for its cassiterite and wolframite ores since the 16th and 19th century, respectively, the deposit still provides access to a wide spread system of drifts and adits. Selected parts of the underground mine are now presented by the visitor's mine "Vereinigt Zwitterfeld zu Zinnwald". These local conditions are favourable for the re-examination of the exhibited greisen mineralisation. Within the framework of the ongoing Li and Sn exploration project of the SolarWorld Solicium GmbH in the German part of the deposit, an underground sampling campaign has been conducted, incorporating a series of 88 channel samples gained at two different levels (Tiefer Bünau adit = 750 m a.s.l.; Tiefe Hilfe Gottes adit = 720 m a.s.l.). Equally spaced channels of 2 m intervals and approximate dimensions of 180 x 5 x 2.5 cm have been created on pre-selected and detailed mapped walls of two different adits within the mine. The sample material has been gained for mineralogical and geochemical investigation using optical light microscopy and ICP-MS. The herein presented work aims to provide information about the horizontal distribution of selected elements (Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, W, Sc, Nb, Ta and Zn) and to assess historic data on mineralogy and geochemistry. Furthermore, the question of a sufficient sampling distance is tried to answer with the help of statistical exclusion principles. Investigations on the chemical composition of the greisen ore yielded homogeneous concentration of elements contained in micas (Li, Rb, Cs, Zn and Sc!) with Li concentration of about 0.3 wt. %, whereas concentrations of Sn and W (but also Nb and Ta) are more heterogenic distributed with some high-grade values connected to local mica-nests, veins and/or joint planes. Moreover, results of investigated elements from this campaign are in good agreement with the overall geochemical pattern obtained by past investigations. Compared with geochemical whole rock data from drill core samples of surrounding drill holes, the mean Li grades of channel samples are consistent for different areas within the mine. In case of Li, the application of statistical exclusion principles can provide a good estimation of the sufficient maximum sampling distance (about 5 m).

Neßler, Jörg; Seifert, Thomas; Gutzmer, Jens; Müller, Armin; Henker, Jan; Kühn, Kersten

2014-05-01

48

Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G.J.

2002-01-01

49

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

2005-04-26

50

Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and siltstones of the well-drained swamp environment. Deposits of black carbonaceous shale which were formed in the poorly drained swamp deposits of the interfluve area are not favorable host rocks for uranium. The depositional energy levels of the various environments in which the sandstone and shale beds of the Dakota were deposited govern the relative favorability of the strata as uranium host rocks. In the report area, uranium usually occurs in carbonaceous sandstone deposited under low- to medium-energy fluvial conditions within distributary channels. A prerequisite, however, is that such sandstone be overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds. Low- to medium-energy fluvial conditions result in the deposition of sandstone beds having detrital carbonaceous material distributed in laminae or in trash pockets on bedding planes. The carbonaceous laminae and trash pockets provide the necessary reductant to cause precipitation of uranium from solution. High-energy fluvial conditions result in the deposition of sandstones having little or no carbonaceous material included to provide a reductant. Very low energy swampy conditions result in carbonaceous shale deposits, which are generally barren of uranium because of their relative impermeability to migrating uranium-bearing solutions.

Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

1977-01-01

51

43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria. 3461...Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. ...coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be...

2012-10-01

52

43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria. 3461...Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. ...coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be...

2013-10-01

53

43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria. 3461...Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. ...coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be...

2014-10-01

54

Laboratory dust generation and size-dependent characterization of metal and metalloid-contaminated mine tailings deposits.  

PubMed

The particle size distribution of mine tailings material has a major impact on the atmospheric transport of metal and metalloid contaminants by dust. Implications to human health should be assessed through a holistic size-resolved characterization involving multidisciplinary research, which requires large uniform samples of dust that are difficult to collect using conventional atmospheric sampling instruments. To address this limitation, we designed a laboratory dust generation and fractionation system capable of producing several grams of dust from bulk materials. The equipment was utilized in the characterization of tailings deposits from the arsenic and lead-contaminated Iron King Superfund site in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona. Results show that metal and metalloid contaminants are more concentrated in particles of < 10 ?m aerodynamic diameter, which are likely to affect surrounding communities and ecosystems. In addition, we traced the transport of contaminated particles from the tailings to surrounding soils by identifying Pb and Sr isotopic signatures in soil samples. The equipment and methods developed for this assessment ensure uniform samples for further multidisciplinary studies, thus providing a tool for comprehensive representation of emission sources and associated risks of exposure. PMID:25222928

Gonzales, Patricia; Felix, Omar; Alexander, Caitlin; Lutz, Eric; Ela, Wendell; Eduardo Sáez, A

2014-09-15

55

Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and zinc typically are adsorbed to the surface coatings of streambed-sediment grains. Mine waste and mill tailings contain high concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in a quartz-rich matrix. Most of the waste sites that were sampled had low acid-generating capacity, although one site (fine-grained mill tailings from the Nellie Grant mine deposited in the upper part of lower Frohner Meadows) had extremely high acid-generating potential because of abundant fine-grained pyrite. Two distinct sites were identified as metal sources based on streambed-sediment samples, cores in the meadow substrate, and mine and mill-tailings samples. The Frohner mine and mill site contribute material rich in arsenic and lead; similar material from the Nellie Grant mine and mill site is rich in cadmium and zinc.

Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

2004-01-01

56

Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

1980-01-01

57

43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of...

2011-10-01

58

Alfred E. Bergeat (1866-1924): a distinguished volcanologist and ore deposit researching scientist at the mining academies of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains) in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alfred E. Bergeat, originated from a family, who produced gold-glance in a factory (porcelain painting), studied mineralogy and geology at the University of Munich from 1886 to 1892. Due to the results of his habilitation work on the volcanism of island arcs, especially of the Stromboli volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, he became a recognized volcanologist and specialist in volcanic petrography. He further became an explorer of syngenetic, epigenetic and deuterogenic ore deposits at the mining academies (Bergakademien) of Freiberg (Saxony) and Clausthal (Harz mountains). He described these ore deposits in a two-volume manual (1904-1906) which was summarized again in 1913. After his early death in 1924, the two manuals “Die Vulkane” (1925) and “Vulkankunde” (1927) were posthumously published by his colleague and friend Karl Sapper (1866-1945).

Pfaffl, Fritz A.

2010-06-01

59

Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.  

PubMed

In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited. PMID:22828923

Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

2013-04-01

60

Weathering of Mine Tailings Deposited on the Riverside and Related Impact of Heavy Metals on the River Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of ore minerals is very important because it controls the migration and distribution of toxic heavy metals in the geologic environment. In general, the soils, stream water, and groundwater are severely polluted near abandoned mines. The tailings can be also moved away by natural or anthropogenic ways to the other sites and it can cause severe environmental problems

Y. Kim; B. Kim; S. Jeon; M. Kim

2006-01-01

61

Mercury dispersal in water, sediments and aquatic biota of a gold mining tailing deposit drainage in pocone, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pocone district, Brazil, Hg distribution was studied in a small watershed which drains tailings from a 10 yr old gold mining operation. Heavy regional rains are responsible for continuous weathering, thereby making it possible to transport Hg into the ecologically important Pantanal area. Mercury concentrations in creek sediments range from -1. The highest concentrations occur close to the

L. D. Lacerda; W. C. Pfeiffer; R. V. Marins; S. Rodrigues; C. M. M. Souza; W. R. Bastos

1991-01-01

62

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents,

L. I. Bendell

2011-01-01

63

Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations  

SciTech Connect

Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B. [Kentucky Dept. for Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Frankfort, KY (United States)

1996-12-31

64

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (?34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (?18OH2O = -5.9‰ to 10.9‰, ?D = -102‰ to -87‰) of the ore-forming fluids indicate that the fluids were derived from magmatic sources and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water by limited water-rock exchange and by partly degassing in uplift zones during mineralization. While most features of the Samgwang mine are consistent with classification as an orogenic gold deposit, isotopic and fluid chemistry indicate that the veins were genetically related to intrusions emplaced during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Daebo orogeny.

Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.

2010-02-01

65

Sampling Tsunami Deposits  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Starin Fernanda, Geological Survey & Mines Bureau of Sri Lanka, preparing a trench for sampling of tsunami deposit. Leaves on the surface days or weeks after the tsunami and blanket the sand deposited by the tsunami....

66

Soil geochemistry of Mother Lode-type gold deposits in the Hodson mining district, central California, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hodson mining district is in the westernmost foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California, about 17 km west of the town of Angels Camp. This district is part of the West Gold Belt, which lies about 12-16 km west of, and generally parallel to, the better known Mother Lode Gold Belt in central California. The district produced several million dollars worth of Au between about 1890 and 1940. ?? 1989.

Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.

1989-01-01

67

A 3D gravity data interpretation of the Matagami mining camp, Abitibi Subprovince, Superior Province, Québec, Canada. Application to VMS deposit exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two inversions, unconstrained and constrained, of a gravity survey of the Matagami mining camp (Abitibi Archaean Subprovince, Canada) have been performed in order to identify the downward extension of a rhyolitic horizon hosting VMS-type base metals deposit and the morphologies of the major felsic plutons. A comparative study exhibits the similarities between measured and calculated densities from chemical compositions of the Matagami lithologies. This allows building an initial 3D geodensity model which integrates densities and available structural and geological surface mapping data. This model is integrated during the iteration process of the constrained inversion in the objective function. The resulting true density model and two derived cross-sections upgrade the 3D imaging of this area. Also, the model gives new insight for regional geological interpretation exposing possible shapes of the main geological units at depth and suggests the potential existence of deep fertile geological bodies.

Boszczuk, Pierre; Cheng, Li Zhen; Hammouche, Hanafi; Roy, Patrice; Lacroix, Sylvain; Cheilletz, Alain

2011-09-01

68

Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which provided initial pathways for fluid flow and later served as precipitation sites for ore minerals. Alteration, during, and perhaps prior to mineralization, enhanced primary permeability by dissolution, by removal of calcite, and by formation of dolomite. Ore-stage sulfide minerals and alteration minerals commonly precipitated in pore spaces among dolomite grains. Microveinlets and microbrecciation in zones of intense alteration also provided networks of secondary permeability that further enhanced fluid flux and produced additional sites for ore deposition.

Peters, S.G.; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Oscarson, R.L.; Noble, P.J.

2003-01-01

69

Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8–10 cm deep “iron mound” that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using “next generation” nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ?20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2. PMID:24860562

Brantner, Justin S.; Haake, Zachary J.; Burwick, John E.; Menge, Christopher M.; Hotchkiss, Shane T.; Senko, John M.

2014-01-01

70

Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 ± 27.9 and 376.7 ± 73.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncan’s multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 ± 138.3 and 495.8 ± 115.5 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 ± 45.5 and 24.9 ± 5.6 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 ± 127.2 and 1009.7 ± 263.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Alberta’s bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Alberta’s bogs (~80%).

Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

2010-12-01

71

The Genomic Data Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic data mine represents a fundamental shift from genetics to genomics, essentially from the study of one gene at\\u000a a time to the study of entire genetic metabolic networks and whole genomes. Experimental laboratory data are deposited into\\u000a large public repositories and a wealth of computational data mining algorithms and tools are applied to mine the data. The\\u000a integration

Lorraine Tanabe

72

Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12)???endosulfan sulfate (10-11)?>?ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7)???pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6)?>??-endosulfan (8.3-9.3)?>?chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log?K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2) ?=?0.90, p?=?0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation. PMID:24975230

Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

2014-09-01

73

Data mining, Data mining,  

E-print Network

18 Data mining, today and tomorrow Data mining, today and tomorrow We leave digital puddles useful information be extracted from this ever-growing ocean of data? Data mining is the science," says CS professor Johannes Gehrke, whose group has developed some of the fastest data-mining algo

Keinan, Alon

74

Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

2013-12-01

75

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

E-print Network

of existing mines. Statistics of known gold and silver deposits, and directories of mines and mills Astrobright, Galaxy Gold #12;1 Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication MI-1997 The Nevada D. LaPointe 27 Major Precious-Metal Deposits by Joseph V. Tingley and Harold F. Bonham, Jr. 42

Tingley, Joseph V.

76

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

E-print Network

of existing mines. Statistics of known gold and silver deposits, and directories of mines and mills Services Cover stock: Wausau Astrobright, Galaxy Gold #12;1 Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special. Meeuwig 10 Metals by Joseph V. Tingley and Daphne D. LaPointe 23 Major Precious-Metal Deposits by Joseph V

Tingley, Joseph V.

77

Environmental Studies of Mineral Deposits in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of articles summarizes environmental geochemical studies of metallic mineral deposits in Alaska, including sulfide, gold, mercury, chromium, and uranium mines and deposits. The studies report metal and acid concentrations in samples collected around such mines and deposits, and evaluate environmental effects of the deposits. An introduction explains geochemical processes, how metals enter environments downstream from mineral deposits, and background geochemical studies. Other articles are: Studies of Mineral Deposits Rich in Heavy Metals; Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Southwestern Alaska; Environmental Geochemistry of Alaskan Gold Deposits; Geochemistry of Surface Waters Draining Alaskan Chromite Deposits; and Radioactivity Concerns of Uranium and Thorium Deposits at Bokan Mountain, Southeastern Alaska.

1996-01-01

78

On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

2014-05-01

79

Underground mining from above  

SciTech Connect

Remotely operated and autonomous ore-excavation technology could eventually eliminate the need for miners to travel deep underground. Though mining tools have evolved from primitive wood-and-antler pickaxes to modern diesel-powered drills, miners have always had to go underground to dig ore. Soon, however, going down the shafts may no longer be part of the daily routine for miners excavating some of the world`s deepest mines. Growing costs related to transporting miners to and from remote ore deposits and keeping them healthy in the mining environment are prompting engineers to develop remotely controlled and automated equipment for mining operations from the surface. These new mining systems include multi-ton haulage trucks, bulldozer-like scoop trams, automatic ore chutes, and large mobile rock drills operated from above via subterranean communications systems. Remote mining and mine automation is a trend that is starting to pick up speed in the industrialized world. Two large Canadian mining companies, Inco Ltd.`s Ontario division, in Copper Cliff, Ont., and Noranda Inc., in Montreal are working on programs to take all forms of control up to the surface by incrementally converting existing mine equipment into tele-operated and, later, autonomous systems. Likewise, the US Bureau of Mines is supporting research on what it calls computer-assisted mining in underground coal mines, where the emphasis is on taking the worker away from the hazards of the coal face. Elsewhere, Sweden`s Atlas CoPCo AB, in Stockholm, and Finland`s Tamrock Ltd., in Tampere, the industry`s primary suppliers of mining equipment, including drills, trucks, and load-haul-dump (LHD) machines (also called scoop trams), are also automating their wares.

Ashley, S.

1995-05-01

80

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

81

Lunar vertical-shaft mining system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

1994-01-01

82

Multi-element association analysis of stream sediment geochemistry data for predicting gold deposits in Barramiya gold mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of traditional statistical methods can provide suitable indicators of geochemical element dispersion, and aids in targeting potential areas for mineral exploration. Analyzes of stream sediments from an ophiolite suite of ophiolitic mélange matrix and metasediments belt are used for regional geochemical prospecting of gold in the Barramiya mining district, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The principal rocks exposed in the study area are Late-Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences intruded by serpentinite, small bodies of Older and Younger Granitoids, all injected by dykes of various compositions. Gold production derived mainly from shear zone with Au-bearing quartz veins hosted by ultramafic schists and serpentinites at fault intersections or along the basal décollement of the major thrusts, especially where granitoid massifs and stocks are common. Orebodies are mainly sulfide-bearing quartz and quartz-carbonate lodes associated with graphite-schist, listvenite and marble exposures, showing signs of structural control expressed in preferable orientation and consistent meso- and microfabrics. The area has two known gold deposits where several chromite mines are present. Auriferous veins are confined along E and ENE fracture systems and zones in a passive tectonic contact between the serpentinites and the metasediments. Results of 425 stream sediment samples from an area of ˜73 km2 analyzed for 13 trace elements are presented using simple statistical and R-mode factor methods. The overall sample density achieved by the survey is ˜6 samples/km2. Significant variations in background metal contents are recorded near the known mineralized sites. Preliminary visual interpretation of individual spatial distribution patterns of Ag, As, Au, Cu, Mo, Pb, and W show clear-cut relationships with known gold mineralization in the study area. Geochemical patterns of these elements delineate drainage basins with anomalous concentration of elements genetically related to gold mineralization. Gold in analyzed samples ranges from <0.02 to 3.51 ppm with average 0.21 ppm. Most of the high element concentrations in stream sediments are found in the graphite-schist and serpentinized marble rocks. Application of R-mode factor analysis indicates significant components of the sample composition. These reflect lithological, environmental and mineralization controls. Preparation of factor score map for the association Ag-Au-As-Cu-Zn-Pb-Mo-W enables a more precise delineation of zones of known gold mineralization as well as areas that may contain (on geological grounds) primary gold mineralization. The exploration significance of some anomalies has not been established, but a number of these anomalies may be related to undiscovered mineralization while others may be of no economic significance. Groundwater pH influences the hydromorphic dispersion patterns of Ag, As, and Au in different ways and this requires consideration during data interpretation.

Harraz, Hassan Z.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.; El-Mamoney, Mohamed H.

2012-06-01

83

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30% < Fe < 64%) hematite ores. Based on their mineralogical composition, three major types of itabirites occur in the QF: siliceous, dolomitic, and amphibolitic itabirite. Unlike other mines in the QF, the Águas Claras Mine contained mainly high-grade ores hosted within dolomitic itabirite. Two distinct types of high-grade ore occurred at the mine: soft and hard. The soft ore was the most abundant and represented more than 85% of the total ore mined until it was mined out in 2002. Soft and hard ores consist essentially of hematite, occurring as martite, anhedral to granular/tabular hematite and, locally, specularite. Gangue minerals are rare, consisting of dolomite, sericite, chlorite, and apatite in the hard and soft ores, and Mn-oxides and ferrihydrite in the soft ore where they are concentrated within porous bands. Chemical analyses show that hard and soft ores consist almost entirely of Fe2O3, with a higher amount of detrimental impurities, especially MnO, in the soft ore. Both hard and soft ores are depleted in trace elements. The high-grade ores at the Águas Claras Mine have at least a dual origin, involving hypogene and supergene processes. The occurrence of the hard, massive high-grade ore within “fresh” dolomitic itabirite is evidence of its hypogene origin. Despite the contention about the origin of the dolomitic itabirite (if this rock is a carbonate-rich facies of the Cauê Formation or a hematite-carbonate precursor of the soft high-grade ore), mineralogical and geochemical features of the soft high-grade ore indicate that it was formed by leaching of dolomite from the dolomitic itabirite by meteoric water. The comparison of the Águas Claras, Capão Xavier and Tamanduá orebodies shows that the original composition of the itabiritic protore plays a major role in the genesis of high- and low-grade soft ores in the QF. Under the same weathering and structural conditions, the dolomitic itabirite is the more favorable to form high-grade deposits than siliceous itabirite. Field relations at the Águas Claras and Capão Xavier deposits suggest that it is not possible to form huge soft high-grade supergene deposits from siliceous itabirite, unless another control, such as impermeable barriers, had played an important role. The occurrence in the Tamanduá Mine of a large, soft, high-grade orebody formed from siliceous itabirite and closely associated with hypogene hard ore suggests that large, soft, high-grade orebodies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which occur within siliceous itabirite, have a hypogene contribution in their formation.

Spier, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Barros; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

2008-02-01

84

Sustained Storage and Transport of Hydraulic Gold Mining Sediment  

E-print Network

deposits of hydraulic gold mining sediment remain in main channels of the Bear River more than 100 yearsSustained Storage and Transport of Hydraulic Gold Mining Sediment in the Bear River, California L after the cessation of mining. This study examines these deposits and reevaluates Gilbert's (1917) clas

James, L. Allan

85

Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

1983-01-01

86

Longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

NONE

1995-03-14

87

Abiotic Oxidation Rate of Chalcopyrite: Implications for Seafloor Mining  

E-print Network

seafloor mining. Sulfuric acid production from the oxidationand increased production of sulfuric acid. That immediateacid production during mining of SMS deposits. Even so it is plausible that the sulfuric

Bilenker, Laura Danielle

2011-01-01

88

Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

89

Data Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

90

Sustainable Development in Estonian Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance and demand of high qualified mining material (carbonate rocks, oil shale) are growing nowadays. Deposits are widespread around the world. Is it possible to create the sustainability paradigm, that helps to manage quarries adequately to improve overall effectiveness of the company in total? This study focuses especially on the mining industry. This paper will introduce modern systems and a new one, that allows to make an indexation of the company by mining sustainability index and gradation of the company by its wellness; also brings several benefits for future sustainable development.

Šommet, Julija

2013-12-01

91

Geology Club Field Trip New Jersey Zinc Mine and Vicinity  

E-print Network

Geology Club Field Trip New Jersey Zinc Mine and Vicinity Ogdensburg, NJ 3-4 May 2008 Bedrock map of the area surrounding the New Jersey Zinc Mine in Ogdensburg, New Jersey. The mines are found. On today's trip we visit one of northwestern New Jersey's unique mineral deposits in the Franklin

Merguerian, Charles

92

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

93

Colorado School of Mines mine rescue simulator  

E-print Network

Colorado School of Mines mine rescue simulator Our national interests are best served by having mines. However, recent mine disasters have indicated that focused training on hazard recognition, deci training plan for all personnel involved in a mine rescue. A report on the Sago Mine di- saster indicated

94

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

PubMed

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2013-05-01

95

PROPOSED CHANGES TO SOIL TAXONOMY THAT MAY AFFECT MINE SOIL CLASSIFICATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine soils begin developing horizons from natural processes after mining excavation and transportation of spoil ceases. Spoil deposits and altered landforms are easily recognized from a distance but the soils in those landforms seldom contain proof of their origin. Soil Taxonomy provides a few diagnostic horizons and materials and classes for mine soils. Most excavated or transported mine soils are

J. M. Galbraith

96

VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

97

Evaluating the burst hazard risk in a mine development  

SciTech Connect

It is necessary to take into account, when evaluating the rock burst hazards of mining, not only the natural settings of the deposit, but also the potential rock hazard risk created by the mining organization. Predicting and evaluating the burst hazard for intensive events should include identifying the segments of intensive stresses, and an analysis of mining, geologic, and engineering settings and instrumental measurement of stresses inside the bed and throughout the zone affected by the mining operation.

Shemyakin, E.I.; Kulakov, G.I.; Kurlenya, M.V.

1986-01-01

98

MERCURY IN MINING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury deposits in mines have shown to pose a significant hazard to residents and wildlife where drainage from these deposits enters the ecosystem through streams and rivers. For this reason, the extent of mercury contamination in the United States is of significant environment...

99

Ore Petrology and Alteration of the West Ansil Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulphide Deposit of the Noranda Mining Camp, Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Ansil deposit was the first Cu discovery in 25 years in the Noranda Central Camp. It has a combined indicated and inferred resource of ˜1.2 Mt. Grades for the indicated resource are 3.4% Cu, 0.4% Zn, 1.4 g/t Au and 9.2 g/t Ag. The bulk of the resource is located in three massive sulphide lenses (Upper, Middle and Lower) that are entirely within the Rusty Ridge Formation above the Lewis exhalite. The mineralization in all three ore lenses consists of massive pyrrhotite + chalcopyrite +/- magnetite. Semi-massive sphalerite is restricted to the upper and lower parts of the Middle lens. Massive magnetite occurs at the center of the Upper and Middle lenses, where it replaces massive pyrrhotite. A striking feature of West Ansil is the presence of abundant colloform and nodular pyrite (+/-marcasite) in the massive sulphides. Late-stage replacement of massive pyrrhotite by colloform pyrite and marcasite, occurs mostly along the upper and lower contacts of the lenses.

Boucher, Stephanie M.

100

Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part IV, source of fluids, from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotope studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogen isotopic composition of fluids responsible for formation of the near-surface silver-base metal vein deposits at Creede was measured by direct analysis of inclusion fluids in sphalerite, quartz, and rhodochrosite and was estimated from analyses of illite and chlorite. The oxygen isotopic composition was determined directly on inclusion fluids in sphalerite and was estimated from analyses of quartz, illite, rhodochrosite, siderite, and adularia. The carbon isotopic composition was estimated from analyses of rhodochrosite and siderite. The ranges in isotopic composition for water and CO2 in the fluids associated with the formation of each of the minerals is given below (number of determinations given in parentheses):Mineral delta D (sub H2) O ppm delta 18 O (sub H2) O ppm delta 13 C (sub CO2) ppmSphalerite -81 to -54 (4) -10.1 to -4.5 (4)Quartz -97 to -86 (4) -5.9 to 1.8 (18)Illite -62 to -50 (8) -1.6 to 1.2(7)Chlorite -64 to -55 (10) -2.2 to 0.8 (10)Adularia 4.2 (1)Rhodochrosite -82 to -78 (2) 4.2 to 9.4 (9) -5.7 to -4.2 (9)Siderite 4.9 to 9.9 (6) -6.9 to -2.7 (6)The delta D (sub H2) O and delta 18 O (sub H2) O values of fluids associated with the formation of sphalerite, quartz, illite/chlorite, and carbonate minerals differ substantially from one another, and these differences appear to have been maintained throughout the depositional history, regardless of the positions of the minerals in the paragenetic sequence.The data suggest that waters from three coexisting reservoirs fed the vein system alternately and episodically during vein formation, and apparently there was little mixing of the fluids from the different reservoirs. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotope data suggest that the carbonate waters were deep seated, probably dominantly magmatic, in origin. The sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters must have been dominantly meteoric in origin and substantially oxygen shifted by exchange with the volcanic country rocks. The quartz waters were also oxygen shifted meteoric waters but were some 40 per mil lower in deuterium content than the sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters.We propose that the quartz fluids entered the vein system from reservoirs beneath the mountainous areas to the north in the vicinity of the present Continental Divide, but that the sphalerite and illite/chlorite fluids entered the vein system from a topographically low area to the south along the structural moat of the Creede caldera. The difference in delta D between the two meteoric waters may reflect differences in altitude of the recharge areas for the two reservoirs or may be clue to isotopic evolution of the closed-basin lake and interstitial waters in the moat surrounding the Creede caldera.

Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.

1979-01-01

101

Mining engineering College of Engineering and Mines  

E-print Network

Mining engineering College of Engineering and Mines Department of Mining and Geological Engineering As the nation's northernmost accredited mining engineering program, our mission is to advance and disseminate. The mining engineering program emphasizes engineering as it ap- plies to the exploration and development

Hartman, Chris

102

Littoral Oceanography for Mine Mine Warfare  

E-print Network

Littoral Oceanography for Mine Warfare #12;Mine Warfare Different than other weapons systems Target to be there for it to work. Can be crude and still be VERY effective Requires advanced planning #12;US vs Mines · Of the 18 of mines #12;U.S. vs. MINES What It Takes To Go"Anytime, Anywhere" by Rear Adm. Horne, Proceedings, Jan

Chu, Peter C.

103

Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

1996-01-01

104

Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden mercury mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils collected near the Almaden, Spain, mercury mine reflected increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg) with proximity to the mine due to weathered mineral deposits and to atmospheric deposition of Hg from the smelter. Extractions with NaHCOâ or NHâOAc removed small amounts of Hg from both control (20 km from the mine; total Hg = 2.3 ..mu..g\\/g) and mine site

S. E. Lindberg; D. R. Jackson; J. W. Huckabee; S. A. Janzen; M. J. Levin; J. R. Lund

1979-01-01

105

MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER  

E-print Network

Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

Boisvert, Jeff

106

The Data Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data Mine website is an excellent place to venture into detailed and complex explorations on data mining. The site is divided up in to five topic areas, or "webs," which include: "Data Mining Software," "Data Mining Events," "Data Mining General/Misc," "People Working in Data Mining," and "Data Mining Companies and Organizations." Visitors are encouraged to add information from their data mining worlds, as well.

Pryke, Andy

2008-01-07

107

Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology.To get an idea of what audio mining is and how it can be used, people can read this article from the Cutter Consortium (1). It lists six broad areas that can benefit from using the technology and briefly discusses each one. A more detailed introduction is offered on the Leavitt Communications Web site (2). This article delves into how audio mining works by giving a basic technical understanding of the process. A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper (3). A publication from the Compaq Cambridge Research Laboratory (4) discusses ways of collecting and analyzing information from an audio file. It also mentions SpeechBot, a Web-based tool for multimedia retrieval. Several papers can be downloaded from the home page of a research project studying the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (5). The repository is comprised of massive historical audio content, and the team at the University of Colorado is investigating phrase recognition to index the data. Have you ever had a tune stuck in your head, but not known the name of the artist or song title? The Musical Audio-Mining project (6) is working on ways to search for information about a song simply by humming part of it. Audio mining can also be used in the War on Terrorism, as is described in this article of Federal Computer Week (7). Massive amounts of recorded phone conversations are intercepted by the government each day, and audio mining would be an efficient way to sort through irrelevant material and catch suspicious activity. The World Wide Web Consortium released this draft of the Voice Extensible Markup Language (8), which could have applications for the audio mining community.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

108

Stillwater Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View of the Stullwater Mine, where rocks are collected for making lunar regolith simulant. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be made by this summer of 2009 and turned over t...

2009-05-26

109

Stillwater Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are collected, ground, and blended with other rocks and materials to make the lunar regolith simulant. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be ma...

2009-05-26

110

Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

2001-01-01

111

Statistical methods of estimating mining costs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

Long, K.R.

2011-01-01

112

Archaeal halophiles (halobacteria) from two British salt mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken from the Winsford salt mine in Cheshire, England, which exploits bedded deposits from the Triassic Period (195-225 million years ago, MYA) and from Boulby potash mine in Cleveland, England, which is Permian (225-270 MYA) and is mined for the mineral sylvite (KC1). Halobacteria and obligately halophilic eubacteria were isolated from several different sample types. The halobacteria were

CYNTHIA F. NORTON; TERRY J. MCGENITY; WILLIAM D. GRANT

1993-01-01

113

The Mechanization of Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

1982-01-01

114

Moon Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate how to find and mine valuable resources from a simulated lunar surface. They will gather data by spectroscopically locating simulated ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide mineral), and collect the 'ilmenite' by mining the simulated lunar surface. They will then gather data by using observations while extracting oxygen from the mineral, develop a conclusion based upon their results, and compare individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Why Return to the Moon Before Going to Mars?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

115

BENTONITE MINE SPOIL REVEGETATION AND LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abandoned bentonite mine spoils are prehaps the most difficult material to successfully rehabilitate because of the nature of the spoil and the climate of the region where bentonite is mined. The major U.S. deposits of bentonite are in the tri-state region of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming, an a...

116

MERCURY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT FROM HISTORIC MINING PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant quantities of mercury have been released to the environment as a result of historic precious metal mining. Many gold and silver deposits are enriched in mercury, which is released during mining and processing activities. Historically in the U.S., although a modern ...

117

30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combustion and wind-borne waste. When the disposal is completed...time shall any noncoal mine waste be deposited in a refuse pile...excavation for a noncoal mine waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage...

2010-07-01

118

30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...combustion and wind-borne waste. When the disposal is completed...time shall any noncoal mine waste be deposited in a refuse pile...excavation for a noncoal mine waste disposal site be located within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal storage...

2010-07-01

119

Text mining.  

PubMed

One of the fastest-growing fields in bioinformatics is text mining: the application of natural language processing techniques to problems of knowledge management and discovery, using large collections of biological or biomedical text such as MEDLINE. The techniques used in text mining range from the very simple (e.g., the inference of relationships between genes from frequent proximity in documents) to the complex and computationally intensive (e.g., the analysis of sentence structures with parsers in order to extract facts about protein-protein interactions from statements in the text). This chapter presents a general introduction to some of the key principles and challenges of natural language processing, and introduces some of the tools available to end-users and developers. A case study describes the construction and testing of a simple tool designed to tackle a task that is crucial to almost any application of text mining in bioinformatics--identifying gene/protein names in text and mapping them onto records in an external database. PMID:18712320

Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

2008-01-01

120

Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact.  

PubMed

Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot-spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the pH range of 3.2-7.1 in streams impacted by mine drainage. The dissolved fraction of both mercury species is depleted and concentrated in iron oxyhydroxide such that the amount of iron oxyhydroxide in the water column reflects the concentration of mercury species. In streams impacted by mine drainage, mercury and methylmercury are transported and adsorbed onto particulate phases. During periods of low stream flow, fine-grained iron hydroxide sediment accumulates in the bed load of the stream and adsorbs mercury and methylmercury such that both forms of mercury become highly enriched in the iron oxyhydroxide sediment. During high-flow events, mercury- and methylmercury-enriched iron hydroxide sediment is transported into larger aquatic systems producing a high flux of bioavailable mercury. PMID:11032116

Rytuba, J J

2000-10-01

121

ANU MLSS 2010: Data Mining  

E-print Network

ANU MLSS 2010: Data Mining Part 1: Introduction, data mining challenges, and data issues for data mining Data Mining module outline Part 1: Very short introduction to data mining Data mining process Challenges in data mining Data cleaning, integration and pre-processing Part 2: Association rule mining Part

Christen, Peter

122

Historical archaeology at the Clarkson Mine, an eastern Ohio mining complex  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the Clarkson Mine (33BL333), an eastern Ohio coal mine complex dating to the 1910s to 1920s, situated along Wheeling Creek. The results of preliminary surveys and the subsequent mitigation of four structures at the site are presented. The historical archaeology conducted at the site demonstrates the significant research possibilities inherent at many of these early industrial mine complexes. Of particular interest is the findings of depositional patterning around residential structures that revealed the influence of architecture on where and how items were deposited on the land surface. The ceramic and faunal assemblage were analyzed and provide significant details on socioeconomic attributes associated with the workers or staff. Artifacts recovered at the site provide an excellent diagnostic framework from which other similarly aged sites can be compared and dated. The findings at the Clarkson Mine are also placed into a more regional perspective and compared with other contemporary studies.

Keener, C.S. [Archaeological Service Team, Plain City, OH (United States)

2003-07-01

123

Mine waste dumps and heavy metal pollution in abandoned mining district of Boccheggiano (Southern Tuscany, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activity in the Boccheggiano-Fontalcinaldo area (Southern Tuscany) dates back at least to the 16th century AD and\\u000a lasted up to very recent times. Copper-rich hydrothermal veins, massive pyrite deposits, and their gossans were exploited.\\u000a Two mine waste dumps (Fontalcinaldo, Fontebona), one flotation tailings impoundment (Gabellino), and one roasting\\/smelting\\u000a waste dump (Merse-Ribudelli) in the study area were selected to ascertain

M. Benvenuti; I. Mascaro; F. Corsini; P. Lattanzi; P. Parrini; G. Tanelli

1997-01-01

124

Solar-Assisted Solution-Mining Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brine heated in solar pond dissolves minerals from deposits. In proposed solution-mining process, hot brine is pumped down one well and recovered at one or more other wells. Emerging brine is rich in desired mineral. Brine is evaporated in solar ponds to recover mineral.

Dowler, W. L.; French, R. L.; Becker, J. C. J.; Bills, J.

1983-01-01

125

Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

126

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2013-04-01

127

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2014-04-01

128

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2012-04-01

129

Introduction to Data Mining Motivation of Data Mining  

E-print Network

1 CISC6930 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Data Mining CISC6930 2 Outline Motivation of Data Mining Concepts of Data Mining Applications of Data Mining Data Mining Functionalities Focus of Data Mining Research #12;2 CISC6930 3 Why we need Data Mining ? Data are any facts, numbers, images or text that can

Li, Yanjun "Lisa"

130

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Bradley, J.A.

1981-07-01

131

Post-mining neutralization of acid surface mine lakes  

SciTech Connect

Twenty core samples and 54 surface sediment samples were taken from surface mine lakes in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana to determine the rates of neutralization of acid mine lakes. Sediment samples were analysed for diatom microfossils, selected chemical elements, and the radionuclide, lead-210. Comparisons between lake sediment and water column chemistry indicated that neither sulfide deposition nor H2S outgasing is likely to play a major role in the neutralization process. Chemical analyses of lake sediment showed that the sediment is a sink for heavy metals. These metals are held as sulfides. There is also a considerable fraction of metal ions strongly bound to clays. This research demonstrates that acid lake neutralization is common, that it occurs over moderate time spans and that the rate is controlled by rates of acid supply from the watershed.

Brugam, R.B.; Carlson, M.A.; Chakraverty, S.; Lusk, M.

1983-04-01

132

Drum cutter mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to

K. Oberste-beulmann; H. Schupphaus

1980-01-01

133

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

134

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

135

Haneberg, W.C., Creighton, A.L., Medley, E.W., and Jonas, D.A., 2005, Use of LiDAR to assess slope haz-ards at the Lihir gold mine, Papua New Guinea, in O. Hungr, R. Fell, R. Couture, and E. Eberhardt, edi-  

E-print Network

DAR to assess slope haz- ards at the Lihir gold mine, Papua New Guinea, in O. Hungr, R. Fell, R. Couture, and E Guinea, the Lihir mine is one of the world's largest gold mining and processing opera- tions. The epithermal sulfide gold deposit was dis- covered in 1983 and mining commenced in 1997. Mining is scheduled

Haneberg, William C.

136

Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USGS has recently released the report Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The 95-page open file report is an inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in the country that resources that include metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. The data was compiled from published literature and digital files of the members of the National Industrial Minerals project, and are presented in tables that list mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields. This site is also reviewed in the May 3, 2002 Scout Report.

2002-01-01

137

California's Office of Mine Reclamation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California's Office of Mine Reclamation offers assistance "for reclamation planning and promotes cost-effective reclamation." The website features materials on abandoned mines, mine pollution, and mine monitoring. Mine operators can learn about financial assurances. Users can download the quarterly Surface Mining and Reclamation Act (SMARA) issues. While this website provides information for policies for California, everyone can learn about the dangers of mines, protocol for dealing with abandoned mines, and more.

138

Influences of water and substrate quality for periphyton in a montane stream affected by acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. Kevin Gulch, a headwater stream of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, receives acid mine drainage that maintains low pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, and high rates of metal hydroxide deposition. An acid- tolerant alga, Ulothrix sp., is present below the source of mine drainage in St. Kevin Gulch, but its biomass is limited by the deposition rates of

Dev K. Niyogi; Diane M. McKnight; William M. Lewis

1999-01-01

139

26 CFR 1.614-3 - Rules relating to separate operating mineral interests in the case of mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mining the mineral, the location of the excavations or other workings in relation to the mineral deposit or deposits, and the topography of the area. The determination of the taxpayer as to the composition of a mine is to be accepted unless there is a...

2010-04-01

140

Data Mining: Opportunities and Challenges  

E-print Network

1 Data Mining: Opportunities and Challenges Xindong Wu University of Vermont, USA; Hefei University Systems 2004 ...... #12;3 Outline 1.1. Data Mining OpportunitiesData Mining Opportunities Major Conferences and Journals in Data Mining Main Topics in Data Mining Some Research Directions in Data Mining 2

Wu, Xindong

141

Description of basic mining legal principles.  

PubMed

The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently. PMID:23851585

Schmidt, Reinhard

2014-01-01

142

76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to...

2011-10-12

143

76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This extension...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA...

2011-11-10

144

Data Warehousing and Data Mining Conference, January 25, 1999, Singapore Data Mining:Data Mining  

E-print Network

Data Warehousing and Data Mining Conference, January 25, 1999, Singapore 1 Welcome Data Mining:Data Mining: Updates in TechnologiesUpdates in Technologies Xindong Wu Dept of Math and Computer Science Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401, USA Email: xwu@ mines.edu Home Page: http://kais.mines

Wu, Xindong

145

Principles of Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science,

David J. Hand; Heikki Mannila; Padhraic Smyth

2001-01-01

146

Active Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an active data mining paradigm thatcombines the recent work in data mining with therich literature on active database systems. In thisparadigm, data is continuously mined at a desiredfrequency. As rules are discovered, they are addedto a rulebase, and if they already exist, the historyof the statistical parameters associated withthe rules is updated. When the history starts exhibitingcertain trends,

Rakesh Agrawal; Giuseppe Psaila

1995-01-01

147

The Geology and History of the Bodie Mining District Jacob van Wesenbeeck  

E-print Network

it deposited minerals, including silver and gold in quartz veins. These veins were mined and the ore milled Resources Agency website). The gold deposit of Bodie, California was discovered during this period mile east-west (Chesterman et al., 1986). Gold was first discovered there in 1859 in placer deposits

Polly, David

148

Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing  

SciTech Connect

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1996-09-01

149

Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km north of Sheridan, Wyo., (2) a ground and aerial reconnaissance study of a 5-km^2 coal mining area 8-10 km west of Sheridan, and (31 some environmental consequences and problems caused by coal mining.

Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

1980-01-01

150

Design criteria for an underground lunar mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Underground excavation and construction techniques have been well developed terrestrially and provide an attractive option for lunar mining and habitat construction. The lunar mine, processing facilities and habitats could be located beneath the lunar surface in basaltic rock that would protect the crew and equipment from the hazardous surface environment. A terrestrial-like atmosphere would be created within the underground structures allowing more conventional technologies to be utilized. In addition, the basalt would likely contain higher quality mineral deposits than the regolith (lunar soil) since the minerals in the regolith have been degraded by meteorite bombardment. The conditions that would affect the design of an underground lunar mine are described and a lunar rock mass rated to assess its quality using terrestrial rock mass classification systems. Design criteria are established and a construction scenario proposed. Parameters having the greatest effect on stability are identified based on distinct element computer modeling and terrestrial experience.

Siekmeier, John A.

1992-01-01

151

Geotechnical properties of cemented paste backfill from Cannington Mine, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paste fill is the newest form of backfill material in the spectrum available to international mines and is made from full\\u000a mill tailings. Tailings have an effective grain size of approximately 5 ?m and are combined with a small portion of binder\\u000a and water to make paste. It is deposited into the voids created by mining which are referred to as

Rudd M. Rankine; Nagaratnam Sivakugan

2007-01-01

152

Deposit Collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal lending and savings institutions exist around the world, and often include regular door-to-door deposit collection of cash. Some banks have adopted similar services in order to expand access to banking services in areas that lack physical branches. Using a randomized control trial, we investigate determinants of participation in a deposit collection service and evaluate the impact of offering the

Nava Ashraf; Dean Karlan; Wesley Yin

2006-01-01

153

Data mining in radiology  

PubMed Central

Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

2014-01-01

154

Data mining in radiology.  

PubMed

Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

2014-04-01

155

Environmental mobility of antimony around mesothermal stibnite deposits, New South Wales, Australia and southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony (Sb) occurs principally in stibnite (Sb2S3) in mesothermal vein deposits hosted in low-grade metamorphic belts of eastern Australia and southern New Zealand. Stibnite is commonly associated with gold. Many deposits have been mined historically, with one large deposit, at Hillgrove, New South Wales, being mined recently. Natural outcrops in the relatively rugged terrains are oxidised under humid to semiarid

P. M. Ashley; D. Craw; B. P. Graham; D. A. Chappell

2003-01-01

156

Depositional and post-depositional history of warm stage deposits at Knocknacran, Co. Monaghan, Ireland: implications for preservation of Irish last interglacial deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-rich deposits, uncovered during overburden removal from mantled gypsum karst at Knocknacran opencast gypsum mine, Co. Monaghan, are the best candidate to date for a last interglacial record in Ireland. The two till and organic-rich deposits (preserved at different quarry elevations) were emplaced on to a Tertiary dolerite surface during high-energy flood events and subsequently folded and faulted by movement towards sinkholes in underlying gypsum. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating suggests that the organic-rich deposits in the upper section were hydrologically isolated at ca. 41 ka and those in the lower section at ca. 86 ka. Interpretation of the pollen content, although tentative because of the depositional and post-depositional history of the material, suggests that the organic material originated in a warm stage possibly warmer than the post-Eemian interstadials. The unusual setting of preservation may indicate that in situ, last interglacial deposits have generally been removed by erosion in Ireland. Copyright

Vaughan, A. P. M.; Dowling, L. A.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Lauritzen, S.-E.; McCabe, A. M.; Coxon, P.

2004-09-01

157

[Cu-hyperaccumulators in mining area].  

PubMed

Plant species distributing in three Cu-mining area were investigated, and Cu concentrations in soils and plants were analyzed. The results showed that Cu ore deposit mostly was distributed at the altitude of about 630 m. Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were distributed only on the Cu ore deposit or the place with high Cu concentration, and the maximum Cu concentrations in these two plants were 1060 mg.kg-1 DW and 1006 mg.kg-1 DW, which reached the critical of hyperaccumulator. Cu accumulations in Elsholtzia splendens and Rumex acetosa were positively and closely correlated with Cu concentration in soil. PMID:12385229

Jiang, Liying; Shi, Weiyong; Yang, Xiaoe; Fu, Chengxin; Chen, Weiguang

2002-07-01

158

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

159

MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA RENO MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY Mackay School of Mines Fifth Edition FOR NEVADA PROSPECTORS AND MINERS by Keith G. Papke and David A. Davis #12;1 MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY Fifth Edition FOR NEVADA PROSPECTORS AND MINERS

Tingley, Joseph V.

160

An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J.M.; Ferreira, R.F.; Hoffman, R.J.

1978-01-01

161

GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

162

Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques  

E-print Network

11 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed.) -- Chapter 1 -- Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber. All rights reserved. #12;July 29, 2013 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 2July 29, 2013 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 2 #12;July 29, 2013 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 3July 29, 2013 Data Mining

Geldenhuys, Jaco

163

California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc. Old Ores: mines and mineral marketing  

E-print Network

California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc. April 2005 Old Ores........................................................................................................................................................................20 An overview of mining in the California Desert Larry Vredenburgh............................................................................................................................................................................ 55 The Silver Lake talc deposits, San Bernardino County, California Lauren A. Wright

de Lijser, Peter

164

Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report  

SciTech Connect

Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive amounts of cultural electromagnetic noise that obscured the subtle mine pool anomalies. However, post-survey modeling suggested that thicker, more conductive mine pools might be detected at a more suitable location. The current study sought to identify the best time domain electromagnetic sensor for detecting mine pools and to test it in an area where the mine pools are thicker and more conductive that those in southwestern Virginia. After a careful comparison of all airborne time domain electromagnetic sensors (including both helicopter and fixed-wing systems), the SkyTEM system from Denmark was determined to be the best technology for this application. Whereas most airborne time domain electromagnetic systems were developed to find large, deep, highly conductive mineral deposits, the SkyTEM system is designed for groundwater exploration studies, an application similar to mine pool detection.

Geosciences Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA; Hammack, R.W.

2006-12-28

165

Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines  

PubMed Central

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

166

Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.  

PubMed

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

167

ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure  

E-print Network

operations, as the alluvial gold deposits are mined by washing the soils adjacent to the streams with highORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure in small neotropical+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract The current gold rush experienced by the Guiana shield is profoundly dis

Grenouillet, Gael

168

Mine Safety & Health Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1978 as a part of the United States Department of Labor, the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) is dedicated to "protecting miners' safety & health". On the MSHA homepage, visitors can make their way through sections that include "Highlights", "Online Tools", "Quick Links", and "Data Transparency at MSHA". In terms of getting an overview of their work, the "Highlights" area is a fine place to start. Here visitors can view press releases, informational studies, and links to safety regulations and mine evacuation procedures. The homepage also features a brief statistical portrait of the nation's mines in the "MSHA by the Numbers" area, along with basic information on fatalities in mines. On the right-hand side of the homepage visitors with more of a technical interest in the nation's mines will appreciate the inclusion of various reports on mine safety compliance and training modules.

169

Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included rocks of the Wood River assemblage. We suggest that elevated HFSE and REE trace-element contents of metavolcanic rocks, whose major-element composition may have been altered, are an important prospecting tool for rocks of VMS deposit potential in east-central Alaska.

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

2007-01-01

170

The reactivity of sediments impacted by metal-mining in Lago Junin, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-depositional reactivity of lake sediments impacted by metal-mining was assessed in Lago Junin, Peru. Due to mining-derived inputs of acid rock drainage, tailings and tailings pond overflow, the sediments exhibit widespread enrichments of copper, lead and zinc. High resolution profiles of dissolved (<0.45?m) Fe, Mn, SO42? and H2S across the sediment–water interface illustrate that the organic-rich deposits (20–25wt% organic

Alan J. Martin; J. Jay McNee; Thomas F. Pedersen

2001-01-01

171

Sorption of methane on lignite from Polish deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal samples from Miocene lignite deposits (ortholignite—ECE-UN 2002) in Belchatow, Adamow, Konin and Turow (Poland) were analyzed to determine the relationships between coal properties and gas capacity.Investigations presented here addressed the occurrence of methane sorbet in lignite deposits within Poland's largest penetrated lignite deposits (e.g., Belchatow, Adamow, Turow and Konin).Lignite samples collected from surface mines were detritic coal with variable

Jan Macuda; Adam Nodze?ski; Marian Wagner; Ludwik Zawisza

2011-01-01

172

COMPARISON OF DATA FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE AND DIRECT SAMPLING OF ACID DRAINAGE FROM MINE WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY TRANSPORT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and progressed to shaft, then open pit techniques to obtain mercury. Mining has resulted in deposition of approximately ...

173

Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake.

James W. Moore; David J. Sutherland

1981-01-01

174

Mining the hydrosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid technological progress over the past two decades has significantly lowered the cost of water desalination and has spurred an impressive growth of this industry. About half of the desalination capacity uses seawater, the other half uses continental brackish water. Most of the desalted water is consumed for domestic and municipal purposes. However, some of it, especially that derived from brackish water, is also competitive for irrigation of high-value crops, and for some industrial purposes, particularly in water-deficient regions. In addition to fresh water, at present only halite, magnesium, and bromine are commercially obtained from seawater. These commodities plus sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, I, Li, B, and potash are also produced from natural brines. Prior attempts to obtain potash, U, Au, and other mineral commodities from seawater failed because the market value of the recovered products was too low to cover the capital and operating costs of processing plants exclusively dedicated to recover them separately. The economics are more favorable if these and/or other elements or compounds are obtained as byproducts of seawater desalination, especially when combined with cogeneration of electricity. Under these circumstances the major capital and operating costs for pumping seawater and for disposing of the reject brine are absorbed mostly by the proceeds from freshwater production. The byproducts need only to pay for the additional recovery processes. One advantage of this strategy is to reduce the environmental impact of reject brine disposal. Another is to reduce the environmental, safety, and health impacts of land-based mining. Furthermore, obtaining nonmetallic mineral commodities from seawater at a number of localities scattered over the Earth can significantly reduce their transportation costs, which is a major proportion of their cost to nations lacking these resources. This is particularly pertinent for common salt (halite), potash, sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, S, and gypsum. These compounds, plus B, Cl, Calcium chloride, Li, and Sr (perhaps also F and U) are the best candidates for recovery from seawater because their value per ton of seawater is greater than that of other products. Further research aimed at recovering the aforementioned elements and compounds from seawater is justified and recommended. Given the many uncertainties involved, it is beyond the scope of this paper to present specific flow sheets and estimates of capital and operating costs for byproduct recovery. Rather, the purpose of this contribution is to provide a general overview of the potential benefits and problems, so that future research can be directed more fruitfully to the recovery of certain sets of elements or compounds under specific circumstances. Once a mineral commodity can be economically obtained from seawater, there is no further need to mine it on land from lower grade, deeper or more distant ore deposits (or to mine it in ecologically sensitive areas). Current producers need not excessively fear the proposed new supplies because in the past high transportation costs often prevented their nonmetallic commodities from reaching the distant potential markets that would be served by many byproduct-producing seawater processing plants. In addition, population growth and rising standards of living may well absorb much of the feared overcapacity in their spheres of influence. For traditional metals, such as Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag, byproduct recovery from seawater desalination appears to be out of reach for a long time.

Petersen, Ulrich

1994-05-01

175

A baseline lunar mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

Gertsch, Richard E.

1992-01-01

176

Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

Jordan, Gyozo

2009-07-01

177

Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.  

PubMed

Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80% of total As. PMID:24729075

Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

2014-10-01

178

THE CANADIAN MALARTIC DEPOSIT: AN EXAMPLE OF OXIDIZED, INTRUSION-RELATED GOLD MINERALIZATION IN THE ABITIBI  

E-print Network

THE CANADIAN MALARTIC DEPOSIT: AN EXAMPLE OF OXIDIZED, INTRUSION-RELATED GOLD MINERALIZATION ABSTRACT The Canadian Malartic deposit is Canada's largest producing gold mine, with a resource of 17 Abitibi greenstone belt of Québec. The deposit hosts fine-grained, disseminated native gold

179

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5° to 8° to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported

A. J. Verploeg; R. H. Debruin

1983-01-01

180

The Lifecycle of a Mineral Deposit: A Teache's Guide for Hands-On Mineral Education Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides an introduction to the process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering it, and reclaiming the mined area (sometimes called 'beneficiation' or 'life cycle'). Topics include what a mineral deposit is; how they are identified and measured, how the minerals are extracted; and how the mining site is reclaimed. There is also discussion of how minerals and mineral resources are processed and how they are used in everyday life. The guide includes ten activities that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals.

181

Speleothems and pine trees as sensitive indicators of environmental pollution – A case study of the effect of uranium-ore mining in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four decades of U ore production in Hungary provides an opportunity to study the possible environmental effects of mining. The study reveals significant changes in chemical composition of a stalagmite (cave deposit). The good fit between U content changes in the studied deposit and the U ore production rate support the assumption of the relationship with mining activity. An independent

Zoltan Siklosy; Zoltan Kern; Attila Demeny; Sebastian Pilet; Szabolcs Leel-Ossy; Ke Lin; Chuan-Chou Shen; Eva Szeles; Daniel Breitner

2011-01-01

182

Biotreatment of mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

Several experiments and field tests of microbial mats are described. One study determined the removal rate of Uranium 238 and metals from groundwater by microbial mats. Free floating mats, immobilized mats, excised mats, and pond treatment were examined. Field tests of acid coal mine drainage and precious metal mine drainage are also summarized. The mechanisms of metal removal are briefly described.

Bender, J.; Phillips, R. [Microbial Aquatic Treatment Systems, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

183

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas

2000-01-01

184

Untangling Text Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. Text expresses a vast, rich range of information, but encodes this information in a form that is difficult to decipher automatically. Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it

Marti A. Hearst

1999-01-01

185

Data Mining Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. The site lists some typical tasks addressed by data mining, such as identifying cross-sell opportunities and predicting a peak load of a network. There are also some academic resources on such topics as "Anomaly Localization," "Generating Non-Linear Functions," and "Symbolic Knowledge Discovery."

2008-01-14

186

Underground mine communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mines are typically extensive labyrinths that employ many people working over an area of many square miles; extensive analysis of mine-communications systems has identified specific problem areas, in particular the excessive times required to locate key personnel underground, the inadequacy of existing phone systems in terms of capacity and privacy, and the inability to communicate with men on the

J. N. Murphy; H. E. Parkinson

1978-01-01

187

Underground Coal Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

Hill, G. M.

1980-01-01

188

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

189

PRB mines mature  

SciTech Connect

Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-08-15

190

Spontaneous revegetation of mined peatlands: An useful restoration tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of peatland restoration activities indicates that modern peat mining techniques seriously hamper the natural capacity of bog ecosystems to regenerate after a disturbance. However, some plants have the ability to colonize dry peat deposits, and seem to help stabilize the soil surface and facilitate the establishment of other plant species. In this paper, we review studies regarding

C. Lavoie; P. Grosvernier; M. Girard; K. Marcoux

2003-01-01

191

Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine  

E-print Network

Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine Qian Wan and Aijun An Department. Discovering association rules is one of the important tasks in data mining. While most of the existing algorithms are developed for efficient mining of frequent patterns, it has been noted recently that some

An, Aijun

192

Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1  

E-print Network

Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1 , Toon Calders2 , Elisa Fromont1 model towards the inte- gration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets

Antwerpen, Universiteit

193

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

194

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

195

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

196

Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn-W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the mobilization and migration of metals from the mine wastes into the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) discharged from Rio tailing has a pH around 3 and high metal concentrations. In Zêzere river, Fe and As are the most rapidly depleted downstream from AMD once As adsorbs, coprecipitate and form compounds with iron oxyhydroxides. The Zêzere river waters are oversaturated with respect to kaolinite and goethite and ferrihydrite can precipitate on stream with a near-neutral pH. At sites having low pH the dissolved Fe species in the water, mainly, occur as sulfate complexes due to a high SO4 concentration. Melanterite (Fe2+(SO4)·7(H2O)) and minor amounts of rozenite (Fe2+(SO4)·4(H2O)) and szomolnokite (Fe2+(SO4)·(H2O)) were observed on Rio tailing basement.

Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

2014-11-01

197

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

198

Solar for Mining Hugh Rudnick  

E-print Network

Solar for Mining Hugh Rudnick Professor Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile #12;Solar Energy in Mining · Solar energy is becoming affordable · Attractive potential use for mining purposes · Must solve the storage requirement to increase its participation worldwide #12;Solar Energy in Mining · Electrical Energy

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

199

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

#12;Colorado School of Mines 2009­2010 Undergraduate Bulletin #12;To Mines Students: This Bulletin is for your use as a source of continuing reference. Please save it. Published by Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 Address correspondence to: Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 Main Telephone

200

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

SciTech Connect

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

201

Oil and brine inclusions at the Jumbo and Prescott mines, Linn County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Well north of the Tri-State district, small deposits containing Pb, Zn, and Ba associated with organic matter occur in M. Pennsylvanian beds. One of these, the Jumbo Pb mine lies 2.5 km SE of Pleasanton, Kansas, and takes the form of a mineralized pipe or circle deposit. Similar mineralization occurs at the Prescott Zn deposit located approximately 12 km SSE of the Jumbo in a abandoned coal mine. Several minerals at both mines contain amber petroleum inclusions, fluorescent in UV light. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite from the Jumbo and Prescott mines homogenize at 83-93/sup 0/C. Freezing data for aqueous inclusions in sphalerite imply salinities of 21-23 wt% NaCl equivalent. Some primary inclusions in calcite contain translucent reddish crystals, which may be a daughter mineral, possibly ferroan dolomite. It is not clear whether organics have played an active chemical role in either transporting or precipitating the sulfides of the Jumbo and Prescott mines. Nevertheless, data from both mines are consistent with the basinal brine theory of origin postulated for Mississippi Valley-type deposits and suggest the possibility that these small deposits formed at or near a local oil-water interface or that local formational waters were exceptionally rich in oil droplets.

Blasch, S.R.; Ragan, V.M.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.

1985-01-01

202

Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

2006-01-01

203

Autonomous search for mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on demining includes many different aspects, and in particular the design of efficient and intelligent strategies for (1) determining regions of interest using a variety of sensors, (2) detecting and classifying mines, and (3) searching for mines by autonomous agents. This paper discusses strategies for directing autonomous search based on spatio-temporal distributions. We discuss a model for search assuming that the environment is static, except for the effect of identifying mine locations. Algorithms are designed and compared for autonomously directing a robot, in the case where a single search engine carrying a single sensor.

Gelenbe, Erol; Cao, Yonghuan

1997-07-01

204

Deposition of submicron particles on rough surfaces in fully developed turbulent flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open flow system was used to examine the deposition rates of submicron particles on rough walls under fully developed turbulent flow conditions in order to better understand the mechanisms neeeded to reduce airborne radioactivity in uranium mines. Mine excavation produces tunnel surfaces that can be modeled as a repeated rib geometry. This pattern was simulated in the lab by

Hahn

1982-01-01

205

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

206

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

207

Topoff Mining Company Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary Laboratory exercise to demonstrate the use of TINs in GIS using an example from surface coal mining. Context Type and level of course This is one of ...

Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

208

Algorithms for data mining  

E-print Network

Data of massive size are now available in a wide variety of fields and come with great promise. In theory, these massive data sets allow data mining and exploration on a scale previously unimaginable. However, in practice, ...

Wang, Grant J. (Grant Jenhorn), 1979-

2006-01-01

209

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15

210

Mining - Least Cost lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simulated land area disguised as a chocolate chip cookie to conduct a mining simulation and least cost theory evaluation. After carefully extracting as much of the available ore (chocolate chips) materials the students calculate the simulated costs of mining and reclamation to determine if there is a profit or loss. These calculations and conversions are used to determine the optimal location for manufacturing in relation to the market.

Linsley, Ann

211

Crime Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solving crimes is a complex task and requires a lot of experience. Data mining can be used to model crime detection problems.\\u000a The idea here is to try to capture years of human experience into computer models via data mining. Crimes are a social nuisance\\u000a and cost our society dearly in several ways. Any research that can help in solving

Shyam Varan Nath

212

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49... § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. ...provide for an alternative mine rescue capability. For the purposes of this...

2010-07-01

213

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49... § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions...may provide an alternative mine rescue capability. (b) An application for...

2011-07-01

214

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions. 49... § 49.4 Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions...may provide an alternative mine rescue capability. (b) An application for...

2010-07-01

215

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49... § 49.3 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. ...provide for an alternative mine rescue capability. For the purposes of this...

2011-07-01

216

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49... § 49.13 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. ...provide for an alternative mine rescue capability consistent with statutory...

2011-07-01

217

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49... § 49.13 Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. ...provide for an alternative mine rescue capability consistent with statutory...

2010-07-01

218

Morenci Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization.

The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

219

CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative  

SciTech Connect

Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

Hiett, J. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States). Mine Map Repository and Mine Map Information Systems

2007-07-01

220

Underground mine communications: a survey  

SciTech Connect

After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

2009-07-01

221

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly traded diamond companies may be due to investors losing patience with the slow pace or absence of new promising discoveries and switching into shares of base metals and fertilizers for agriculture (potash and phosphates).

Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

2009-11-01

222

Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

1984-12-01

223

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

224

Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.  

PubMed

Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

Zolnikov, Tara R

2012-03-01

225

Frequent Set Meta Mining: Towards Multi-Agent Data Mining  

E-print Network

Frequent Set Meta Mining: Towards Multi-Agent Data Mining Kamal Ali Albashiri, Frans Coenen, Rob of records in the data sets and the number of attributes represented. Keywords: Meta Mining, Multi Agent Data is applied to N raw data sets producing N collections of frequent item sets. Note that each raw data set

Coenen, Frans

226

Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

227

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-09-15

228

Seismic modeling of a rising mine water table  

SciTech Connect

In former deep coal mining areas in Germany the mine water table is regulated by a water pump system such that the drinking water at the earth's surface is not influenced. For the modelling of possible changes at the earth's surface using the so called box model, a finite element model of the hydrogeologic situation in the Ruhr Area has been developed. To observe the depth of the mine water table usually old shafts or exploration drill holes are used at selected locations. Nevertheless, there are to less observation stations for a detailed modelling of the complete Ruhr Area so that additional observation locations are needed. To avoid the construction of expensive and complicated drill holes down to more than 1000 m depth an alternative technique to monitor the rising of the mine water table could be the time-lapse seismic (TLS) which is routinely used to monitor the effects of the exploitation of oil and gas deposits. It is expected, that the mine water table will not be detected directly as an additional reflector of seismic waves, due to the fact, that the impedance contrast between saturated carbonate rock and none saturated rock is too weak. Nevertheless, the reflectivity function of the layers in the underground will change, due to the water saturation process such that it might be possible to observe the rising of the mine water table using the TLS method. To define the requirements for the acquisition instrumentation and for the seismic field geometry extensive seismic modelling was performed to investigate, if it is possible to identify the rising of the mine water table. In a first step the influence of water saturation on the reflectivity and the velocities of seismic waves in carbonate rocks have to be determined. If the mine water table can be monitored, a direct input of the seismic results into a geological model should be possible to forecast critical changes at the surface. 5 refs.

Dirk Orlowsky; Bobo Lehmann

2007-01-15

229

A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

2001-01-01

230

Spatial data mining as an  

E-print Network

Institute for the Languages of Finland 10th October 2003 #12;Spatial data mining as an onomastic tool AnttiSpatial data mining as an onomastic tool Antti Leino UNGEGN Norden Division 10.10.2003 Introduction Back Full Screen Close Quit Spatial data mining as an onomastic tool http

Leino, Antti

231

REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

232

Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining  

E-print Network

Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining April 22, 2012 Bing Liu liub@cs.uic.edu Draft: Due to copyediting, the published version is slightly different Bing Liu. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, May 2012. #12;Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining 2 Table of Contents

Illinois at Chicago, University of

233

Safely Delegating Data Mining Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is playing an important role in decision making for business activities and governmental ad- ministration. Since many organizations or their di- visions do not possess the in-house expertise and in- frastructure for data mining, it is beneficial to dele- gate data mining tasks to external service providers. However, the organizations or divisions may lose of private information during

Ling Qiu; Kok-leong Ong; Siu Man Lui

2006-01-01

234

Scientific Data Mining Aiichiro Nakano  

E-print Network

: Automated detection of knowledge hidden in large & often noisy scientific (experimental, simulation, etcScientific Data Mining Aiichiro Nakano Collaboratory for Advanced Computing & Simulations Dept University of Southern California Email: anakano@usc.edu #12;Scientific Data Mining · Scientific data mining

Southern California, University of

235

Soil Sampling Near Uranium Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientists Sarah Davis, Taylor Mills, and David Naftz collect soil samples near the Pinenut uranium mine. Mine features visible in the background include the gray ore stockpile at the far left, the head frame used to access the underground mine workings at mid left, and the detention pond conta...

236

Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining  

E-print Network

Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining Bing Liu Department of Computer Science University Mining Morgan & Claypool Publishers, May 2012. #12;Bing Liu @ AAAI-2011, Aug. 8, 2011, San Francisco, USA 2 Introduction Opinion mining or sentiment analysis Computational study of opinions, sentiments

Plotkin, Joshua B.

237

Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas  

E-print Network

Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas School of Information Studies, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga discuss several scalable and parallel discovery and predictive data mining tools. They successfully Data mining tools, thin plate splines, BMARS, revolver, regression, smoothing, addi­ tive models

Turlach, Berwin A.

238

Open Content Mining  

E-print Network

; or any use of data mining, robots or similar data gathering and extraction tools. In addition, you may not use meta tags or any other "hidden text" utilising our name or the name of any of our group companies without our express written consent. Taylor... ] The Statute of Anne was the first UK law to provide for copyright regulation by government. See Statute of Anne, Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Anne. [5] Murray-Rust, The Right to Read is the Right to Mine, June 2012 at http...

Murray-Rust, Peter

2012-09-24

239

3D electrical structure of porphyry copper deposit: A case study of Shaxi copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Lu-Zong ore concentration area, middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, ShaXi porphyry copper deposit is a typical hydrothermal deposit. To investigate the distribution of deep ore bodies and spatial characteristics of host structures, an AMT survey was conducted in mining area. Eighteen pseudo-2D resistivity sections were constructed through careful processing and inversion. These sections clearly show resistivity difference between the Silurian sandstones formation and quartz diorite porphyry and this porphyry copper formation was controlled by the highly resistive anticlines. Using 3D block Kriging interpolation method and 3D visualization techniques, we constructed a detailed 3D resistivity model of quartz diorite porphyry which shows the shape and spatial distribution of deep ore bodies. This case study can serve as a good example for future ore prospecting in and around this mining area.

Chen, Xiang-Bin; Lü, Qing-Tian; Yan, Jia-Yong

2012-06-01

240

Environmental geochemical studies of selected mineral deposits in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental geochemical investigations at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, between 1994 and 1997 included studies of the Kennecott stratabound copper mines and mill area; historic mines and mill in the Bremner District, gold placer mines at Gold Hill; the undisturbed porphyry, Cu-Mo deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek, and the historic mines and mill at Nabesna, The study was in cooperation with the National Park Service and focused on sample media including surface water, bedload sediment, rock, mine waste, and mill tailings samples. Results demonstrate that bedrock geology and mineral deposit type must be considered when environmental geochemical effects of historic or active mine areas are evaluated.

Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Rosenkrans, Danny; Ballestrazze, Vanessa

2000-01-01

241

Uranium deposits of Canada  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this book include: the history, early Aphebian conglomerate-hosted deposits; proterozoic deposits hosted by folded, metamorphosed rocks; Hudsonion classical vein deposits, Saskatchewan unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted deposits of Helikian age; other Helikian unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted rocks; and Phanerozoic deposits.

Evans, E.L.

1986-01-01

242

Reduction of surface subsidence risk by fly ash exploitation as filling material in deep mining areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of filling empty underground spaces, which exist owing to the extraction of mineral raw materials, with fly\\u000a ash and cement fly ash mixes has been studied for the purpose of reducing the impact of deep mining on the surface. The method\\u000a of physical modelling was used to study the behaviour of fly ash mixes deposited in extracted mine

Tr?ková Ji?ina; Šperl Jan

2010-01-01

243

Lunabotics Mining Competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

2010-01-01

244

Continuous coal mining  

SciTech Connect

Methods under development that will result in greater automation of coal winning both underground and in surface mining are discussed. The impact of automation on individual operations in the winning cycle underground is assessed and presented in tabular form. Cost estimates of the development and production of longwall automation elements are shown. A new type of continuous open-pit is also described.

Laptev, A.

1985-06-01

245

Contextual Text Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

Mei, Qiaozhu

2009-01-01

246

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

Not Available

1990-08-01

247

A jewel in the desert: BHP Billiton's San Juan underground mine  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo Nation is America's largest native American tribe by population and acreage, and is blessed with large tracks of good coal deposits. BHP Billiton's New Mexico Coal Co. is the largest in the Navajo regeneration area. The holdings comprise the San Juan underground mine, the La Plata surface mine, now in reclamation, and the expanding Navajo surface mine. The article recounts the recent history of the mines. It stresses the emphasis on sensitivity to and helping to sustain tribal culture, and also on safety. San Juan's longwall system is unique to the nation. It started up as an automated system from the outset. Problems caused by hydrogen sulfide are being tackled. San Juan has a bleederless ventilation system to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion of methane and the atmospheric conditions in the mine are heavily monitored, especially within the gob areas. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-12-15

248

76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

2011-04-15

249

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

1993-11-01

250

Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished.

Linder, P.; Sundblad, B. [Studsvik EcoSafe, Nykoeping (Sweden)

1993-12-31

251

Multisource causal data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

2012-06-01

252

Example Building Damage Caused by Mining Exploitation in Disturbed Rock Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues concerning protection of buildings against the impact of underground coal mining pose significant scientific and engineering challenges. In Poland, where mining is a potent and prominent industry assuring domestic energy security, regions within reach of mining influences are plenty. Moreover, due to their industrial character they are also densely built-up areas. Because minerals have been extracted on an industrial scale in majority of those areas for many years, the rock mass structure has been significantly disturbed. Hence, exploitation of successive layers of multi-seam deposits might cause considerable damage - both in terms of surface and existing infrastructure networks. In the light of those facts, the means of mining and building prevention have to be improved on a regular basis. Moreover, they have to be underpinned by reliable analyses holistically capturing the comprehensive picture of the mining, geotechnical and constructional situation of structures. Scientific research conducted based on observations and measurements of mining-induced strain in buildings is deployed to do just that. Presented in this paper examples of damage sustained by buildings armed with protection against mining influences give an account of impact the mining exploitation in disturbed rock mass can have. This paper is based on analyses of mining damage to church and Nursing Home owned by Evangelical Augsburg Parish in Bytom-Miechowice. Neighbouring buildings differ in the date they were built, construction, building technology, geometry of the building body and fitted protection against mining damage. Both the buildings, however, have sustained lately significant deformation and damage caused by repeated mining exploitation. Selected damage has been discussed hereunder. The structures have been characterised, their current situation and mining history have been outlined, which have taken their toll on character and magnitude of damage. Description has been supplemented with photographic documentation.

Florkowska, Lucyna

2013-06-01

253

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

2006-01-01

254

Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee mine, near the western margin of Long Valley, exploits one of numerous Carlin-type gold ore bodies in the alligator Ridge mining district; all are currently owned and operated by USMX Corp.

Pinnell, M.L.; Blake, J.G. (Pioneer Oil and Gas, Midvale, UT (US)); Hulen, J.B. (Univ. of Utah Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-15

255

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R., II; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

2006-01-01

256

Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.  

PubMed

Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 ?S cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards. PMID:23223936

Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

2013-04-01

257

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM...780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500...

2011-07-01

258

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM...780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500...

2010-07-01

259

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2014-07-01

260

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

261

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

262

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2010-07-01

263

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining...Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

264

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

SciTech Connect

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01

265

Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

1980-02-01

266

Text Mining for Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

2011-06-01

267

A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

2014-01-01

268

Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.  

PubMed

Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

Dym, Warren Alexander

2008-11-01

269

Recent Developments in Web Usage Mining Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web Usage Mining is that area of Web Mining which deals with the extraction of interesting knowledge from logging information produced by web servers. In this paper, we present a survey of the recent developments in this area that is receiving increasing attention from the Data Mining community. Web Mining (29) is that area of Data Mining which deals with

Federico Michele Facca; Pier Luca Lanzi

2003-01-01

270

Data Mining ICPSR Summer Program, 2008  

E-print Network

Data Mining ICPSR Summer Program, 2008 Robert Stine Statistics Department Wharton School-stat.wharton.upenn.edu/~stine These lectures introduce data mining. Once a nasty thing to be accused of, data mining has become respectable, useful, and even necessary. What is data mining? Basically, data mining refers to statistical algorithms

Stine, Robert A.

271

Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu  

E-print Network

Distributed Data Mining: An Overview Yongjian Fu Department of Computer Science University mining. We explain what distri­ bution data mining is and why distributed data mining is interesting. Problems and progress in distributed data mining are also discussed. 1 Introduction Facing a rapidly

Fu, Yongjian

272

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining  

E-print Network

Towards Data Mining Benchmarking: A Test Bed for Performance Study of Frequent Pattern Mining Jian, object-relational DBMS, data warehouse sys- tems, etc. We believe that benchmarking data mining mining systems as well. Frequent pattern mining forms a core component in mining associations

Pei, Jian

273

www.miningengineeringmagazine.com Mining engineering FEBRUARY 2014 33 Student Mine Rescue Training  

E-print Network

www.miningengineeringmagazine.com Mining engineering FEBRUARY 2014 33 Student Mine Rescue Training Student mine rescue in today's mining engineering curriculum by Nicole R. Henderson, Helmut Mischo School of Mines, and Helmut Mischo, member SME, is professor and mine manager at TU Bergakademie Freiberg

274

Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Space to Help Mining MINAR: An analogue programme at Boulby Mine What is MINAR? Boulby Mine, a 1.3 km-deep potash mine, offers the ideal environment to test procedures and technology from the space exploration sector to the mining industry to improve mining safety and profitable

Strathclyde, University of

275

THE IMPACT OF A URANIUM MINING SITE ON THE STREAM SEDIMENTS (CRUCEA MINE, ROMANIA)  

E-print Network

THE IMPACT OF A URANIUM MINING SITE ON THE STREAM SEDIMENTS (CRUCEA MINE, ROMANIA) Petrescu L. 1 methods were used to evaluate the impact of uranium mine dumps on the stream sedi- ments from Crucea uranium mine show that the impact of Crucea mine on water quality downstream of mining area

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Mine winding and transport  

SciTech Connect

Changes in size and power available to miming transport equipment, combined with improved means of control involving leaking feeder radio and computers, demands a new look at the problem of mine winding and transport. This book covers the design and application of steel wire ropes to a variety of industrial applications along with the various pulleys and drums necessary. It discusses a ready means of calculation output/throughput of various transport models, and relating them to their power requirement, It lists information on transport modes that enables the most suitable system for given conditions to be determined. Chapter information includes steel wire ropes, wire ropehaulage systems, belt conveyor systems, underground locomotives, free steered vehicles, winding engines, aerial ropeways, and surface mining equipment.

Walker, S.C.

1988-01-01

277

Phosphate Mines, Jordan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

278

Mining with microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or

Douglas E. Rawlings; Simon Silver

1995-01-01

279

Mining Generalized Association Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the problem of mining generalized association rules. Given a large database of transactions, where each transaction consists of a set of items, and a taxonomy (is-a hierarchy) on the items, we find associations between items at any level of the taxonomy.For example, given a taxonomy that says that jackets is-a outerwear is-e clothes, we may infer a rule

Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal

1995-01-01

280

Germany knows mining  

SciTech Connect

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

281

NVESD mine lane facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NVESD Mine Lane Facility has recently undergone an extensive renovation. It now consists of an indoor, dry lane portion, a greenhouse portion with moisture-controlled lanes, a control room, and two outdoor lanes. The indoor structure contains six mine lanes, each approximately 2.5m (width) × 1.2m (depth) × 33m(length). These lanes contain six different soil types: magnetite/sand, silt, crusher run gravel (bluestone gravel), bank run gravel (tan gravel), red clay, and white sand. An automated trolley system is used for mounting the various mine detection systems and sensors under test. Data acquisition and data logging is fully automated. The greenhouse structure was added to provide moisture controlled lanes for measuring the effect of moisture on sensor effectiveness. A gantry type crane was installed to permit remotely controlled positioning of a sensor package over any portion of the greenhouse lanes at elevations from ground level up to 5m without shadowing the target area. The roof of the greenhouse is motorized, and can be rolled back to allow full solar loading. A control room overlooking the lanes is complete with recording and monitoring devices and contains controls to operate the trolleys. A facility overview is presented and typical results from recent data collection exercises are presented.

Habersat, James D.; Marshall, Christopher; Maksymonko, George

2003-09-01

282

Data Mining in Genomics  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS In this paper we review important emerging statistical concepts, data mining techniques, and applications that have been recently developed and used for genomic data analysis. First, we summarize general background and some critical issues in genomic data mining. We then describe a novel concept of statistical significance, so-called false discovery rate, the rate of false positives among all positive findings, which has been suggested to control the error rate of numerous false positives in large screening biological data analysis. In the next section two recent statistical testing methods---significance analysis of microarray (SAM) and local pooled error (LPE) tests are introduced. We next introduce statistical modeling in genomic data analysis such as ANOVA and heterogeneous error modeling (HEM) approaches that have been suggested for analyzing microarray data obtained from multiple experimental and/or biological conditions. The following two sections describe data exploration and discovery tools largely termed as: supervised learning and unsupervised learning. The former approaches include several multivariate statistical methods to investigate co-expression patterns of multiple genes, and the latter approaches are the classification methods to discover genomic biomarker signatures for predicting important subclasses of human diseases. The last section briefly summarizes various genomic data mining approaches in biomedical pathway analysis and patient outcome and/or chemotherapeutic response prediction. Many of the software packages introduced in this paper are freely available at Bioconductor, the open-source Bioinformatics software web site (http://www.bioconductor.org/). PMID:18194724

Lee, Jae K.; Williams, Paul D.; Cheon, Sooyoung

2008-01-01

283

Lunar site characterization and mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

Glass, Charles E.

1992-01-01

284

New Equipment for Mine Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

1983-01-01

285

Data Mining in Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The rise of online social media is providing a wealth of social network data. Data mining techniques provide researchers and\\u000a practitioners the tools needed to analyze large, complex, and frequently changing social media data. This chapter introduces\\u000a the basics of data mining, reviews social media, discusses how to mine social media data, and highlights some illustrative\\u000a examples with an emphasis

Geoffrey Barbier; Huan Liu

2011-01-01

286

Mining-induced seismicity prediction in the Khibiny mines by complex of precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of mining-induced seismicity is important now for many world regions with an advanced mining industry, including the Khibiny massif region (Kola Peninsula). Studying of seismic activity in rock mass and prediction of rockbursts and mining-induced earthquakes for exploited deposits is carried out using complex assessment method. The following precursors are considered to be rock seismicity characteristics: decreasing fractal dimension, b-value, concentration, and average length of fractures These precursors are analyzed by complex assessment method developed. Influence of determinative factors is taken into consideration as well: presence of discontinuous disturbances, stope zone limits and edge of falls of the hanging wall rocks. Changing of the complex assessment is considered in space and time. It has been determined that there are increases of complex assessment values and seismically active zone size before a strong seismic event or events series. Timely detection of the focal source forming is an important stage of the prediction. The program MIEPS was developed to automate the calculations. By this program we can analyze the seismicity in both real-time and retrospectively. One of successful prediction by complex assessment is detection of main fault forming and occurrence of roofing failure in the United Kirovsky mine, "Apatit" JSC. A precursor was detected 3 days before seismic events group occurrence (105-107J). In this time a complex assessment value changed from 0.49 to 0.54 (transfer of stable seismic zone to increasing seismic zone), and a seismic active zone increased in 1.5 times within 24 hours. Factors determining the region's seismicity are high horizontal stresses in the rock mass, long-term exploited deposits and seasonal rock watering. They result to blocks movements on faults. The blasting of blasthole rings in this part of the rock mass (23.05.2012) triggered growing of the main fault, accompanied by seismic events (energy < 2×107J). This caused rocks self-caving. Complex assessment method of seismic setting using different precursors allows immediate analysis of the monitored rock mass part. At present the complex assessment method and the software are tested at the mines owned by "Apatit" JSC.

Zhuravleva, Olga; Fedotova, Iuliia

2013-04-01

287

Deposition head for laser  

DOEpatents

A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

288

GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea, the Brain Korea 21 Project, and the Research Institute of Engineering Science, Seoul National University, Korea.

Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

2010-12-01

289

Economics of mining law  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures that the relative global avaliability of minerals and other values are considered, and can also promote adaptive efficiency by publicizing creative local solutions, providing technical support, and funding useful research. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

Long, K.R.

1995-01-01

290

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2010-07-01

291

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2014-07-01

292

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2013-07-01

293

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2014-07-01

294

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2012-07-01

295

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

296

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

297

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine map. 77.1200 Section 77.1200 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS,...

2011-07-01

298

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

299

A simplified economic filter for open-pit gold-silver mining in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In resource assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits and in the early stages of exploration, including planning, a need for prefeasibility cost models exists. In exploration, these models to filter economic from uneconomic deposits help to focus on targets that can really benefit the exploration enterprise. In resource assessment, these models can be used to eliminate deposits that would probably be uneconomic even if discovered. The U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) previously developed simplified cost models for such problems (Camm, 1991). These cost models estimate operating and capital expenditures for a mineral deposit given its tonnage, grade, and depth. These cost models were also incorporated in USBM prefeasibility software (Smith, 1991). Because the cost data used to estimate operating and capital costs in these models are now over ten years old, we decided that it was necessary to test these equations with more current data. We limited this study to open-pit gold-silver mines located in the United States.

Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Long, Keith R.

1998-01-01

300

Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

301

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

302

30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500 Auger...

2011-07-01

303

30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501 Auger...

2010-07-01

304

30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1500 Auger...

2010-07-01

305

30 CFR 77.1501 - Auger mining; inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Auger mining; inspections. 77...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1501 Auger...

2011-07-01

306

Mining Graph Topological Patterns: Finding Covariations among Vertex Descriptors  

E-print Network

their covariation. Mining topological patterns relies on frequent pattern mining and graph topology analysis approach provides valuable knowledge. Index Terms--Data mining, mining methods and analysis, attributedMining Graph Topological Patterns: Finding Covariations among Vertex Descriptors Adriana Prado

Boulicaut, Jean-François

307

Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G. (and others) (eds.)

2007-07-01

308

Cambrian rocks of the Pioche mining district, Nevada, with a section on Pioche shale faunules  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pioche mining district in the Ely Range, southeastern Nevada, is one of several districts in the Great Basin where Cambrian rocks are hosts of important ore deposits. Cambrian strata underlying the Ely Range are intruded by porphyritic granite and other dikes. Tertiary volcanic rocks and Pliocene fresh-water clastic deposits of the Panaca Formation occupy adjacent valleys and extend over the Cambrian strata on the south and east.

Merriam, Charles Warren; Palmer, Allison R.

1964-01-01

309

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

310

AudioMine: Medical Data Mining in Heterogeneous Audiology Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract— We report on the results of a pilot study in which a data-mining tool was developed for mining audiology records. The records were heterogeneous in that they contained numeric, category and textual data. The tools developed are designed to observe associations between any field in the records and any other field. The techniques employed were the statistical chi-squared

Shaun Cox; Michael P. Oakes; Stefan Wermter; Maurice Hawthorne

2004-01-01

311

GROUND TRUTH WITH MINE COOPERATION Minnesota Taconite Mines  

E-print Network

GROUND TRUTH WITH MINE COOPERATION Minnesota Taconite Mines Brian W Stump Southern Methodist supplying Southern Methodist University with ground truth information that includes shot time, total amount that can be accessed in this manner we are building a regional data set to compliment the ground truth

Stump, Brian W.

312

Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

1972-01-01

313

Airflow obstruction and mining  

SciTech Connect

Bronchitis and emphysema have long been described as diseases of miners, but the precise contribution of occupational exposures to coal and other mine dusts in causing these disorders, as opposed to cofactors such as social class, environmental pollution, and cigarette smoking, has not been fully defined. Epidemiologic studies have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to determine the incidence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in miners as compared to the general population. The results from these studies, and those in other nonmining industries with dust exposures, are examined. 98 refs.

Stenton, S.C.; Hendrick, D.J. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

314

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

315

Database Mining: A Performance Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our perspective of database mining as the confluence of machine learning techniques and the performance emphasis of database technology. We describe three classes of database mining problems involving classification, associations, and sequences, and arguethat these problems can be uniformly viewed as requiring discovery of rules embedded inmassive data. We describe a model and some basic operations for the

Rakesh Agrawal; Tomasz Imielinski; Arun N. Swami

1993-01-01

316

Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania is a science-technology-society (STS) role playing debate simulation. In this activity, learners investigate the abandoned mine drainage (AMD) issue from differing perspectives. In their investigation, they identify AMD problems, search for a solution, evaluate options, and decide on a course of action to treat and clean up AMD in Pennsylvania.

Bodzin, Alec; Brown, Karen

2003-05-01

317

Movie review mining and summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ?ourish of the Web, online review is becoming a more and more useful and important information resource for people. As a result, automatic review mining and sum- marizing has become a hot research topic recently. Difier- ent from traditional text summarization, review mining and summarizing aims at extracting the features on which the re- viewers express their opinions

Li Zhuang; Feng Jing; Xiao-Yan Zhu

2006-01-01

318

Automatic Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1985-01-01

319

Finding Gold in Data Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

Flaherty, Bill

2013-01-01

320

Literature mining in molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature mining is the process of extracting and combining facts from scientific publications. In recent years, many studies have resulted in computer programs to extract various molecular biology findings using Medline abstracts or full text articles. This article describes the range of techniques that have been applied in literature mining. In doing so, it divides automated reading into four general

Berry de Bruijn; Joel Martin

2002-01-01

321

Opinion Mining on Newspaper Quotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion mining is the task of extracting from a set of documents opinions expressed by a source on a specified target. This article presents a comparative study on the methods and resources that can be employed for mining opinions from quotations (reported speech) in newspaper articles. We show the difficulty of this task, motivated by the presence of different possible

Alexandra Balahur; Ralf Steinberger; Erik Van Der Goot; Bruno Pouliquen; Mijail Alexandrov Kabadjov

2009-01-01

322

Privacy-Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fruitful direction for future data mining research will be the development of techniques that incorporate privacy concerns. Specifically, we address the following question. Since the primary task in data mining is the development of models about aggregated data, can we develop accurate models without access to precise information in individual data records? We consider the concrete case of building

Rakesh Agrawal; Ramakrishnan Srikant

2000-01-01

323

Web mining research: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the huge amount of information available online, the World Wide Web is a fertile area for data mining research. The Web mining research is at the cross road of research from several research communities, such as database, infor- mation retrieval, and within AI, especially the sub-areas of machine learning and natural language processing. How- ever, there is a lot

Raymond Kosala; Hendrik Blockeel

2000-01-01

324

Scalable Algorithms for Association Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association rule discovery has emerged as an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining. The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent itemsets and then, forming conditional implication rules among them. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms for the discovery of frequent itemsets which forms the compute intensive phase of the task. The algorithms utilize the structural

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2000-01-01

325

Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities  

E-print Network

Web Mining for Hyperlinked Communities Gary William Flake flake@research.nj.nec.com NEC Research Institute #12;Motivation for Web Mining More than 1B web pages and 20TB of raw data. Even more content will always be disorganized (or at best self-organized). In the future, everything will be on the web

Hu, Wen-Chen

326

Topic in Depth - Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology of growing importance.

2010-09-15

327

Process Mining Online Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

2009-01-01

328

Mining Uncertain and Probabilistic Data  

E-print Network

· A sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties (e.g., temperature) other than the one being;J. Pei, M. Hua, Y. Tao, and X. Lin: Mining Uncertain and Probabilistic Data 2 Outline · Uncertainty and discussion #12;J. Pei, M. Hua, Y. Tao, and X. Lin: Mining Uncertain and Probabilistic Data 3 Uncertainty

Pei, Jian

329

Introduction to Space Resource Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

Mueller, Robert P.

2013-01-01

330

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

331

Composition Control in the Direct Laser-Deposition Process R.R. UNOCIC and J.N. DuPONT  

E-print Network

Composition Control in the Direct Laser-Deposition Process R.R. UNOCIC and J.N. DuPONT Laser demonstrated[4] that the chemical composition of the deposit can be deter- mined through knowledge dilution agrees very well with the composition determined through direct chemical analy- sis.[4,5] Figure 1

DuPont, John N.

332

River acid mine drainage: sediment and water mapping through hyperspectral Hymap data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Odiel River (Huelva, southwest Spain) carries acidic water originating from mine waste contamination, including massive sulphide ore deposits. As the river approaches the coastal estuary, tidal factors influence both sediment and water dynamics. As water velocity decreases, sediment load transport capacity also decreases, building river bars consisting of boulders upstream and sands downstream. Salt water near the estuary affects

A. Riaza; J. Buzzi; E. García-Meléndez; V. Carrère; A. Sarmiento; A. Müller

2012-01-01

333

In situ leach mining and hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where an ore deposit is relatively impermeable to fluid flow, some method of artificial enhancement of permeability will be necessary if leach mining is to be employed to recover the metal.Factors influencing recovery of metals in these circumstances are closely matched by the factors encountered in the recovery of geothermal energy by Hot Dry Rock (HDR) technology, which introduces water

R. H. Parker; A. Jupe

1997-01-01

334

Legal regimes for mining hard rock marine minerals within 200 miles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will discuss the legal regime for mining of hard rock marine minerals within 200 miles of the U.S. coasts. The paper will also deal with emergent legal concepts which may become applicable within the foreseeable future. The particular minerals upon which this paper will focus include consolidated subsurface deposits such as coal, iron ore, sulpher and polymetallic sulphides,

T. Kronmiller

1982-01-01

335

Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of

Arvi Toomik; Valdo Liblik

1998-01-01

336

AS A MINING ENGINEER Mining provides the raw materials and energy resources needed to sustain modern civilization. Mining Engineers  

E-print Network

AS A MINING ENGINEER Mining provides the raw materials and energy resources needed to sustain modern civilization. Mining Engineers are trained to determine the safest most sustainable way to remove, metals, and fuels each year, making mining an indispensable part of our daily life and world economy

Simons, Jack

337

Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-09-15

338

Utility of EXAFS in characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive mining of large mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in mercury contamination of both the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, dispersal, and ultimate fate of mercury are all affected by its chemical speciation, which can be most readily determined in a direct fashion using EXAFS spectroscopy. EXAFS spectra of mine wastes collected from several mercury mines in the California Coast Range with mercury concentrations ranging from 230 to 1060 mg/kg (ppm) have been analyzed using a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. While some calcines have been found to consist almost exclusively of mercuric sulfide, HgS, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. This experimental approach can provide a quantitative measurement of the mercury compounds present and may serve as an indicator of the bioavailability and toxicity levels of mercury mine wastes.

Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.

1999-01-01

339

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)] [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Nichols, A.D. [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)] [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

1996-02-01

340

Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

2003-01-01

341

Measurement and scaling of air-surface mercury exchange from substrates in the vicinity of two Nevada gold mines.  

PubMed

The state of Nevada has extensive mineral resources, and is the largest producer of gold in the USA as well as fourth in world gold production. Mercury (Hg) is often present in the hydrothermal systems that produce gold deposits, and can be found in elevated concentrations in gold ore. As a result, mining of gold ore in Nevada has been shown to release Hg to the atmosphere from point and non-point sources. This project focused on measurement of air-soil Hg exchange associated with undisturbed soils and bedrock outcrops in the vicinity of two large gold mines. Field and laboratory data collected were used to identify the important variables controlling Hg flux from these surfaces, and to estimate a net flux from the areas adjacent to the active mines as well as that occurring from the mined area pre-disturbance. Mean daily flux by substrate type ranged from 9 ng m(-2) day(-1) to 140 ng m(-2) day(-1). Periods of net deposition of elemental Hg were observed when air masses originating from a mine site moved over sampling locations. Based on these observations and measured soil Hg concentrations we suggest that emissions from point and non-point sources at the mines are a source of Hg to the surrounding substrates with the amount deposited not being of an environmental concern but of interest mainly with respect to the cycling of atmospheric elemental Hg. Observations indicate that while some component of the deposited Hg is sequestered in the soil, this Hg is gradually released back to the atmosphere over time. Estimated pre-disturbance emissions from the current mine footprints based on field data were 0.1 and 1.7 kg yr(-1), compared to that estimated for the current non-point mining sources of 19 and 109 kg yr(-1), respectively. PMID:21741677

Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S; Eckley, Chris S

2011-09-01

342

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of ²³⁸U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along

H. B. L. Pettersson; J. Koperski

1991-01-01

343

Engineering geology, ground surface movement and fissures induced by underground mining in the Jinchuan Nickel Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jinchuan Nickel Mine is the largest underground mine with cut-and-fill mining in China. In 1999, there appeared evident ground surface movement and many ground fissures in Jinchuan No. 2 Mine. Following an introduction to the engineering geology and mechanical properties of the rock mass in the Jinchuan mine areas, this paper reveals the features of the measured in situ

X. Li; S. J. Wang; T. Y. Liu; F. S. Ma

2004-01-01

344

MINING ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Mining Engineering  

E-print Network

MINING ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Mining Engineering What is mining engineering? Mining engineers design, develop and implement the processes and technologies for taking minerals from the earth while minimizing the impact on the environment. Is this the program for me? Mining

Barthelat, Francois

345

POST-MINING DEVELOPMENT USING RESOURCES FROM FLOODED UNDERGROUND MINE WORKINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Post-mining issues of land and surface utilization now serve to accentuate how important it is to incorporate sustainable development aspects into hard rock mining. In an effort to revitalize lands degraded by historic mining, 10 acres of mine tailings near the Belmont Mine have...

346

Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine  

SciTech Connect

About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

2008-07-01

347

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the lower topographic elevations. Several mine adits, waste rock dumps are located along the main stream and a large tailings dump is found next to village Baiut just above the receiving floodplain. Predominant land cover is coniferous and mixed forests with agricultural lands on the downstream floodplain. METHODS Six samples at vaious depths were collected from the two major waste rock dumps in the headwater area, and the large tailings dump was also sampled for heavy metal source characterisation. 11 stream sediment samples were collected along the main surface water contamination transport pathway, and a further 11 soil samples were collected in 2 boreholes in the receptor floodplain in October 2008. Besides background stream sediment samples, samples from the exposed rock formations were also collected in order to capture natural background geochemistry in the studied mineralised area. The collected waste rock, stream sediment, soil and rock samples are analysed for total chemical composition (major elements and heavy metals) by ICP-MS spectroscopy, and XRD is used for the determination of mineralogical composition. Rock sample mineralogy is further investigated in thin-sections by petrological microscopy. According to EU legislation expectations, a special emphasis is taken on the determination of metal mobility from the waste rock dumps and various leaching tests are performed and compared including US EPA, USGS and ISO methods. A simple cathcment-based distributed sediment transport model (Jordan et al, 2005; Jordan et al. 2005, 2008) is used to decribe the pathways and quantities of particle-bound contamination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that (1) sediments are an efficient means for the preliminary inventory of mine contamination as a preparation for the more detailed hydrological sampling and assessment, and (2) the risk-based contamination assessment of mining sites often located in diverse geological, hydrological and landcover environment requires careful and successive sampling design and a tiered assessment approach. Leaching tests are show

Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

2009-04-01

348

Integrating Classification and Association Rule Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification rule mining aims to discover a small set of rules in the database that forms an accurate classifier. Association rule mining finds all the rules existing in the database that satisfy some minimum support and minimum confidence constraints. For association rule mining, the target of discovery is not pre-determined, while for classification rule mining there is one and only

Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma

1998-01-01

349

Efficiently mining frequent trees in a forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent trees is very useful in domains like bioinformatics, web mining, mining semistructured data, and so on. We formulate the problem of mining (embedded) subtrees in a forest of rooted, labeled, and ordered trees. We present TREEMINER, a novel algorithm to discover all frequent subtrees in a forest, using a new data structure called scope-list. We contrast TREEMINER with

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2002-01-01

350

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights  

E-print Network

Mining Weighted Association Rules without Preassigned Weights Ke Sun and Fengshan Bai Abstract--Association rule mining is a key issue in data mining. However, the classical models ignore the difference between the transactions, and the weighted association rule mining does not work on databases with only binary attributes

Bai, Fengshan

351

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining  

E-print Network

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining Huan Liu, Hongjun Lu, Jun Yao Department,luhj,yaojung@iscs.nus.edu.sg Abstract. Various tools and systems for knowledge discovery and data mining are developed and available is where we should start mining. In this paper, breaking away from the conventional data mining assumption

Liu, Huan

352

Ground mechanics in hard rock mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground mechanics in hard rock mining represents a combination of applied science and mining engineering experience in ground control and excavation. The problems discussed reflect the present state of underground mining technology. Topics covered include the following: concepts of stress and strain; deformations of rocks; failure of rocks; strength of rocks; monitoring of rock structure; ground conditions; ground stresses; mine

Jeremic

1986-01-01

353

Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

354

Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

355

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

356

AREA OVERVIEW----Agent & Data Mining Interaction  

E-print Network

AREA OVERVIEW---- Agent & Data Mining Interaction (ADMI) Longbing Cao Faculty of Information in a Multiple Agent Environment", EWSL91, 1991 Agent-based data mining & knowledge discovery by Davies, W., 1994 Research topics Agent driven data mining Data mining driven agents & multi- agent systems Mutual issues

Cao, Longbing

357

A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

2011-01-01

358

Collaborative Data Mining Tool for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the continuous improvement of e-learning courses allowing teachers with similar course's profile sharing and scoring the discovered information. This mining tool is oriented to be used by instructors non experts in data mining such that, its…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; Gea, Miguel; de Castro, Carlos

2009-01-01

359

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines  

E-print Network

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics Colorado School of Mines CGEM Dongjie Cheng #12;#12;Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics.mines.edu/cgem Defended: December 2003 Advisor: Dr. Yaoguo Li (GP

360

Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.  

PubMed

This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ? base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

2012-01-01

361

Small mammal-heavy metal concentrations from mined and control sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

1982-01-01

362

Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas.  

PubMed

This work deals with bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in foliage of Scots pine, grown on mine soils. Regression models were used to describe relationships between pine elements bioavailability and biological (dehydrogenase activity) and physico-chemical properties of mine soils developed at different parental rocks. Concentration of trace elements in post-mine ecosystems did not differ from data for Scots pine on natural sites. We conclude that, in this part of Europe in afforested areas affected by hard coal, sand, lignite and sulphur mining, there is no risk of trace element concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap located in the Upper Silesia region, which was more due to industrial pressure and pollutant deposition than the original Cd concentration in parental rocks. PMID:24176697

Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Socha, Jaros?aw; van Doorn, Natalie S

2014-02-01

363

[Impact of mining wastes on the physicochemical and biological characteristics of groundwater in a mining area in Marrakech (Morocco)].  

PubMed

Metal sulphide tailings represent a potential risk basically for the environment and particularly for water resources, because of their natural oxidisability which leads to the production of acid/neutral mine drainage. The prospected site close to Marrakech includes zinc, lead and copper sulphide deposits. This site is located in an agricultural area where ground water is used both for irrigation and drinking. Eco-toxicological investigations have been undertaken in order to asses the tailings impact on water quality in nearby wells. These investigations include physico-chemical characterization of the groundwaters as well as faunistic population determination. As compared to standard wells, waters from the wells located downstream of the mining site, have high electrical conductivities and high major ions contents, which can reach: 755 mg l(-1) in SO4(2-), 1670 mg l(-1) in Ca2+, 528 mg l(-1) in Mg2+, 2289 mg I(-1) in Na+ and 14981 mg l(-1) in Cl-. The fauna distribution analysis carried out around the studied wells shows qualitative and quantitative differences according to the flow gradient of the groundwaters. Areas located upstream of the mine tailings site are richer in stygobite species (Type and quantity) than those located downstream or close to it. It is likely that these biological differences are due to water quality alteration induced by the mining activity. PMID:17283951

El Adnani, M; Boughrous, A Ait; Khebiza, M Yacoubi; El Gharmali, A; Sbai, M L; Errouane, A S; Idrissi, L Loukili; Nejmeddine, A

2007-01-01

364

Microbial diversity at the moderate acidic stage in three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps generating acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

In freshly deposited sulfidic mine tailings the pH is alkaline or circumneutral. Due to pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation the pH is dropping over time to pH values <3 at which acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes prevail and accelerate the oxidation processes, well described for several mine waste sites. The microbial communities at the moderate acidic stage in mine tailings are only scarcely studied. Here we investigated the microbial diversity via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in eight samples (pH range 3.2-6.5) from three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps in Botswana, Germany and Sweden. In total 701 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a divergent microbial community between the three sites and at different tailings depths. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were overall the most abundant phyla in the clone libraries. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Nitrospira occurred less frequently. The found microbial communities were completely different to microbial communities in tailings at

Korehi, Hananeh; Blöthe, Marco; Schippers, Axel

2014-11-01

365

Features of ore formation in the gold-quartz Sovinoye deposit (Northern Chukotka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studying fluid inclusions in the quartz of ore body no. 6 from the Sovinoye deposit developed by the underground mine workings at a depth of 80 m from the surface are considered. The investigations showed that the ore in the Sovinoye deposit was formed at average temperatures during several stages from weakly concentrated hydrotherms saturated with Na, Cl, Mg, and Fe ions. Such ore-forming conditions are typical of mezothermal gold-quartz veined deposits in the terrigeneous quartz-carbonate strata. The results of FI study by modern methods do not contradict the previously offered metamorphogenic-magmatogenic model of ore formation for the Sovinoye deposit.

Kolova, E. E.; Volkov, A. V.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Sidorov, A. A.

2014-12-01

366

Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected that a better knowledge on growing conditions of the selected plant species will contribute to the development of a phytoremediation technique for a low-cost and sustainable restoration of the old mine sites. Moreover, this will have direct utility to other areas in the Mediterranean region, that are similarly threatened by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

2009-04-01

367

Mineralogy, geochemistry and radioactivity of some Egyptian phosphorite deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical, geochemical, and radiogeological studies of forty-nine phosphorite samples from three main mining areas in Egypt, Abu Tartur (Western Desert), Sibaiya (Nile Valley), and Safaga (Red Sea) have been carried out. X-ray diffraction studies of these Egyptian phosphorites show that carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite) is the major phosphorite mineral in these deposits, with partial substitution of Mg and Na for Ca, and

Dabous; A. A. A

1981-01-01

368

Origins of Halophilic Microorganisms in Ancient Salt Deposits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eight-page review article considers the evidence for and against long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms in ancient salt deposits. Included sections are hypersaline environments and their inhabitants, haloarchaea and halite precipitation, isolations of microorganisms from brines in salt mines, isolations of microorganisms from ancient rock salt, isolations of microorganisms directly from fluid inclusions, relationship of subsurface haloarchaea to surface isolates, dispersal of haloarchaea, and long-term survival of haloarchaea inside salt crystals.

Mcgenity, Terry; Gemmell, Renia; Grant, William; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Microbiology, Environmental

369

Automated Coal-Mining System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

370

Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

None Available

1999-06-24

371

Kentucky Mine Mapping Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geographic Information System (GIS) allows users to view and download all known mined out areas (polygons) digitized by the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet; individual reports from the Mines and Minerals database; and scanned images of engineering drawings (mine maps) submitted since January 2002, plus selected earlier maps. The maps can be viewed directly online with the use of an interactive viewer, or they can be downloaded from an FTP site. The interactive viewer shows all scanned maps and oil/gas wells (where available) for a selected area, overlain on a base map or imagery.

372

Data Mining SIAM Presentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document describes the data mining system developed at NASA Ames. Many NASA programs have large numbers (and types) of problem reports.These free text reports are written by a number of different people, thus the emphasis and wording vary considerably With so much data to sift through, analysts (subject experts) need help identifying any possible safety issues or concerns and help them confirm that they haven't missed important problems. Unsupervised clustering is the initial step to accomplish this; We think we can go much farther, specifically, identify possible recurring anomalies. Recurring anomalies may be indicators of larger systemic problems. The requirement to identify these anomalies has led to the development of Recurring Anomaly Discovery System (ReADS).

Srivastava, Ashok; McIntosh, Dawn; Castle, Pat; Pontikakis, Manos; Diev, Vesselin; Zane-Ulman, Brett; Turkov, Eugene; Akella, Ram; Xu, Zuobing; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi

2006-01-01

373

Web Usage Mining Via Fuzzy Logic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increment of users and information on the Web, mining processes inspired in the traditional data mining ones have\\u000a been developed. This new recent area of investigation is called Web Mining. Within this area, we study the analysis of web\\u000a log files in what is called Web Usage Mining. Different techniques of mining to discover usage patterns from web

Víctor H. Escobar-jeria; Maria J. Martín-bautista; Daniel Sánchez; María Amparo Vila Miranda

2007-01-01

374

US enacts new mine safety policies  

SciTech Connect

New legislation in the USA requires mine operators to be prepared, increases funding for safety equipment research, strengthens mine rescue teams, and raises the limits for penalties. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act represents the efforts of industry and politicians in reaction to recent mining tragedies. S.2803 was signed on 15 June 2006. The article discusses the content of the Act and its implications for coal mine operators. 2 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-06-15

375

A New Occurrence Model for National Assessment of Undiscovered Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are very significant current and historical resources of Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag, are active exploration targets in several areas of the United States and potentially have significant environmental effects. This new USGS VMS deposit model provides a comprehensive review of deposit occurrence and ore genesis, and fully integrates recent advances in the understanding of active seafloor VMS-forming environments, and integrates consideration of geoenvironmental consequences of mining VMS deposits. Because VMS deposits exhibit a broad range of geological and geochemical characteristics, a suitable classification system is required to incorporate these variations into the mineral deposit model. We classify VMS deposits based on compositional variations in volcanic and sedimentary host rocks. The advantage of the classification method is that it provides a closer linkage between tectonic setting and lithostratigraphic assemblages, and an increased predictive capability during field-based studies.

Shanks, W.C. Pat, III; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Koski, Randolph; Morgan, Lisa A.; Mosier, Dan; Piatak, Nadine M.; Ridley, Ian; Seal, Robert R., II; Schulz, Klaus J.; Slack, John F.; Thurston, Roland

2009-01-01

376

Atmospheric deposition to forests  

SciTech Connect

The processes of wet and dry deposition in forests are described with special reference to the northeastern United States and to chemical species important in acidic deposition. For wet deposition, it is noted that background or natural pH values are probably in the range of 5 to 7, but current pH values over most of the eastern United States are less than 4.6. Both meteorological and chemical factors influence the acidity of precipitation. The best long-term data record for the northeastern United States (that of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire) indicates no significant trend in rainfall acidity in the period of record (1964 to 1980), but the data do indicate that nitric acid has increased in importance relative to sulfuric acid in its contribution to that acidity. Deposition decreases along a southwest to northeast transect through the northeastern states. Deposition to high-elevation ecosystems is severalfold higher than deposition to nearby lowland ecosystems because of increased rain and snowfall, the effect of cloud water deposition, and possibly increased dry deposition. Theory and the few measurements available suggest particle deposition to be important for alkaline materials, such as soil dust, and gaseous deposition to be important for H/sup +/, N, and S. The importance of dry deposition relative to wet deposition increases with increasing proximity to pollution source areas. The forest canopy influences atmospheric deposition to the forest floor by taking up or releasing nutrients and strong acidity, releasing weak acidity, and trapping dry depositions. 60 references, 2 figures.

Lovett, G.M.

1983-01-01

377

The mineral treasure that almost got away: Re-evaluating yesterday's mine waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare metals and semi-metals such as In, Ga, Se, Te and rare earth elements (REE) are increasing in demand for use in "new" and "green" technology. Yet, before the end of the 20th century the applications and thus the markets for these elements were limited. In many mines, the exploration paradigms and current knowledge as well as contemporary analytical methodology likely resulted in minerals hosting these metals to end up as waste, that is, on the mine dumps. In other cases, they were identified, but considered as mineralogical "exotica". Even extremely well-known and traditionally valuable metals such as gold went undetected on the dumps in some mine fields. This is due to a combination of factors such as that the deposits were "of the wrong type", assays were expensive, and suitable laboratory capacity sparse. This implies that in many regions, this old mine waste is a potential resource for several sought-after metals and semi-metals, including the ones increasingly used in modern high-tech applications. Admittedly, many older dumps and dump fields host only minor to moderate total amounts of material, but in todaýs society - increasingly focused on sustainability and related needs for recycling - this is likely to become an asset. In Sweden, many mine dumps date back hundreds of years or more as mining has been documented to go back at least 1000 years. Before the 20th century, only a single or, at best, a couple of metals were extracted from any given mine. Due to modern development in analytical techniques, the concentrations of trace elements, including highly sought-after metals and semi-metals can be obtained at moderate costs today. The presence of variable amounts of precious and rare elements along with the main ore commodity has now been documented in several cases. A recently started project in the classic, Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore province in central Sweden is aimed at resolving the potential for finding and utilising these "unknown treasures". A conservative estimate based on SGU databases is that in this province alone, there are over 6500 mineralisations/deposits. A majority of these have associated mine dumps and in the case of more recently mined deposits, different types of tailings. Initial results highlight the high average contents of REÉs and identify their mineralogical and textural distribution in apatite-iron oxide ore present in both dumps and tailings. In addition, we report the occurrence of previously undetected mineralisation of indium and tungsten in different mine dumps in the western part of the province.

Högdahl, K.; Jonsson, E.; Troll, V.; Majka, J.

2012-04-01

378

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2014-07-01

379

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2013-07-01

380

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2011-07-01

381

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2012-07-01

382

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2012-07-01

383

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

...Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2014-07-01

384

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2013-07-01

385

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2010-07-01

386

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2014-07-01

387

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

388

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2012-07-01

389

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

390

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2014-07-01

391

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2012-07-01

392

Dried Acid Mine Drainage Residuals  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dried acid mine drainage residuals that are formed during treatment of the drainage.  The USGS has pioneered a new use for these residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, using them to filter phosphorus from agricultural and municipal wastewaters....

393

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

, Golden, CO 80401 Address correspondence to: Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 Main Telephone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Section 1­Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mission and Goals . . 8 Appeal Process for Student Academic Misconduct . 9 Section 2­Student Life

394

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

, Golden, CO 80401 Address correspondence to: Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 Main Telephone Section 1­Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mission and Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Section 2­Student Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Facilities

395

School of Mines Undergraduate Bulletin  

E-print Network

, Golden, CO 80401-1887 Correspondence Address correspondence to: Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Section 1­Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mission and Goals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section 2­Student Life

396

Topic in Depth - Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores data mining, also known as knowledge discovery in databases. Data mining is used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. It is a blend of three main subjects: statistics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Often, true data mining is characterized by a self-acting program and a unique blend of knowledge discovery and prediction that allows individuals and businesses to sort and classify very large amounts of data quickly and efficiently. Data mining programs can be tailored to meet the needs of the users, whether that need is for the forecasting of future investments, or simply the need to recognize patterns among the data being analyzed.

2010-09-06

397

Mining Safety and Health Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse site provides information about health and safety in the mining industry. The site features links to fact sheets, statistics, data, research projects, training materials, publications, educational and occupational software, and national laboratories.

2006-12-10

398

Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project (MMSD) is a completed, independent two-year project of research and consultation seeking to understand how the mining and minerals sector can contribute to the global transition to sustainable development. The final report, as well as various regional reports, timelines, and working papers, are available in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese. Information on a wide spectrum of topics is available, including the following: armed conflict; artisanal and small-scale mining; biodiversity; current industry practice; corporate citizenship; finance dialogue; health and safety; human rights; indigenous peoples; information dialogue; large-volume waste; life-cycle assessment; managing mineral wealth; mine closure policy; minerals availability; planning for outcomes; public participation; and resettlement and displacement.

2007-06-25

399

Landfill mining: A critical review of two decades of research  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze two decades of landfill mining research regarding trends and topics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So far landfill mining has mainly been used to solve waste management issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new perspective on landfills as resource reservoirs is emerging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of resource extraction from landfills is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline several key challenges for realization of resource extraction from landfills. - Abstract: Landfills have historically been seen as the ultimate solution for storing waste at minimum cost. It is now a well-known fact that such deposits have related implications such as long-term methane emissions, local pollution concerns, settling issues and limitations on urban development. Landfill mining has been suggested as a strategy to address such problems, and in principle means the excavation, processing, treatment and/or recycling of deposited materials. This study involves a literature review on landfill mining covering a meta-analysis of the main trends, objectives, topics and findings in 39 research papers published during the period 1988-2008. The results show that, so far, landfill mining has primarily been seen as a way to solve traditional management issues related to landfills such as lack of landfill space and local pollution concerns. Although most initiatives have involved some recovery of deposited resources, mainly cover soil and in some cases waste fuel, recycling efforts have often been largely secondary. Typically, simple soil excavation and screening equipment have therefore been applied, often demonstrating moderate performance in obtaining marketable recyclables. Several worldwide changes and recent research findings indicate the emergence of a new perspective on landfills as reservoirs for resource extraction. Although the potential of this approach appears significant, it is argued that facilitating implementation involves a number of research challenges in terms of technology innovation, clarifying the conditions for realization and developing standardized frameworks for evaluating economic and environmental performance from a systems perspective. In order to address these challenges, a combination of applied and theoretical research is required.

Krook, Joakim, E-mail: joakim.krook@liu.se [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Niclas; Eklund, Mats [Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-03-15

400

Data Mining and Machine Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki. The project "develops methods and tools for analyzing large data sets and for searching for unexpected relationships in the data." They are also applying their research to text analysis to automatically create a summary of a document and locate related news items from feeds.

Mannila, Heikki

2008-01-11

401

Clay deposits of the Tierra Colorado district, southern Orange County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The clay of this district is being mined for fire brick by the Vitrofrax Corporation. Much of the clay contains 35 percent or more of alumina and between 1 and 2 percent of iron oxide. Production is largely from an underground mine as the best clay deposit known in the district occurs on the side of a steep hill with more than 100 feet of sandstone overlying most of it. The good clay deposits occur at the base of an Eocene sandstone formation, and overlie mottled clays with a high iron content that are residual deposits formed on an old weathered surface. Mapping indicates that the clay deposits are very lenticular, though all occur at the same stratigraphic position, and they grade laterally into sandy clay and quartz sand. Topographic relief and the dip of the strata preclude finding large areas where the clay strata have relatively little overburden.

Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

1953-01-01

402

Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.  

PubMed

The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

2013-02-01

403

Ultrasonic detection of mine fires  

SciTech Connect

A commercially-available, acoustic ranging system demonstrated its capability to detect the occurrence of an experimental fire and concentrated smoke in a mine entry. This ranging system provided a temperature and smoke sensing method over a path between the system and a reflecting surface in the mine. The ranging system emitted bursts of ultrasonic frequencies which, when reflected from a surface, indicated the distance between the ranging system and that surface at 25{degrees}C. Experimental fires in a mine entry were observed to produce three types of changes in the indicated distance. These fires resulted in small fluctuations about the indicated distances, intermittent doubling of the indicated distances, and overranging distances for measurements made transverse to the entry downwind of the fires. Measurements from these fires were supported by an analytical model, based upon the sound velocity`s temperature dependency and Snell`s law of refraction of plane acoustic waves. Absorption of acoustic energy by smoke particles and gas molecules could also account for some of the overranging distances indicated. The capability of the system to detect an upwind mine fire and indicate a measure of the smoke hazard are useful features for early mine fire detection and for mine safety improvement.

Friel, G.F.; Edwards, J.C. [Pittsburgh Research Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01

404

Tracking acid mine-drainage in Southeast Arizona using GIS and sediment delivery models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigates the application of models traditionally used to estimate erosion and sediment deposition to assess the potential risk of water quality impairment resulting from metal-bearing materials related to mining and mineralization. An integrated watershed analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based tools was undertaken to examine erosion and sediment transport characteristics within the watersheds. Estimates of stream deposits of sediment from mine tailings were related to the chemistry of surface water to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to assess the risk of acid mine-drainage being dispersed downstream of abandoned tailings and waste rock piles. A watershed analysis was preformed in the Patagonia Mountains in southeastern Arizona which has seen substantial mining and where recent water quality samples have reported acidic surface waters. This research demonstrates an improvement of the ability to predict streams that are likely to have severely degraded water quality as a result of past mining activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

Norman, L.M.; Gray, F.; Guertin, D.P.; Wissler, C.; Bliss, J.D.

2008-01-01

405

The future of Yellowcake: a global assessment of uranium resources and mining.  

PubMed

Uranium (U) mining remains controversial in many parts of the world, especially in a post-Fukushima context, and often in areas with significant U resources. Although nuclear proponents point to the relatively low carbon intensity of nuclear power compared to fossil fuels, opponents argue that this will be eroded in the future as ore grades decline and energy and greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs) intensity increases as a result. Invariably both sides fail to make use of the increasingly available data reported by some U mines through sustainability reporting - allowing a comprehensive assessment of recent trends in the energy and GGE intensity of U production, as well as combining this with reported mineral resources to allow more comprehensive modelling of future energy and GGEs intensity. In this study, detailed data sets are compiled on reported U resources by deposit type, as well as mine production, energy and GGE intensity. Some important aspects included are the relationship between ore grade, deposit type and recovery, which are crucial in future projections of U mining. Overall, the paper demonstrates that there are extensive U resources known to meet potential short to medium term demand, although the future of U mining remains uncertain due to the doubt about the future of nuclear power as well as a range of complex social, environmental, economic and some site-specific technical issues. PMID:24317167

Mudd, Gavin M

2014-02-15

406

Porphyry copper deposit model : Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.

2010-01-01

407

Deposition Measurements in NSTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

2004-11-01

408

Properties of Utah tar sands: Threemile Canyon area, P. R. Spring deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of detailed analyses of 4 cores from the Threemile Canyon area in the P.R. Spring tar sand deposit in Utah are reported by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The cores were obtained by the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey as part of a 17-corehole evaluation program in the P.R. Spring, Hill Creek, and Rim Rock tar sand deposits. Average

L. C. Marchant; L. A. Johnson; C. Q. Cupps

1974-01-01

409

Economic geology of uranium deposits in the Ralston Creek area Jefferson County, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposits described are in Golden Gate Canyon and the Ralston Creek drainage area near Denver, Colorado. Two of the deposits have produced uranium ore as of March 31, 1956. The Ralston Creek mine has shipped 2,338 tons averaging 0.72 percent UO and the Gary shipped 1,108 tons averaging 0.28 percent UO. The country rock includes metasediments of the Idaho

R. C. Derzay; A. G. Bird

1957-01-01

410

Mercury availability by operationally defined fractionation in granulometric distributions of soils and mine wastes from an abandoned cinnabar mine.  

PubMed

Mercury contamination from historic cinnabar mines represents a potential risk to the environment. Asturias, in Northern Spain, was one of the largest metallurgic and mining producer areas of Hg in Europe during the 20th century until the end of activities in 1974. Mining operations have caused Hg release and dispersion throughout the area. In this study, soils collected from calcine piles and surrounding soils at an abandoned Hg mine and metallurgical plant in Mieres (Asturias, Spain) were distributed in different particle-size subsamples. Fractionation of Hg was performed by means of a Hg-specific sequential extraction procedure complemented with the selective determination of organic Hg fraction by a specific extraction method. Extremely high concentrations of total Hg were found in calcine piles. Concentrations and mobility of Hg decreased markedly with the distance in soils located 25 m both above and below the chimney of the metallurgical plant. The sequential extraction results indicated that Hg is primarily found as elemental Hg followed by sulfide Hg in the finest subsamples. However, this distribution is inverted in the coarser grain fractions where sulfide Hg prevails. Calcine piles exhibited exceptionally high values of mobile Hg (up to 5350 ?g g(-1) in the finest subsample). Accumulation of Hg in the elemental Hg fraction was observed at decreasing grain size which is indicative of deposition of Hg vapors from the metallurgical plant. Enrichment of sulfide Hg was found in the finest subsamples of soils sampled below the chimney (up to 99 ?g g(-1)). Significant organic Hg contents were observed in the soil samples (up to 2.8 ?g g(-1)), higher than those found in other abandoned Hg mining sites. A strong correlation was observed between organic Hg and Hg humic and fulvic complexes, as well as with the elemental Hg fraction. This indicates that both humic and fulvic material and elemental Hg must be the primary variables controlling Hg methylation in these soils. PMID:24664209

Fernández-Martínez, R; Loredo, J; Ordóñez, A; Rucandio, I

2014-05-01

411

Deposition Overview - Part II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), provides an overview of the deposition processes used to fabricate micro-sized devicesâÂÂ. The lecture runs for 10:33 seconds and covers "a brief overview of chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and electrodeposition." More information on desposition can be found on the SCME website. 

2014-08-05

412

Sulphide-mining impacts in the physical environment: Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact and potential-risk assessment of an abandoned sulphide-mining site in a semiarid climate is presented here, by the study case of Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), a 2,500-year-old mining district extending over an area of 100 km2. The regional map illustrates the existence of 12 open-pits, 1,902 mining wells, 2,351 waste deposits, including 89 tailing dams and waste rock derived from mining processes. Mine wastes occupy an area of 9 km2 and have an approximate volume of 200 Mm3. Mineralogical, physical and chemical data distinguish nine different types of mine and metallurgical waste. According to the concentration of sulphate and heavy metals in sediment, soil, rainwater, surface water and groundwater samples, it is possible to conclude that the impact of mine activities occurs not only in the immediate mining area (100 km2), but also in the surrounding areas (an affected area of 1,000 km2 approximately). The hydrochemical data show that groundwater, runoff water and some rainwater samples exceed Spanish and European water quality guideline values for water supply. The main geochemical process recognised is sulphide-mineral oxidation and later-generated sulphate dissolution by groundwater and runoff. Runoff and wind are the major mechanisms of metals and sulphate transport in the study area and adjacent zones.

Robles-Arenas, V. M.; Rodríguez, R.; García, C.; Manteca, J. I.; Candela, L.

2006-10-01

413

Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

1981-01-01

414

The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment.  

PubMed

Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one seasonal cycle using a low volume diaphragm pump. Lead isotope ratios in dust deposited on leaves overestimate the relative amount of mine origin airborne lead, most likely due to a difference of the size distribution of particles collected on leaves and true aerosol size distribution. Seasonal measurements show that the annual average mine contribution to airborne lead concentrations in Jabiru East, approximately 2.5 km northwest of the mine, amounted to 13%, with distinct differences between the wet and dry season. The relative contribution of mine origin lead deposited on leaves in the dry season drops to less than 1% at a distance of 12.5 km from the mine along the major wind direction. An approach is outlined, in which lead isotope ratios are used to estimate the effective radiation dose received from the inhalation of mine origin radioactivity trapped in or on dust. Using the data from our study, this dose has been calculated to be approximately 2 microSv year(-1) for people living and working in the area. PMID:16388836

Bollhöfer, Andreas; Honeybun, Russell; Rosman, Kevin; Martin, Paul

2006-08-01

415

Underground coal mine instrumentation and test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to evaluate mechanical performance of mine tools and to obtain test performance data from candidate systems dictate that an engineering data recording system be built. Because of the wide range of test parameters which would be evaluated, a general purpose data gathering system was designed and assembled to permit maximum versatility. A primary objective of this program was to provide a specific operating evaluation of a longwall mining machine vibration response under normal operating conditions. A number of mines were visited and a candidate for test evaluation was selected, based upon management cooperation, machine suitability, and mine conditions. Actual mine testing took place in a West Virginia mine.

Burchill, R. F.; Waldron, W. D.

1976-01-01

416

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2010-07-01

417

78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MSHA-2013-0037] Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety...comments on revised instruction guides for coal mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes...instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria...

2013-09-24

418

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2010-07-01

419

The second international symposium on small mine economics and expansion  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following section headings: opportunities in small and medium mining; mineral exploration and mine planning for small and medium mines; financing small and medium mining projects and marketing final products; operating considerations for

Not Available

1983-01-01

420

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2013-07-01

421

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2014-07-01

422

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2012-07-01

423

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2013-07-01

424

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2012-07-01

425

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2014-07-01

426

30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226 Section...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for...

2010-07-01

427

30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226 Section...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for...

2011-07-01

428

30 CFR 57.22308 - Methane monitors (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methane monitors (III mines). 57.22308...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22308 Methane monitors (III mines). (a)...

2011-07-01

429

30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22223 Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines). A means of...

2010-07-01

430

30 CFR 57.22308 - Methane monitors (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methane monitors (III mines). 57.22308...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22308 Methane monitors (III mines). (a)...

2010-07-01

431

30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan...

2012-07-01

432

30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan...

2011-07-01

433

30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.19 Auger mining:...

2013-07-01

434

30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.19 Auger mining:...

2014-07-01

435

30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan...

2010-07-01

436

43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487.1 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining...

2014-10-01

437

30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan...

2014-07-01

438

30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.19 Auger mining:...

2010-07-01

439

30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.19 Auger mining:...

2012-07-01

440

30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.19 Auger mining:...

2011-07-01

441

30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan...

2013-07-01

442

43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logical mining units. 3487.1 Section 3487.1 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical Mining Unit § 3487.1 Logical mining...

2013-10-01

443

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2011-07-01

444

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2011-07-01

445

36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2010-07-01

446

36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2011-07-01

447

36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2010-07-01

448

36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2011-07-01

449

36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2012-07-01

450

36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2014-07-01

451

36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2013-07-01

452

36 CFR 5.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 5.14 Section 5.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2014-07-01

453

36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2012-07-01

454

36 CFR 1005.14 - Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. 1005.14 Section 1005.14 Parks...14 Prospecting, mining, and mineral leasing. Prospecting, mining, and the location...claims under the general mining laws and leasing under the mineral leasing laws are...

2013-07-01

455

26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

2010-04-01

456

30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

457

30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.  

...2014-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section 49.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

458

30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2011-07-01

459

30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section 49.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

460

30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

461

30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2010-07-01

462

30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

463

30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2010-07-01

464

30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue...

2011-07-01

465

30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

466

30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

467

30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2011-07-01

468

30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section 49.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2011-07-01

469

30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

470

30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section 49.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2010-07-01

471

30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue...

2010-07-01

472

30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

473

30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

474

30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

475

30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

476

30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

477

30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.9 Mine...

2010-07-01

478

30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

... 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section 49.18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

479

30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams.  

... 2014-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2014-07-01

480

30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2011-07-01

481

30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2012-07-01

482

30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12 Section 49.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

483

30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.