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1

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

2002-01-01

2

Scaling behavior and the effects of heterogeneity on shallow seismic imaging of mineral deposits: A case study from Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the scaling behavior of compressional-wave velocity and density logs from an exploration borehole that extends down to about 700 m depth in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada. Using statistical methods, vertical and horizontal scale lengths of heterogeneity were estimated. Vertical scale length estimates from the velocity, density and calculated acoustic impedance are 14 m, 33 m, and about 20 m, respectively. Although the estimated scale length for the acoustic impedance implies a weak scattering environment, elastic finite difference modeling of seismic wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media demonstrates that even this weak scattering medium can mask seismic signals from small, but yet economically feasible, massive sulfide deposits. Further analysis of the synthetic seismic data suggests that in the presence of heterogeneity, lenticular-shaped targets may only exhibit incomplete diffraction signals whereby the down-dip tails of these diffractions are mainly visible on the stacked sections. Therefore, identification of orebody generated diffractions is much easier on the unmigrated stacked sections than on migrated stacked sections. The numerical seismic modeling in 2D heterogeneous media indicates that in the presence of large horizontal, but small vertical scale lengths (structural anisotropy), identification of massive sulfide deposits is possible, but their delineation at depth requires detailed velocity modeling and processing algorithms which can handle the anisotropy.

Cheraghi, Saeid; Malehmir, Alireza; Bellefleur, Gilles; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bastani, Mehrdad

2013-03-01

3

Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

2013-02-01

4

Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

Sides, E. J.

5

Comparison of braided-stream depositional environment and uranium deposits at Saint Anthony underground mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

United Nuclear's Saint Anthony mine, located in the Laguna district, produces uranium ore from the Jackpile sandstone unit of the Morrison Formation. The Jackpile sediments were deposited in a fluvial environment characterized by aridity, gentle slope, distant source area, and limited flow volume. Resultant stratigraphy consists of an intricate assemblage of trough and tabular cross-stratification grading to near massive bedding

C. W. Baird; K. W. Martin; R. M. Lowry

1980-01-01

6

Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).  

PubMed

The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans. PMID:23454697

Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

2013-04-01

7

Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.  

PubMed

To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants should be created in the upper part of the cover layer, namely a sufficient amount of plant nutrients. However, to define such a condition is difficult since different plant species have different requirements. PMID:17253002

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-12-01

8

Biogeometallurgical pre-mining characterization of ore deposits: an approach to increase sustainability in the mining process.  

PubMed

Based on the knowledge obtained from acid mine drainage formation in mine waste environments (tailings impoundments and waste rock dumps), a new methodology is applied to characterize new ore deposits before exploitation starts. This gives the opportunity to design optimized processes for metal recovery of the different mineral assemblages in an ore deposit and at the same time to minimize the environmental impact and costs downstream for mine waste management. Additionally, the whole economic potential is evaluated including strategic elements. The methodology integrates high-resolution geochemistry by sequential extractions and quantitative mineralogy in combination with kinetic bioleach tests. The produced data set allows to define biogeometallurgical units in the ore deposit and to predict the behavior of each element, economically or environmentally relevant, along the mining process. PMID:23616204

Dold, Bernhard; Weibel, Leyla

2013-11-01

9

Microbiological and Geochemical Characterization of Fluvially Deposited Sulfidic Mine Tailings  

PubMed Central

The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

Wielinga, Bruce; Lucy, Juliette K.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Seastone, October F.; Gannon, James E.

1999-01-01

10

Microbiological and geochemical characterization of fluvially deposited sulfidic mine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The fluvial deposition of mine tailings generated from historic mining operations near Butte, Montana, has resulted in substantial surface and shallow groundwater contamination along Silver Bow Creek. Biogeochemical processes in the sediment and underlying hyporheic zone were studied in an attempt to characterize interactions consequential to heavy-metal contamination of shallow groundwater. Sediment cores were extracted and fractionated based on sediment stratification. Subsamples of each fraction were assayed for culturable heterotrophic microbiota, specific microbial guilds involved in metal redox transformations, and both aqueous- and solid-phase geochemistry. Populations of cultivable Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were most prominent in the anoxic, circumneutral pH regions associated with a ferricrete layer or in an oxic zone high in organic carbon and soluble iron. Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria were distributed in discrete zones throughout the tailings and were often recovered from sections at and below the anoxic groundwater interface. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were also widely distributed in the cores and often occurred in zones overlapping iron and sulfur oxidizers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were consistently recovered from oxic zones that contained high concentrations of metals in the oxidizable fraction. Altogether, these results suggest a highly varied and complex microbial ecology within a very heterogeneous geochemical environment. Such physical and biological heterogeneity has often been overlooked when remediation strategies for metal contaminated environments are formulated.

Wielinga, B.; Lucy, J.K.; Moore, J.N.; Seastone, O.F.; Gannon, J.E. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1999-04-01

11

Comparison of braided-stream depositional environment and uranium deposits at Saint Anthony underground mine  

SciTech Connect

United Nuclear's Saint Anthony mine, located in the Laguna district, produces uranium ore from the Jackpile sandstone unit of the Morrison Formation. The Jackpile sediments were deposited in a fluvial environment characterized by aridity, gentle slope, distant source area, and limited flow volume. Resultant stratigraphy consists of an intricate assemblage of trough and tabular cross-stratification grading to near massive bedding at some locations. Interbedded with the Jackpile sands are green mudstones and siltstones that commonly display irregular thicknesses of less than 2 ft and that are laterally discontinuous. Major penecontemporaneous and postdepositional alteration of originally deposited sands, silts, and clays includes: 1) infiltration and filling of interstices by kaolinitic clays; 2) mobilization and relocation of organic carbonaceous material; and 3) geochemical alteration of mineral constituents and fixation of uranium ions in organic carbonaceous material. Mineralized zones of economic volume display a spatial relationship to bedding features indicative of loosely packed sand deposited in dune and trough foresets. This relationship indicates possible permeability control by initial stratigraphy upon the flow of mineralizing solutions. Additionally, the low-energy foreset environment facilitates the accumulation of low-specific-gravity carbonaceous material necessary for interaction with mineralizing solutions. Large volumes of loosely packed foreset sands accumulate in transverse bars in braided-stream environments. These structures have a great potential for conducting large volumes of mineralizing fluids and hosting economic quantities of uranium ore.

Baird, C.W. (UNC Mining and Milling, Seboyeta, NM); Martin, K.W.; Lowry, R.M.

1980-01-01

12

A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

2014-01-01

13

Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.  

PubMed

From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH. PMID:16509314

Dold, Bernhard

2006-02-01

14

Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Tailing Deposits: the Case of Raibl Mine  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, many embankments and levees have collapsed during strong earthquakes or floods. In the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy), the main source of this type of risk is a slag deposit of about 2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} deriving from galena and lead mining activity until 1991 in the village of Raibl. For the final remedial action plan, several in situ tests were performed: five boreholes equipped with piezometers, four CPTE and some geophysical tests with different approaches (refraction, ReMi and HVSR). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples: geotechnical classification, triaxial compression tests and constant head permeability tests in triaxial cell. Pressure plate tests were also done on unsaturated slag to evaluate the characteristic soil-water curve useful for transient seepage analysis. A seepage analysis was performed in order to obtain the maximum pore water pressures during the intense rainfall event which hit the area on 29th August 2003. The results highlight that the slag low permeability prevents the infiltration of rainwater, which instead seeps easily through the boundary levees built with coarse materials. For this reason pore water pressures inside the deposits are not particularly influenced by rainfall intensity and frequency. Seismic stability analysis was performed with both the pseudo-static method, coupled with Newmark's method, and dynamic methods, using as design earthquake the one registered in Tolmezzo (Udine) on 6{sup th} May 1976. The low reduction of safety factors and the development of very small cumulative displacements show that the stability of embankments is assured even if an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 and a daily rainfall of 141.6 mm occur at the same time.

Roberto, Meriggi; Marco, Del Fabbro; Erica, Blasone; Erica, Zilli [Department of Georesources and Territory, University of Udine Via Cotonificio, 114, 33100 Udine (Italy)

2008-07-08

15

TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM AN URANIUM DEPOSIT BY MEANS OF A NATURAL WETLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage waters generated in the uranium deposit Curilo, western Bulgaria, were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 2.7 - 4.1 and contained uranium, radium, some heavy metals (iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead), arsenic and sulphates as main pollutants. The water course through

S. N. Groudev; M. V. Nicolova; I. I. Spasova; K. Komnitsas; I. Paspaliaris

2001-01-01

16

Data Set of World Phosphate Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences. Part B. Location and Mineral Economic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These...

C. B. Chernoff G. J. Orris

2002-01-01

17

Data Set of World Phosphate Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences. Part A. Geologic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These...

C. B. Chernoff G. J. Orris

2002-01-01

18

Plant macroscopic remains from recent sediments of Banks Island, Northwest Territories, and Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada, and the interpretation of Quaternary cold stage plant macroscopic assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroscopic plant remains were extracted from recent sediments of streams on Banks Island and Bathurst Island. Analyses of the samples are given and their general relation to the vegetation is described. Problems of interpretation of the contemporary and Quaternary cold stage macroscopic assemblages include the variation of the representation of taxa, the significance of taphonomy, especially under fluvial conditions, and the origin of the assemblages in a mosaic of vegetation. The contribution of analyses of macroscopic remains to interpretations of vegetation and environment based on pollen analysis is emphasised.

West, Richard G.; Pettit, Mary E.

2000-02-01

19

Quantifying silica in filter-deposited mine dusts using infrared spectra and partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring airborne crystalline silica (?-quartz) in noncoal mine dusts using a direct-on-filter method of analysis is demonstrated. Respirable ?-quartz was quantified by applying a partial least squares (PLS) regression to the infrared transmission spectra of mine-dust samples deposited on porous polymeric filters. This direct-on-filter method deviates from the current regulatory determination of respirable ?-quartz by refraining from ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the analyte prior to quantification using either infrared spectrometry for coal mines or x-ray diffraction (XRD) from noncoal mines. Since XRD is not field portable, this study evaluated the efficacy of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for silica determination in noncoal mine dusts. PLS regressions were performed using select regions of the spectra from nonashed samples with important wavenumbers selected using a novel modification to the Monte Carlo unimportant variable elimination procedure. Wavenumber selection helped to improve PLS prediction, reduce the number of required PLS factors, and identify additional silica bands distinct from those currently used in regulatory enforcement. PLS regression appeared robust against the influence of residual filter and extraneous mineral absorptions while outperforming ordinary least squares calibration. These results support the quantification of respirable silica in noncoal mines using field-portable infrared spectrometers. PMID:24830397

Weakley, Andrew Todd; Miller, Arthur L; Griffiths, Peter R; Bayman, Sean J

2014-07-01

20

Mine wastes at the polymetallic deposit of Fenice Capanne (southern Tuscany, Italy). Mineralogy, geochemistry, and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymetallic (Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Ag) sulfide deposit of Fenice Capanne, southern Tuscany (Italy), was mined at least 6-7th centuries B.C. until 1985. Mine wastes include dumps of roasting products and excavation wastes, mainly dating back to the 19th century, and flotation tailings produced during the period 1950-1984. The mine wastes show significant contents of polluting elements [maximum values

I. Mascaro; M. Benvenuti; F. Corsini; P. Costagliola; P. Lattanzi; P. Parrini; G. Tanelli

2001-01-01

21

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-01-15

22

Geochemical characterization of acidic mine waters in Darrehzar copper deposit, Kerman province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is located in the south of Sar Cheshmeh copper mine. There are varieties of geological factors which control the composition of mine drainage waters. Surface samples were collected from the Darrehzar locality for chemical measurements. The measured quantities are: Cl-, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO42-, Al. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Mo, HCO3-, EC, pH and Eh. Phyllic alteration has the highest influence on the production of acid mine drainage. Mineralogical studies and analysis of water samples indicate a good correlation between sulfide minerals and acid mine drainage. Analysis of water samples showed that samples with low pH values have high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals. Correlation coefficients between different quantities were calculated and binary diagram prepared. Heavy metals increase with a decrease in pH except for Mo. Sulfate and heavy metals are positively related in mine water. The high positive correlation between Fe and Mn with respect to heavy metals indicates their adsorption on Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides.

Keshavarzi, B.; Shahabpour, J.; Naseh, R.

2009-04-01

23

Geophysical Modeling of a Cu-Mo Prophry Deposit, Copper Flat Mine Hillsboro, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Copper Flat Mine is located is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877, but it was not until 1985 that Quintana Mineral started a full production copper mine there. The project is located on the eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed of Quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite after which a series of latite dikes cut the quartz monzonite and andesite creating veining along the terrain where the majority of the deposits are located. The copper flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure created by hydrothermal fluids which are greater than the confining pressure of the overlying rocks. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at Copper Flat. The most recent survey focused on Direct current (DC), Induce Polarization (IP), and Magnotellurics (MT). The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP survey and emphasizes the practical use of other geophysical methods in assessing the validity of the IP survey results. The primary methods that will used to identify the deposits are gravity and magnetic surveys with auxiliary methods that would complement and enhance the study such as microgravity, well logging and seismology. The research done at Copper Flat defines the boundary of the different structure that composes the ore deposit. The survey is expected to identify the boundaries of the four types on breccias that compose the Copper Flat deposit in order to identify the alteration that surround that part of the ore body. The understanding of the anomalies that appeared during previous IP surveys did not define clearly as well as different structure of the deposit needs to be reevaluated in order to have a sharper model of Copper Flat, to be aware of the interaction of the different structure that shape the ore deposit at Copper Flat.

Gutierrez, A. E.

2012-12-01

24

Multitemporal satellite data in mine waste monitoring of Medet copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic impact of the mining industry on the environment is seen all over the world. In the last decades several mining areas and corresponding waste disposal sites in Bulgaria are being monitored for ongoing reclamation processes. In this research we were focused on one environmental status of one of the most important copper producing fields for our country - Medet deposit. The objectives of the study were: (1) to analyze multispectral satellite images for 1980 - 2000 in order to assess the environmental pollution from the mining activity in the Medet open pit mine in temporal perspective; (2) to prove that by means of remote sensing an integrated environmental impact assessment can be made. After ceasing its exploitation in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period. We consider that revealing the potential of satellite multispectral and multitemporal imagery will provide valuable information on the impact of this long-term mining activity on the environment. One of the first tasks was to prepare thematic maps for several, non-successive years of the affected areas at regional scale. On the next step change detection methods were used to assess the short-term reclamation activities by examination of vegetation cover status in the areas surrounding the mine. To complete this tasks data from Landsat TM/ETM+ instruments combined with in-situ measured data was used. For data processing several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno; Banushev, Banush

2012-10-01

25

Pumping Characteristics of Scrubber Sludge for Pipeline Transport and Subsequent Deposit in Old Abandoned Mine Shafts: Final Report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on an initial eight-month project which considers the possibility of transporting scrubber sludge slurry via pipeline to abandoned mine sites for subsequent deposit into underground mine shafts. An experimental system was designed and con...

P. K. Davis

1986-01-01

26

Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and geothermal gradients, and tectonic warps. These concepts have practical and empirical application in most mining districts where they are of use in the exploration for ore, but are of such broad and general application that they may not represent known or inferred ore formation processes. Close spatial relation among some sedimentary rock- hosted Au deposits and their host structures suggests that the structures and the orebodies are genetically linked because they may have shared the same developmental history. Examples of probable syn-deformational genesis and structural control of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are in the large Betze deposit in the Carlin trend, Nevada and in the Lannigou, Jinlongshan, and Maanqiao Au deposits, China.

Peters, Stephen G.

2001-01-01

27

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.  

PubMed

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

Bendell, L I

2011-02-15

28

Depositional Influences on Porewater Arsenic in Sediments of a Mining-Contaminated Freshwater Lake  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated.

Toevs, G.; Morra, M.J.; Winowiecki, L.; Strawn, D.; Polizzotto, M.L.; Fendorf, S.

2009-05-26

29

Distribution of Cu, Co, As, and Fe in mine waste, sediment, soil, and water in and around mineral deposits and mines of the Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of Cu, Co, As and Fe was studied downstream from mines and deposits in the Idaho Cobalt Belt (ICB), the largest Co resource in the USA. To evaluate potential contamination in ecosystems in the ICB, mine waste, stream sediment, soil, and water were collected and analyzed for Cu, Co, As and Fe in this area. Concentrations of Cu in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines in the ICB ranged from 390 to 19,000 ?g/g, exceeding the USEPA target clean-up level and the probable effect concentration (PEC) for Cu of 149 ?g/g in sediment; PEC is the concentration above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms. In addition concentrations of Cu in mine runoff and stream water collected proximal to mines were highly elevated in the ICB and exceeded the USEPA chronic criterion for aquatic organisms of 6.3 ?g/L (at a water hardness of 50 mg/L) and an LC50 concentration for rainbow trout of 14 ?g/L for Cu in water. Concentrations of Co in mine waste and stream sediment collected proximal to mines varied from 14 to 7400 ?g/g and were highly elevated above regional background concentrations, and generally exceeded the USEPA target clean-up level of 80 ?g/g for Co in sediment. Concentrations of Co in water were as high as in 75,000 ?g/L in the ICB, exceeding an LC50 of 346 ?g/L for rainbow trout for Co in water by as much as two orders of magnitude, likely indicating an adverse effect on trout. Mine waste and stream sediment collected in the ICB also contained highly elevated As concentrations that varied from 26 to 17,000 ?g/g, most of which exceeded the PEC of 33 ?g/g and the USEPA target clean-up level of 35 ?g/g for As in sediment. Conversely, most water samples had As concentrations that were below the 150 ?g/L chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms and the USEPA target clean-up level of 14 ?g/L. There is abundant Fe oxide in streams in the ICB and several samples of mine runoff and stream water exceeded the chronic criterion for protection of aquatic organisms of 1000 ?g/L for Fe. There has been extensive remediation of mined areas in the ICB, but because some mine waste remaining in the area contains highly elevated Cu, Co, As and Fe, inhalation or ingestion of mine waste particulates may lead to human exposure to these elements.

Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.

2012-01-01

30

Undrained Strength of Deposited Mine Tailings Beds: Effect of Water Content, Effective Stress and Time of Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the geotechnical behaviour of mine tailings is imperative when evaluating the stability and erosional\\u000a resistance of sedimented tailings beds; as well as for the design and long-term management of tailings disposal facilities.\\u000a Laboratory testing was conducted on mine tailings beds of various ages and thicknesses, deposited from concentrated slurries.\\u000a Measured index properties allowed classifying the tailings as

Rozalina S. DimitrovaErnest; Ernest K. Yanful

31

Reactive Iron deposition and ground water inflow control neutralization processes in acidic mine lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controls on the internal neutralization of highly acidified waters by iron sulphide accumulation are yet poorly understood. To elucidate the influence of ground water inflow on neutralization processes, inventories of solid phase iron and sulphur, pore water profiles and rates of ferrous iron and sulphate production and consumption were analyzed in different areas of an acidic mine lake. Ground water inflow had previously been determined by ground water modelling and chamber measurements (Knoll et al., 1999). The investigated sediments adjacent to mine tailings, which were subject to the inflow of groundwater (10-30 L d-1 m-2), were richer in dissolved ferrous iron iron (30 vs. 5 mmol L-1) and sulphate (30 vs. 10 mmol L-1) and showed higher pH values (6 vs. 4) than the sediments in areas of the lake not being influenced by groundwater inflow. Sediments adjacent to the mine tailings also showed higher rates of sulphate reduction and iron sulphide accumulation (Fig. 1). From these data it is suggested that neutralization processes in iron rich, acidic mine lakes neutralization processes primarily occur in areas influenced by the inflow of acid mine groundwater. These waters usually have considerably higher pH values than the surface waters in the lakes due to buffering processes in the tailings. The seepage of this water through the sediment might thus lead to higher pH values and thus to a higher thermodynamic competitiveness of sulfate reduction vs. iron reduction (Blodau and Peiffer 2002). This causes increased neutralization rates. These findings have consequences for remediation measures in highly acidic lakes. In areas influenced by the inflow of mine drainage increases in carbon availability, for example by the deposition of particulate organic matter, should enhance iron sulphide formation rates, whereas in other areas increases in carbon availability would only result in enhanced rates of iron reduction without a lasting gain in alkalinity. Blodau, C. und Peiffer, S. (2002): Thermodynamics and organic matter: Constraints on the internal neutralization of highly acidic waters. Applied Geochemistry, in print. Knoll, D. Weber, L., und Schäfer, W. (1999): Grundwasseranbindung von alten Tagebaurestseen im Niederlausitzer Braunkohletagebaugebiet.Grundwasser 2/99: 55-61

Blodau, C.

2002-12-01

32

Geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste materials taken from abandoned mine deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy in Korean (MOTIE), approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread in the Republic of Korea, but almost 80% mines are still left without any proper remediation and cleanup. The physic-chemical properties of waste materials in the mountainous area are strongly affected by heavy rainfall. Failed sediments pose the largest threat to the mountain communities and environments. In particular, a significant amount of heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead etc., is introduced to soil systems. This study examined the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials collected from mine deposits, located in Imgi-ri, Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. We used a ring shear apparatus for geotechnical properties and a rheometer for rheological properties. The materials collected from mines are classified as gravelly sand soils. A series of drained and undrained ring shear tests were performed to examine the stress characteristics with regard to (i) shearing time dependency, (ii) shear speed dependency, and (iii) normal stress dependency. In addition, the grain crushing in the shear zone was examined to explain a high mobile failed masses. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced debris flows. From the rheological tests, the materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the debris flow potential. There are positive relationships between the volumetric concentration of sediment ranging from 50% to 65% and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological parameters is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries between ball and vane-penetrated system is emphasized.

Jeong, Sueng-Won; Ji, Sang Woo; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

33

Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2) electric and vibration noise due to populated areas and roads, as well as a rock crusher working close to the line, (3) significant static variations (due to the variable nature of the terrain: forest, roads, open pit filled with 10s of meters of unconsolidated materials...), make this dataset similar to a city-kind dataset. Preprocessing of the data first required the cable- and wireless- recorded sub-datasets to be merged using GPS time stamps (nanoseconds accuracy) registered in the active data. Vertical shift and stack was then carried out to stack all data available at each shot point. Preliminary results from brute stacks exhibit evidences of reflections or diffractions. It is anticipated that further processing, involving especially appropriate static corrections and velocity analysis, would help interpreting such seismic events in relation to the ore body and its surrounding structures. Possible along-profile compartmentalization is also detected; further processing is however necessary before interpreting such features in terms of recent faulting. Acknowledgements: Formas, Grängesberg Iron AB, Spendrups and Geological Survey of Sweden

Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

2014-05-01

34

Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District  

SciTech Connect

The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth.

Falkowski, S.K.

1980-01-01

35

Environmental impacts of Tl related to mined Dajiangping pyrite deposit in west Guangdong Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the accumulation of Tl in Dajiangping pyrite deposit area in west Guangdong province, China, as a case study for environmental impacts of Tl due to natural processes and human activities. The pyrite deposit is one of the largest in Asia and has been mined on large scale since 1970s. Results show that Tl and other trace elements in local ecosystems, such as rocks/ores, soils, surface and ground waters, water sediments, plants and crops in Dajiangping near the pyrite ore deposit are enriched, characterized by high concentrations. The range of Tl concentrations is from 13.7 to 43.0 mg/kg in chunk concentrated ore, from 31.0 to 56.4 mg/kg in powdery concentrated ore and 49.7 to 51.6 mg/kg in pyrite tailing. Tl concentrations range from 15.0 to 21.0 mg/kg in soils of mineralized area, from 7.4 to 30.5 mg/kg in alluvial deposits and from 1.2 to 2.0 mg/kg in undisturbed background soil. Elevated concentrations of Tl have been observed in surface water from upstream( 2.2 µg/L) to downstream(102.6 µg/L) sections. Tl concentrations are comparatively high in the groundwater in mineralized area ( 7.8 µg/L). Tl concentrations in the edible parts of plants and crops range from 0.02 to 22.03 mg/kg (dry weight). Tl uptake shows characteristics of species-dependent, more in vegetables (around 90 mg/kg) than crops (0.3-8.1 mg/kg). For each individual plant, Tl concentrated more in roots than leaves and stems. The enrichment of Tl in the local ecosystem might come from the weathering, leaching and dissolving of Tl pyrite minerals. All this work adds new knowledge to understand Tl behaviour in mined Tl-pyrite deposits, and also benefits to the study on local environmental protection and mineral resources exploitation in the future.

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Qi, J. Y.; Wang, C. L.

2009-04-01

36

CHANGES IN GRADE, VOLUME AND CONTAINED GOLD DURING THE MINING LIFE-CYCLE OF GOLD PLACER DEPOSITS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of gold placer data throughout the world suggests that gold grades and volumes cannot be used to distinguish between most types of gold placers. Only the alluvial plain and fan placers are significantly different among the types of gold placers considered. Gold grades and volumes change when working placers go from small-volume methods to large-volume methods. The odds that a placer will be dominantly worked using small-volume methods at the surface are about 5:3. Once small-volume mining has occurred, the odds against subsequent large-volume mining are about 4:1. If a deposit is suitable for large-volume mining and the amount of gold produced from small-volume mining was reported, an estimate of the remaining gold (log//1//0kg) can be made using an equation.

Bliss, J. D.; Orris, G. J.; Menzie, W. D.

1987-01-01

37

Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for about 0.5 mm, then declines to about 1.5 ppm at the surface. The increase in U concentration coincided with a significant decrease in d234U initial values (Siklosy et al., 2008) suggesting contribution from a U source different from the natural weathering input. This is also supported by a change in the P/U ratio and much weaker correlation of the U concentrations with P in the U-enriched section of the stalagmite ("mining-period"). According to the average growth rate of the stalagmite, this period represents the last 30-50 years. Dendrochemical data covered the 1914-2004 period. The trace element time series derived from tree rings are characterized by plateaux-like maxima during the late-1960s and the 1985-95 period. This elevated events closely coupled to opening of two different uranium mine pits. Two prominent peaks emerged in the U-record coinciding the 1968 and 1991 tree rings. Dendrochemical data show abrupt increase in trace elemets (most pronounced in metals) from the tree ring dated to 1966 while the sudden decrease positioned to 1998 tree-ring. The perfect agreement between the dendrochronological dates of major changes in the chemistry of the wood and the onset-offset dates of mining history gives high probability that the mining activity is the main agent responsible for this environmental change. The possible source of U is therefore the 40-year-old Mecsek uranium mine, which produced ca. 500 tons of U concentrate per year and has reworked millions of tons of solid material (Bánik et al., 2002). Acknowledgements — This study was financially supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA T 049713 and K 67583). Measurements of U-Th isotopic compositions and and 230Th dates were supported by the National Science Council grants (94-2116-M002-012, 97-2752-M002-004-PAE & -005-PAE to C.C.S.). Bánik, J., Csicsák, J. and Berta, Zs. 2002: Experience on application of continuous drain trench during the remediation of tailings ponds in Hungary. In: Broder J. M., et al. (Eds), Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology III, 913-921. Sikló

Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

2009-04-01

38

Distribution of selected trace and major elements around the massive sulfide deposit at the Penn mine, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper discusses the distribution of 17 elements in 119 rock samples collected in a 2-km2 area around the Penn mine. Because the rock units in the area dip steeply, a cross section through the deposit can be studied using surface samples and maps. -Author

Peterson, J. A.

1988-01-01

39

Application of a Depositional Facies Model to an Acid Mine Drainage Site? †  

PubMed Central

Lower Red Eyes is an acid mine drainage site in Pennsylvania where low-pH Fe(II) oxidation has created a large, terraced iron mound downstream of an anoxic, acidic, metal-rich spring. Aqueous chemistry, mineral precipitates, microbial communities, and laboratory-based Fe(II) oxidation rates for this site were analyzed in the context of a depositional facies model. Depositional facies were defined as pools, terraces, or microterracettes based on cm-scale sediment morphology, irrespective of the distance downstream from the spring. The sediments were composed entirely of Fe precipitates and cemented organic matter. The Fe precipitates were identified as schwertmannite at all locations, regardless of facies. Microbial composition was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transitioned from a microaerophilic, Euglena-dominated community at the spring, to a Betaproteobacteria (primarily Ferrovum spp.)-dominated community at the upstream end of the iron mound, to a Gammaproteobacteria (primarily Acidithiobacillus)-dominated community at the downstream end of the iron mound. Microbial community structure was more strongly correlated with pH and geochemical conditions than depositional facies. Intact pieces of terrace and pool sediments from upstream and downstream locations were used in flowthrough laboratory reactors to measure the rate and extent of low-pH Fe(II) oxidation. No change in Fe(II) concentration was observed with 60Co-irradiated sediments or with no-sediment controls, indicating that abiotic Fe(II) oxidation was negligible. Upstream sediments attained lower effluent Fe(II) concentrations compared to downstream sediments, regardless of depositional facies.

Brown, Juliana F.; Jones, Daniel S.; Mills, Daniel B.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William D.

2011-01-01

40

Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO42 -, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O2 as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry.

Seal, II, R. R.; Hammarstrom, J. M.; Johnson, A. N.; Piatak, N. M.; Wandless, G. A.

2008-01-01

41

Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits  

SciTech Connect

Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining. Summed operating costs are then divided by the units of recoverable product anticipated. The resulting value (on a per unit basis) is then assigned to the individual hole being evaluated, and can be used directly in preliminary mine planning. Profitability can also be determined for each hole by multiplying the difference between the unit cost and the market value of the recovered product by the amount of recovered product. Mine planning can then proceed by evaluating the quantity of favorable holes within a given area, their continuity, and the overall cost and profitability relative to desired or available market and production conditions.

Tracy, L.N.

1984-04-01

42

[Prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, P.R. China].  

PubMed

The prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, PR China was investigated using PCR-DGGE and rRNA approaches. Total community DNA was extracted and purified by a direct method, which yielded amplified DNA of high molecular weight for samples. A variable region of 16S rRNA gene was then amplified by PCR with bacterial and archaeal primers and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Twenty-seven major bands were detected in the bacterial DGGE profile of the sample, but only one band of pure culture strains of bacteria isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with one band of sample. No band of pure culture strains of archaea isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with 18 major bands of sample. The results indicated that most of microbes in this environment are likely uncultivable. Clones on the plate were not the predominant species in the community. Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (bacteria and archaea) were also constructed, and 36 and 20 clones were selected for amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). ARDRA with enzymes Afa I, Hha I, Hae III revealed 10 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with three most abundant OTUs accounting for 38.9%, 25.0%, 16.7% of all the bacterial 16S rDNA clones, respectively. The remaining 7 OTUs presented at low levels, were represented by a single clone. Eight archaeal OTUs were obtained but no predominant OTUs. Some clones were sequenced and each sequence was compared with all nucleotide sequences in GenBank database. Examination of 16S rDNA clones showed that the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain with members of three major lineages represented: alpha-proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, especially Pseudomonas. Surprisingly, we recovered a variety of sequence closely related to Actinobacteria which was not found in other salt deposits. All of archaeal clones are from Halorubrum, Haloterrigena and uncultured archaea. The results of DGGE and clone library profiling analysis both indicated that microbial community of the Kunming Salt Mine had higher diversity. In this initial survey, our polyphasic approaches demonstrated that novel and uncultured microbes thrive in the ancient salt deposits of the Kunming Salt Mine. Molecular analysis of the microbial diversity in salt deposits provides foundation for better application of microbial resources. PMID:17552238

Xiao, Wei; Peng, Qian; Liu, Hong-wei; Wen, Meng-liang; Cui, Xiao-long; Yang, Ya-ling; Duan, Dong-cheng; Chen, Wei; Deng, Lan; Li, Qin-yuan; Chen, Yi-guang; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ren, Zhen; Liu, Ji-hui

2007-04-01

43

Pumping characteristics of scrubber sludge for pipeline transport and subsequent deposit in old abandoned mine shafts: Final report, July 1, 1985February 28, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report on an initial eight-month project which considers the possibility of transporting scrubber sludge slurry via pipeline to abandoned mine sites for subsequent deposit into underground mine shafts. An experimental system was designed and constructed which consists of three test loops, each 87 ft in length and each having two 40-ft (approximately) straight test sections. The pipe

1986-01-01

44

Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago L.) improves organic matter and other properties of mine wastes deposits.  

PubMed

The omni-presence of Zygophyllum fabago L. (Syrian bean-caper) natural colonies in post mining areas prompted us to investigate its contributions to reclamation of mine wastes deposits in southeast Spain. Select plant-related (edaphic) characteristics and bio- and water soluble-Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago were compared to deposits one year since application of pig slurry and marble waste. Total N in rhizosphere increased up to a factor of 20X (339 vs 17 mg N kg(-1)) in El Gorguel and 27X (85 vs 3.1 mg N kg(-1)) in El Lirio sites. Organic matter accumulation in rhizosphere from litter and roots of Z. fabago increased organic C from 6.6 to 19.5 g kg(-1) in El Gorguel and from 2.1 to 5.7 g kg(-1) in El Lirio in one year. Dissolution of inorganic C takes place due to organic acids from root exudates of Z. fabago. Reduction in bio-available Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in rhizosphere of Z. fabago at El Lirio is attributed to increase in pH from 5.3 to 7.7 through marble waste addition, although increased cation exchange capacity may also have played a role. Addition of marble waste to encourage colonization by Z. fabago in acidic mine wastes deposits was recommended. PMID:24912237

Kabas, S; Arocena, J M; Acosta, J A; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Carmona, D M

2014-01-01

45

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids and groundwater during mineralization. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures (Th) between 85 and 95{degree}C. Aqueous inclusions have Th values ranging from {approximately}90 to 130{degree}C for sphalerite to below {approximately}50{degree}C for barite. Primary brine inclusions in calcite at the Jumbo mine contain goethite, apparently as a daughter mineral. Goethite has also been tentatively identified in inclusions from the Fletcher mine of Missouri. If goethite is a true daughter phase, it implies the presence of oxidized fluids during mineralization. This suggests that ore deposition resulted from interactions between hydrothermal fluids and dilute groundwater.

Blasch, S.R.; Coveney, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1988-05-01

46

Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining.  

PubMed

Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings. PMID:25075337

Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

2014-05-01

47

Avoidable errors in deposited macromolecular structures: an impediment to efficient data mining  

PubMed Central

Whereas the vast majority of the more than 85?000 crystal structures of macromolecules currently deposited in the Protein Data Bank are of high quality, some suffer from a variety of imperfections. Although this fact has been pointed out in the past, it is still worth periodic updates so that the metadata obtained by global analysis of the available crystal structures, as well as the utilization of the individual structures for tasks such as drug design, should be based on only the most reliable data. Here, selected abnormal deposited structures have been analysed based on the Bayesian reasoning that the correctness of a model must be judged against both the primary evidence as well as prior knowledge. These structures, as well as information gained from the corresponding publications (if available), have emphasized some of the most prevalent types of common problems. The errors are often perfect illustrations of the nature of human cognition, which is frequently influenced by preconceptions that may lead to fanciful results in the absence of proper validation. Common errors can be traced to negligence and a lack of rigorous verification of the models against electron density, creation of non-parsimonious models, generation of improbable numbers, application of incorrect symmetry, illogical presentation of the results, or violation of the rules of chemistry and physics. Paying more attention to such problems, not only in the final validation stages but during the structure-determination process as well, is necessary not only in order to maintain the highest possible quality of the structural repositories and databases but most of all to provide a solid basis for subsequent studies, including large-scale data-mining projects. For many scientists PDB deposition is a rather infrequent event, so the need for proper training and supervision is emphasized, as well as the need for constant alertness of reason and critical judgment as absolutely necessary safeguarding measures against such problems. Ways of identifying more problematic structures are suggested so that their users may be properly alerted to their possible shortcomings.

Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Rupp, Bernhard

2014-01-01

48

Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50 ponds during spring and early summer showed strong variability in fluxes of carbon dioxide (-0.01-2.09 g C m-2 d-1), methane (0.02-13.95 mg C m-2 d-1), and nitrous oxide (-0.15-3.94 mg N m-2 d-1). These differences in GHG fluxes are primarily related to hydrological settings of ponds at PBP. These ponds are strong GHG sources in comparison to ponds in other circumpolar environments. Our findings highlight the importance of water budget dynamics in understanding nutrient and carbon fluxes in Canadian High Arctic ponds and indicate the need for long-term monitoring studies.

Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

2012-12-01

49

Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained

Falkowski

1980-01-01

50

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site.  

PubMed

Abstract Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations. PMID:24552963

Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P; Russell, Mackenzie R; King, Matt

2014-01-01

51

Modeling the emission, transport and deposition of contaminated dust from a mine tailing site  

PubMed Central

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne particulate metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, due to potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Dust emissions and dispersion of contaminants from the Iron King Mine tailings in Dewey-Humboldt, Arizona, a Superfund site, are currently being investigated through in situ field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling. These tailings are significantly contaminated with lead and arsenic with an average soil concentration of 1616 and 1420 ppm, respectively. Similar levels of these contaminants have also been measured in soil samples taken from the area surrounding the mine tailings. Using a computational fluid dynamics model, we have been able to model dust transport from the mine tailings to the surrounding region. The model includes a distributed Eulerian model to simulate fine aerosol transport and a Lagrangian approach to model fate and transport of larger particles. In order to improve the accuracy of the dust transport simulations both regional topographical features and local weather patterns have been incorporated into the model simulations.

Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.; Saez, A. Eduardo; Villar, Omar Ignacio Felix; Rine, Kyle P.; Russell, MacKenzie R.; King, Matt

2014-01-01

52

Ore genesis at the Camaquã copper mine, a neoproterozoic sediment-hosted deposit in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Camaquã copper mine includes the Uruguai and the São Luiz orebodies, hosted by sandstone and conglomerate of the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic Camaquã basin. Despite a great controversy regarding the evolution of the Camaquã basin, it is generally accepted that the basin was initially marine and progressively changed into a definite continental environment. The ore consists of massive sulfides

Jorge Henrique Laux; Zara Gerhardt Lindenmayer; João Batista Guimarães Teixeira; Artur Bastos Neto

2005-01-01

53

New lithogeochemical and mineralogical exploration of Li-Sn greisen mineralisation in old mining adits of the Zinnwald deposit, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymetallic Zinnwald-Cínovec deposit is represented by greisen-type mineralisation hosted within the apical portion of a small granite intrusion. Similar to other granitic stocks with Sn-W mineralisation in the Erzgebirge, the Zinnwald granite intruded during the post-collisional stage of the late-Variscan (Permo-Carboniferous) magmatic evolution. These intrusions are characterised by the prominent enrichment of incompatible elements (F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Nb and Ta) and the depletion of P2O5. The deposit is located in the eastern part of the Erzgebirge region, Germany and straddles the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. It is characterised by flat dipping, sheet-like greisen ore bodies (up to 40 m in thickness) and veins (up to 1 m in thickness) located in the apical part and along the quaquaversal dipping edges of the granite stock. The greisen bodies predominantly consist of quartz, Li-Rb-Cs-bearing mica (named zinnwaldite), topaz, fluorite and accessory kaolinite and cassiterite. Historically mined for its cassiterite and wolframite ores since the 16th and 19th century, respectively, the deposit still provides access to a wide spread system of drifts and adits. Selected parts of the underground mine are now presented by the visitor's mine "Vereinigt Zwitterfeld zu Zinnwald". These local conditions are favourable for the re-examination of the exhibited greisen mineralisation. Within the framework of the ongoing Li and Sn exploration project of the SolarWorld Solicium GmbH in the German part of the deposit, an underground sampling campaign has been conducted, incorporating a series of 88 channel samples gained at two different levels (Tiefer Bünau adit = 750 m a.s.l.; Tiefe Hilfe Gottes adit = 720 m a.s.l.). Equally spaced channels of 2 m intervals and approximate dimensions of 180 x 5 x 2.5 cm have been created on pre-selected and detailed mapped walls of two different adits within the mine. The sample material has been gained for mineralogical and geochemical investigation using optical light microscopy and ICP-MS. The herein presented work aims to provide information about the horizontal distribution of selected elements (Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, W, Sc, Nb, Ta and Zn) and to assess historic data on mineralogy and geochemistry. Furthermore, the question of a sufficient sampling distance is tried to answer with the help of statistical exclusion principles. Investigations on the chemical composition of the greisen ore yielded homogeneous concentration of elements contained in micas (Li, Rb, Cs, Zn and Sc!) with Li concentration of about 0.3 wt. %, whereas concentrations of Sn and W (but also Nb and Ta) are more heterogenic distributed with some high-grade values connected to local mica-nests, veins and/or joint planes. Moreover, results of investigated elements from this campaign are in good agreement with the overall geochemical pattern obtained by past investigations. Compared with geochemical whole rock data from drill core samples of surrounding drill holes, the mean Li grades of channel samples are consistent for different areas within the mine. In case of Li, the application of statistical exclusion principles can provide a good estimation of the sufficient maximum sampling distance (about 5 m).

Neßler, Jörg; Seifert, Thomas; Gutzmer, Jens; Müller, Armin; Henker, Jan; Kühn, Kersten

2014-05-01

54

WATER QUALITY AND METAL TRANSPORT IN WATER-COVERED MINE TAILINGS DEPOSITS AT SULPHIDE ORE MINES - IN SITU MEASUREMENTS AND MODELLING BY DGT SAMPLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster to Mine Water 2009, presents results from studies of metals in the surface layers of a mine tailing sediment from a water covered pyrite mine tailing dam in Norway. We used the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) probe in parallell with Diffusive Equilbrium in Thin Films (DET) probe and a modified peeper to collect metals in porewater.

ODDVAR RØYSET; BIRGER BJERKENG; EIGIL IVERSEN; KARL JAN AANES

55

Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies of ore deposition and metamorphism at the Raul mine, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcano-sedimentary sequence at the Raul mine, central Peru, consists of andesitic volcanics, graywackes, and siltstones, and has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist-lower amphibolite facies at temperatures of 400-500°C. Isotopic data (O and H) have been collected from: (a) quartz and magnetite from stratiform ores, (b) amphiboles from amphibolite units that host stratiform ores, (c) calcite from late veins,

Edward M. Ripley; Hiroshi Ohmoto

1979-01-01

56

Data set of world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences: Part A. geologic data; Part B. location and mineral economic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inventory of more than 1,600 world phosphate mines, deposits, and occurrences was compiled from smaller data sets collected as part of multiple research efforts by Carlotta Chernoff, University of Arizona, and Greta Orris, U.S. Geological Survey. These data have been utilized during studies of black shale depositional environments and to construct phosphate deposit models. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and additional location information has been added where possible. The database of compiled phosphate information is being released in two sections; the geologic data in one section and the location and mineral economic data in the second. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–A, contains the geologic data and is best used with the complimentary data contained in Open-File Report 02–156–B. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02–156–B contains commodity data, location and analytical data, a variety of mineral economic data, reference information, and pointers to related records in the U.S. Geological Survey National mineral databases—MASMILS and MRDS.

Chernoff, Carlotta B.; Orris, G. J.

2002-01-01

57

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

2005-04-26

58

Lichen biomonitoring of mercury emission and deposition in mining, geothermal and volcanic areas of Italy.  

PubMed

Natural emissions of Hg are attracting increased interest both for their environmental implications and for possible applications in the exploration of mineral, petroleum and geothermal fields. However, daily and seasonal fluctuations in concentrations of Hg in the atmosphere, caused by meteorological and environmental variables, has made it very difficult to assess Hg anomalies by conventional analytical procedures. Some species of widespread foliose lichens from an abandoned cinnabar mining and smelting area (Mt. Amiata), geothermal fields (Larderello, Bagnore and Piancastagnaio, Central Italy), and active volcanic areas (Mt. Etna and Vulcano, Southern Italy) seem to be very suitable biomonitors of gaseous Hg; especially as lichen thalli have an Hg content which reflects average values measured in air samples. We discuss the advantages of quantitative biological monitoring by lichens with respect to conventional air sampling in large-scale monitoring. PMID:24241939

Bargagli, R; Barghigiani, C

1991-03-01

59

Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over the tailings was also investigated for tailings TA1 (with high sulphide content). A protective layer of only 5 cm reduced the DO flux into the tailings at about 5 mg/m(2)/d, compared to 608 mg O2/m(2)/d without a protective layer, or an approximately 99% reduction in flux. PMID:23906653

Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

2013-10-15

60

Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

1976-01-01

61

Application of arsenopyrite geothermometry and sphalerite geobarometry to the Taebaek Pb-Zn(Ag) deposit at Yeonhwa I mine, Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taebaek Pb-Zn(-Ag) deposit of the Yeonhwa I mine, Republic of Korea, occurs in a broadly folded and reverse-faulted terrain of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks: the Taebaeksan basin. The orebodies consist of several thin tabular orebodies of hydrothermal replacement type where they are hosted by carbonate rocks. The Pb-Zn(-Ag) mineralization can be divided into four distinct stages based upon the mode

Yong-Kwon Koh; Seon-Gyu Choi; Chil-Sup So; Sang-Hoon Choi; Etsuo Uchida

1992-01-01

62

The Batman and Quigleys gold deposits of the Mt. Todd (Yimuyn Manjerr) Mine, Australia: structural, petrographic and mineralogical investigations of coeval quartz sulphide vein and lode\\/stockwork systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mt. Todd Mine (renamed the Yimuyn Manjerr in August 2000) in the Northern Territory of Australia is located at the southern end of the Pine Creek Inlier (PCI). The mine is host to several discrete ore bodies that strike NNE within a broad NE-trending corridor of gold mineralisation. These deposits exhibit a spatial association with local granite plutons and,

K. A. A Hein

2003-01-01

63

Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and zinc typically are adsorbed to the surface coatings of streambed-sediment grains. Mine waste and mill tailings contain high concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in a quartz-rich matrix. Most of the waste sites that were sampled had low acid-generating capacity, although one site (fine-grained mill tailings from the Nellie Grant mine deposited in the upper part of lower Frohner Meadows) had extremely high acid-generating potential because of abundant fine-grained pyrite. Two distinct sites were identified as metal sources based on streambed-sediment samples, cores in the meadow substrate, and mine and mill-tailings samples. The Frohner mine and mill site contribute material rich in arsenic and lead; similar material from the Nellie Grant mine and mill site is rich in cadmium and zinc.

Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

2004-01-01

64

Three Missouri Alfisols Impacted by Aeolian Deposition of Lead-Zinc-Cadmium-Silver-Indium Bearing Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern mining technologies promote the nation's gross domestic product and reduce environmental impacts; however, previous mining activities in Missouri have a legacy of soil contamination. This study focuses on Pb-Cd-Zn-Ag-In soil contamination resulting from a closed Pb-Zn mine at St. Joe State Park in Missouri. Metal contamination is the result of ancestral smelting operations and presently exposed tailings. Three soil

Michael Aide

2009-01-01

65

Effects of direct revegetation on the hydrology, erosion and sediment yield of an abandoned deposit of coal-mine refuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the feasibility studies at a large abandoned coal-mining complex, an elevated deposit of weathered pyritic refuse was monitored before and after treatment by a method referred to as direct revegetation. The monitoring was concentrated in three small watersheds that were instrumented to quantify the effects of the reclamation method on storm runoff, yield of coarse-and fine-grained sediment, chemistry of soil water and surface runoff, and morphologic evolution of gullies. Prior to treatment, about 30 percent of the warm-season rainfall was shed as storm runoff (overland flow) ; interfluve surfaces were lowering about 0.4 cm yr -1 and gullies were backwearing about 2.5 cm yr -1 The annual sediment yield was about 10.4 kg m -2, more than half of which was coarse grained and highly acidic. The surface incorporation, by discing, of amendments (principally limestone) and placement of small rip-rap checkdams and water bars promoted the establishment of vegetation and resulted in increased rainfall infiltration (warm-season runoff declined to about 13 percent of rainfall). The yield of coarse-grained sediment was virtually eliminated, and the annual yield of fine-grained sediment was reduced from about 4.5 to 0.3 kg m -2. The chemistry of storm runoff changed from acidic (acidities sometimes exceeded 700 mg 1 -1 prior to treatment) to alkaline (75 mg 1 -1, on average). Gully sidewalls continued to retreat, but the colluvial sediment accumulated on the gully floor (rather than being flushed away by storm runoff) and the gully cross-sections developed a more subdued and stable form.

Olyphant, Greg A.; Harper, Denver

1995-03-01

66

43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of...

2012-10-01

67

Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J. R.; Batchelder, J. N.

1980-01-01

68

Optical method for continuous monitoring of dust deposition in mine's entry / Optyczna metoda ci?g?ego pomiaru intensywno?ci osiadania py?u w?glowego w wyrobisku górniczym  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents factors determining dust explosion hazards occurring in underground hard coal mines. The authors described the mechanism of transport and deposition of dust in mines entries and previous research on this topic. The paper presents a method of determination of depositing dust distribution during mining and presents the way to use it to assess coal dust explosion risk. The presented method of calculating the intensity of coal dust deposition is based on continuous monitoring of coal dust concentrations with use of optical sensors. Mathematical model of the distribution of the average coal dust concentration was created. Presented method allows to calculate the intensity of coal dust deposition in a continuous manner. Additionally, the authors presented the P?-2 stationary optical dust sampler, used in the study, connected to the monitoring system in the mine. The article features the results of studies conducted in the return air courses of the active longwalls, and the results of calculations of dust deposition intensity carried out with the use of the presented method.

2012-12-01

69

26 CFR 1.611-2 - Rules applicable to mines, oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. (a) Computation...oil and gas wells, and other natural deposits. (1...of this paragraph). In the selection of a unit of mineral for...thousands of cubic feet of natural gas. (2) As used in...

2013-04-01

70

Properties of nano- and microparticles emitted into the environment from open-pit mining of iron deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of nano- and microparticles (60 nm-200 ?m) of the dust formed by mass blasting in the iron ore open pit of the Lebedinsky Mining and Concentrating Combine have been studied. Data on the morphology of particles, their magnetic properties, mineralogy, and dimensions have been obtained. Quartz, magnetite, and mica were identified among these particles. The dust mostly consisted of fragmented iron ore formation from the rock massif involved in the blasting.

Adushkin, V. V.; Weidler, P. G.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Friedrich, F.

2010-10-01

71

Depth-dependent geochemical and microbiological gradients in Fe(III) deposits resulting from coal mine-derived acid mine drainage  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the depth-dependent geochemistry and microbiology of sediments that have developed via the microbially-mediated oxidation of Fe(II) dissolved in acid mine drainage (AMD), giving rise to a 8–10 cm deep “iron mound” that is composed primarily of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide phases. Chemical analyses of iron mound sediments indicated a zone of maximal Fe(III) reducing bacterial activity at a depth of approximately 2.5 cm despite the availability of dissolved O2 at this depth. Subsequently, Fe(II) was depleted at depths within the iron mound sediments that did not contain abundant O2. Evaluations of microbial communities at 1 cm depth intervals within the iron mound sediments using “next generation” nucleic acid sequencing approaches revealed an abundance of phylotypes attributable to acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microeukaryotic organisms in the upper 4 cm of the iron mound sediments. While we observed a depth-dependent transition in microbial community structure within the iron mound sediments, phylotypes attributable to Gammaproteobacterial lineages capable of both Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction were abundant in sequence libraries (comprising ?20% of sequences) from all depths. Similarly, abundances of total cells and culturable Fe(II) oxidizing bacteria were uniform throughout the iron mound sediments. Our results indicate that O2 and Fe(III) reduction co-occur in AMD-induced iron mound sediments, but that Fe(II)-oxidizing activity may be sustained in regions of the sediments that are depleted in O2.

Brantner, Justin S.; Haake, Zachary J.; Burwick, John E.; Menge, Christopher M.; Hotchkiss, Shane T.; Senko, John M.

2014-01-01

72

Sandstone Uranium Deposits in the United States: A Review of the History, Distribution, Genesis, Mining Areas, and Outlook (69 References).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandstone uranium deposits account for about 94 percent of uranium reserves in the United States. Most sandstone uranium districts had been found by the mid-1950s in response to incentives promulgated by the US Atomic Energy Commission. Principal uranium ...

R. A. Crawley

1983-01-01

73

Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which provided initial pathways for fluid flow and later served as precipitation sites for ore minerals. Alteration, during, and perhaps prior to mineralization, enhanced primary permeability by dissolution, by removal of calcite, and by formation of dolomite. Ore-stage sulfide minerals and alteration minerals commonly precipitated in pore spaces among dolomite grains. Microveinlets and microbrecciation in zones of intense alteration also provided networks of secondary permeability that further enhanced fluid flux and produced additional sites for ore deposition.

Peters, S. G.; Armstrong, A. K.; Harris, A. G.; Oscarson, R. L.; Noble, P. J.

2003-01-01

74

Gold mineralisation at the Lady Bountiful Mine, Western Australia: An example of a granitoid-hosted Archaean lode gold deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lady Bountiful granitoid-hosted lode gold deposit, located in the mid-greenschist facies metamorphosed Ora Banda greenstone sequence, is hosted predominantly by the late-tectonic Liberty Granodiorite. Gold mineralisation is localised along quartz-veined, sinistral, brittle fault-zone(s) that transect the boundary between the Liberty Granodiorite and Mt Pleasant sill. Quartz vein textures indicate two stages of a single gold-related vein-development event, with high-grade gold mineralisation restricted to the second stage. Ore minerals include pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite, Au-Ag-Bi-Pb-tellurides, and native gold. Fluid infitration has resulted in narrow (<1 m) bleached wallrock alteration envelopes to the fault zones comprising albite-K-mica ±chlorite±calcite±rutile assemblages. Temperature-pressure conditions varied from Stage I (300°±50°C, ?2 kbar) to Stage II (250°±50°C, ?0.5 to 2 kbar), with the hydrothermal fluid in both stages characterised by X(CO2)?0.15 and moderate salinity (?1.28 m NaCl). Intermittent phase separation of Stage II mineralising fluids, initiated by pressure fluctuations in dilational sites, and/or fluid-dominated fluid: wallrock interaction, are invoked as the dominant depositional mechanisms. The granitoid-hosted Lady Bountiful lode gold deposit shares many features with other granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and the Superior Province. Granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits, such as the Lady Bountiful deposit, provide additional evidence that the dominant control on the localisation of gold mineralisation within a granitoid host is structure, with competency contrasts playing a significant role. Furthermore, the hydrothermal wallrock alteraction and orefluid chemistry characteristics of the granitoid-hosted lode gold deposits are comparable to those established for greenstone-hosted lode gold mineralisation.

Cassidy, K. F.; Bennett, J. M.

1993-12-01

75

Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

2013-12-01

76

The lichen transplant methodology in the source apportionment of metal deposition around a copper smelter in the former mining town of Karabash, Russia.  

PubMed

The lichen transplant monitoring methodology has been tested for source apportionment of metal deposition around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash. Transplants of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., collected from a 'control' site in July 2001, were set up at 10 stations along a 60 km NE-SW transect centred on Karabash. Samples were collected after 2 and 3 month monitoring periods and analysed using established wet-chemical techniques. The sources of particulate investigated were the smelter blast furnace and converter, floatation tailings, metallurgical slags, local road dusts, top soils and ambient airborne total suspended particulate. From multi-element least-squares modelling the blast furnace was the main source of particulate in transplants close to the smelter (<10 km). Particulate from the converter, with relatively high Pb and Zn, was found to be more widely dispersed, being finer-grained and so having a longer atmospheric residence time. Ambient airborne particulate, sampled in Karabash town using air-pump apparatus, was almost entirely derived from the converter, very different to the lichen transplants from the same area which mainly contained blast furnace particulate. It is proposed that lichens close to the smelter mainly trapped larger blast furnace-derived particulate as they have a low capture efficiency for smaller (converter) particles. The study demonstrates the utility of lichen transplants for monitoring atmospheric deposition and highlights the caution required in their use to assess ambient air quality in human health studies. PMID:17876714

Williamson, B J; Purvis, O W; Mikhailova, I N; Spiro, B; Udachin, V

2008-06-01

77

Hemimorphite as a natural sink for arsenic in zinc deposits and related mine tailings: Evidence from single-crystal EPR spectroscopy and hydrothermal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemimorphite is a refractory mineral in surface environments and occurs commonly in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated hemimorphite from Mapimi (Durango, Mexico) reveal two arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO 4] 4- and [AsO 4] 2-. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses confirm this sample to contain 270 ppm As and that hemimorphite from other Zn deposits has appreciable amounts of arsenic as well. Spin Hamiltonian parameters, including matrices g, A ( 75As) and P( 75As), show that the [AsO 4] 4- radical formed from electron trapping by a locally uncompensated [AsO 4] 3- ion substituting for [SiO 4] 4-. Matrices g, A( 75As) and P( 75As) of the [AsO 4] 2- radical show it to have the unpaired spin on the bridging oxygen of an [AsO 4] 3- ion at a Si site and linked to a monovalent impurity ion. This structural model for the [AsO 4] 2- radical is further supported by observed 29Si and 1H superhyperfine structures arising from interactions with a single Si atom (A/g e?e = ˜1 mT at B// c) and two equivalent H atoms (A/g e?e = ˜0.3 mT at B? b = 10°), respectively. Hydrothermal experiments at 200 °C and ˜9.5 MPa show that hemimorphite contains up to ˜2.5 wt% As 2O 5 and suggest that both the arsenate concentration and the pH value in the solution affect the As content in hemimorphite. These results demonstrate that hemimorphite is capable of sequestering arsenate in its crystal lattice, hence is a natural sink for attenuating As in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Moreover, results from hemimorphite potentially have more far-reaching implications for major silicates such as zeolites in the immobilization and removal of arsenic in surface environments.

Mao, Mao; Lin, Jinru; Pan, Yuanming

2010-05-01

78

Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 ± 27.9 and 376.7 ± 73.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncan’s multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 ± 138.3 and 495.8 ± 115.5 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 ± 45.5 and 24.9 ± 5.6 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 ± 127.2 and 1009.7 ± 263.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Alberta’s bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Alberta’s bogs (~80%).

Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

2010-12-01

79

43 CFR 3814.1 - Mineral reservation in entry and patent; mining and removal of reserved deposits; bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minerals in the lands so entered and patented, together with the right to prospect...times to enter upon the lands entered or patented under the Act, for the purpose...mineral deposits in the lands entered or patented under the Act of December 29,...

2010-10-01

80

Sandstone uranium deposits in the United States: a review of the history, distribution, genesis, mining areas, and outlook. [69 References  

SciTech Connect

Sandstone uranium deposits account for about 94 percent of uranium reserves in the United States. Most sandstone uranium districts had been found by the mid-1950s in response to incentives promulgated by the US Atomic Energy Commission. Principal uranium resource regions in the United States are the Colorado Plateau, Wyoming Basins, and Texas Coastal Plain. Statistical data published annually by the US Department of Energy show trends of uranium exploration and production, estimates of resources, and distributions and characteristics of reserves. At present, US exploration and production are curtailed because of uranium oversupply, a trend that will continue for the next few years. Although the outlook is more optimistic over the longer term, it is clouded by possible competition from foreign low-cost, nonsandstone uranium. Roll-type and peneconcordant are the two principal types of sandstone uranium deposits. Roll deposits are formed at geochemical fronts where oxidizing uranium-bearing groundwater penetrates reduced sandstone. Uranium is precipitated by reduction at the front. Under mildly reducing conditions, uranium may remain in solution until it is locally precipitated by reduction, chelation, or complexing to form peneconcordant deposits. Proposed precipitating agents include carbonaceous matter, humate, pyrite, and hydrogen sulfide. The uranium is thought to have been derived from leaching of tuffaceous or arkosic sediments, or of granitic rocks.

Crawley, R.A.

1983-03-01

81

Sandstone uranium deposits in the United States: a review of the history, distribution, genesis, mining areas, and outlook. [69 References  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandstone uranium deposits account for about 94 percent of uranium reserves in the United States. Most sandstone uranium districts had been found by the mid-1950s in response to incentives promulgated by the US Atomic Energy Commission. Principal uranium resource regions in the United States are the Colorado Plateau, Wyoming Basins, and Texas Coastal Plain. Statistical data published annually by the

Crawley

1983-01-01

82

Sampling Tsunami Deposits  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Starin Fernanda, Geological Survey & Mines Bureau of Sri Lanka, preparing a trench for sampling of tsunami deposit. Leaves on the surface days or weeks after the tsunami and blanket the sand deposited by the tsunami....

83

Underground mining method selection by decision making tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground mining method selection is one of the most important decisions that mining engineers have to make. Choosing a suitable underground mining method to extract a mineral deposit is very important in terms of economics, safety and productivity of mining operations. In real life, underground mining method selection is one of the multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problems and decision

Serafettin Alpay; Mahmut Yavuz

2009-01-01

84

On the origin of zebra textures in Mississippi Valley-Type Pb-Zn Deposits with a special emphasis on the San Vicente Mine, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternating dark and white bands are common features of ore hosting dolostones which are generally termed zebra textures. Worldwide these structures occur in ore deposits of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). This type of deposit frequently develops in hydrothermal systems located in the flanks of foreland basins. In most MVT ore deposits it is possible to distinguish between different stages which occur during the formation of the zebra textures and the precipitation of the ore-minerals (mostly Sphalerite and Galena). As the dark and white bands consist nearly completely of dolomite, despite the colour, the only clearly recognisable difference is the grain size. Today there are several theories which try to explain the formation of this kind of structure, for example by dissolution-precipitation (FONTBONTé et al., 1993) or by displacive vein growth (MERINO et al., 2006). Based on these theories and additional analytical findings, we want to develop a numerical model to study the banding and mineralisation. This model should include all processes from dolomitization, to the development of the zebra textures and finally the precipitation of Sphalerite and Galena. Using optical microscope and SEM, we found, that there are also differences in the shapes of the grain boundaries of the fine grained dark (lobate) and coarse grained white bands (polygonal). Furthermore, there is a large number of second-phase particles, namely apatite, iron oxides and organic matter, present in the dark bands. Often these particles are lined up at the grain boundaries. These insights lead to the hypothesis that the grain growth in the dark bands is influenced by obstacles that reduce the growth rate and therefore lead to a bifurcation of this rate in the system. For the modelling the microdynamic simulation software ELLE is used to perform a 2D-simulation at the scale of a thin section. This simulation uses a boundary-model coupled with a lattice-particle-code (BONS et al. 2001). The grain boundaries move according to a rate law based on dissolution-precipitation processes as a function of differences in surface energy. Layered distributions of particle densities are initially set as a background. With this simple simulation of grain growth influenced by particle distributions we show, that this process is able to develop structural patterns that are very similar to those present in the natural samples from the San Vicente Mine in Peru. References BONS P D, KOEHN D, and JESSELL W (2008) Microdynamic Simulation. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg FONTBONTé L (1993) Self-organization fabrics in carbonate-hosted ore deposits: the example of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites (DCRs), In: Current research in geology applied to ore deposits. Proceedings of the Second Biennial SGA Meeting, Granada, Spain, p. 11 -14 MERINO E, CANALS A, and FLECHTER R C (2006) Genesis of self-organized zebra textures in burial dolomites: Displacive veins, induced stress, and dolomitization. Geologica Acta, Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 383-393

Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel

2014-05-01

85

Longwall mining system and archshield for mining tar sands, oil shales and the like  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In the underground mining of friable mineral deposits such as bituminous sands, method and apparatus are disclosed in which a working crosscut in the mineral deposit, is established, connecting two parallel operating tunnels, the front wall of the crosscut being unsupported and forming the mining wall, the roof and rear wall of the working crosscut being separated from the mining equipment by a novel mining shield comprising a plurality of forwardly inclined, base supported arch members positioned in adjacent abutting relationship and each independently advanceable towards the mining wall. A conventional mining machine is employed under the mining shield in the working crosscut, operating across the full width of the mining wall. As the mining machine removes a cut, apparatus upon the mining machine advances individual mining arch sections forwardly into the mining face the depth of the cut, leaving the backs unsupported and free to collapse behind the advancing mining shield. The procedure continues until a blocked-out section of the mineral deposit is traversed. The mining operation being successively repeated in the collapsed mineral material until the mineral deposit is mined out.

1976-05-25

86

Time relationships between volcanism-plutonism-alteration-mineralization in Cu-stratabound ore deposits from the Michilla mining district, northern Chile: a 40Ar/39Ar geochronological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Michilla mining district comprises one of the most important stratabound and breccia-style copper deposits of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, hosted by the Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation. 40Ar/39Ar analyses carried out on igneous and alteration minerals from volcanic and plutonic rocks in the district allow a chronological sequence of several magmatic and alteration events of the district to be established. The first event was the extrusion of a thick lava series of the La Negra Formation, dated at 159.9 ± 1.0 Ma (2 ?) from the upper part of the series. A contemporaneous intrusion is dated at 159.6 ± 1.1 Ma, and later intrusive events are dated at 145.5 ± 2.8 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively. Analyzed alteration minerals such as adularia, sericite, and actinolite apparently give valid 40Ar/39Ar plateau and miniplateau ages. They indicate the occurrence of several alteration events at ca. 160-163, 154-157, 143-148, and 135-137 Ma. The first alteration event, being partly contemporaneous with volcanic and plutonic rocks, was probably produced in a high thermal gradient environment. The later events may be related either to a regional low-grade hydrothermal alteration/metamorphism process or to plutonic intrusions. The Cu mineralization of the Michilla district is robustly bracketed between 163.6 ± 1.9 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, corresponding to dating of actinolite coexisting with early-stage chalcocite and a postmineralization barren dyke, respectively. More precisely, the association of small intrusives (a dated stock from the Michilla district) with Cu mineralization in the region strongly suggests that the main Michilla ore deposit is related to a magmatic/hydrothermal event that occurred between 157.4 ± 3.6 and 163.5 ± 1.9 Ma, contemporaneous or shortly after the extrusion of the volcanic sequence. This age is in agreement with the Re-Os age of 159 ± 16 Ma obtained from the mineralization itself (Tristá-Aguilera et al., Miner Depos, 41:99-105,2006).

Oliveros, Verónica; Tristá-Aguilera, Dania; Féraud, Gilbert; Morata, Diego; Aguirre, Luis; Kojima, Shoji; Ferraris, Fernando

2008-01-01

87

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30% < Fe < 64%) hematite ores. Based on their mineralogical composition, three major types of itabirites occur in the QF: siliceous, dolomitic, and amphibolitic itabirite. Unlike other mines in the QF, the Águas Claras Mine contained mainly high-grade ores hosted within dolomitic itabirite. Two distinct types of high-grade ore occurred at the mine: soft and hard. The soft ore was the most abundant and represented more than 85% of the total ore mined until it was mined out in 2002. Soft and hard ores consist essentially of hematite, occurring as martite, anhedral to granular/tabular hematite and, locally, specularite. Gangue minerals are rare, consisting of dolomite, sericite, chlorite, and apatite in the hard and soft ores, and Mn-oxides and ferrihydrite in the soft ore where they are concentrated within porous bands. Chemical analyses show that hard and soft ores consist almost entirely of Fe2O3, with a higher amount of detrimental impurities, especially MnO, in the soft ore. Both hard and soft ores are depleted in trace elements. The high-grade ores at the Águas Claras Mine have at least a dual origin, involving hypogene and supergene processes. The occurrence of the hard, massive high-grade ore within “fresh” dolomitic itabirite is evidence of its hypogene origin. Despite the contention about the origin of the dolomitic itabirite (if this rock is a carbonate-rich facies of the Cauê Formation or a hematite-carbonate precursor of the soft high-grade ore), mineralogical and geochemical features of the soft high-grade ore indicate that it was formed by leaching of dolomite from the dolomitic itabirite by meteoric water. The comparison of the Águas Claras, Capão Xavier and Tamanduá orebodies shows that the original composition of the itabiritic protore plays a major role in the genesis of high- and low-grade soft ores in the QF. Under the same weathering and structural conditions, the dolomitic itabirite is the more favorable to form high-grade deposits than siliceous itabirite. Field relations at the Águas Claras and Capão Xavier deposits suggest that it is not possible to form huge soft high-grade supergene deposits from siliceous itabirite, unless another control, such as impermeable barriers, had played an important role. The occurrence in the Tamanduá Mine of a large, soft, high-grade orebody formed from siliceous itabirite and closely associated with hypogene hard ore suggests that large, soft, high-grade orebodies of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, which occur within siliceous itabirite, have a hypogene contribution in their formation.

Spier, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Barros; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

2008-02-01

88

Hydraulic borehole mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy is currently funding a program to develop a borehole mining system that accesses the mineral seam through a small hole drilled through the overburden, remotely crushes the material with a high pressure water jet, and then transports it in a slurry to the surface. The system has been tested in coal seams, uranium deposits, oil sand,

J. L. Evers; G. S. Knoke

1981-01-01

89

Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet\\/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however,

T. Prsa; M. A. Vile; R. Wieder; D. H. Vitt

2010-01-01

90

Acid rock drainage and metal leaching from mine waste material (tailings) of a Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit: environmental assessment through static and kinetic laboratory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the processes and products involved in the generation of acid rock drainage - metal leaching (ARD-ML) from mine waste material (tailings) derived from the exploitation of an ore type Pb- Zn-Ag skarn were characterized. Laboratory tests (static and kinetic) of historic and recent tailings were conducted along with the mineralogical characterization of solids, and chemical analyses of

Blanca Adriana Méndez-Ortiz; Alejandro Carrillo-Chávez; Marcos Gustavo Monroy-Fernández

2007-01-01

91

Hydraulic borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently funding a program to develop a borehole mining system that accesses the mineral seam through a small hole drilled through the overburden, remotely crushes the material with a high pressure water jet, and then transports it in a slurry to the surface. The system has been tested in coal seams, uranium deposits, oil sand, and phosphate ore. This paper reviews the development of the borehole tool, the assessment of its present and projected production capability, and briefly describes related studies being supported by the Department of Energy to improve the efficiency of the borehole mining system.

Evers, J.L.; Knoke, G.S.

1981-01-01

92

Text Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

Trybula, Walter J.

1999-01-01

93

Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data Mining, also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, is a process used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. This first website (1) provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki (2). This website from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (3) describes a project involving the development of new algorithms that will be applied to the creation of two large-scale databases to be used to "enable insight into government efficiency and the flow of scientific ideas." This white paper (4) provides a nice educational resource for Data Mining. If you are inspired to try your the process, the Weka Machine Learning Project from Waikato University (5) offers open source software that can be used for data mining tasks. KD Nuggets (6) posts articles on Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Genomic Mining, Web Mining that range from the serious to the silly, along with other resources. For a brief history of data mining and related fields, visit this website (7). Finally, The Data Mine website (8) is an excellent place to venture into further explorations on Data Mining.

94

Sustainable Development in Estonian Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance and demand of high qualified mining material (carbonate rocks, oil shale) are growing nowadays. Deposits are widespread around the world. Is it possible to create the sustainability paradigm, that helps to manage quarries adequately to improve overall effectiveness of the company in total? This study focuses especially on the mining industry. This paper will introduce modern systems and a new one, that allows to make an indexation of the company by mining sustainability index and gradation of the company by its wellness; also brings several benefits for future sustainable development.

Šommet, Julija

2013-12-01

95

Borehole mining of solid mineral resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention comprises a method of mining a solid substance, such as coal, minerals, or the like, from an underground deposit in one of a plurality of earth strata. Void areas are created in the deposit so as to generally define an area within the deposit which is to be enclosed. Plugging material is injected into the void areas

Zakiewicz

1981-01-01

96

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

Mining equipment for steering the cutting horizon of a mining machine cutter which is mounted on a ranging arm and which in use makes repeated traverses along the working face, comprises a boom urged into contact with the mine roof formed on a previous traverse of the machine. The boom is urged towards the mine roof by a ram hydraulically connected to a piston and cylinder device such that movement of the piston of the device is in accordance with that of the ram. Movement of the piston rod activates a flow control valve controlling operation of a ram controlling ranging of the arm.

Ford, J.A.; Whittaker, R.A.

1985-07-30

97

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining

J. E. Coakley; J. J. Nolan

1982-01-01

98

Borehole Mining of Deep Phosphate Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The feasibility was tested of hydraulic borehole mining for the recovery of phosphate ore from the deep, water-saturated deposits of northeastern Florida. Hydraulic ...

1983-01-01

99

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n=226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified

L. Hasselbacha; J. M. Ver Hoef; J. Fordc; P. Neitlich; Eric A. Crecelius; Shanti D. Berryman; B. Wolk; T Boehle

2005-01-01

100

Organic Matter Formation in Post Mining Soils in Central Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most negative site effects of open mining in central Poland are quite large areas of post-mining dump deposits which have to be reclaimed and restored to the previous use. Effective rehabilitation of this land, especially for agricultural or forestry usage need organic matter in surface layer of a raw post-mining materials similar to humus horizon in natural

Jan Bender

101

Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part VI. Maximum duration for mineralization of the OH vein  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rate at which ore deposits form is one of the least well established parameters in all of economic geology. However, increased detail in sampling, improved technology of dating, and sophistication in modeling are reducing the uncertainties and establishing that ore formation, at least for the porphyry copper-skarn-epithermal base and precious metals deposit package, may take place in surprisingly brief intervals. This contribution applies another approach to examine the duration of mineralization. The degree to which compositional gradients within single crystals has flattened through solid-state diffusion offers a measure of the thermal dose (that is temperature combined with time) that the crystals have been subjected to since deposition. Here we examine the steepness of gradients in iron content within individual single sphalerite crystals from the epithermal silver-lead-zinc deposit in the OH vein at Creede, Colorado. Two initial textures are considered: growth-banded crystals and compositionally contrasting overgrowths that succeed crosscutting dissolution or fractured surfaces. The model used estimates the maximum possible time by assuming a perfectly sharp original compositional step, and it asks how long it would take at a known temperature for the gradient measured today to have formed. Applying the experimentally determined diffusion rates of Mizuta (1988a) to compositional gradients (ranging from 0.4-2.2 mol % FeS/??m) measured by the electron microprobe in 2-??m steps on banded sphalerite formed early in the paragenetic history yields a maximum duration of less than ???10,000 yr. Sphalerite from a solution unconformity in a position midway through the paragenetic sequence is indistinguishable from instantaneous deposition, supporting the conclusion of rapid ore formation. While this formation interval seems very brief, it is consistent with less well constrained estimates using entirely different criteria. ?? 2005 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

Campbell, W. R.; Barton, P. B.

2005-01-01

102

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

103

Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of

James J. Rytuba

2000-01-01

104

Sinkholes in karst mining areas in China and some methods of prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining of coal, lead and zinc, gold, and iron ore deposits in karst areas has been closely associated with sinkholes in China. Surface collapse causes an increase in mine water drainage and the possibility of major water inflow from karst aquifers, which threatens the environment in mining areas and endangers the mine safety. A combination of factors including soil weight,

Li Gongyu; Zhou Wanfang

1999-01-01

105

VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

106

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

PubMed

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2013-05-01

107

Recolonization and development of vegetation on mine spoils following brown coal mining in Lusatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of primary colonization and succession of vegetation on various deposited substrates, littoral and shallow water areas of mining lakes and residual waters of the Lusatian lignite mining district is presented. Dumped substrates are characterized by a high acid potential which is caused by pyrite and marcasite of Tertiary origin. In the process of pyrite oxidation free mineral acids

W. H. O. Pietsch

1996-01-01

108

The Data Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Data Mine website is an excellent place to venture into detailed and complex explorations on data mining. The site is divided up in to five topic areas, or "webs," which include: "Data Mining Software," "Data Mining Events," "Data Mining General/Misc," "People Working in Data Mining," and "Data Mining Companies and Organizations." Visitors are encouraged to add information from their data mining worlds, as well.

Pryke, Andy

2008-01-07

109

Lead isotopic signatures of New England massive sulfide deposits: paleotectonic and economic implications  

SciTech Connect

Lead isotopic ratios in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSD) commonly reflect large-scale crustal structure, apparently because Pb is scavenged from materials of diverse provenance. Pb-isotopes may, therefore, be useful in identifying and correlating tectonic terranes. The New England Appalachians contain at least three broadly defined tectonostratigraphic terranes (Zen, 1983). Pb-isotopes in galenas and other sulfide minerals in VMSD from the three terranes are distinct. Deposits in Avalonia, along the Maine coast (Black Hawk, Harborside) are characterized by relatively narrow ranges of /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb (6/4), /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb (7/4), and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb (8/4), which are similar to Pb-isotopic ratios for VMSD in the Carolina slate belt. The few VMSD clearly within Craton X have restricted ranges of Pb-isotopes that are distinctive in their high 7/4 and 8/4 values relative to Avalonian deposits, and which are isotopically identical to those of the Bathurst deposits, N.B. VMSD of the North American (NA) craton have variable Pb-isotopic ratios, and are less radiogenic than those of Craton X; some deposits of the NA craton are also less radiogenic than Avalonian deposits. Pb-isotopic ratios in deposits of the Vermont Cu belt range in 7/4 from MORB-like (15.47) to relatively high (15.58), suggesting that mixing with continental material was locally important. The Pb-isotopic groupings for the various New England terranes indicate that isotopically distinct source materials were available in each. The data also indicate that very large VMSD, or those rich in Pb, need not have highly radiogenic Pb-isotopic signatures.

LeHuray, A.P.; Slack, J.F.

1985-01-01

110

Environment of ore deposition in the creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part V. Epithermal mineralization from fluid mixing in the OH vein  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed fluid inclusion studies on coarse-grained sphalerite from the OH vein, Creede, Colorado, have shown that the abrupt color changes between growth zones correspond to abrupt changes in the nature of the ore fluids. Within each growth zone, however, the composition of the fluids remained constant. The base of a distinctive orange-brown growth zone marks a sharp increase in both temperature and salinity relative to the preceding yellow-white zone. The orange-brown growth zone can be correlated along much of the vein and is believed to represent a time-stratigraphic interval. Along the vein, temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions within this interval show a systematic decrease from about 285??C and 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv near the base of the vein to about 250??C and 8 wt percent NaCl equiv, respectively, near the top of the vein. The iron concentration of this sphalerite growth zone shows a similar pattern, decreasing from about 2.8 to 1.2 mole percent FeS. When plotted on an enthalpy-salinity diagram, the fluid inclusion data define a spatial trend indicating the progressive mixing of deeply circulating hydrothermal brines with overlying, dilute ground waters. The hydrothermal brines entered the OH vein from below at a temperature, salinity, and density of approximately 285??C, 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv, and 860 kg/m3, respectively, whereas the overlying ground waters appear to have been preheated to roughly 150??C and had an assumed salinity of 0 wt percent and a density of 920 kg/m3. The greater density of the heated ground water promoted mixing with the hydrothermal brine within the open fractures, causing sphalerite deposition. Although there were also episodes of boiling during vein mineralization, boiling appears unimportant for this sphalerite. Isotopic evidence and geochemical modeling studies also indicate that mixing was the depositional mechanism for sphalerite. An important aspect of the mixing hydrology of the Creede system involves an aquitard overlying the OH vein. This low permeability zone restricted the flow of ground water into the vein from above and forced the upwelling hydrothermal fluids to flow laterally along the vein. The mixing environment thus occurred along the interface between a deeply circulating hydrothermal convection cell and a topographically driven shallow ground-water system.

Hayba, D. O.

1997-01-01

111

Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

Salmon, L. G.; Cass, G. R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A. L.

1996-01-01

112

Mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

Parrott, G.A.

1985-05-07

113

Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology.To get an idea of what audio mining is and how it can be used, people can read this article from the Cutter Consortium (1). It lists six broad areas that can benefit from using the technology and briefly discusses each one. A more detailed introduction is offered on the Leavitt Communications Web site (2). This article delves into how audio mining works by giving a basic technical understanding of the process. A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper (3). A publication from the Compaq Cambridge Research Laboratory (4) discusses ways of collecting and analyzing information from an audio file. It also mentions SpeechBot, a Web-based tool for multimedia retrieval. Several papers can be downloaded from the home page of a research project studying the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (5). The repository is comprised of massive historical audio content, and the team at the University of Colorado is investigating phrase recognition to index the data. Have you ever had a tune stuck in your head, but not known the name of the artist or song title? The Musical Audio-Mining project (6) is working on ways to search for information about a song simply by humming part of it. Audio mining can also be used in the War on Terrorism, as is described in this article of Federal Computer Week (7). Massive amounts of recorded phone conversations are intercepted by the government each day, and audio mining would be an efficient way to sort through irrelevant material and catch suspicious activity. The World Wide Web Consortium released this draft of the Voice Extensible Markup Language (8), which could have applications for the audio mining community.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

114

Asteroid Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, ...

R. E. Gertsch

1992-01-01

115

Stillwater Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View of the Stullwater Mine, where rocks are collected for making lunar regolith simulant. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be made by this summer of 2009 and turned over t...

2009-05-26

116

Stillwater Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Rocks from the Stillwater Mine are collected, ground, and blended with other rocks and materials to make the lunar regolith simulant. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be ma...

2009-05-26

117

Atmospheric particulate matter size distribution and concentration in West Virginia coal mining and non-mining areas.  

PubMed

People who live in Appalachian areas where coal mining is prominent have increased health problems compared with people in non-mining areas of Appalachia. Coal mines and related mining activities result in the production of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that is associated with human health effects. There is a gap in research regarding particle size concentration and distribution to determine respiratory dose around coal mining and non-mining areas. Mass- and number-based size distributions were determined with an Aerodynamic Particle Size and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer to calculate lung deposition around mining and non-mining areas of West Virginia. Particle number concentrations and deposited lung dose were significantly greater around mining areas compared with non-mining areas, demonstrating elevated risks to humans. The greater dose was correlated with elevated disease rates in the West Virginia mining areas. Number concentrations in the mining areas were comparable to a previously documented urban area where number concentration was associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24549227

Kurth, Laura M; McCawley, Michael; Hendryx, Michael; Lusk, Stephanie

2014-07-01

118

Temporal variation and the effect of rainfall on metals flux from the historic Beatson mine, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several abandoned Cu mines are located along the shore of Prince William Sound, AK, where the effect of mining-related discharge upon shoreline ecosystems is unknown. To determine the magnitude of this effect at the former Beatson mine, the largest Cu mine in the region and a Besshi-type massive sulfide ore deposit, trace metal concentration and flux were measured in surface

Lisa L. Stillings; Andrea L. Foster; Randolph A. Koski; LeeAnn Munk; Wayne C. Shanks III

2008-01-01

119

Mine and mineral occurrences of Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in Afghanistan was compiled from published literature and the files of project members of the National Industrial Minerals project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The compiled data have been edited for consistency and most duplicates have been deleted. The data cover metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. Listings in the table represent several levels of information, including mines, mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields.

Orris, G. J.; Bliss, J. D.

2002-01-01

120

The Mechanization of Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)

Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

1982-01-01

121

Introductory mining engineering  

SciTech Connect

Provides treatment of the applications of mining engineering while reinforcing material with analyses of special topics as well as numerical examples and problems. Initial chapters are devoted to fundamentals, explaining the four stages of mining - prospecting, exploration, development, exploitation - and the unit operations of mining. The text continues with coverage of surface mining and underground mining.

Hartman, H.

1987-01-01

122

Moon Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate how to find and mine valuable resources from a simulated lunar surface. They will gather data by spectroscopically locating simulated ilmenite (an iron-titanium oxide mineral), and collect the 'ilmenite' by mining the simulated lunar surface. They will then gather data by using observations while extracting oxygen from the mineral, develop a conclusion based upon their results, and compare individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Why Return to the Moon Before Going to Mars?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

123

Data mining  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

1998-12-31

124

Mine reclamation planning using ArcMine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new ArcGIS extension, ArcMine, to support mine reclamation planning. ArcMine is composed of four tools that cover the critical hazards in abandoned mining areas. The subsidence prediction tool in ArcMine is used to evaluate the relative vulnerability of subsidence occurrence around mine areas. Finding the areas where the ground is vulnerable to collapse is usually the first step to solve mine subsidence problems. Therefore, the subsidence tool can provide useful information to assist in finding the specific point or region requiring ground monitoring and mitigation works at sites. The mine waste erosion tool also estimates the annual rate of soil erosion. The spatial distribution of soil erosion may be useful not only in estimating the amount of erosion, but in planning the location of mine waste impoundment. The mine water migration tool is used to determine critically polluted zones that require more detailed investigation. This function can assist in improving the water quality of surrounding environments by analyzing the pathways of polluted water. Finally, the reforestation tool allows the user to identify suitable tree species for reforestation. ArcMine can act as a valuable filter to identify critical areas for mine reclamation. ArcMine can reduce the time and effort for detailed site investigations by prioritizing mining areas.

Park, B.; Choi, Y.; Kim, S.; Suh, J.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Go, W.

2013-12-01

125

Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National Agency for Mineral Resources (NAMR) manages, on behalf of the state, the mineral resources. Waste management framework Nowadays, Romania, is trying to align its regulation concerning mining activity to the European legislation taking into consideration waste management and their impact on the environment. Therefore the European Waste Catalog (Commission Decision 2001/118/EC) has been updated and published in the form of HG 856/2002 Waste management inventory and approved wastes list, including dangerous wastes. The HG 349/2005 establishes the legal framework for waste storage activity as well as for the monitoring of the closing and post-closing existing deposits, taking into account the environment protection and the health of the general population. Based on Directive 2000/60/EC the Ministry of Waters Administration, Forests and Environment Protection from Romania issued the GO No 756/1997 (amended by GO 532/2002 and GO 1144/2002),"Regulations for environment pollution assessment" that contains alarm and intervention rates for soil pollution for contaminants such as metals, metalloids (Sb, Ag, As, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, TI, V, Zn) and cyanides. Also GO No 756/1997 was amended and updated by Law No 310/2004 and 112/2006 in witch technical instructions concerning general framework for the use of water sources in the human activities including mining industry, are approved. Chemical compounds contained in industrial waters are fully regulated by H. G. 352/2005 concerning the contents of waste water discharged. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC is transposed into the national law of the Romanian Government under Decision No 856/2008. The 856/2008 Decision on the management of waste from extractive industries establishes "the legal framework concerning the guidelines, measures and procedures to prevent or reduce as far as possible any adverse effects on the environment, in particular water, air, soi

Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

2014-05-01

126

Coal Mine Bump Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of microseismic activity was maintained during several major phases of retreat mining in the 9 Right section of Olga Portal 2 coal mine in Caretta, West Virginia. Significant observations were made regarding mining, stress indications, stabilit...

J. M. Descour R. J. Miller

1987-01-01

127

Mercury contamination from historical gold mining in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury contamination from historical gold mines represents a potential risk to human health and the environment. This fact sheet provides background information on the use of mercury in historical gold mining and processing operations in California, with emphasis on historical hydraulic mining areas. It also describes results of recent USGS projects that address the potential risks associated with mercury contamination. Miners used mercury (quicksilver) to recover gold throughout the western United States. Gold deposits were either hardrock (lode, gold-quartz veins) or placer (alluvial, unconsolidated gravels). Underground methods (adits and shafts) were used to mine hardrock gold deposits. Hydraulic, drift, or dredging methods were used to mine the placer gold deposits. Mercury was used to enhance gold recovery in all the various types of mining operations; historical records indicate that more mercury was used and lost at hydraulic mines than at other types of mines. On the basis of USGS studies and other recent work, a better understanding is emerging of mercury distribution, ongoing transport, transformation processes, and the extent of biological uptake in areas affected by historical gold mining. This information has been used extensively by federal, state, and local agencies responsible for resource management and public health in California.

Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.

2005-01-01

128

MERCURY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT FROM HISTORIC MINING PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant quantities of mercury have been released to the environment as a result of historic precious metal mining. Many gold and silver deposits are enriched in mercury, which is released during mining and processing activities. Historically in the U.S., although a modern ...

129

Time Required in Developing Selected Arizona Copper Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the lead time required for preliminary and detailed exploration, development of the mine, and construction of beneficiation and support facilities for selected copper deposits in Arizona. The study was undertaken to document the time...

L. B. Burgin

1976-01-01

130

Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the pH range of 3.2-7.1 in streams impacted by mine drainage. The dissolved fraction of both mercury species is depleted and concentrated in iron oxyhydroxide such that the amount of iron oxyhydroxide in the water column reflects the concentration of mercury species. In streams impacted by mine drainage, mercury and methylmercury are transported and adsorbed onto particulate phases. During periods of low stream flow, fine-grained iron hydroxide sediment accumulates in the bed load of the stream and adsorbs mercury and methylmercury such that both forms of mercury become highly enriched in the iron oxyhydroxide sediment. During high-flow events, mercury- and methylmercury-enriched iron hydroxide sediment is transported into larger aquatic systems producing a high flux of bioavailable mercury. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Rytuba, J. J.

2000-01-01

131

Results of 1984 Bureau of Mines Site Specific Field Studies within the Willow Creek Mining District, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted mineral investigations of specific sites in the Hatcher Pass area of the Willow Creek Mining District in Alaska during 1984. The Hatcher Pass area has produced over 400,000 oz of gold, mainly from lode deposits and some minor...

J. M. Kurtak

1986-01-01

132

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 2. Soviet Block and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. ISL mines in the former Soviet Union generally

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

133

OPEN-CUT MINING OF URANIUM ORE IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost of mining by open pit in influenced by many factors such as type of ; deposit, amount and type of overburden, and scale of operations, and may range ; from 80 to .00 per ton of ore. By comparison, the cost range for ; underground mining is between 25 and .00. Other advantages of open-pit ; mining are lower

D. D. Baker; R. H. Toole; F. A. Bemis; D. R. Hill; R. A. Lindblom

1958-01-01

134

Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

2012-01-01

135

Issues and needs of the mining industry: A Bureau of Mines perspective  

SciTech Connect

The report identifies some of the major technological hurdles that need to be overcome and provides some insight into the research approaches underway or plans to remove these obstacles to a state-of-the-art mining industry in this country. The long-term, high-risk aspects of this effort are being addressed by the Bureau of Mines with support by the mining industry. New methods to exploit coal and mineral deposits in a safe and healthful manner, in situ mining of valuable minerals, protection of the environment against pollution and subsidence, and, perhaps most important of all, the wise conservation and utilization of natural resources are examples of areas in which initial Bureau research and development can and must help the United States maintain a strong mining industry.

Not Available

1988-04-01

136

Geomicrobiological investigation of two different mine waste tailings generating acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of microbiological metal sulfide oxidation on acid mine drainage generation was studied for two different mine tailings. Microorganisms were quantified using different methods: (1) SYBR Green II direct counting, (2) TaqMan quantitative, real-time PCR (Q-PCR), (3) catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and (4) most probable number (MPN) cultivation of acidophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. Potential pyrite or pyrrhotite

Dagmar Kock; Axel Schippers

2006-01-01

137

Mine waste dumps and heavy metal pollution in abandoned mining district of Boccheggiano (Southern Tuscany, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activity in the Boccheggiano-Fontalcinaldo area (Southern Tuscany) dates back at least to the 16th century AD and\\u000a lasted up to very recent times. Copper-rich hydrothermal veins, massive pyrite deposits, and their gossans were exploited.\\u000a Two mine waste dumps (Fontalcinaldo, Fontebona), one flotation tailings impoundment (Gabellino), and one roasting\\/smelting\\u000a waste dump (Merse-Ribudelli) in the study area were selected to ascertain

M. Benvenuti; I. Mascaro; F. Corsini; P. Lattanzi; P. Parrini; G. Tanelli

1997-01-01

138

Corner-cutting mining assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

Bradley, J.A.

1981-07-01

139

Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

Thorman, C. H.; DeWitt, E.; Maron, M. A.; Ladeira, E. A.

2001-01-01

140

Valid mining rights and wilderness areas  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for a valid right in a mining claim have been in contention since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1965. The author examines the elements of claim location, especially the discovery element. She analyzes decisions of the Department of Interior (DOI) and the federal courts to ascertain the DOI's discovery test. She then explains how wilderness designation has affected and will affect a claimant's ability to prove that he has discovered a valuable mineral deposit on or before the date of withdrawal. She concludes that the wilderness mining exception, the special concessions to the mining industry in some wildernesses, and even the Mining Law as it is now interpreted are evidence that the mineral industry is still favored in federal land policy. But concern for protection of other resources has steadily eroded its importance, and the balance is now more accommodating to the needs of present American society.

Toffenetti, K.

1985-01-01

141

Mining apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A mining apparatus and method for dislodging material from a mine face. The dislodged material is transported from the front to the rear of the mine for further handling. The apparatus has a lifting mechanism for raising cross beams to the roof of the mine wherein beam jacks are permitted to engage the cross beams to provide support to the mine roof. The temporary roof support permits advancement of miner as dislodged material is removed.

Hakes, G.A.; Mccracken, W.E.

1982-05-11

142

Getty mines oil sands in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields,

Rintoul

1983-01-01

143

Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

144

30 CFR 582.24 - Mining Plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...type and size of installation or structures and the method of tailings disposal. (i) A list of known archaeological resources...indicate the steps to be taken to assure that mined areas on tailing deposits do not pose a threat to the environment and...

2013-07-01

145

The formation of sinkholes in karst mining areas in China and some methods of prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining of coal, lead and zinc, gold, and iron ore deposits in karst areas has been closely associated with sinkholes in China.\\u000a Surface collapse causes an increase in mine water drainage and the possibility of major water inflow from karst aquifers,\\u000a which threatens the environment in mining areas and endangers mine safety. The origin of such sinkholes is analyzed quantitatively

Zhou Wanfang

1997-01-01

146

Ground water of coal deposits, Bay County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coal deposit in Bay County, Mich., typical of Pennsylvanian-coal deposits in the State, was studied to determine the degree to which hydrologic factors might affect future coal mining. The coal deposit, which averages about 0.5 meters in thickness, lies 50 meters below land surface. It is part of a multi-layered aquifer system that contains sandstone, shale, sand and gravel, and clay units in addition to beds of coal. Hydrologic characteristics (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) of each unit were evaluated by analyses of aquifer tests and a finite-difference groundwater flow model. A model simulating groundwater flow to a hypothetical mine was developed. Results of the study indicate that seepage will probably not be great enough to preclude mining coal. Also, pumping water to keep the mine dry will have little effect on heads in aquifers outside the mine during the first decade of mining. Although coal was mined in Michigan during 1860-1950, significant reserves remain. These deposits, part of the Saginaw Formation of Pennsylvanian age, are near the industrialized parts of the State. The quantity of pumped water needed to keep mines dry and the effect of pumping on aquifers surrounding the mines is a major factor in determining the feasibility of opening new mines. (USGS)

Stark, J. R.; McDonald, Michael G.

1980-01-01

147

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE, SHOWING MINE CAR TRACKS, SNOWSHEDS AND TIPPLE (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW TO EAST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

148

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF MINE SITE FROM KEETLEY MINE ROAD, SHOWING TAILING DUMP. VIEW TO WEST. - Park Utah Mining Company: Keetley Mine Complex, 1 mile East of U.S. 40 at Keetley, Heber City, Wasatch County, UT

149

The occurrence of gold at the Getchell mine, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Getchell mine, owned by the Getchell Gold Cooperation, is located in northwestern Nevada along the east flank of the Osgood Mountains approximately 70 km northeast of Winnemucca. The deposit comprises a Carlin-type gold deposit in which mineralization is associated with breccias and replacement zones within altered sedimentary rocks. The paragenesis of the mineralized zones can be sub-divided into at

R. J Bowell; M Baumann; M Gingrich; D Tretbar; W. F Perkins; P. C Fisher

1999-01-01

150

Subsidence from underground mining: environmental analysis and planning considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence, a universal process that occurs in response to the voids created by extracting solids or liquids from beneath the Earth's surface, is controlled by many factors including mining methods, depth of extraction, thickness of deposit, and topography, as well as the in situ properties of the rock mass above the deposit. The impacts of subsidence are potentially severe in

F. T. Lee; J. F. Jr. Abel

1983-01-01

151

20 CFR 726.107 - Deposits of negotiable securities with Federal Reserve banks or the Treasurer of the United...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.107 Deposits...

2013-04-01

152

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

153

Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USGS has recently released the report Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The 95-page open file report is an inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in the country that resources that include metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. The data was compiled from published literature and digital files of the members of the National Industrial Minerals project, and are presented in tables that list mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields. This site is also reviewed in the May 3, 2002 Scout Report.

2002-01-01

154

Active Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an active data mining paradigm thatcombines the recent work in data mining with therich literature on active database systems. In thisparadigm, data is continuously mined at a desiredfrequency. As rules are discovered, they are addedto a rulebase, and if they already exist, the historyof the statistical parameters associated withthe rules is updated. When the history starts exhibitingcertain trends,

Rakesh Agrawal; Giuseppe Psaila

1995-01-01

155

Hydraulic borehole mining system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic underground mining system is disclosed for operating through a small diameter borehole into a subterranean body. An elongated mining tool includes a liquid jet nozzle that is movable in vertical direction along the length of the mining tool for forming a directed jet stream to impact material in the ore body and convert the material into a slurry.

1983-01-01

156

Data Mining for CRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

Thearling, Kurt

157

Mining Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate operating an iron mine, from choosing property to writing an environmental impact statement to setting up the mining operation. Chocolate chip cookies (with the chocolate chips representing iron ore) are used for this experiment. Students are challenged to operate the most profitable and environmentally sound mine they can.

Cohen, Eric

158

Principles of Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science,

David J. Hand; Heikki Mannila; Padhraic Smyth

2001-01-01

159

Zinc and Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri) is contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste (“chat”), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to

W. N. Beyer; J. Dalgarn; S. Dudding; J. B. French; R. Mateo; J. Miesner; L. Sileo; J. Spann

2004-01-01

160

Acid Mine Drainage: the case of the Lafayette mine, Rapu Rapu (Philippines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acid streams resulting from mining activities from certain types of mineral deposits such as those at Rapu Rapu in the Philippines are highly toxic to the aquatic environment. The extreme acidity is harmful to most aquatic life and, even after neutralisation, the precipitate formed continues to affect aquatic organisms. Toxic elements, such as copper, cadmium and zinc are often

Janet Cotter; Kevin Brigden

2006-01-01

161

Chromite Deposits along the Border Ranges Fault, Southern Alaska. Part 1. Field Investigations and Descriptions of Chromite Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chromite deposits along the Border Ranges Fault in southern Alaska were investigated by the Bureau of Mines. The report, part 1 of a two-part series, describes the deposits. Ninety-four subeconomic podiform chromite deposits in eight mafic-ultramafic comp...

J. C. Barker J. Y. Foley

1985-01-01

162

Data Mining Model Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the role of statistical models and, more generally, of statistics, in choosing a Data Mining model. After a preliminary introduction on the distinction between Data Mining and statistics, we will focus on the issue of how to choose a Data Mining methodology. This well illustrates how statistical thinking can bring real added value to a Data Mining analysis, as otherwise it becomes rather difficult to make a reasoned choice. In the third part of the paper we will present, by means of a case study in credit risk management, how Data Mining and statistics can profitably interact.

Giudici, Paolo

163

Data mining in radiology  

PubMed Central

Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

2014-01-01

164

Metagenomic mining for microbiologists  

PubMed Central

Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures.

Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

2011-01-01

165

Landfill mining: Giving garbage a second chance  

SciTech Connect

Some communities face the problems of lack of landfill space and lack of landfill cover dirt. In some cases, existing landfills may be mined to reclaim dirt for use as cover material and to recover space for reuse. Such mining also has the potential of recovering recyclables and incinerator fuels. Machinery to reclaim refuse deposits, and their heterogeneous composted ingredients, was successfully tested at two Florida landfills in June 1987. One of the Florida mining tests, at the Collier County landfill near the city of Naples, had goals of demonstrating an economical mechanical system to separate the depository's ingredients into usable or redisposable components, and to see if the method could enable the county to avoid the expenses associated with permanent closure of a full landfill. This paper describes the history of the Collier County landfill, the equipment and feasibility test, economics, the monitoring of odors, landfill gas, and heavy metals, and results of the test.

Cobb, C.C.; Ruckstuhl, K. (SPM Group, Inc., Preston, MN (USA))

1988-08-01

166

Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing  

SciTech Connect

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1996-09-01

167

Floodplain storage of mine tailings in the Belle Fourche river system: a sediment budget approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic-contaminated mine tailings that were discharged into Whitewood Creek at Lead, South Dakota, from 1876 to 1978, were deposited along the floodplains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. The resulting arsenic-contaminated floodplain deposit consists mostly of overbank sediments and filled abandoned meanders along Whitewood Creek, and overbank and point-bar sediments along the Belle Fourche River. Arsenic concentrations of the contaminated sediments indicate the degree of dilution of mine tailings by uncontaminated alluvium. About 13% of the 110 ?? 106 Mg of mine tailings that were discharged at Lead were deposited along the Whitewood Creek floodplain. -from Author

Marron, D. C.

1992-01-01

168

Mechanism of the water invasion of Gaoyang Iron Mine, China and its impacts on the mine groundwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of mining of iron deposits in China, groundwater invasion and the impacts of groundwater drainage, such\\u000a as regional groundwater table lowering, overlapping cones of depression, subsidence, and water quality deterioration are environmental\\u000a problems which endanger mining production and human life. Effective prevention of water invasion or timely determination of\\u000a the mechanism of water bursting and rational design

He Keqiang; Guo Dong; Wang Xianwei

2006-01-01

169

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining operations. A hydraulic eductor pump located at the suction entrance to the inner conduit is used to raise drill cuttings to the surface; a separate slurry eductor pump within the inner conduit located only sufficiently below the slurry discharge of the tool to prevent cavitation at the jet is used to pump the ore slurry to the surface. Another embodiment of this invention employs both eductors to raise the drill cuttings and ore slurry to the surface. Valves controlling the flow of fluid to the drill bit, the mining jet and the slurry discharge eductor pump are located within the inner conduit and a novel valve actuating means is disclosed which employs the pressure within the annular space between the conduits to convert the tool from the drilling to the mining mode. Surface mounted flow control valves and flowmeters in the fluid feed line and in the slurry discharge line control the volume of fluid entering and discharging from the tool. These valves may be controlled by instrumentation to balance the flows, adjusted to control the mining cavity pressure or to compensate for the influx of ground water.

Coakley, J.E.; Nolan, J.J.

1982-09-07

170

Mine Safety & Health Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1978 as a part of the United States Department of Labor, the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) is dedicated to "protecting miners' safety & health". On the MSHA homepage, visitors can make their way through sections that include "Highlights", "Online Tools", "Quick Links", and "Data Transparency at MSHA". In terms of getting an overview of their work, the "Highlights" area is a fine place to start. Here visitors can view press releases, informational studies, and links to safety regulations and mine evacuation procedures. The homepage also features a brief statistical portrait of the nation's mines in the "MSHA by the Numbers" area, along with basic information on fatalities in mines. On the right-hand side of the homepage visitors with more of a technical interest in the nation's mines will appreciate the inclusion of various reports on mine safety compliance and training modules.

171

An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J. M.; Ferreira, R. F.; Hoffman, R. J.

1978-01-01

172

Mining Your Own Business  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month-long project students conduct research to develop a mineral location and recovery plan. The plan must include how the minerals formed, a justification for choosing the area to be mined, and the manner in which the resource will be mined. Also important are safety, cost-effectiveness, post-mining site restoration. Each group will share with the class a written document and presentation.

173

Mining for Natural Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students mine the chips from chocolate chip cookies. They weigh the cookies before and after mining, weigh the chips, and calculate the percent yield. This lab is designed to give students a better understanding of the processes involved in harvesting a natural resource and the impact it has on their environment and community. Analysis and conclusion questions focus on the fact that the mining of nonrenewable natural resources has a dramatic effect on our environment.

Obremski, Vince

174

Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.  

PubMed

The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination. PMID:23464669

Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

2013-03-01

175

Borehole mining of solid mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

The present invention comprises a method of mining a solid substance, such as coal, minerals, or the like, from an underground deposit in one of a plurality of earth strata. Void areas are created in the deposit so as to generally define an area within the deposit which is to be enclosed. Plugging material is injected into the void areas to form a relatively impervious barrier enclosing the aforementioned area of the deposit and isolating it from the remainder of the earth strata in which it is located. Conversion media, such as solvents or oxidation supporting media, are then injected into the enclosed area to convert the substance therein into flowable form. Finally , the substance as so converted is withdrawn from the enclosed area.

Zakiewicz, B.M.

1981-09-15

176

Relational Data Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining algorithms look for patterns in data. While most existing Data Mining approaches look for patterns in a single data table, relational Data Mining (RDM) approaches look for patterns that involve multiple tables (relations) from a relational database. In recent years, the most common types of patterns and approaches considered in Data Mining have been extended to the relational case and RDM now encompasses relational association rule discovery and relational decision tree induction, among others. RDM approaches have been successfully applied to a number of problems in a variety of areas, most notably in the area of bioinformatics. This chapter provides a brief introduction to RDM.

Džeroski, Sašo

177

New Mining Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bush administration yesterday overturned some of former President Clinton's eleventh hour legislation governing mining. The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) explains that the new rule, amending the "3809" surface mining regulations, will eliminate "several unduly burdensome provisions of the current mining regulations." Among the provisions being eliminated is one that allows the Secretary of the Interior to prohibit new mines on federal land if they could cause "substantial irreparable harm" to the environment or communities. The administration is, however, keeping provisions that regulate the use of cyanide in gold mining and the control of acid waste, as well as those that require mining companies to issue reclamation bonds to ensure they will have money for clean up. The new regulations will be published as a final rule on Tuesday and take effect 60 days later. Also, in a separate action, a top legal advisor for the Department of the Interior recommended reversal of a legal decision issued under former Secretary Bruce Babbitt to block an open-pit gold mine near sites sacred to the Quechan Tribe in California. This is perhaps the beginning of more wide-reaching changes to mining laws as Gale Norton, Secretary of the Interior, intends to ask for Congress' help in a more wide-reaching overhaul of the mining laws.

Koplow, Travis.

2001-01-01

178

A baseline lunar mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

Gertsch, Richard E.

1992-01-01

179

Cycles in mining seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic models of self-organized criticality and intermittent criticality are used to describe the structure of seismic catalogs. The intermittent models introduce three phases of the seismic cycle: increase in seismic energy, seismic relaxation, and seismic quiescence after the final relaxation. In this paper, seismic mining catalogs from a deep copper mine are searched to find these three phases of the seismic cycle. In spite of the differences between the seismic records from earthquakes and the building of stresses in the mine, the cycles can be estimated in mining seismicity.

Marcak, Henryk

2013-07-01

180

Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report  

SciTech Connect

Decades of underground coal mining has left about 5,000 square miles of abandoned mine workings that are rapidly filling with water. The water quality of mine pools is often poor; environmental regulatory agencies are concerned because water from mine pools could contaminate diminishing surface and groundwater supplies. Mine pools are also a threat to the safety of current mining operations. Conversely, mine pools are a large, untapped water resource that, with treatment, could be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Others have proposed using mine pools in conjunction with heat pumps as a source of heating and cooling for large industrial facilities. The management or use of mine pool water requires accurate maps of mine pools. West Virginia University has predicted the likely location and volume of mine pools in the Pittsburgh Coalbed using existing mine maps, structure contour maps, and measured mine pool elevations. Unfortunately, mine maps only reflect conditions at the time of mining, are not available for all mines, and do not always denote the maximum extent of mining. Since 1999, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been evaluating helicopter-borne, electromagnetic sensing technologies for the detection and mapping of mine pools. Frequency domain electromagnetic sensors are able to detect shallow mine pools (depth < 50 m) if there is sufficient contrast between the conductance of the mine pool and the conductance of the overburden. The mine pools (conductors) most confidently detected by this technology are overlain by thick, resistive sandstone layers. In 2003, a helicopter time domain electromagnetic sensor was applied to mined areas in southwestern Virginia in an attempt to increase the depth of mine pool detection. This study failed because the mine pool targets were thin and not very conductive. Also, large areas of the surveys were degraded or made unusable by excessive amounts of cultural electromagnetic noise that obscured the subtle mine pool anomalies. However, post-survey modeling suggested that thicker, more conductive mine pools might be detected at a more suitable location. The current study sought to identify the best time domain electromagnetic sensor for detecting mine pools and to test it in an area where the mine pools are thicker and more conductive that those in southwestern Virginia. After a careful comparison of all airborne time domain electromagnetic sensors (including both helicopter and fixed-wing systems), the SkyTEM system from Denmark was determined to be the best technology for this application. Whereas most airborne time domain electromagnetic systems were developed to find large, deep, highly conductive mineral deposits, the SkyTEM system is designed for groundwater exploration studies, an application similar to mine pool detection.

Geosciences Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA; Hammack, R.W.

2006-12-28

181

Annual report on mining activities  

SciTech Connect

This is the 1980 annual report on mining activities. The report includes information on anthracite and bituminous coal mining activities, pits and quarries within the Commonwealth. The report includes mining production, fatalities, accidents, employees for both coal types. (DP)

Jones, C.L.

1980-01-01

182

76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

2011-11-10

183

76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

2011-10-12

184

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30% < Fe < 64%) hematite ores. Based on their mineralogical composition, three major types of itabirites occur in the QF: siliceous,

Carlos Alberto Spier; Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Rosière; José Domingos Ardisson

2008-01-01

185

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

186

Pyroclastic deposits as sites for lunar bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits may prove to be excellent sites for the establishment of a permanent lunar base for mining purposes. A wide variety of potentially useful by-products could be produced (e.g., Fe, Ti, H, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb). A number of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent has been studied. The physical properties of the regional pyroclastic units have important implications for lunar construction. These extensive, deep deposits of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic material are block-free and uncontaminated; they could be easily excavated and would be ideal for lunar mining operations. These deep, loose pyroclastic deposits would also be ideal for rapidly covering base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding.

Hawke, B. Ray; Clark, Beth; Coombs, C. R.

1990-01-01

187

The search for asbestos within the Peter Mitchell Taconite iron ore mine, near Babbitt, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos crystallizes within rock formations undergoing intense deformation characterized by folding, faulting, shearing, and dilation. Some of these conditions have prevailed during formation of the taconite iron ore deposits in the eastern Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. This range includes the Peter Mitchell Taconite Mine at Babbitt, Minnesota. The mine pit is over 8 miles long, up to 1 mile

Malcolm Ross; Robert P. Nolan; Gordon L. Nord

2008-01-01

188

Technical-Economic Parameters of the New Oil Shale Mining—Chemical Complex in Northeast Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize

Igor Kuzmiv; Jacob Fraiman

2006-01-01

189

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 1. USA and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulfuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. Test sites in the USA were required to

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

190

DEVELOPMENT OF GIS-BASED ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING MINING SUBSIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface subsidence due to underground mining is a major problem, especially when stratified deposits are completely extracted. Extensively theoretical, laboratory and in situ test investigations have been carried out in many countries to develop mining subsidence prediction techniques. However, to predict subsidence on the large extraction area, complex seam layers, time dependence and three-dimensional (3D) visualization are main difficulties encountered

Ibrahim DJAMALUDDIN; Tetsuro ESAKI; Yasuhiro MITANI; Hiro IKEMI

191

Mine shaft guide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with a mine shaft arrangement for an underground mine having a headframe above the surface at the shaft opening, a guide system is described which consists of: tubular pipe guides in the shaft, each guide comprising a multiplicity of pipes threaded one to another to provide a smooth exterior surface at each threaded joint and depending below the

1986-01-01

192

Surf Zone Mine Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goals of the mine vulnerability task are to: (1) Identify key damage mechanisms leading to the development of kill criteria for explosive neutralization of a variety of anti-tank, and antipersonnel Surf Zone (SZ) threat mines, (2) develop an...

J. Gaspin J. Goeller M. Karen

1998-01-01

193

Untangling Text Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. Text expresses a vast, rich range of information, but encodes this information in a form that is difficult to decipher automatically. Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it

Marti A. Hearst

1999-01-01

194

Data Mining Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) is pleased to provide to Congress its second report pursuant to the Data Mining Reporting Act. The Data Mining Reporting Act requires 'the head of each department or agency of the Federal Governme...

2009-01-01

195

Data Mining Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a basic overview of Data Mining and some applications for the process. The site lists some typical tasks addressed by data mining, such as identifying cross-sell opportunities and predicting a peak load of a network. There are also some academic resources on such topics as "Anomaly Localization," "Generating Non-Linear Functions," and "Symbolic Knowledge Discovery."

2008-01-14

196

Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas

2000-01-01

197

Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of the high-grade iron ores of the Águas Claras Mine and comparison with the Capão Xavier and Tamanduá iron ore deposits, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major iron deposits occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), southeastern region of Brazil, where metamorphosed and\\u000a heterogeneously deformed banded iron formation (BIF) of the Cauê Formation, regionally called itabirite, was transformed into\\u000a high- (Fe >64%) and low-grade (30%?

Carlos Alberto Spier; Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Rosière; José Domingos Ardisson

2008-01-01

198

Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake.

James W. Moore; David J. Sutherland

1981-01-01

199

COMPARISON OF DATA FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE AND DIRECT SAMPLING OF ACID DRAINAGE FROM MINE WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY TRANSPORT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and progressed to shaft, then open pit techniques to obtain mercury. Mining has resulted in deposition of approximately ...

200

Antimony bioavailability in mine soils.  

PubMed

Five British former mining and smelting sites were investigated and found to have levels of total Sb of up to 700 mg kg(-1), indicating high levels of contamination which could be potentially harmful. However, this level of Sb was found to be biologically unavailable over a wide range of pH values, indicating that Sb is relatively unreactive and immobile in the surface layers of the soil, remaining where it is deposited rather than leaching into lower horizons and contaminating ground water. Sb, sparingly soluble in water, was unavailable to the bacterial biosensors tested. The bioluminescence responses were correlated to levels of co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper, rather than to Sb concentrations. This suggests that soil contamination by Sb due to mining and smelting operations is not a severe risk to the environment or human health provided that it is present as immobile species and contaminated sites are not used for purposes which increase the threat of exposure to identified receptors. Co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper are more bioavailable and may therefore be seen as a more significant risk. PMID:12683986

Flynn, Helen C; Meharg, Andy A; Bowyer, Phillipa K; Paton, Graeme I

2003-01-01

201

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

202

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

203

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

204

Disposal of coal mine waste in active underground coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines initiated a mine site specific design of a system of underground disposal of coal wastes. One of the two contracts to prepare this design was awarded to Foster Miller Associates, Inc. (FMA)\\/Western Slope Carbon, Inc. (WCS). This paper describes the mine refuse, waste disposal system and equipment selection, influence of the disposal system on mine productivity,

L. S. Rubin; M. Burnett; A. Amundson; G. J. Colaizzi; R. H. Whaite

1981-01-01

205

Mine water quality and its management in Indian metalliferrous mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface mine development and underground mine working below piezometric level invariably change the hydraulic gradient, thus affecting ground and surface water flow and water quality. The presence of water in mining sites creates a range of operational and stability problems and requires a drainage plan to avoid slope stability problem, oxidation of metallic sulfides and corrosion of mining machinery and

R. K. Tiwary; D. B. Singh; B. K. Tewary

206

The homogeneity of heavy metal deposition on glass fibre filters collected using a high-volume sampler in the vicinity of an opencast chrome mine complex at Kemi, Northern Finland.  

PubMed

The homogeneity of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe and Cd) distribution on glass fibre filters (Munktell MG 160, 203 x 254 mm, 75 g m(-2)) collected using a high-volume sampler (Wedding & Associates) at an opencast chrome mine complex at Kemi, Northern Finland was studied. The heavy metals in the total suspended particulate (TSP) material were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The glass fibre filters were digested in a microwave oven using a mixture of aqua regia+HF acids. There was significant non-uniform distribution of heavy metals on glass fibre filters. The TSP material containing chromite was very difficult to dissolve by acid digestion. The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and from energy filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), showed that insoluble residue left after microwave oven digestion with aqua regia+HF acids was probably partly due to chemical reactions occurring during microwave heating. PMID:12610697

Pöykiö, R; Perämäki, P; Rönkkömäki, H

2003-02-01

207

Improving electrical safety in mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity is a major cause of lost time accidents and fatalities in the mining industry. In the period 1977-1980 alone, 1,622 mine accidents involving electricity were reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Most of the means of electrical injury prevention are now within the technical and practical grasp of the mining industry, and should not require increased

Morley

1983-01-01

208

Coal mining and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From national western mining conference; Denver, Colorado, USA (9 Feb ; 1974). The vast bulk of the U. S. coal resource lies at depths which render it ; forever inaccessible to recovery by surface mining methods. In the long term, ; underground mining must become the predominant form of coal extraction. The ; longwall method of mining shows great potential

Nephew

1973-01-01

209

Data Mining in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

2000-01-01

210

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

SciTech Connect

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

211

From Web Mining to Social Multimedia Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web mining is a well established field with many applications. Over the last years we experience a vast and rapidly growing amount of multimedia content that becomes available online. Web 2.0 and online social networks have dramatically influenced the growing amount of multimedia content due to the fact that users become more active producers and distributors of such multimedia context.

Georgios Lappas

2011-01-01

212

Pollution in acid mine drainage from mine tailings in Svalbard Norwegian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the summer season of 2000 samples of acid mine drainage (AMD) were collected from areas below tailing deposits from the coal mining in Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic. The water was analysed for pH, oxygen, conductivity, 9 sulfate and various metals. Oxygen, pH and conductivity were measured by standard electrodes, sulphate was determined gravimetrically and metals were determined by flame/graphite furnace AAS. The AMD was found to contain heavy metals and sulphate in high concentrations, causing damage to the local tundra vegetation. Large spatial variation however was observed in pH (2.5-9.5) as well as in metal concentrations in the AMD, indicating strongly inhomogeneous distribution of sulphide minerais in the tailing deposits.

Holm, E. B.; Brandvik, P. J.; Steinnes, E.

2003-05-01

213

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951,

W. C. Rember; T. W. Erdman; M. L. Hoffmann; V. E. Chamberlain; K. F. Sprenke

1993-01-01

214

Uranium deposits of Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

NONE

1991-09-01

215

Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included rocks of the Wood River assemblage. We suggest that elevated HFSE and REE trace-element contents of metavolcanic rocks, whose major-element composition may have been altered, are an important prospecting tool for rocks of VMS deposit potential in east-central Alaska.

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana

2007-01-01

216

Quantitative Microbial Community Analysis of Three Different Sulfidic Mine Tailing Dumps Generating Acid Mine Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the

Dagmar Kock; Axel Schippers

2008-01-01

217

Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R.

2008-01-01

218

Coal beneficiation of Candiota mine by dry jigging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to test dry jigging, operated with air, to eliminate pyrite nodules and liberated clays from Candiota coal. Candiota mine is the biggest Brazilian Coal deposit, which is beneficiated for fueling a thermoelectric plant. This coal presents a high degree of liberated pyrite in a wide range of densities. Hence, gravity separation of pyrite appears

C. H. Sampaio; W. Aliaga; E. T. Pacheco; E. Petter; H. Wotruba

2008-01-01

219

PURIFICATION OF WATERS DISCHARGED FROM POLISH LIGNITE MINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The exploitation of lignite deposits is linked with the necessity of lowering the groundwater table and dewatering the mine of precipitation. A large percentage of the discharge waters requires purification prior to delivery of receiving streams. The chief pollutants of these wat...

220

Phosphor Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method relates to the deposition of phosphor compounds in the manufacture of ray-sensitive tubes. The deposition is accomplished after tube exhaust. The method includes the use of one or more evaporator boats permanently secured within an envelope the...

H. A. Stern

1965-01-01

221

Visually mining relational data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining relational data often boils down to computing clusters, that is finding sub- communities of data elements forming cohesive sub-units, while being well separated from one another. The clusters themselves are sometimes termed \\

Yves Chiricota; Guy Melançon

2007-01-01

222

Hydraulic borehole mining system  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic underground mining system is disclosed for operating through a small diameter borehole into a subterranean body. An elongated mining tool includes a liquid jet nozzle that is movable in vertical direction along the length of the mining tool for forming a directed jet stream to impact material in the ore body and convert the material into a slurry. An orifice is positioned below the jet so that slurry flows into the orifice, the latter being connected to a jet pump which returns generated slurry to the surface. Suitable hydraulic power means are provided for operating the jet pump and for moving the jet stream in vertical and circular directions. Means for monitoring and controlling the progress of mining and the condition of components of the system are provided to monitor and control the system from a centralized location.

Archibald, W.R.

1983-08-30

223

Privacy in Data Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we describe the main tools for privacy in data mining. We present an overview of the tools for protecting data, and then we focus on protection procedures. Information loss and disclosure risk measures are also described.

Torra, Vicenç

224

Topoff Mining Company Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enrique Gomezdelcampo, Bowling Green State University Summary Laboratory exercise to demonstrate the use of TINs in GIS using an example from surface coal mining. Context Type and level of course This is one of ...

Gomezdelcampo, Enrique

225

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15

226

Lunar mining equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains preliminary concepts for mining and beneficiation of lunar regolith from a 50 metric ton/day mine. Assumptions for the design are outlined below. Lunar regolith is the material to be mined. Since it is already a fine-grained material, the two steps of crushing and breakup from a rock surface are eliminated. The size of the operation was set at 50 metric tons of regolith/day for a three-year period. Operations will occur around the clock to make most efficient use of equipment, thus we assume 24 hr/day. For simplicity we have assumed that the lunar regolith has a uniform density of 1.68 and that it can be mined to a depth of 6 m. No research was done on power supply or distribution. It was left to others to consider the various trade-offs between nuclear and solar power and to design the needed utility system.

Bekkedahl, S.; Breidenbach, T.; Brown, M.; Francis, C.; Freeman, J.; Scharnott, M.; Thon, R.

1989-01-01

227

Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.  

PubMed

The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems. PMID:18450374

Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

2008-12-30

228

"easyMine" - realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project "easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool) which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry) will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

Böttger, U.; Beier, K.; Biering, B.; Müller, C.; Peichl, M.; Spyra, W.

2004-05-01

229

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

230

Ekati Diamond Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The page on the Ekati Diamond Mine, which is located in the Northwest Territories and is North America's only operating diamond mine, presents a satellite image and informational text. A detailed map of the region is also included which will allow users to compare the satellite image to what the area looks like on a map. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

231

EnviroMine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a reference library of up-to-date information on mining and the environment by providing links to an abundance of resources related to the industry. There are links to environmental topics such as acid rock drainage, waste rock, dust control, water quality and many more. The site also features an image library, current news, events, publications, employment, and links to other mining-related environmental websites.

2007-01-23

232

Mining - Least Cost lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a simulated land area disguised as a chocolate chip cookie to conduct a mining simulation and least cost theory evaluation. After carefully extracting as much of the available ore (chocolate chips) materials the students calculate the simulated costs of mining and reclamation to determine if there is a profit or loss. These calculations and conversions are used to determine the optimal location for manufacturing in relation to the market.

Linsley, Ann

233

NVESD mine lane facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NVESD Mine Lane Facility has recently undergone an extensive renovation. It now consists of an indoor, dry lane portion, a greenhouse portion with moisture-controlled lanes, a control room, and two outdoor lanes. The indoor structure contains six mine lanes, each approximately 2.5m (width) × 1.2m (depth) × 33m(length). These lanes contain six different soil types: magnetite\\/sand, silt, crusher run

James D. Habersat; Christopher Marshall; George Maksymonko

2003-01-01

234

Morenci Mine, AZ  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Morenci open-pit copper mine in southeast Arizona is North America's leading producer of copper. In the 1860s, prospectors arrived looking for gold; instead they found copper. Underground mining began in the 1870s, and the first pit was opened in 1939. Phelps Dodge employs over 200 people in the mining and refining operations. Around-the-clock removal of 700,000 tons of rock per day results in production of 382 thousand tons of copper per year. Phelps Dodge is now developing the Safford Mine, about 12 km southwest of Morenci. It will be the first new copper mine in the US in more than 30 years. When production starts in 2008, the Safford Mine will produce 109 thousand tons of copper. This ASTER image uses shortwavelength infrared bands to highlight in bright pink the altered rocks in the Morenci pit associated with copper mineralization.

The image covers an area of 21 x 16.9 km, was acquired on July 14, 2007, and is centered near 33.1 degrees north latitude, 109.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

235

30 CFR 49.4 - Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for special mining conditions... Section 49.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

2013-07-01

236

Assessment of the pollutants in farming soils and waters around untreated abandoned Türkönü mercury mine (Turkey).  

PubMed

There are several abandoned Hg mines located in western Turkey. Hg production in these mines was eventually halted in the early 1990 s because of low prices and environmental concerns (Gemici, 2004). However, acid mine drainage waste causes potential environmental problems near the Hg mines. In Türkönü Hg mine (Fig. 1) nearly 7,000 flasks of mercury had been produced in recent years. In 1965 a private company began to investigate the deposit and by 1968 had installed a 100-tpd rotary furnace. Since, the ore supply has been inadequate and the furnace plant used to process ore hauled from other deposits. Mercury production was terminated in 1975, owing to low prices, and in 1976 the furnace plant was used to process antimony ore (Yildiz and Bailey, 1978). Areas near the mine are currently being used for agricultural purposes. Soils are directly influenced by contaminants, leaching from the mine wastes, which are transported by surface waters in the rainy season. The aim of this study is to evaluate the geochemical dispersal within soil and water,of Hg derived from the abandoned Türkönü mine relating to past mining activities. PMID:17476451

Gemici, Unsal; Tarcan, Gültekin

2007-07-01

237

Underground at Black Diamond Mines  

SciTech Connect

Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

Higgins, C.T.

1989-10-01

238

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining, and agent mining. This paper presents a novel but preliminary investigation of ubiquitous intelligence in these areas. We specify five types of ubiquitous intelligence: data intelligence, human intelligence, domain intelligence, network and web intelligence, organizational intelligence, and social intelligence. We define and illustrate them, and discuss techniques for involving them into agents, data mining, and agent mining for complex problem-solving. Further investigation on involving and synthesizing ubiquitous intelligence into agents, data mining, and agent mining will lead to a disciplinary upgrade from methodological, technical and practical perspectives.

Cao, Longbing; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

239

Cutaneous deposits.  

PubMed

: The cutaneous deposition disorders are a group of unrelated conditions characterized by the accumulation of either endogenous or exogenous substances within the skin. These cutaneous deposits are substances that are not normal constituents of the skin and are laid down usually in the dermis, but also in the subcutis, in a variety of different circumstances. There are 5 broad categories of cutaneous deposits. The first group includes calcium salts, bone, and cartilage. The second category includes the hyaline deposits that may be seen in the dermis in several metabolic disorders, such as amyloidosis, gout, porphyria, and lipoid proteinosis. The third category includes various pigments, heavy metals, and complex drug pigments. The fourth category, cutaneous implants, includes substances that are inserted into the skin for cosmetic purposes. The fifth category includes miscellaneous substances, such as oxalate crystals and fiberglass. In this article, the authors review the clinicopathologic characteristics of cutaneous deposition diseases, classify the different types of cutaneous deposits, and identify all the histopathologic features that may assist in diagnosing the origin of a cutaneous deposit. PMID:23249837

Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

2014-01-01

240

Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows:

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

241

CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative  

SciTech Connect

Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

Hiett, J. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States). Mine Map Repository and Mine Map Information Systems

2007-07-01

242

The Lifecycle of a Mineral Deposit: A Teache's Guide for Hands-On Mineral Education Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides an introduction to the process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering it, and reclaiming the mined area (sometimes called 'beneficiation' or 'life cycle'). Topics include what a mineral deposit is; how they are identified and measured, how the minerals are extracted; and how the mining site is reclaimed. There is also discussion of how minerals and mineral resources are processed and how they are used in everyday life. The guide includes ten activities that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals.

243

Underground mine communications: a survey  

SciTech Connect

After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

2009-07-01

244

Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12  

SciTech Connect

Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb/yr (227,000 kg/yr) of yellowcake also using in-situ solution-mining techniques. Other uranium deposits exist in this area and will also probably be solution mined, although open-pit mining may possibly be employed at a few locations in the Cheyenne Basin. One of the principal environmental impacts of this uranium-mining activity is the potential effect on ground-water quality and quantity. In order to fully assess potential ground-water impacts, regulatory agencies and mine planners and operators must be familiar with regional geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the basin. The Oligocene White River Group and Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Pierre Shale contain important aquifers which supply water for domestic, stock-watering, irrigation, and municipal purposes in the study area. Should uranium mining seriously impact shallower aquifers, the upper Pierre and lower Fox Hills aquifers may become important sources of water. Water samples collected and analyzed from over 100 wells during this investigation provide baseline water-quality data for much of the study area. These analyses indicate water quality is highly variable not only between aquifers, but also within a particular aquifer. Many of the wells yield water that exceeds US Public Health drinking water standards for pH, TDS, sulfate, manganese, iron and selenium. Uranium, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations are also high in many of these wells. 8 figures.

Kirkham, R.M.; O'Leary, W.; Warner, J.W.

1980-01-01

245

Borehole Mining: An Environmentally Compatible Method for Mining Oil Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to envir...

G. S. Knoke W. R. Archibald

1980-01-01

246

Mine Roof Vibrations from Production Blasts, Shullsburg Mine, Shullsburg, Wis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines recorded both particle accelerations and velocities from one-stick and production blasts at Eagle-Picher Industries' Shullsburg mine, Shullsburg, Wis., to test the effectiveness of square root scaling in grouping underground blast vibr...

D. E. Fogelson J. J. Olson L. R. Fletcher R. A. Dick

1970-01-01

247

The production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than 1 billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of 28 billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits, arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface mining oil recovery operations, are as

J. M. Glassett; J. A. Glassett

1976-01-01

248

Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors

J. K. G. Panitz; D. R. Tallant; C. R. Hills; D. J. Staley

1993-01-01

249

String Mining in Bioinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

250

String Mining in Bioinformatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word “data-mining” is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

251

Mining the earth  

SciTech Connect

Substances extracted from the earth - stone, iron, bronze - have been so critical to human development that historians name the ages of our past after them. But while scholars have carefully tracked human use of minerals, they have never accounted for the vast environmental damage incurred in mineral production. Few people would guess that a copper mining operation has removed a piece of Utah seven times the weight of all the material dug for the Panama Canal. Few would dream that mines and smelters take up to a tenth of all the energy used each year, or that the waste left by mining measures in the billions of tons - dwarfing the world's total accumulation of more familiar kinds of waste, such as municipal garbage. Indeed, more material is now stripped from the earth by mining than by all the natural erosion of the earth's rivers. The effects of mining operations on the environment are discussed under the following topics: minerals in the global economy, laying waste, at what cost cleaning up, and dipping out. It is concluded that in the long run, the most effective strategy for minimizing new damage is not merely to make mineral extraction cleaner, but to reduce the rich nations needs for virgin (non-recycled) minerals.

Young, J.E.

1992-01-01

252

Mine Dewatering Studies at Jwaneng Open Pit Diamond Mine - Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological environment at Jwaneng Mine in Botswana is characterized by a complex faulting system that preceded the emplacement of kimberlite into the Transvaal sedimentary sequence. Mine dewatering studies at Jwaneng have previously focused on identifying water bearing structures on the faulting systems that transgress the current mine pit excavations and also on the hypothesis that dolomites occurring at depths

Benjamin Mafa

253

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly traded diamond companies may be due to investors losing patience with the slow pace or absence of new promising discoveries and switching into shares of base metals and fertilizers for agriculture (potash and phosphates).

Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

2009-11-01

254

Passive Explosion Barrier for Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive explosion barrier is provided for use in mining operations in suppressing mine explosions. The barrier basically comprises a receptacle or tub which contains an explosion suppressing substance, such as water, and is mounted on a frame adjacent t...

I. Liebman R. Pro J. Corry

1979-01-01

255

Mine Explosion Source Phenomenology Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seismic and acoustic discrimination of large surface and underground mine blasts, including mine collapses and rock bursts, continues to be a difficult scientific problem (Report of a Working Group from Government, Industry and National Laboratories, ...

A. Urzua J. F. Lewkowicz J. L. Bonner

2000-01-01

256

Gravity in a Mine Shaft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

257

Noise in Underground Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted an environmental noise survey to determine the noise levels to which underground coal mine employees are exposed, to evaluate noise survey techniques and equipment, and to compare noise exposures using two criteria, Walsh-Hea...

J. A. Lamonica R. L. Mundell T. L. Muldoon

1971-01-01

258

Mercury Benthic Flux: A Comparison Between 3 Mining-Impacted Water Bodies in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legacy of mining in the Western United States has left an indelible environmental imprint on terrestrial and aquatic systems. On both sides of the Sierra Nevada mountain range (Sierras), mercury was used copiously in the amalgamation of gold and silver. Mercury deposits in close proximity to San Francisco Bay (e.g., the New Almaden mining district) provided much of the

B. R. Topping; J. S. Kuwabara; M. C. Marvin-Dipasquale; J. L. Agee; L. H. Kieu; J. R. Flanders; F. Parchaso

2004-01-01

259

Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the activity of extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, ?-xylosidase, chitinase, arylsulfatase and phosphatases) and the changes in microbial community and abiotic properties in the topsoil layer, as well as soil abiotic properties during primary succession were investigated in a brown coal mine deposit area near Sokolov, Czech Republic. The study considered the chronosequence of 4 post-mining plots, 4-, 12-,

Petr Baldrian; Josef Trögl; Jan Frouz; Jaroslav Šnajdr; Vendula Valášková; V?ra Merhautová; Tomáš Cajthaml; Jana Herinková

2008-01-01

260

Mine roof support plate  

SciTech Connect

A support plate is disclosed for a mine roof including a substantially flat body engageable with the mine roof, the body having an enlarged central opening through which are passed one end of a roof bolt on which is threaded an expansion shell which is inserted into a mine roof opening. Ribs extend longitudinally of the flat body on both sides of the central opening for additional strength. The ribs are spaced a predetermined distance apart on opposite sides of the central opening. Centering members are provided on the body portion intermediate the ribs on opposite sides of the central opening, the centering members and ribs serving to center the washer and bolt portion of the bolt assembly.

White, C.C.

1981-02-10

261

WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

Zvi H. Meiksin

2002-04-01

262

Evaluation of Color and Color Infrared Photography from the Goldfield Mining District, Esmerelda and Nye Countries, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the B...

R. P. Ashley

1970-01-01

263

Geologic and Geotechnical Contributions to the Lagoa DA Rabicha and Cachoeira Mines Projects, Lagoa Real, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedures and systematics involved in obtaining basic geologic-geotechnical, geomechanical and hydrogeotechnical parameters to serve as an aid in the planning of mining activities for the Lagoa da Rabicha and Cachoeira deposits, located in the Lagoa ...

A. A. Tognon J. Costanzo Junior L. M. Ojima T. Oliveira Braga M. Mueller

1984-01-01

264

Isotope geochemistry of gold ore deposits in the Gezhen shear zone, Qiongxi, Hainan Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits hosted in the Gezhen shear zone at Qingxi, Hainan Island occur in the Precambrian metamorphic rock series and\\u000a are regionally developed in the N-E direction along the tectonic zone. From northeast to southwest are distributed the Tuwaishan-Baoban\\u000a gold mining district, the Erjia gold mining district and the Bumo gold mining district, making up the most industrially important\\u000a gold

Yong Xia

2004-01-01

265

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute. Final report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

266

Mining Technique for Narrow Orebodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of a narrow mining project in Sweden. The purpose of the project was to compile, develop and propose suitable techniques for mining of underground narrow orebodies. The first part of the report presents a summary of present mining ...

M. Olsson H. Thorshag

1987-01-01

267

The lighting of underground mines  

SciTech Connect

This book describes mine lighting problems. It is intended as a textbook on mine lighting knowledge, a reference book for people needing information on the subject, and as a design guide for mine personnel who lack specific training in lighting principles.

Trotter, D.A.

1983-01-01

268

REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

269

Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oilwell drilling rig accidentally drilled into an underground salt mine, draining a lake and filling the mine, with water jetting out of the mine 400 feet into the air. An explanation of the jetting phenomenon is offered in terms of the laws of fluid dynamics, with supporting diagrams and calculations. (Author/JN)

de Nevers, Noel

1982-01-01

270

Text Mining Infrastructure in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade text mining has become a widely used discipline utilizing sta- tistical and machine learning methods. We present the tm package which provides a framework for text mining applications within R. We give a survey on text mining facili- ties in R and explain how typical application tasks can be carried out using our framework. We present

Ingo Feinerer; Kurt Hornik; David Meyer

2008-01-01

271

Text Mining with Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining concerns looking for patterns in unstructured text. The related task of Informa- tion Extraction (IE) is about locating specific items in natural-language documents. This paper presents a framework for text mining, called DISCOTEX (Discovery from Text EXtraction), using a learned information extraction system to transform text into more structured data which is then mined for interesting relationships. The

Raymond J. Mooney; Un Yong Nahm

2002-01-01

272

Predictive Data Mining: Practical Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses some theoretical and practical aspects of data mining, focusing on predictive data mining, where two central types of prediction problems are discussed: classification and regression. Further accent is made on predictive data mining, where the time-stamped data greatly increase the dimensions and complexity of problem solving. The main goal is through processing of data (records from the

Slavco Velickov; Dimitri Solomatine

273

Statistical Data Mining Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These tutorial, created by Professor Andrew Moore at Carnegie-Mellon University, cover a range of topics in statistical data mining "including the foundations of probability, the foundations of statistical data analysis, and most of the classic machine learning and data mining algorithms." Decision Trees, Information Gain, and Cross-Validation are just a few of the items presented here. Each topic contains a set of tutorial slides in PDF, excellent for converting into a classroom presentation or left as they are for a classroom handout or online learning resource.

Moore, Andrew W., Ph.D.

2011-04-18

274

Unleashing potential of world's largest hydrocarbon deposit  

SciTech Connect

The largest single hydrocarbon deposit in the world occurs in the McMurray/Wabiskaw interval of the Athabasca oil sands of northeastern Alberta. The deposit is estimated to contain 144 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (906 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl) of bitumen. Resource characterization studies are revealing the size, structure, depositional environments, and reservoir geometries of this huge deposit. A variety of innovative recovery projects are beginning to tap the vast potential. The sediments of the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation and Wabiskaw Member of the Clearwater Formation consist primarily of unconsolidated sands and muds. The McMurray Formation was deposited in fluvial and estuarine environments with more fluvial influence lower in the section. The Wabiskaw Member sediments were deposited in shallow marine environments as the Clearwater Sea transgressed from the north. About 10% of the McMurray/Wabiskaw deposit is shallow enough for surface mining techniques. Two surface mines produce an average of 29 {times} 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} (180 {times} 10{sup 3} bbl) of synthetic oil/day. The 90% of the bitumen which lies too deep for surface mining must be recovered by in-situ methods. The enormous potential and difficulty of producing the bitumen has led to numerous piloting strategies. Steam drive or steam stimulation techniques have been the preferred strategies, with one attempt to use a combustion thermal drive. An innovative technique that seems to be having good initial success is the gravity drainage process, being tested at the Underground Test Facility and operated by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority. Two shafts have been bored and a kilometer of tunnels excavated in the Devonian limestone beneath the oil sands. The tunnels access drilling chambers from which steam injection and production wells are drilled upward and then horizontally into the overlying oil sands.

Rottenfusser, B.A.; MacGillivray, J.R. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-09-01

275

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

276

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

277

Erodibility of strip-mine spoils  

SciTech Connect

Erosion remains one of the greatest problems in reclaiming strip-mine areas. The erodibility of spoil samples from lignite-bearing geological deposits along the Gulf Coast was evaluated, using a rainfall simulator and predictive methods developed for agricultural soils. The materials studied represented a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics. They were subjected to two 100-year 30-min rainfall events at inclinations of 2, 9, and 18%. The eroded and splashed materials were collected and quantified. The topographical factor LS in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) was adjusted to allow extrapolation from small plots to the standard unit plot. The erodibility factor K was thus determined, and the resultant values were compared with those calculated from the physical and chemical properties of the samples by the equation developed by Wischmeier. The comparison indicates that K values estimated from the physical properties of mine spoil are larger than those experimentally determined. The erodibility factor of mine spoil (K/sub m/) may be calculated as K/sub m/ = 0.339K/sub w//sup 0.48/ where K/sub w/ is the erodibility factor estimated from the physical properties of the spoil using the Wischmeier equation. 29 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Rubio-Montoya, D.; Brown, K.W.

1984-11-01

278

Support vector machines and gradient boosting for graphical estimation of a slate deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical for an efficient and effective exploitation of a slate mine is to obtain information on its technical quality, in other words, on the exploitability potential of the deposit. We applied support vector machines (SVM) and LS-Boosting to the assessment of the technical quality of a new unexploited area of a mine, and compared the results to those obtained for

J. M. Matías; A. Vaamonde; J. Taboada; W. González-Manteiga

2004-01-01

279

Seismic modeling of a rising mine water table  

SciTech Connect

In former deep coal mining areas in Germany the mine water table is regulated by a water pump system such that the drinking water at the earth's surface is not influenced. For the modelling of possible changes at the earth's surface using the so called box model, a finite element model of the hydrogeologic situation in the Ruhr Area has been developed. To observe the depth of the mine water table usually old shafts or exploration drill holes are used at selected locations. Nevertheless, there are to less observation stations for a detailed modelling of the complete Ruhr Area so that additional observation locations are needed. To avoid the construction of expensive and complicated drill holes down to more than 1000 m depth an alternative technique to monitor the rising of the mine water table could be the time-lapse seismic (TLS) which is routinely used to monitor the effects of the exploitation of oil and gas deposits. It is expected, that the mine water table will not be detected directly as an additional reflector of seismic waves, due to the fact, that the impedance contrast between saturated carbonate rock and none saturated rock is too weak. Nevertheless, the reflectivity function of the layers in the underground will change, due to the water saturation process such that it might be possible to observe the rising of the mine water table using the TLS method. To define the requirements for the acquisition instrumentation and for the seismic field geometry extensive seismic modelling was performed to investigate, if it is possible to identify the rising of the mine water table. In a first step the influence of water saturation on the reflectivity and the velocities of seismic waves in carbonate rocks have to be determined. If the mine water table can be monitored, a direct input of the seismic results into a geological model should be possible to forecast critical changes at the surface. 5 refs.

Dirk Orlowsky; Bobo Lehmann

2007-01-15

280

Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chem...

J. K. G. Panitz D. R. Tallant C. R. Hills D. J. Staley

1993-01-01

281

Recovery of Fluorite and Byproducts from Fish Creek Deposit, Eureka County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines investigated flotation methods for recovering fluorite and byproducts from two samples of the Fish Creek deposit in Eureka County, NV. The preferred method for treating a fluorite-beryllium sample included (1) fluorite rougher and clea...

F. W. Benn D. G. Foot J. L. Huiatt

1986-01-01

282

Cobalt in Forsterite-Olivine Deposits of the Blue Ridge, North Carolina and Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bureau of Mines mineral resource investigations mandated by Congress through the RARE II (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) program during the early 1980's included evaluation of two forsterite-olivine deposits in the Blue Ridge physiographic province ...

M. L. Chatman

1986-01-01

283

Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chem...

J. K. Panitz W. L. Hsu D. R. Tallant M. McMaster C. Fox

1995-01-01

284

Data Mining Mining Data: MSHA Enforcement Efforts, Underground Coal Mine Safety, and New Health Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact.

Thomas J. Kniesner; John D. Leeth

2004-01-01

285

Mining research review: an annual review of selected mining research activities of the Bureau of Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines research, development, and demonstration programs are directed towards the conservation of our Nation's mineral and fuel resources, the protection of the miner from health and safety hazards, and the control of social and economic costs to help assure a viable mining industry in the United States. Some major advanced mining technology programs discussed in this review

1977-01-01

286

Controlling coal mine bumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of bumps occurring in coal pillars in US coal mines over a number of years, and particularly those which have caused injury or death. The conditions predisposing to these occurrences are considered and preventive measures are suggested.

Goode

1984-01-01

287

Oil mining configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil mining configuration primarily intended for use as a production drift for the recovery of petroleum from an overlying, oil bearing formation by gravity drainage. The configuration is in the general shape of a lollipop when viewed from above and has a stem portion and an annular head portion. The stem portion extends from a first location adjacent a

Grubb

1985-01-01

288

Drills for mining applications  

SciTech Connect

Drills are the most universal mining tools, with applications both above and below ground in exploration, blasting, and a sampling. The criteria considered in the design of drills is economical energy usage, simple handling, and extensive use of mechanization and automation. The operation and performance of drills in down-hole drilling, underground drilling, and exploration are discussed. Drill accessories are also discussed.

Not Available

1984-02-01

289

Mining Strongly Associated Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main tasks of KDTCM (knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine) is discovering novel paired or grouped drugs from Chinese medical formula database. Paired or grouped drugs, which are special combinations of two or more drugs, have strong efficacy. Association rule mining is used by reason of the large number of association relationships among various kinds of drugs.

Zhongmei Zhou

2009-01-01

290

Mineral mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining machine hauls itself along a working face by engaging a round link chain. The links of the chain are fed sequentially from link-retaining pockets in a track component arranged around the working face, around a driven sprocket assembly on the machine and returned to the pockets.

Monks, H.

1980-11-25

291

Visualisation for Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computing power makes possible analysis of larger and larger data sets and many new methods have been suggested under the broad heading of Data Mining. Visualisation of data, of model-fitting, and of results plays an important part, but large data sets are different and new methods of display are needed for dealing with them. This paper reviews the standard

Antony Unwin

2000-01-01

292

Mining outer space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to develop new mineral resources as terrestrial supplies are depleted could lead to mining efforts in outer space, where other bodies can be found with materials similar to those of the earth. The high cost of direct sampling requires that earth-based observations be made first, followed by unmanned flights and landing missions. The surface composition of over 100

M. J. Gaffey; T. B. McCord

1977-01-01

293

Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

Hartman, H.L. [Univ. of Alabama, University, AL (United States); Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Wang, Y.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1998-12-31

294

Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

295

Multisource causal data mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

2012-05-01

296

Method and apparatus for solution mining  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Evaporite mineral solution mining process and apparatus comprising the steps of undercutting a bed or massive deposit by in-air jetting with an aqueous solution followed by solution mining of the mineral above the undercut with monitoring and control to cease the solution mining when the roof rock is adequately exposed to maintain a stable roof and stable pillar support. The resulting cavity exhibits steeply angled, nearly vertical sidewalls, flared upwardly and outwardly only 10.degree. to 15.degree. from the vertical plane normal to the edges of the undercut as compared to 45.degree. typical for morning glory cavities. A first plan vertical production well is drilled with a sump provided substantially adjacent to the floor rock. A second horizontal well is developed up dip to intersect and communicate with the production well. The air jet tool mechanism provides horizontal, slightly upwardly inclined jets (0.degree.-15.degree.) which cut the mineral laterally on both sides of the tool which is gradually withdrawn up dip as the undercut progresses. The tool also includes and EMR ranging system, preferably a radar system, and a MWD unit to transmit data to the surface. This permits undercut width control to develop a substantially rectangular undercut profile. The subsequent controlled solution mining provides a substantially rectangular room throughout the entire horizontal length which provides improved mineral recovery, steeply angled pillar wall profiles controlled roof span and increased dissolution rate. The method and apparatus is applicable to beds having dips from 0.degree.-90.degree. and multiple beds with or without partings.

1993-09-21

297

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. Report of Investigations/1987  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. The BMT was first used near Wilkeson, WA, where steeply pitching metallurgical was mined at 8 st/h from a depth of 25 to 75 ft. Next, 940 st of uraniferous sandstone was mine at 8 st/h from a depth of 75 to 100 ft in Natrona County, WY. One thousand short tons of oil sands was mined in Kern County, CA. at the rate of 14 st/h from a depth of 110 to 150 ft in 1979. Most recently, 1,700 st of phosphate ore was produced at 25 st/h from deep (230- to 250-ft) deposits in St. Johns County, FL. Progressive improvements were made in the borehole mining technique. These include the use of the hydrostatic head of a water-filled borehole for roof support and the development of methods to survey and backfill mined-out cavities.

Savanick, G.A.

1987-01-01

298

Geochemistry of selected mercury mine-tailings in the Parkfield Mercury District, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Parkfield mercury district is located in the southern part of the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt and contains three silica-carbonate-type mercury deposits that have had significant mercury production. Mercury was first produced in the district in 1873, but the main period of production occurred from 1915-1922. Total production from the district is about 5,000 flasks of mercury (a flask equals 76 pounds of mercury) with most production coming from the Patriquin mine (1,875 flasks), and somewhat less from the King (1,600 flasks) and Dawson (1,470 flasks) mines. Several other small prospects and mines occur in the district but only minor production has come from them. In 1969, Phelan Sulphur Company carried out mineral exploration at the King mine and announced the discovery of 55,000 tons of mercury ore with an average grade of 5.2 pounds per ton. The King mine is located on federal land administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Several other parcels of federal land are present adjacent to other mines and prospects in the Parkfield district. An environmental assessment of mine sites on and adjacent to federal land was carried out to determine the amount of mercury and other trace metals present in mine wastes and in sediments from streams impacted by past mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Kotlyar, Boris B.; Wilkerson, Gregg; Olson, Jerry

2001-01-01

299

75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR...Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309...correction: PART 18--ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Appendix I...

2010-04-22

300

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

301

Microfilming Maps of Abandoned Anthracite Mines. Mines in the Southern Anthracite Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the fifth in a series of reports cataloging and referencing specific abandoned anthracite mine maps into a mine map repository. Active deep mine operations and strip mines are not included. Additional reports will be published as significant...

G. B. Gait

1978-01-01

302

A jewel in the desert: BHP Billiton's San Juan underground mine  

SciTech Connect

The Navajo Nation is America's largest native American tribe by population and acreage, and is blessed with large tracks of good coal deposits. BHP Billiton's New Mexico Coal Co. is the largest in the Navajo regeneration area. The holdings comprise the San Juan underground mine, the La Plata surface mine, now in reclamation, and the expanding Navajo surface mine. The article recounts the recent history of the mines. It stresses the emphasis on sensitivity to and helping to sustain tribal culture, and also on safety. San Juan's longwall system is unique to the nation. It started up as an automated system from the outset. Problems caused by hydrogen sulfide are being tackled. San Juan has a bleederless ventilation system to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion of methane and the atmospheric conditions in the mine are heavily monitored, especially within the gob areas. 3 photos.

Buchsbaum, L.

2007-12-15

303

Mercury-free gold mining technologies: possibilities for adoption in the Guianas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rudimentary nature of small-scale gold mining activities often generates a legacy of extensive degradation and deplorable social conditions, both during and after activities have ceased. Small-scale mining usually involves the extraction of secondary gold from placer deposits (alluvial, colluvial or elluvial), which can be liberated and treated using gravity methods. In the Guianas, the most popular form of small-scale

Rickford Vieira

2006-01-01

304

A Geochemical and Geophysical Characterization of Sulfide Mine Ponds at the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the results of a geochemical and geophysical characterization of the Monte Romero and La Naya mine ponds,\\u000a belonging to the Cueva de la Mora and Riotinto mine districts, respectively, based on mineralogical, geochemical and geophysical\\u000a techniques. In order to obtain a representative environmental characterization, two deposits showing different mineralogies,\\u000a physico-chemical parameters, chemical compositions of tailings and pond

Tomás Martín-Crespo; Silvia Martín-Velázquez; David Gómez-Ortiz; Javier Lillo-Ramos

2011-01-01

305

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

306

A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

2001-01-01

307

Example Building Damage Caused by Mining Exploitation in Disturbed Rock Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues concerning protection of buildings against the impact of underground coal mining pose significant scientific and engineering challenges. In Poland, where mining is a potent and prominent industry assuring domestic energy security, regions within reach of mining influences are plenty. Moreover, due to their industrial character they are also densely built-up areas. Because minerals have been extracted on an industrial scale in majority of those areas for many years, the rock mass structure has been significantly disturbed. Hence, exploitation of successive layers of multi-seam deposits might cause considerable damage - both in terms of surface and existing infrastructure networks. In the light of those facts, the means of mining and building prevention have to be improved on a regular basis. Moreover, they have to be underpinned by reliable analyses holistically capturing the comprehensive picture of the mining, geotechnical and constructional situation of structures. Scientific research conducted based on observations and measurements of mining-induced strain in buildings is deployed to do just that. Presented in this paper examples of damage sustained by buildings armed with protection against mining influences give an account of impact the mining exploitation in disturbed rock mass can have. This paper is based on analyses of mining damage to church and Nursing Home owned by Evangelical Augsburg Parish in Bytom-Miechowice. Neighbouring buildings differ in the date they were built, construction, building technology, geometry of the building body and fitted protection against mining damage. Both the buildings, however, have sustained lately significant deformation and damage caused by repeated mining exploitation. Selected damage has been discussed hereunder. The structures have been characterised, their current situation and mining history have been outlined, which have taken their toll on character and magnitude of damage. Description has been supplemented with photographic documentation.

Florkowska, Lucyna

2013-06-01

308

Directory of mining enterprises for 1978. [Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining enterprises are listed systematically in categories in the main body of the Directory, either under Metal Mines or under Nonmetal Mines, Pits, and Quarries. In order, these categories are type of ore or mineral produced; county in which the mine is situated; and the name of the mine. Additional information includes location of the property based on legal subdivisions

1979-01-01

309

Characterization of the 1986 coal mining workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the Bureau of Mines conducted a probability sample survey, Mining Industry Population Survey, to measure such employee characteristics as occupation; principal equipment operated; work location at the mine; present job, present company, and total mining experience; job-related training during the last 2 yr; age; sex; race; and education. The population estimates are necessary to properly analyze the Mine

S. J. Butani; A. M. Bartholemew

1988-01-01

310

Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and ?70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation

Shi Su; Hongwei Chen; Philip Teakle; Sheng Xue

2008-01-01

311

Subsidence from underground mining: environmental analysis and planning considerations  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence, a universal process that occurs in response to the voids created by extracting solids or liquids from beneath the Earth's surface, is controlled by many factors including mining methods, depth of extraction, thickness of deposit, and topography, as well as the in situ properties of the rock mass above the deposit. The impacts of subsidence are potentially severe in terms of damage to surface utility lines and structures, changes in surface-water and ground-water conditions, and effects on vegetation and animals. Although subsidence cannot be eliminated, it can be reduced or controlled in areas where deformation of the ground surface would produce dangerous or costly effects. Subsidence prediction is highly developed in Europe where there are comparatively uniform mining conditions and a long history of field measurements. Much of this mining has been carried out beneath crowded urban and industrial areas where accurate predictions have facilitated use of the surface and reduced undesirable impacts. Concerted efforts to understand subsidence processes in the United States are recent. Empirical methods of subsidence analysis and prediction based on local conditions seem better suited to the current state of knowledge of the varied geologic and topographic conditions in domestic coal mining regions than do theoretical/mathematical approaches. In order to develop broadly applicable subsidence prediction methods and models for the United States, more information is needed on magnitude and timing of ground movements and geologic properties.

Lee, F.T.; Abel, J.F. Jr.

1983-01-01

312

Phosphate Mines, Jordan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

313

Mining with microbes  

SciTech Connect

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

Rawlings., D.E. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa)] [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Silver, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-08-01

314

Surface mine reclamation manual  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides a discussion of the methods of surface mine reclamation. Combining essential theory and practice from such diverse fields as soil science, agronomy, forestry, hydrology, and engineering, the book describes, in three major sections: surface mine revegetation theory, practical methods of revegetation, and methodology of erosion and sedimentation control. Emphasis is placed on revegetation methods that will ensure the best chance for successful vegetation establishment. In addition, plant cultivation theory is explained to help in understanding why revegetation projects succeed or fail so that future revegetation problems can be remedied. Topics of discussion have been carefully selected according to their utility, and only those factors that a reclamationist will need to know for application have been included.

Lyle, S.

1986-01-01

315

Mining Generalized Association Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the problem of mining generalized association rules. Given a large database of transactions, where each transaction consists of a set of items, and a taxonomy (is-a hierarchy) on the items, we find associations between items at any level of the taxonomy.For example, given a taxonomy that says that jackets is-a outerwear is-e clothes, we may infer a rule

Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal

1995-01-01

316

Germany knows mining  

SciTech Connect

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

317

Geology of the syncrude mine site and its application to sampling and grade control  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous sands of the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation in northern Alberta constitute the ore for the surface mining operation at Syncrude Canada Ltd. These sediments represent a complex succession of fluvial, estuarine and marine depositional environments. Grade prediction is realized through a combination of geological interpretation, computer modeling, and reference to past mining experience. Accurate forecasts of feed grade permit reliable predictions of volumes for removal to meet budgeted synthetic crude oil production. This planning facilitates efficient allocation of mining equipment and resources. The feed grade to the Extraction Plant is monitored at various points along the delivery system.

O'Donnell, N.D.; Jodrey, J.M.

1984-01-01

318

Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee mine, near the western margin of Long Valley, exploits one of numerous Carlin-type gold ore bodies in the alligator Ridge mining district; all are currently owned and operated by USMX Corp.

Pinnell, M.L.; Blake, J.G. (Pioneer Oil and Gas, Midvale, UT (US)); Hulen, J.B. (Univ. of Utah Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-15

319

Methodology for optimal selection of cutoff grades and production rates of underground uranium mining operations  

SciTech Connect

The optimizing criterion is assumed to be the maximum net present value of the project. The following summarizes the significant conclusions. (1) Over a large range of discount rates, mining and milling of the mineral deposit at a constant cutoff grade and a constant production rate consistently results in smaller annual discounted cash flows than the optimal schedule determined by the dynamic programming model (dpm) where the cutoff grade and mining rate are allowed to vary in response to fluctuating product price. (2) With an increasing discount rate, under the dpm the annual discounted cash flows decrease at a slower rate than if the mineral inventory is mined and milled at a constant cutoff grade and a constant production rate. (3) Cuttoff grade increases only where higher equity ore is available. Thus, to maintain the mill feed requirement, the mining rate also increases. (4) Not withstanding an anamolous mineral deposit of high quality, the mining rate determined by the dpm generally tends to approximate the nominal mill capacity. (5) The conclusions reached from the evaluation of the results are generally consistent with most of the earlier microeconomic studies of production arbitrate in open pit mining operations. However, under the restrictive operating parameters in underground mining operations, the results, as summarized in 3 and 4, differ from earlier studies.

Fathi, V.

1986-01-01

320

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

SciTech Connect

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01

321

Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

Swayze, G. A.; Smith, K. S.; Clark, R. N.; Sutley, S. J.; Pearson, R. M.; Vance, J. S.; Hageman, P. L.; Briggs, P. H.; Meier, A. L.; Singleton, M. J.; Roth, S.

2000-01-01

322

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program (ISMMRRI). The majority of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1991--1992 academic year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 12 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, extractive metallurgy, characterization and processing, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, mineral handling, and mineral-energy utilization. Research areas include the following: Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Study of shale strength to predict and reduce roof falls in mines; Characterization of the combustion performance of chemically-cleaned coal; Predicting the performance of coal cleaning by selective agglomeration; Temperature sensitive surfactants for surface-based coal cleaning; Conversion of sulfur-dioxide wastes to hydrochloric acid; Evaluating the mechanical properties of coal filter cake; Recovery of metal values from mining wastesusing bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Improved impact crushing of limestone.

Not Available

1992-08-01

323

Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

1980-02-01

324

Lunar site characterization and mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

Glass, Charles E.

1992-01-01

325

Ground control for highwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-09-15

326

New Equipment for Mine Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While planning for the space shuttle, Bendix Corporation with the help of Johnson Space Center expanded the anthropometric data base for aerospace and nonaerospace use in clothing, workplace, etc. The result was the Anthropometric Source Book which was later utilized by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in designing advanced mining systems. The book was particularly valuable in the design of a remote cab used in mining.

1983-01-01

327

Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

1975-01-01

328

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

SciTech Connect

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d`Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Rember, W.C.; Erdman, T.W.; Hoffmann, M.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-11-01

329

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

1993-11-01

330

Data Mining for Financial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes Data Mining in finance by discussing financial tasks, specifics of methodologies and techniques in this Data Mining area. It includes time dependence, data selection, forecast horizon, measures of success, quality of patterns, hypothesis evaluation, problem ID, method profile, attribute-based and relational methodologies. The second part of the chapter discusses Data Mining models and practice in finance. It covers use of neural networks in portfolio management, design of interpretable trading rules and discovering money laundering schemes using decision rules and relational Data Mining methodology.

Kovalerchuk, Boris; Vityaev, Evgenii

331

Recovery of organic matter from organic mineral-containing deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter, including hydrocarbons, is recovered from organic mineral-containing deposits such as oil shale, tar sands, etc., by treating them with molecular sulfur and an extraction fluid, e.g., benzene, at temperatures ranging from about 200° to about 1,000°F. The process may be practiced above ground after first mining the organic mineral-containing matter from a subterranean deposit, or more preferably, in

1975-01-01

332

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

333

Science and Technology Text Mining: Analytical Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of literature. This report addresses text mining in the context of the science and technology literature. It describes the major text mining components, and shows its myriad applicatio...

R. N. Kostoff R. A. DeMarco

2001-01-01

334

Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an estimated 653 university students. In 2012 more students and the public will be engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. The various designs will be cataloged and categorized to provide information to future Lunabotics mining robot designers and competitors. It is also expected to be of value for actual future space missions, as knowledge is gained from testing many innovative prototypes in simulated lunar regolith.

Mueller, Robert P.

2012-01-01

335

Tellurium, a guide to mineral deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Te dispersion patterns are useful in exploring for different types of mineral deposits and in providing additional information about known ore deposits. The Te content of rocks is given for five mining districts in the western United States: Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Robinson, near Ely, Nevada; Montezuma, Colorado; Crater Creek area, Colorado; Cripple Creek, Colorado. Many of the analyses were obtained by use of a new analytical method sensitive to 0.001 ppm Te. The principal ore deposits in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, are Pb-Zn-Ag replacement veins in Precambrian rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Te dispersion patterns show the outlines of the original mineral belts, the effects of intrusive events, the location of ore deposits, the displacements caused by post-ore faulting, and the borders of the 780-km2 district. The disseminated porphyry Cu deposits of the Robinson mining district, Nevada, are associated with Cretaceous quartz monzonite stocks that have intruded Palaeozoic carbonate rocks. Te is present in rock samples in concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm and forms a halo around the areas containing the Cu deposits. The alteration zones in the porphyry Mo district near Montezuma, Colorado, are developed around several small Tertiary intrusions occurring along a regional shear zone. Te haloes reflect the locations of porphyry intrusives, individual deposits and their ore shoots, and the pattern and intensity of adjacent alteration. The Te content of soils over the Montezuma stock is higher than, and varies independently from, the Te content of adjacent outcrops. Soils generally contain more Te than adjacent outcropping rocks. Soil may collect gaseous Te compounds from mineral deposits. The Crater Creek area is a northwestern extension of the Summitville mining district, Colorado. Te dispersion patterns radiate out from exposed Cu-Pb-Zn veins, from an outcrop of molybdenite stockwork veins and from associated iron-stained altered rock. Te haloes intensify exponentially with proximity to known ore and suggest the presence of Summitville-type chimney deposits. Most of the gold- and silver-telluride ore in the Cripple Creek district, Colorado, is found in fracture fillings within a volcanic subsidence basin. Haloes of Au, Ag and Te all define the mineralized portions of the fissure veins. ?? 1977.

Watterson, J. R.; Gott, G. B.; Neuerburg, G. J.; Lakin, H. W.; Cathrall, J. B.

1977-01-01

336

Text Mining: Natural Language techniques and Text Mining applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general framework of knowledge discovery, Data Mining techniques areusually dedicated to information extraction from structured databases. TextMining techniques, on the other hand, are dedicated to information extractionfrom unstructured textual data and Natural Language Processing (NLP)can then be seen as an interesting tool for the enhancement of informationextraction procedures. In this paper, we present two examples of Text Miningtasks,

Martin Rajman; Romaric Besançon

1997-01-01

337

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

338

REMOTELY INSTALLED MINE SEALS FOR MINE FIRE CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine fires constitute one of the greatest threats to the health and safety of those working in the underground environment and each event has the potential for disastrous consequences. Of the major mine fires and thermal events that have occurred in the United States in the last 6 years, it is estimated that remotely installed seals could have been used

Michael A. Trevits; Alex C. Smith; Thomas A. Gray; Lynn M. Crayne

339

Characterization of historical amphibole samples from the former vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if the composition or morphology of amphiboles occurring in the Rainy Creek vermiculite deposit near Libby, Montana, has changed as the deposit has been mined over the last 70 years, we assembled amphiboles collected in the ? 1920s, ? 1960s, and 1999. Amphibole morphologies range from ? 20-50 mm prismatic single crystals to massive aggregates of fine-grained, asbestiform

Matthew S. Sanchez; Mickey E. Gunter; M. Darby Dyar

2008-01-01

340

Mining-induced seismicity prediction in the Khibiny mines by complex of precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of mining-induced seismicity is important now for many world regions with an advanced mining industry, including the Khibiny massif region (Kola Peninsula). Studying of seismic activity in rock mass and prediction of rockbursts and mining-induced earthquakes for exploited deposits is carried out using complex assessment method. The following precursors are considered to be rock seismicity characteristics: decreasing fractal dimension, b-value, concentration, and average length of fractures These precursors are analyzed by complex assessment method developed. Influence of determinative factors is taken into consideration as well: presence of discontinuous disturbances, stope zone limits and edge of falls of the hanging wall rocks. Changing of the complex assessment is considered in space and time. It has been determined that there are increases of complex assessment values and seismically active zone size before a strong seismic event or events series. Timely detection of the focal source forming is an important stage of the prediction. The program MIEPS was developed to automate the calculations. By this program we can analyze the seismicity in both real-time and retrospectively. One of successful prediction by complex assessment is detection of main fault forming and occurrence of roofing failure in the United Kirovsky mine, "Apatit" JSC. A precursor was detected 3 days before seismic events group occurrence (105-107J). In this time a complex assessment value changed from 0.49 to 0.54 (transfer of stable seismic zone to increasing seismic zone), and a seismic active zone increased in 1.5 times within 24 hours. Factors determining the region's seismicity are high horizontal stresses in the rock mass, long-term exploited deposits and seasonal rock watering. They result to blocks movements on faults. The blasting of blasthole rings in this part of the rock mass (23.05.2012) triggered growing of the main fault, accompanied by seismic events (energy < 2×107J). This caused rocks self-caving. Complex assessment method of seismic setting using different precursors allows immediate analysis of the monitored rock mass part. At present the complex assessment method and the software are tested at the mines owned by "Apatit" JSC.

Zhuravleva, Olga; Fedotova, Iuliia

2013-04-01

341

The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however, women participate in the extraction process itself. Women were found to participate in the extraction of ore only when a deposit had a thin overburden layer, thus rendering the mineralized ore more accessible. When deposits required a significant degree of manual labour to access the ore due to thick overburden layers, women were typically relegated to other roles. The identification of this link encourages the establishment of an alternative research avenue in which the physical and social sciences merge to better inform policymakers, so that the most appropriate artisanal mining assistance programs can be developed and implemented.

Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

2013-01-01

342

30 CFR 75.215 - Longwall mining systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Longwall mining systems. 75.215 ...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support... Longwall mining systems. For each...

2013-07-01

343

Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G. (and others) (eds.)

2007-07-01

344

78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR...Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor...Subjects in 30 CFR Part 75 Coal mines, Mine safety and health, Reporting and...

2013-11-15

345

ArcMine: A GIS extension to support mine reclamation planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new GIS extension, named ArcMine, developed to support reclamation planning in abandoned mining areas. ArcMine provides four tools to (a) assess mine subsidence hazards, (b) estimate the erosion of mine wastes, (c) analyze flow paths of mine water at the surface, and (d) identify suitable tree species for mine reforestation. A spatial database incorporating a topographical map, geological map, mine drift map, and borehole data was designed and utilized in ArcMine to examine distributed mine hazards that can damage the surrounding environment. Application to abandoned mining areas in Korea shows that ArcMine could provide useful information on mine hazards to support reclamation planning. This paper reports the concept, development, and implementation of ArcMine.

Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Oh, Sungchan; Park, Hyeong-Dong; Yoon, Suk-Ho; Go, Wa-Ra

2012-09-01

346

3D electrical structure of porphyry copper deposit: A case study of Shaxi copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in Lu-Zong ore concentration area, middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, ShaXi porphyry copper deposit is a typical hydrothermal deposit. To investigate the distribution of deep ore bodies and spatial characteristics of host structures, an AMT survey was conducted in mining area. Eighteen pseudo-2D resistivity sections were constructed through careful processing and inversion. These sections clearly show resistivity difference between the Silurian sandstones formation and quartz diorite porphyry and this porphyry copper formation was controlled by the highly resistive anticlines. Using 3D block Kriging interpolation method and 3D visualization techniques, we constructed a detailed 3D resistivity model of quartz diorite porphyry which shows the shape and spatial distribution of deep ore bodies. This case study can serve as a good example for future ore prospecting in and around this mining area.

Chen, Xiang-Bin; Lü, Qing-Tian; Yan, Jia-Yong

2012-06-01

347

Building protection against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for polish mining industry / Problematyka ochrony obiektów budowlanych na tle sytuacji i perspektyw rozwoju górnictwa w polsce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses issues involved in protecting buildings and utilities infrastructure located on areas affected by mining exploration. They have been presented against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for Polish mining. Characteristics of Polish mineral deposits have been determined and the scale of mining-induced impact has been given as an aggregate mining areas and regions. Current situation and growth perspectives have been evaluated through analysing geological concessions granted by Ministry of the Environment. The nature of mining influences induced by underground coal - black coal being the most intensively explored mineral in the country - mining has been discussed. Building protection issues have also been presented from three angles: forecasting of mining influences, designing protections and structural health monitoring.

Florkowska, Lucyna

2012-12-01

348

Respiratory cancers in mining  

SciTech Connect

The issue of carcinogenicity among mine workers and among workers in selected nonmining industries is examined. In the late 19th century, a high frequency of lung cancers was noted among metal miners in Bohemia, which probably related to their exposure to radon. Subsequently, other substances, including arsenic, asbestos, chromates, nickel, and chloroethers, have been linked causally to lung cancer. The IARC classification of substances as carcinogens is summarized, and the epidemiologic studies of humans employed in occupations with high rates of lung cancer due to carcinogen exposures are reviewed. 146 refs.

Reger, R.B.; Morgan, W.K. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States))

1993-01-01

349

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

350

Comparison of Mine Fire Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) report discusses the results of research conducted in the Bureau's experimental mine at its Lake Lynn Laboratory to determine the alarm times of smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) sensors, and a point type heat sensor (PTHS) t...

C. D. Litton R. S. Conti

1995-01-01

351

HARDROCK MINING 2002 CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This flyer will announcement the Hardrock Mining 2002 Conference on May 7-9/2002 in Westminster, CO. This conference will provide participants with an opportunity to examine and discuss current and future environmental issues shaping the hardrock mining industry with emphasis on ...

352

Data Mining and Personalization Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining has become increasingly popular and is widely used in various application areas. In this paper, we examine new developments in data mining and its application to personalization in E-commerce. Personalization is what merchants and publishers want to do to tailor the Web site or advertisement and product promotion to a customer based on his past behavior and inference

Philip S. Yu

1999-01-01

353

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65%

George H. Read

2009-01-01

354

Implications of Emerging Data Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining describes a technology that discovers non-trivial hidden patterns in a large collection of data. Although this technology has a tremendous impact on our lives, the invaluable contributions of this invisible technology often go unnoticed. This paper discusses advances in data mining while focusing on the emerging data mining capability. Such data mining applications perform multidimensional mining on a wide variety of heterogeneous data sources, providing solutions to many unresolved problems. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages arising from the ever-expanding scope of data mining. Data Mining augments human intelligence by equipping us with a wealth of knowledge and by empowering us to perform our daily tasks better. As the mining scope and capacity increases, users and organizations become more willing to compromise privacy. The huge data stores of the ‚master miners` allow them to gain deep insights into individual lifestyles and their social and behavioural patterns. Data integration and analysis capability of combining business and financial trends together with the ability to deterministically track market changes will drastically affect our lives.

Kulathuramaiyer, Narayanan; Maurer, Hermann

355

Portable mine dust concentration instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve health and safety conditions, there is need for a portable instrument that mine inspectors can use routinely for rapidly checking concentrations of dust in mine atmospheres. The objective of the study was to build, calibrate, and evaluate two prototype instruments. The emphasis was on certain minimum standards of size, weight, response time, sensitivity, ruggedness, reproducibility, permissibility, and cost

C. E. Lapple; C. F. Schadt

1972-01-01

356

Mining research for enhanced competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining is very important to South Africa, contribut- ing 7% of GDP directly, and 15% indirectly and em- ploying more than 450 000 people. With the world's largest resources of gold, platinum and ferro- chrome, and major coal resources, mining will con- tinue to be important to South Africa for decades to come.

D VOGT; V Z BRINK; S DONOVAN; G FERREIRA; J HAARHOFF; G HARPER; R STEWART

357

Radiant Heating of Mine Bulkheads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a time-dependent mathematical model of radiative heating of bulkheads in mines. The model includes both reradiation from the duct (cylindrical) walls and direct radiation from the fire zone. Thermal loss into the wall of ...

J. C. Edwards

1979-01-01

358

Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania is a science-technology-society (STS) role playing debate simulation. In this activity, learners investigate the abandoned mine drainage (AMD) issue from differing perspectives. In their investigation, they identify AMD problems, search for a solution, evaluate options, and decide on a course of action to treat and clean up AMD in Pennsylvania.

Bodzin, Alec; Brown, Karen

2003-05-01

359

Scalable Web Mining with Newistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newistic is a web mining platform that collects and analyses docu- ments crawled from the Internet. Although it currently processes news articles, it can be easily adapted to any other form of text. Data mining functions per- formed by the system are categorization, clustering and named entity extraction. The main design concern of the system is scalability, which is achieved

Ovidiu Dan; Horatiu Mocian

2009-01-01

360

Privacy-Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fruitful direction for future data mining research will be the development of techniques that incorporate privacy concerns. Specifically, we address the following question. Since the primary task in data mining is the development of models about aggregated data, can we develop accurate models without access to precise information in individual data records? We consider the concrete case of building

Rakesh Agrawal; Ramakrishnan Srikant

2000-01-01

361

Topic in Depth - Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology of growing importance.

2010-09-15

362

Web mining research: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the huge amount of information available online, the World Wide Web is a fertile area for data mining research. The Web mining research is at the cross road of research from several research communities, such as database, infor- mation retrieval, and within AI, especially the sub-areas of machine learning and natural language processing. How- ever, there is a lot

Raymond Kosala; Hendrik Blockeel

2000-01-01

363

Process Mining Online Assessment Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

2009-01-01

364

Scalable Algorithms for Association Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association rule discovery has emerged as an important problem in knowledge discovery and data mining. The association mining task consists of identifying the frequent itemsets and then, forming conditional implication rules among them. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms for the discovery of frequent itemsets which forms the compute intensive phase of the task. The algorithms utilize the structural

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2000-01-01

365

Database Mining: A Performance Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our perspective of database mining as the confluence of machine learning techniques and the performance emphasis of database technology. We describe three classes of database mining problems involving classification, associations, and sequences, and arguethat these problems can be uniformly viewed as requiring discovery of rules embedded inmassive data. We describe a model and some basic operations for the

Rakesh Agrawal; Tomasz Imielinski; Arun N. Swami

1993-01-01

366

Bibliography of Strip Mine Ecology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is intended to serve those interested in the ecology, environment, and reclamation of surface-mine spoil banks, especially those of coal strip-mines. The list is hopefully as complete and up-to-date as possible, although there are undoub...

D. C. Glenn-Lewin G. Fay S. D. Cecil

1976-01-01

367

From outer space to mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What technologies can space research offer the mining industry? Sue Bowler reports on a workshop designed to discover what these two disciplines have in common - and how to use the unique facilities at Boulby Mine as a testbed to develop the technologies further.

Bowler, Sue

2013-06-01

368

Literature mining in molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature mining is the process of extracting and combining facts from scientific publications. In recent years, many studies have resulted in computer programs to extract various molecular biology findings using Medline abstracts or full text articles. This article describes the range of techniques that have been applied in literature mining. In doing so, it divides automated reading into four general

Berry de Bruijn; Joel Martin

2002-01-01

369

New concepts in mine warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of remote and unmanned vehicles, the mine warfare operations have to be reconsidered. In order to complete the remote mine reconnaissance performed with unmanned vehicles such as SEAKEEPER, DCN proposes a new concept for identification and neutralisation operations. Based on the introduction of the GPS-based long range underwater positioning systems adapted to robotics solutions, these missions could

S. Proutiere; G. Fardella; F. Schom

2005-01-01

370

Data Mining for Intrusion Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

371

Data mining for intrusion detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to detect intrusion based on a data mining framework. In the framework, intrusion detection is thought of as a classification. The central idea is to utilize auditing programs to extract an extensive set of features that describe each network connection or host session, and apply data mining programs to learn rules that accurately capture the

Liu Dihua; Wang Hongzhi; Wang Xiumei

2001-01-01

372

Coal Mine Safety and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Safety in the coal mining industry is much improved compared to the early decades of the twentieth century, a time when hundreds of miners could lose their lives in a single accident and more than 1,000 fatalities could occur in a single year. Fatal injuries associated with coal mine accidents fell almost continually between 1925 and 2005, when they

Linda Levine

2008-01-01

373

Finding Gold in Data Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

Flaherty, Bill

2013-01-01

374

Mining Visual Actions from Movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for mining visual actions from real-world videos. Given a large number of movies, we want to automatically extract short video sequences corresponding to visual human actions. First, we find commonly occurring actions by mining verbs extracted from movie transcripts. Next, we align the transcripts with the videos using subtitles. We then retrieve video samples for

Adrien Gaidon; Marcin Marszalek; Cordelia Schmid

2009-01-01

375

Oxygen isotope study of the Kamioka Zn-Pb skarn deposits, Central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kamioka Zn-Pb deposits consist of clinopyroxene-rich skarns replacing limestone lenses in Hida gneissose rocks. Paleozoic metabasite, early Jurassic Funatsu granitic rocks and late Cretaceous porphyritic dikes and stocks, are the known igneous rocks in the mining area. Oxygen isotopic compositions of eight separates each of clinopyroxene and quartz from the deposits (Table 1), and some minerals and rocks from

H. Shimazaki; M. Kusakabe

1990-01-01

376

Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE- Database and Grade and Tonnage Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part o...

D. A. Singer G. J. Orris V. I. Berger

2009-01-01

377

Lunar surface mining equipment study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a NASA-sponsored assessment of the various proposed lunar surface mining equipment concepts submitted to NASA are presented. The proposed equipment was reviewed and evaluated with due consideration of equipment design criteria, basic mining principles, and the lunar environment. On the basis of this assessment, two pieces of mining equipment were conceptualized for surface mining operations: the ripper-excavator-loader, also capable of operating as a load-haul-dump vehicle, and the haulage vehicle, capable of transporting feedstock from the pit, liquid oxygen containers from the processing plant, and materials during construction. Reliable and durable lunar mining equipment is found to be best developed by the evolution of proven terrestrial technology adapted to the lunar environment.

Podnieks, Egons R.; Siekmeier, John A.

378

In Brief: Coal mining regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced on 18 November measures to strengthen the oversight of state surface coal mining programs and to promulgate federal regulations to protect streams affected by surface coal mining operations. DOI's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is publishing an advance notice of a proposed rule about protecting streams from adverse impacts of surface coal mining operations. A rule issued by the Bush administration in December 2008 allows coal mine operators to place excess excavated materials into streams if they can show it is not reasonably possible to avoid doing so. “We are moving as quickly as possible under the law to gather public input for a new rule, based on sound science, that will govern how companies handle fill removed from mountaintop coal seams,” according to Wilma Lewis, assistant secretary for Land and Minerals Management at DOI.

Showstack, Randy

2009-12-01

379

Introduction to Space Resource Mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

Mueller, Robert P.

2013-01-01

380

Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

381

Getty mines oil sands in California  

SciTech Connect

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

Rintoul, B.

1983-11-01

382

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

383

Escondida Mine, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

384

Valid mining rights and wilderness areas  

SciTech Connect

On January 1, 1984, almost all the national forest wilderness areas were withdrawn from mineral claim location. Like any public land withdrawal, however, this withdrawal under the Wilderness Act of 1964 was subject to ''valid rights then existing''. A mining claim can still be located in a wilderness area if a claimant can show that his claim statisfied all of the elements of location on the date of withdrawal. The author examines the elements of claim location, especially the discovery element. She analyzes decisions of the Department of the Interior and the federal courts in order to ascertain the Interior Department's discovery test. She then explains how wilderness designation has affected and will affect a claimant's ability to prove that he has discovered a valuable mineral deposit on or before the date of withdrawal.

Toffenetti, K.

1985-01-01

385

Trace and Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry of the Karalar (Gazipafla—Antalya) Barite-Galena Deposits, Southern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karalar barite-galena deposits are typical examples of carbonate-hosted barite-galena deposits that occur widely in the central Taurides. Recent mining activity has been concentrated in the Büyük and Boyal›k mine areas. The mineralisation occurs as ore veins along fault zones and as ore-filled breccia zones along the strongly deformed lower walls of limestone blocks in the Permian limestones of the

GÜLCAN BOZKAYA; AHMET GÖKÇE; Nadir Toprak; Element Jeokimyas; Güney Türkiye

2004-01-01

386

A simplified economic filter for open-pit gold-silver mining in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In resource assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits and in the early stages of exploration, including planning, a need for prefeasibility cost models exists. In exploration, these models to filter economic from uneconomic deposits help to focus on targets that can really benefit the exploration enterprise. In resource assessment, these models can be used to eliminate deposits that would probably be uneconomic even if discovered. The U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) previously developed simplified cost models for such problems (Camm, 1991). These cost models estimate operating and capital expenditures for a mineral deposit given its tonnage, grade, and depth. These cost models were also incorporated in USBM prefeasibility software (Smith, 1991). Because the cost data used to estimate operating and capital costs in these models are now over ten years old, we decided that it was necessary to test these equations with more current data. We limited this study to open-pit gold-silver mines located in the United States.

Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Long, Keith R.

1998-01-01

387

Exploratory data mining lead by text mining using a novel high dimensional clustering algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining has emerged as a different stream in data mining because of the unstructured nature associated with free text. Many algorithms have been developed to assist in text mining. This paper presents the use of text mining based on a novel high dimensional clustering algorithm that leads to the exploratory data mining on data associated with the text. Experimental

Rasika Amarasiri; Jason Ceddia; Damminda Alahakoon

2005-01-01

388

Study on moist-locking mining technique of cool water well coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool water Wells coal mine is a modern large mine in Shaanxi Yulin-Shenmu coal mine areas. Coal mining had caused serious destruction and pollution to local geological environment and threatened the groundwater resources. If it couldn't control properly, the great accidents would be caused easily and even influence the development of mining cities later. Therefore, the paper puts forward some

Liu Yujie; Fan Limin; Nie Zhongquan; Liu Guodong

2011-01-01

389

Research on the aged coal mine identification and coal mine lifecycle system simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It gave the conception and meanings of the aged coal mine by summing up related names of the aged coal mine. In order to set up the criteria for a coal mine, it chose mine remaining service life as identification standard to identify whether a coal mine is aged or not on the basis of correlation analysis between many influence

G. Lu; Y. B. Sun; W. Cheng; J. Hai

2009-01-01

390

The Research on Safety Monitoring System of Coal Mine Based on Spatial Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the characteristics of coal mine safety information - activity, dynamic changes, closely related to the space, this paper puts forward the project about the safety monitoring system of coal mine based on spatial data mining ,and builds a coal mine safety monitoring system model based on spatial data mining and GIS technology. The safety monitoring system of coal

Shao Chang'an; Wu Qiang; Xin Guan

2009-01-01

391

POST-MINING DEVELOPMENT USING RESOURCES FROM FLOODED UNDERGROUND MINE WORKINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Post-mining issues of land and surface utilization now serve to accentuate how important it is to incorporate sustainable development aspects into hard rock mining. In an effort to revitalize lands degraded by historic mining, 10 acres of mine tailings near the Belmont Mine have...

392

Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

393

Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings  

EPA Science Inventory

Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

394

Video Mining with Frequent Itemset Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for mining frequently occurring ob- jects and scenes from videos. Object candidates are detected by finding recurring spatial arrangements of affine covariant regions. Our mining method is based on the class of frequent itemset mining algorithms, which have proven their efficiency in other domains, but have not been applied to video mining before. In this work

Till Quack; Vittorio Ferrari; Luc J. Van Gool

2006-01-01

395

Efficiently mining frequent trees in a forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent trees is very useful in domains like bioinformatics, web mining, mining semistructured data, and so on. We formulate the problem of mining (embedded) subtrees in a forest of rooted, labeled, and ordered trees. We present TREEMINER, a novel algorithm to discover all frequent subtrees in a forest, using a new data structure called scope-list. We contrast TREEMINER with

Mohammed Javeed Zaki

2002-01-01

396

A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

2011-01-01

397

Integrating Classification and Association Rule Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification rule mining aims to discover a small set of rules in the database that forms an accurate classifier. Association rule mining finds all the rules existing in the database that satisfy some minimum support and minimum confidence constraints. For association rule mining, the target of discovery is not pre-determined, while for classification rule mining there is one and only

Bing Liu; Wynne Hsu; Yiming Ma

1998-01-01

398

Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai

2002-01-01

399

Infrared Thermography for Land Mine Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the application of infrared (IR) thermography in land mine detection. IR thermography in general and for remotely detecting buried land mines in particular, seems to be a promising diagnostic tool. Due to the difference in thermophysical properties of mines and the soil (mines retain or release heat at a rate different from the soil), soil-surface thermal contrasts

Nguyen Trung Thành; Dinh Nho Hào; Hichem Sahli

2009-01-01

400

Spatial Data Mining: Progress and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial data mining, i.e., mining knowledge from largeamounts of spatial data, is a highly demanding field becausehuge amounts of spatial data have been collected in variousapplications, ranging from remote sensing, to geographicalinformation systems (GIS), computer cartography, environ-mental assessment and planning, etc. The collected datafar exceeded human's ability to analyze. Recent studies ondata mining have extended the scope of data mining

Krzysztof Koperski; Junas Adhikary; Jiawei Han

1996-01-01

401

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

402

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

2006-01-01

403

Cambrian rocks of the Pioche mining district, Nevada, with a section on Pioche shale faunules  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pioche mining district in the Ely Range, southeastern Nevada, is one of several districts in the Great Basin where Cambrian rocks are hosts of important ore deposits. Cambrian strata underlying the Ely Range are intruded by porphyritic granite and other dikes. Tertiary volcanic rocks and Pliocene fresh-water clastic deposits of the Panaca Formation occupy adjacent valleys and extend over the Cambrian strata on the south and east.

Merriam, Charles Warren; Palmer, Allison R.

1964-01-01

404

Searching for Pre-2004 Tsunami Deposits in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We found only one candidate for a pre-2004 tsunami deposit during a ten-day search in July 2006 of four coastal sites in Phangnga Province. Although our initial field effort was limited, the paucity of pre-2004 tsunami deposits suggests that either there have been few Late Holocene tsunamis like the 2004 event or that the identification of paleotsunami deposits will be challenging in this region. Our investigations at Ban Bang Neang, Ban Lang Ong, Ban Nauk Nai, and Khlong Phru Sai involved examining soils and sediments 30 to 250 cm below the surface in cutbank exposures, gouge-core samples, and excavations. We targeted swales between beach ridges in areas undisturbed by tin mining and where tsunami deposits might have accumulated and been preserved. As shown in previous studies, the deposits of the 2004 tsunami extend as much as 1.5 km inland, thin over high ground, and thicken in swales. The deposits are composed of 1 to 4 beds, ranging from coarse to very fine sand, that commonly fine upward and locally contain parallel laminations. Where estuaries are relatively unprotected by mangroves, the 2004 tsunami deposits extend farther inland. Where mangroves fringe estuaries for 100s of meters, the deposits are concentrated in areas of mangrove damage. Crabs have already destroyed much of the tsunami deposits by mixing it with underlying peaty soil. At Ban Nauk Nai, we found a candidate for a pre-2004 tsunami deposit about 1.1 km inland at the back edge of the coastal plain adjacent to a steep hillslope. The deposit, identified over a distance of 60 meters, consists of a 10-cm-thick, silty, fining-upward coarse to fine sand about 25 cm below the bottom of a shallow pond and the adjoining area. In the same area, the overlying 6 to 13- cm-thick 2004 tsunami deposit consists of a normally graded fine to very fine sand. At the other sites, we found coarse, medium, and fine sand beds typical of coastal plain beach deposits. Although tsunami deposits may occur within the beach deposits, we were not able to identify any with confidence. In future searches, it may be beneficial to target natural ponds near upland areas where accumulation of organics and fines may help to separate tsunami deposits from other sandy deposits. Our findings suggest that the apparent scarcity of pre- 2004 tsunami deposits in Phangnga Province may be due in part to extensive placer mining of the coastal plain, bioturbation of mangrove soils, and difficulty in distinguishing tsunami from beach deposits.

Tuttle, M.; Alam, S.; Atwater, B.; Charoentitirat, T.; Charusiri, P.; Choowong, M.; Fernando, S.; Jankaew, K.; Jittanoon, V.; Kongko, W.; Maxcia, C.; Pailoplee, S.; Phantuwongraj, S.; Rajendran, K.; Rhodes, B.; Srichan, N.; Tejakusuma, I.; Yulianto, E.

2007-05-01

405

Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-09-15

406

Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

2009-01-01

407

Mines and human casualties: a robotics approach toward mine clearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated 100 million landmines which have been planted in more than 60 countries kill or maim thousands of civilians every year. Millions of people live in the vast dangerous areas and are not able to access to basic human services because of landmines" threats. This problem has affected many third world countries and poor nations which are not able to afford high cost solutions. This paper tries to present some experiences with the land mine victims and solutions for the mine clearing. It studies current situation of this crisis as well as state of the art robotics technology for the mine clearing. It also introduces a survey robot which is suitable for the mine clearing applications. The results show that in addition to technical aspects, this problem has many socio-economic issues. The significance of this study is to persuade robotics researchers toward this topic and to peruse the technical and humanitarian facets of this issue.

Ghaffari, Masoud; Manthena, Dinesh; Ghaffari, Alireza; Hall, Ernest L.

2004-10-01

408

Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations  

PubMed Central

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 ?m aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 ?m diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site.

Csavina, Janae; Landazuri, Andrea; Wonaschutz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Saez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

2013-01-01

409

Ensemble Data Mining Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

Oza, Nikunj C.

2004-01-01

410

Data Mining SIAM Presentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document describes the data mining system developed at NASA Ames. Many NASA programs have large numbers (and types) of problem reports.These free text reports are written by a number of different people, thus the emphasis and wording vary considerably With so much data to sift through, analysts (subject experts) need help identifying any possible safety issues or concerns and help them confirm that they haven't missed important problems. Unsupervised clustering is the initial step to accomplish this; We think we can go much farther, specifically, identify possible recurring anomalies. Recurring anomalies may be indicators of larger systemic problems. The requirement to identify these anomalies has led to the development of Recurring Anomaly Discovery System (ReADS).

Srivastava, Ashok; McIntosh, Dawn; Castle, Pat; Pontikakis, Manos; Diev, Vesselin; Zane-Ulman, Brett; Turkov, Eugene; Akella, Ram; Xu, Zuobing; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi

2006-01-01

411

Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

1999-07-01

412

Impact of potential phosphate mining on the hydrology of Osceola National Forest, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potentially exploitable phosphate deposits underlie part of Osceola National Forest, Fla. Hydrologic conditions in the forest are comparable with those in nearby Hamilton County, where phosphate mining and processing have been ongoing since 1965. Given similarity of operations, hydroloigc effects of mining in the forest are predicted. Flow of stream receiving phosphate industry effluent would increase somewhat during mining, but stream quality would not be greatly affected. Local changes in the configuration of the water table and the quality of water in the surficial aquifer will occur. Lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer because of proposed pumpage would be less than five feet at nearby communities. Flordian aquifer water quality would be appreciably changed only if industrial effluent were discharged into streams which recharge the Flordian through sinkholes. The most significant hydrologic effects would occur at the time of active mining: long-term effects would be less significant. (Woodard-USGS)

Miller, James A.; Hughes, G. H.; Hull, R. W.; Vecchioli, John; Seaber, P. R.

1978-01-01

413

Indoor radon progeny exposure in the Florida phosphate mining region: a review.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the data generated in studies of land radioactivity and indoor airborne radon progeny associated with mined and reclaimed phosphate lands in Florida. Highest indoor radon progeny levels are associated with the slab-on-grade type of construction. Concentrations exceeding 0.03 WL are associated with overburden soils, deposits and fill, while concentrations up to about 0.03 WL are associated with tailings. The lower limit for distinguishing increases above non-enhanced natural concentrations is on the order of 0.01-0.02 WL. Results of this study show that about 25% of the land produced by present methods of mining and reclamation practices would require restrictions on the type of construction or would require special construction methods. It is projected that with modification of mining and tailings disposal practices, virtually all of the land produced by mining and reclamation would be satisfactory for unrestricted construction use. PMID:6885438

Roessler, C E; Roessler, G S; Bolch, W E

1983-08-01

414

US enacts new mine safety policies  

SciTech Connect

New legislation in the USA requires mine operators to be prepared, increases funding for safety equipment research, strengthens mine rescue teams, and raises the limits for penalties. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act represents the efforts of industry and politicians in reaction to recent mining tragedies. S.2803 was signed on 15 June 2006. The article discusses the content of the Act and its implications for coal mine operators. 2 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-06-15

415

Stability evaluation of extended cut mining in underground coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in underground room-and-pillar coal mining is to employ remote-control continuous mining machines to take extended cuts of 40 ft or more. Extended cutting can create additional worker safety hazards. To address these hazards, a combination of statistical analysis, underground investigations, and humerical modeling are being conducted. Statistical analysis of extended cut use, roof fall accidents and fatalities delineated

Eric R. Bauer; Gregory J. Chekan; Lisa J. Steiner

1997-01-01

416

Microbial Indicators in Mine Soils (S. Domingos Mine, Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk assessment process planned for the S. Domingos mine, an abandoned cupric pyrite mine (Southeast Portugal), established as a task the assessment of soil microbial parameters to evaluate the long-term effects of heavy-metal contamination on the microbial community activity and subsequently on some important soil functions (e.g. nutrients cycling, decomposition of organic matter). Total metal contents as well as

R. Pereira; J. P. Sousa; R. Ribeiro; F. Gonçalves

2006-01-01

417

Navigation and control of continuous mining systems for coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Research Center (PRC) mine safety and health research programs is developing technology that will allow remote-controlled operation of mechanized equipment normally used in underground room-and-pillar coal mining, thereby permitting workers to be located away from the hazardous coal extraction area (the face). As part of this program, advanced machine navigation and control

W. H. Schiffbauer

1996-01-01

418

Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

2013-04-01

419

Mining With Noise Knowledge: Error-Aware Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Real-world data mining deals with noisy information sources where data collection inaccuracy, device limitations, data transmission and discretization errors, or man-made perturba- tions frequently result in imprecise or vague data. Two common practices are to adopt either data cleansing approaches to enhance the data consistency or simply take noisy data as quality sources and feed them into the data mining

Xindong Wu; Xingquan Zhu

2008-01-01

420

Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine  

SciTech Connect

About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

2008-07-01

421

A study of the fluid inclusion, stable isotope and mineralogical characteristics of the Denton fluorspar deposit, Cave-in-Rock, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district contains numerous vein type deposits and larger bedded replacement deposits containing fluorite with lesser amounts of sphalerite, galena and barite. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and paragenetic studies were undertaken to determine the changes in depositional temperatures and salinities of the ore fluids responsible for mineralization at the Denton mine, and to combine these data with information from other deposits to help develop a picture of regional ore deposition. 38 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Koellner, M.S.

1988-07-01

422

76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

2011-04-15

423

Eocene palynomorphs from the black diamond mines regional preserve, contra costa county, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynomorphs from Eocene coaly deposits of the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in California are described. Thirty?two species of spores and pollen are recognized and two of them, Graminidites scabratus and Arecipites antiochus, are regarded as new. The encountered specimens are characterized by 26% spores, 32% gymnosperm pollen, 41% angiosperm pollen, and 1% foraminifers. The climate is considered to be

Abbas Kimyai

1993-01-01

424

Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee

M. L. Pinnell; J. G. Blake; J. B. Hulen

1991-01-01

425

Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

McCormick, K. A.; McDonald, A. M.

1999-01-01

426

30 CFR 49.3 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.3 Section 49.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

427

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2013-07-01

428

30 CFR 49.13 - Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative mine rescue capability for small and remote mines. 49.13 Section 49.13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION...

2010-07-01

429

30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2013-07-01

430

30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2013-07-01

431

Feasibility Study to Encourage Mining Investment in Argentina. Volume 3. Mining Investment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to analyze the conditions necessary for the development of new investment in mining activities in Argentina. Volume 3 of the study, Mining Investment, is divided into 12 sections which document the past and present mining industry...

1993-01-01

432

30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE...operator, the operator shall notify the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager for the...

2013-07-01

433

Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD), a disease most commonly found in middle-aged individuals, is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous attachme...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio S. J. Upton

2006-01-01

434

Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected that a better knowledge on growing conditions of the selected plant species will contribute to the development of a phytoremediation technique for a low-cost and sustainable restoration of the old mine sites. Moreover, this will have direct utility to other areas in the Mediterranean region, that are similarly threatened by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

2009-04-01

435

Small mammal-heavy metal concentrations from mined and control sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

1982-01-01

436

Data mining mining data: MSHA enforcement efforts, underground coal mine safety, and new health policy implications  

SciTech Connect

Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact. Even using results most favorable to the agency, MSHA is not currently cost effective. Almost 700,000 life years could be gained for typical miners if a quarter of MSHA's enforcement budget were reallocated to other programs (more heart disease screening or defibrillators at worksites).

Kniesner, T.J.; Leeth, J.D. [Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States). Center for Policy Research

2004-09-15

437

The Leading Edge: Data Mining  

NASA Video Gallery

When an airplane flies, hundreds of data streams fly from it every secondâ??pilot reports, incident reports, control positions, instrument positions, warning modes. NASA is mining terabytes of avia...

438

Study of Mined Storage Caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure...

1975-01-01

439

Filling Apparatuses, Chemical Land Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating technical performance and characteristics of chemical land mine filling apparatuses. The evaluation is related to criteria established by applicable qualitative materiel r...

1970-01-01

440

Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project (MMSD) is a completed, independent two-year project of research and consultation seeking to understand how the mining and minerals sector can contribute to the global transition to sustainable development. The final report, as well as various regional reports, timelines, and working papers, are available in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese. Information on a wide spectrum of topics is available, including the following: armed conflict; artisanal and small-scale mining; biodiversity; current industry practice; corporate citizenship; finance dialogue; health and safety; human rights; indigenous peoples; information dialogue; large-volume waste; life-cycle assessment; managing mineral wealth; mine closure policy; minerals availability; planning for outcomes; public participation; and resettlement and displacement.

2007-06-25

441

Mining Safety and Health Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse site provides information about health and safety in the mining industry. The site features links to fact sheets, statistics, data, research projects, training materials, publications, educational and occupational software, and national laboratories.

2006-12-10

442

Topic in Depth - Data Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores data mining, also known as knowledge discovery in databases. Data mining is used to extract implicit, previously unknown, but potentially useful information from raw data. It is a blend of three main subjects: statistics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Often, true data mining is characterized by a self-acting program and a unique blend of knowledge discovery and prediction that allows individuals and businesses to sort and classify very large amounts of data quickly and efficiently. Data mining programs can be tailored to meet the needs of the users, whether that need is for the forecasting of future investments, or simply the need to recognize patterns among the data being analyzed.

2010-09-06

443

Mine Safety Detection System (MSDS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The search, detection, identification and assessment components of the U.S. Navy's organic modular in-stride Mine Countermeasure (MCM) Concept of Operations (CONOPS) have been evaluated for their effectiveness as part of a hypothetical exercise in respons...

B. Ballard D. Miller J. Johnson M. Kipp T. Degnan

2012-01-01

444

Coal Mining and Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal mining activities frequently impinge on water resources. This report considers the impact of coal extraction on water resources and potential causes of water pollution. The disruption of surface water and groundwater systems by surface and undergroun...

L. B. Clarke

1995-01-01

445

Cumulative Impacts of Peat Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three alternative 20-year peat mining development scenarios were constructed for Hyde, Tyrrell and Washington Counties, North Carolina. Probable cumulative environmental and economic impacts on agriculture; forest products; fish; wildlife; recreation; sur...

J. A. Gale D. A. Adams

1984-01-01

446

Heavy metal pollution and lake acidity changes caused by one thousand years of copper mining at Falun, central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand years of mining of sulfurous ores at the Falun copper mine, central Sweden, and the resulting atmospheric emissions of metals and sulfur dioxide, gives a unique opportunity to study long-term responses to acid deposition. Copper production peaked in the 17th century, when Falun supplied 2\\/3 of the world's copper production. Thereafter production and associated emissions have declined, and

Anna S. Ek; Ingemar Renberg

2001-01-01

447

Data Mining and Machine Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common applications of data mining include fraud detection and marketing, but data mining has also been applied in paleoecology, and medical genetics as described on this website from the University of Helsinki. The project "develops methods and tools for analyzing large data sets and for searching for unexpected relationships in the data." They are also applying their research to text analysis to automatically create a summary of a document and locate related news items from feeds.

Mannila, Heikki

2008-01-11

448

The Hiendelaencina mining district (Guadalajara, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hiendelaencina mining district (Guadalajara, Spain), includes the ore deposits of the Hiendelaencina, La Bodera and Congostrina areas. In this paper a general overview of this district is given, with special emphasis on the parageneses, mineralizing stages and chemical characteristics of the sulphides and sulphosalts. These deposits contain silver in Sb-rich sulphosalts such as freibergite, pyrargyrite, polybasite, stephanite, freieslebenite and the Bi-rich sulphosalt, aramayoite. Three mineralizing stages have been detected in Hiendelaencina and Congostrina: (1) As-Fe; (2) Cu-Zn-Fe-Sb-Ag; and (3) Pb-Sb-Ag (±Bi) but only two in La Bodera (stages 2 and 3). The average sulphosalt formulas are: freibergite (Cu0.5 Ag5.9) (Fe1.42 Zn0.66) (Sb4.49 As0.02) S13; pyrargyrite Ag3.38 Sb1.0 S3; polybasite (Ag16.3Cu0.15) (Sb2.8 As0.15) S11; stephanite Ag6.7 Sb1.38 S4; freieslebenite Ag1.1 Sb0.83 Pb1.05 S3 and aramayoite Ag1.06 Bi0. 35 Sb0.7 Pb0.03 S2. The compositional patterns of these sulphosalts (mainly based on the Sb/(Sb + Ag), Ag/ (Ag + Cu), Sb(Ag + As) and Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratios) are outlined, pointing broadly to similar tendencies in their chemistry and genetic conditions.

Frías, J. Martínez

1992-06-01

449

Spiral mining for lunar volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar spiral mining, extending outward from a periodically mobile central power and processing station represents an alternative for comparison with more traditional mining schemes. In this concept, a mining machine would separate regolith fines and extract the contained volatiles. Volatiles then would be pumped along the miner's support arm to the central station for refining and for export or storage. The basic architecture of the central processing station would be cylindrical. A central core area could house the power subsystem of hydrogen-oxygen engines or fuel cells. Habitat sections and other crew occupied areas could be arranged around the power generation core. The outer cylinder could include all volatile refining subsystems. Solar thermal power collectors and reflectors would be positioned on top of the central station. Long term exploitation of a volatile resource region would begin with establishment of a support base at the center of a long boundary of the region. The mining tract for each spiral mining system would extend orthogonal to this boundary. New spiral mining systems would be activated along parallel tracts as demand for lunar He-3 and other solar wind volatiles increased.

Schmitt, H. H.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Carrier, W. D., III

450

Coal mine subsidence - western United States  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence processes above underground mines consist of a gradual down-warping of the overburden into coal extraction panels, causing depressions, or a sudden collapse into individual mine openings, causing pits. Subsidence in surface mining areas is caused by compaction of rehandled overburden material, dewatering of aquifers or stress and strain readjustments. The time between mining and complete subsidence above underground mines in the western US commonly ranges from a few months to a few years, where down-warping occurs above extraction panels, to many years or decades where pillars are not mined. The duration between mining and the occurrence of sinkholes, however, can vary from a few decades to as long as centuries. The time necessary for depressions and pits in surface mining areas apparently depends on such factors as methods of emplacing and grading and rate of wetting the rehandled material, rate of dewatering of aquifers near the mine, and stress-strain readjustments.

Dunrud, C.R.

1984-01-01

451

Geology of New Mexico uranium deposits  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the geology of the uranium deposits of New Mexico was presented. Uranium has been found in all four of the physiographic provinces in New Mexico--the Colorado Plateau, the Southern Rocky Mountains, the Basin and Range, and the Great Plains. The vast majority of uranium is mined in the San Juan Basin of the Colorado Plateau in the northwest corner of New Mexico. More than 50 percent of the nation's uranium reserves are located there. The host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary and include plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks. Ten figures including maps and tables were presented in the work.