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1

Reflection seismic studies in the Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Implications for crustal scale architecture and mineral potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bathurst Mining Camp of northern New Brunswick, Canada is a major base-metal producing region that includes the super-giant Brunswick No. 12 and smaller size Brunswick No. 6 mines. Sustaining mining activity in the camp requires better understanding of crustal scale structures and mineral potential at depth. In such circumstances, reflection seismic data is instrumental for providing a framework allowing

Alireza Malehmir; Saeid Cheraghi; Gilles Bellefleur

2010-01-01

2

Reflection seismic studies in the Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Implications for crustal scale architecture and mineral potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bathurst Mining Camp of northern New Brunswick, Canada is a major base-metal producing region that includes the super-giant Brunswick No. 12 and smaller size Brunswick No. 6 mines. Sustaining mining activity in the camp requires better understanding of crustal scale structures and mineral potential at depth. In such circumstances, reflection seismic data is instrumental for providing a framework allowing integration of other geophysical and geological data and allowing determination of new strategies for deep mineral exploration. In this work, we recovered, processed, modeled and interpreted a series of reflection seismic profiles with a total length of about 30 km acquired near the Brunswick No. 6 mine area. One of the main objectives of this survey is to provide key information on the geological structures associated with mineral deposits at depth. Although the data is acquired in crystalline environment, it shows an excellent data quality with a series of steeply dipping reflections imaged down to 9 km depth. The results demonstrate that reflection seismic imaging is particularly effective for imaging structures of the Brunswick No. 6 mine, many of which intersect the surface and thus allow for correlation with surface geology. Even more encouraging, the Brunswick horizon and associated iron mineralization are identifiable within a distinctive reflective package that can be used as a guide for deep base-metal exploration in the region. Two packages of dipping reflections appear to be in direct connection with mineralization that continues to depths greater than 9 km. A relatively high-amplitude reflection at depth of about 7 km is observed in all the seismic profiles and is interpreted as either a mafic-ultramafic sill intrusion or a granitic intrusion. Due to its geometrical shape and their presence in the study area, a granitic origin is a preferred interpretation. If this is the case, the granitic intrusion could have provided heat and hydrothermal fluids for mineralization in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area. The results from the seismic reflection data in combination with other geological and geophysical data have greatly improved our understanding of the tectonostratigraphic framework and architecture of the eastern part of the Bathurst Mining Camp.

Malehmir, Alireza; Cheraghi, Saeid; Bellefleur, Gilles

2010-05-01

3

Gold in the Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Evidence from bulk ore analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS data on sulfide phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 329-Mt Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (total resource of 163 Mt at 10.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, 0.34% Cu, and 115 g/t Ag) is hosted within a Middle Ordovician bimodal volcanic and sedimentary sequence. Massive sulfides are for the most part syngenetic, and the bulk of the sulfide ore occurs as a Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies that forms an intimate relationship with a laterally extensive Algoma-type iron formation and defines the Brunswick Horizon. Zone refining of stratiform sulfides is considered to have resulted in the development of a large replacement-style Cu-rich basal sulfide facies, which is generally confined between the banded sulfide facies and an underlying stringer sulfide zone. Complex polyphase deformation and associated lower- to upper-greenschist facies regional metamorphism is responsible for the present geometry of the deposit. Textural modification has resulted in a general increase in grain size through the development of pyrite and arsenopyrite porphyroblasts, which tend to overprint primary mineral assemblages. Despite the heterogeneous ductile deformation, primary features have locally been preserved, such as fine-grained colloform pyrite and base and precious metal zonation within the Main Zone. Base metal and trace element abundances in massive sulfides from the Brunswick No. 12 deposit indicate two distinct geochemical associations. The basal sulfide facies, characterized by a proximal high-temperature hydrothermal signature (Cu-Co-Bi-Se), contains generally low Au contents averaging 0.39 ppm ( n = 34). Conversely, Au is enriched in the banded sulfide facies, averaging 1.1 ppm Au ( n = 21), and is associated with an exhalative suite of elements (Zn-Pb-As-Sb-Ag-Sn). Finely laminated sulfide lenses hosted by iron formation at the north end of the Main Zone are further enriched in Au, averaging 1.7 ppm ( n = 41) and ranging up to 8.2 ppm. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite ( n = 97) from the north end of the Main Zone average 2.6 ppm Au and range from the detection limit (0.015 ppm) to 21 ppm. Overall, these analyses reveal a distinct Au-Sb-As-Ag-Hg-Mn association within pyrite grains. Gold is strongly enriched in large pseudo-primary masses of pyrite that exhibit relict banding and fine-grained cores; smaller euhedral pyrite porphyroblasts, and euhedral rims of metamorphic origin surrounding the pyrite masses, contain much less Au, Sb, Ag, As, and Sn. Arsenopyrite, occurring chiefly as late porphyroblasts, contains less Au, averaging 1.0 ppm and ranging from the detection limit (0.027 ppm) to 6.9 ppm. Depth profiles for single-spot laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite display uniform values of Au and an absence of discrete microscopic inclusions of Au-bearing minerals, which is consistent with chemically bonded Au in the sulfide structure. The pervasive correlation of Au with Sn in the Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies suggests similar hydrothermal behavior during the waxing stages of deposition on the seafloor. Under high temperature (>350ºC) and moderate- to low-pH conditions, Au and Sn in hydrothermal fluids would be transported as chlorocomplexes. An abrupt decrease in temperature and aH2S, accompanied by an increase in fO2 and pH during mixing with seawater, would lead to the simultaneous destabilization of both Au and Sn chlorocomplexes. The enrichment of Au in fine-grained laminated sulfides on the periphery of the deposit, accompanied by sporadic occurrences of barite and Fe-poor sphalerite, supports lower hydrothermal fluid temperatures analogous to white smoker activity on the flanks of a large volcanogenic massive sulfide system. In lower temperature (<350ºC) and mildly acidic hydrothermal fluids, Au would be transported by thiocomplexes, which exhibit multifunctional (retrograde-prograde) solubility and a capacity to mobilize Au to the outer parts of the sulfide mound. The sluggish nature of this low-temperature venting together with larger variations in ambient fO2 could lead to a s

McClenaghan, Sean H.; Lentz, David R.; Martin, Jillian; Diegor, Wilfredo G.

2009-07-01

4

Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

1982-01-19

5

Scaling behavior and the effects of heterogeneity on shallow seismic imaging of mineral deposits: A case study from Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the scaling behavior of compressional-wave velocity and density logs from an exploration borehole that extends down to about 700 m depth in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada. Using statistical methods, vertical and horizontal scale lengths of heterogeneity were estimated. Vertical scale length estimates from the velocity, density and calculated acoustic impedance are 14 m, 33 m, and about 20 m, respectively. Although the estimated scale length for the acoustic impedance implies a weak scattering environment, elastic finite difference modeling of seismic wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media demonstrates that even this weak scattering medium can mask seismic signals from small, but yet economically feasible, massive sulfide deposits. Further analysis of the synthetic seismic data suggests that in the presence of heterogeneity, lenticular-shaped targets may only exhibit incomplete diffraction signals whereby the down-dip tails of these diffractions are mainly visible on the stacked sections. Therefore, identification of orebody generated diffractions is much easier on the unmigrated stacked sections than on migrated stacked sections. The numerical seismic modeling in 2D heterogeneous media indicates that in the presence of large horizontal, but small vertical scale lengths (structural anisotropy), identification of massive sulfide deposits is possible, but their delineation at depth requires detailed velocity modeling and processing algorithms which can handle the anisotropy.

Cheraghi, Saeid; Malehmir, Alireza; Bellefleur, Gilles; Bongajum, Emmanuel; Bastani, Mehrdad

2013-03-01

6

Utilization of Olsi-Dranonin uranium deposit after mine closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the development and exploitation of particular uranium deposits, the quality of mine waters changes depending upon the extent of recharge area, total volume of worked-out mineral, its mineralogical composition and the achieved depth of mining. In the course of flooding the underground mine after closure many important changes occur in the content of dissolved substances in

Nada Rapantova; Arnost Grmela; Bedrich Michalek; Antonin Hajek; Pavol Zabojnik; Josef Zeman

7

Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine

E. J. Sides

1997-01-01

8

Undersea safety mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of undersea resources becomes popular as land resources decrease. Researches were conducted with emphasis on the safety and efficiency of undersea mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine. A series of tests for the physical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass were carried out, and the three-dimensional geo-stress distribution was tested in the mining area. Further, a similar experimental simulation platform, which revealed the mechanism of water inrush and ascertained the reasonable thickness of the safety isolate layer, was established for the undersea mining. Meanwhile, the feasibility of cancelling the ore pillars and the safety conditions was checked by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that it is safe to exploit the ore body below the -85 m level (presently, the exploitation level is below -160 m in Xinli District), and the ore pillars can be cancelled below the -560 m level. Furthermore, a novel backfill method was designed to reduce the rock strata disturbance and settlement, and the settlement of roof strata was monitored during the mining process. Engineering practice shows that the settlement of roof strata was small and that no disaster happened. This indicates that the undersea safety mining technology of the large gold deposit is achieved in Xinli District.

Liu, Zhi-xiang; Dang, Wen-gang; He, Xian-qun

2012-07-01

9

Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.  

PubMed

To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants should be created in the upper part of the cover layer, namely a sufficient amount of plant nutrients. However, to define such a condition is difficult since different plant species have different requirements. PMID:17253002

Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

2006-12-01

10

NonTraditional Utilization of Uranium Deposits After Underground Mining Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the development and exploitation of particular uranium deposits, the chemism of mine waters changes depending upon the extent of infiltration area, the total volume of worked-out mineral, its mineralogical composition and also the achieved depth of mining. In the course of flooding the underground mine after its closure many important changes occur in the content of

Nada Rapantova; Arnost Grmela; Bedrich Michalek; Jan Unucka; David Vojtek

11

The influence of the mining operation on the mine seismicity of Vorkuta coal deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mine seismicity of Vorkuta coal deposit was analyzed. Seismic network consisting of 24 seismic sensors (accelerometers) cover the area of "Komsomolskaya" and "North" mines of Vorkuta deposit. Also there is seismic station of IDG RAS with three-component seismometer near this mines for better defining energy of the seismic events. The catalogs of seismic events contain 9000 and 7000 events with maximum magnitude M=2.3 for "Komsomolskaya" and "North" mines respectively and include the period from 01.09.2008 to 01.09.2011. The b-value of the magnitude-frequency relation was -1.0 and -1.15 respectively for the mines, meanwhile b-value for the nature seismicity was -0,9. It was found, that the number of seismic events per hour during mine combine operation is higher in 2.5 times than the number of seismic events during the break in the operation. Also, the total energy of the events per hour during the operation is higher in 3-5 times than during the break. The study showed, that the number and the energy of the seismic events relate with the hours of mine combine operation. The spatial distribution of the seismic events showed, that 80% of all events and 85% of strong events (M>1.6) were located in and near the longwall under development during the mine combine operations as well asduring the breaks. The isoclines of seismic event numbers proved that the direction of motion of the boundary of seismic events extension coincides with the direction of development, the maximum number of events for any period lies within the wall under operation. The rockburst with M=2.3 occurring at the North mine at July 16, 2011 was considered. The dependences of the energy and of the number of events with different magnitudes on the time showed that the number of events with M=1 and especially M=0.5 before the rockburst decreased, which corresponds to the prognostic seismic quietness, described in the research works. The spatial distribution of the events for the 6 month before the rockburst showed that the rockbust occurred at some distance from the main group of seismic events, in an area where the vent brake slope was made at that time. It was found that there is an area where the coal was not developed, but the seismic events occured. Such area could be noticed before the moment of the rockburst. The spatial distribution of the seismic events during the "seismic quietness" showed that for events with M = 1, and especially for the events with M = 0.5, the analogue of "seismic gap" (the area without events between the seismically active areas) can be noticed. The rockburst occurred at the boundary of the "seismic gap". Obtained results (which are in correspondence with known natural earthquake prediction phenomena) could be used for forecast of the considered rockburst in a 1 month before it occurred.

Zmushko, T.; Turuntaev, S. B.; Kulikov, V. I.

2012-04-01

12

Biogeometallurgical pre-mining characterization of ore deposits: an approach to increase sustainability in the mining process.  

PubMed

Based on the knowledge obtained from acid mine drainage formation in mine waste environments (tailings impoundments and waste rock dumps), a new methodology is applied to characterize new ore deposits before exploitation starts. This gives the opportunity to design optimized processes for metal recovery of the different mineral assemblages in an ore deposit and at the same time to minimize the environmental impact and costs downstream for mine waste management. Additionally, the whole economic potential is evaluated including strategic elements. The methodology integrates high-resolution geochemistry by sequential extractions and quantitative mineralogy in combination with kinetic bioleach tests. The produced data set allows to define biogeometallurgical units in the ore deposit and to predict the behavior of each element, economically or environmentally relevant, along the mining process. PMID:23616204

Dold, Bernhard; Weibel, Leyla

2013-04-25

13

Case Study of the Environmental Signature of a Recently Abandoned, Carbonate-Hosted Replacement Deposit: The Clayton Mine, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clayton mine (Fig. 1) is a silver-lead-zinc replacement deposit in the Bayhorse mining district in Custer County, Idaho. The mine was last operated by Clayton Silver Mines, Inc. through 1986. The modern mill at the mine site is along Kinnikinic Creek,...

J. M. Hammarstron R. G. Eppinger B. S. Van Gosen P. H. Briggs A. L. Meier

2002-01-01

14

Distribution patterns of mobile epifauna associated with rope fibre habitats within the Bathurst Harbour estuary, south-western Tasmania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile epifaunal community within the Bathurst Harbour estuary, southwestern Tasmania, was surveyed by placing standardized rope fibre habitats at 1, 4 and 8 m depths at various sites along the estuary, and retrieving these habitats with associated animals after approximately 3 months submergence during each of the four seasons. Discrete assemblages of mobile epifauna were found in the eastern (Bathurst Harbour), central (Bathurst Channel), and western (Port Davey and the western entrance to Bathurst Channel) sections of the estuary. Each of these assemblages showed a high fidelity to site; there was no indication of a seasonal migration up or down the estuary in response to changes in the hydrological environment. The species richness of the macrofauna associated with rope fibre habitats was influenced by distance from the estuary mouth, water depth, season and also by factor interactions. Most of the total variance (69%) in the species richness of rope fibre habitat assemblages was, however, attributable to location along the estuary. Mobile invertebrates were most abundant in the upstream sections of the estuary in November, and in the marine section in February. Estimated epifaunal production showed consistent seasonal patterns throughout the estuary, decreasing to lowest levels in the cooler months. Epifaunal production decreased very rapidly with depth in the upper but not in the lower sections of the estuary. The patterns of faunal production were thus closely related to ambient light levels and water temperatures—these two factors explaining 54% of total variance in log production. The production of faunas associated with rope fibre habitats is postulated to be primarily a function of microalgal production, which in turn is dependent on light.

Edgar, Graham J.

1991-12-01

15

Mapping of evaporite deformation in a potash mine using ground penetrating radar: Upper Kama deposit, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the deformation processes in potash mines is very important for safe mining, planning the methods of extracting the orebody, and the prevention of catastrophic water inflow. A variety of deformational structures are present in the Upper Kama potash deposit. Folding is a dominant and most common form of deformation of ductile evaporites (herein also referred to as salts). Brittle

Oleg Kovin

2011-01-01

16

Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-enhanced soil flushing for the removal of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings containing high contents of arsenic and heavy metals are potential environmental contamination sources. Column experiments were conducted in this study to evaluate the feasibility of using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant (JBR425) to enhance the removal of arsenic and heavy metals from an oxidized mine tailings sample collected from Bathurst, Canada. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) analyses indicated that arsenate [As(V)] was

Suiling Wang; Catherine N. Mulligan

2009-01-01

17

Homestake Gold Mine, an Early Proterozoic Iron-Formation-Hosted Gold Deposit, Lawrence County, South Dakota. Chapter J.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Homestake mine in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, is the largest iron-formation-hosted gold deposit known. The deposit was discovered in 1876, and the mine has operated continuously to the present day. Ore is currently mined from depths as gre...

S. W. Caddey R. L. Bachman T. J. Campbell R. R. Reid R. P. Otto

1991-01-01

18

Vegetation establishment on a deposit of zinc mine wastes.  

PubMed

Field trials concerning the establishment of plant cover on a deposit of wastes from the Ammeberg zinc mine in central Sweden were carried out during 1976-1985. Different soil conditioners and manures were applied and plant species cultivars were evaluated with regard to plant biomass, vigour, durability and content of zinc, lead and cadmium. Sewage sludge and topsoil led to better establishment of grasses than did municipal waste, straw and hydraulic seeding. After 2 years, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis dominated the swards. Other species (Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis, Lolium perenne, Phleum nodosum, Festuca pratensis and F. arundinacea) constituted only a minor part of the stand. After 10 years, F. rubra was the most dominant species, while native Agrostis tenuis had invaded 20-50% of the area within the plots. Merlin was the clearly dominant red fescue cultivar. The concentration of zinc in shoots (616 mg kg(-1) dw) was about 10% of that in the soil. Zinc concentration decreased with increasing biomass above ground. It increased with age in Scots pine needles and was very high in birch leaves. Grasses survived longer than legumes in the zinc sand waste. Among the surviving grasses was a group with high (3800 mg kg(-1) dw) and a group with low (320 mg kg(-1) dw) zinc concentrations. The low group included Merlin red fescue and Sobel creeping bent. The cultivar Merlin contained a much lower zinc concentration than the other cultivars of red fescue (375 and 624 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively). A large amount of root biomass was present in plots with dominating Merlin red fescue (1715 g m(-2)), 97% of which was concentrated in the top 10 cm of the soil. The concentration of zinc in the roots was very high (13 000-25 000 mg kg(-1) dw). Nitrate fertilizer, especially ammonium nitrate, and acidic water (pH 4.3) increased zinc leaching. PMID:15092483

Bergholm, J; Steen, E

1989-01-01

19

Kuroko-type Seafloor Hydrothermal Deposit Mining - The Geology, Technology, Environment, and Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kuroko-type seafloor hydrothermal deposits, sometimes known as seafloor massive sulfides (SMS), are currently the hottest business targets in ocean mining field, because metal prices included in the deposits tend to be several times or more expensive than the ones a few years ago. Therefore, two private venture companies have been very active for the commercial developments these years. The

Steven Scott; Tetsuo Yamazaki; Justin Baulch

2008-01-01

20

Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term mining history introduced a series of environmental problems in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were investigated using RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during day time and night time in May 2010, which showed that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in Wanshan Hg mining area. Meanwhile, both precipitation and throughfall samples were collected weekly at Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng from May 2010 to May 2011, respectively. Our data showed that the concentrations of different Hg species varied with a large range, and the annual volume-weighted mean total mercury (THg) concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng L-1 and 977.8 ng L-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng L-1and 3392.1 ng L-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng L-1 and 9641.5 ng L-1 at Supeng, respectively. Besides, THg concentrations in all throughfall samples were 1-7 folds higher than those in precipitation samples. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in Wanshan Hg mining area since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in Wanshan Hg mining area.

Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Fu, X. W.; Li, P.

2012-02-01

21

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume I. Oil shale deposits, mining methods, and environmental concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume describes and discusses oil shale deposits of the U.S., applicable methods for mining the shale, and the environmental concerns associated with oil shale technologies. Mining is required to supply shale to the retorts of aboveground processes. The majority of oil shale mining is expected to be by the underground room-and-pillar method. Surface mining (i.e., open pit mining) may

C. K. Jee; J. D. White; S. K. Bhatia; D. Nicholson

1977-01-01

22

Mercury deposition in a tidal marsh downstream of the historic New Almaden mining district, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A record of mercury deposition was provided by sediment recovered from piston cores of a San Francisco Bay tidal marsh that is 30-km downstream of the New Almaden Quicksilver mining district, formerly the largest mercury mining district in North America. Pre-mining sediment concentrations were 80± 30 ng g^{-l}, which are similar to pre-mining concentrations in cores taken from other parts of San Francisco Bay. Concentrations in the core increase to about 1200 ng g^{-l}, after a peak of mining activity in the early to mid 20^th century. The extent of contamination from upstream mining activity appears to reflect the amount of processed ore disposed of at the surface and also from periods when mercury was recovered from reworking these surface ore dumps and open cuts. Although San Francisco estuary is contaminated with mercury from numerous historic mining sources, including late 19^th century hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevadas, the contamination in the southern reach of the estuary is predominantly from mining at New Almaden.

Conaway, C. H.; Watson, E.; Flanders, J. R.; Flegal, A. R.

2003-05-01

23

Investigations of newly formed sea ice in the Cape Bathurst polynya: 2. Microwave emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the role of newly formed sea ice geophysical state on microwave emission. Coincident with sea ice geophysical sampling, ship-based passive microwave emission data (dual-polarized at 19, 37 and 85 GHz) were collected in the Cape Bathurst Polynya during 18 October and 13 November 2003. Using polarization ratios (PRs), we found that bare thin ice was separable from snow-covered ice. Thin snow (equal to 0.02-0.13 m) thickness is significantly correlated with the spectral gradient ratios GRV(85,19) (R2 = 0.55, P-value <0.05) and GRV(85,37) (R2 = 0.66, P-value < 0.05), but not with GRV(37,19) (R2 = 0.19, P-value > 0.2). The relationship between atmospherically corrected R37 and bare ice thickness showed an exponential relationship very comparable to that reported by [2004], which is ascribed to the reduction of bare ice surface salinity based on both observational and modeling studies. However, the relationship quickly becomes invalid for even thin snow covered ice, due to significant impact of thin wet (liquid water fraction ˜0.02-0.04) snow on microwave emission. Our results suggest that the sea ice algorithms NASA Team and NASA Team 2 could underestimate total ice concentration over thin bare ice by 35% on average, while both algorithms underestimate the total ice concentration by 20% over snow-covered ice. Using PR(85) sea ice could be delineated from open water using a properly adjusted threshold value accounting for cloud or fog effects, possibly with the exception of dark nilas and/or bare consolidated pancakes.

Hwang, Byong Jun; Ehn, Jens K.; Barber, David G.; Galley, Ryan; Grenfell, Thomas C.

2007-05-01

24

Origin of the gold deposit in the Polkowice-West Mine, Lubin-Sieroszowice Mining District, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently discovered gold deposit in the Lubin-Sieroszowice district lies 0.0 to 1.5?m below the stratabound copper-silver\\u000a orebody, mainly in the Polkowice-west mine. The deposit extends over 60?km2, has a thickness of 20–80?cm and a conservative estimate of the average grade of 1.5?g\\/t gold, 0.3?g\\/t Pd and 0.2?g\\/t Pt.\\u000a It contains gold and electrum in association with minor amounts (up

A. Piestrzynski; A. Wodzicki

2000-01-01

25

Spatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legacy of long-term mining activities in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China including a series of environmental issues related to Hg pollution. The spatial distribution of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentrations in ambient air were monitored using a mobile RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Analyzer during daytime and night time in May 2010. The data imply that calcines and mine wastes piles located at Dashuixi and on-going artisanal Hg mining activities at Supeng were major sources of atmospheric mercury in WMMA. For a full year (May 2010 to May 2011), sampling of precipitation and throughfall were conducted on a weekly basis at three sites (Shenchong, Dashuixi, and Supeng) within WMMA. Hg in deposition was characterized by analysis of total Hg (THg) and dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations. The corresponding data exhibit a high degree of variability, both temporarily and spatially. The volume-weighted mean THg concentrations in precipitation and throughfall samples were 502.6 ng l-1 and 977.8 ng l-1 at Shenchong, 814.1 ng l-1and 3392.1 ng l-1 at Dashuixi, 7490.1 ng l-1and 9641.5 ng l-1 at Supeng, respectively. THg was enhanced in throughfall compared to wet deposition samples by up to a factor of 7. The annual wet Hg deposition fluxes were 29.1, 68.8 and 593.1 ?g m-2 yr-1 at Shenchong, Dashuixi and Supeng, respectively, while the annual dry Hg deposition fluxes were estimated to be 378.9, 2613.6 and 6178 ?g m-2 yr-1 at these sites, respectively. Dry deposition played a dominant role in total atmospheric Hg deposition in WMMA since the dry deposition fluxes were 10.4-37.9 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes during the whole sample period. Our data showed that air deposition was still an important pathway of Hg contamination to the local environment in WMMA.

Dai, Z. H.; Feng, X. B.; Sommar, J.; Li, P.; Fu, X. W.

2012-07-01

26

Sealing an underground coal deposit for in situ production. [gasification after underground mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously mined underground coal deposit is sealed so that the underground void space can be pressurized for production by in situ techniques. Excavated communication passages are sealed by barricades which are further sealed by applying hydrostatic head pressure. Subsidence cracks are sealed by injection of mud slurry with additional sealing effected by maintaining hydrostatic head pressure with a column

1978-01-01

27

Post-mining hydrogeochemical conditions, Brewery Creek gold deposit, central Yukon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconnaissance-level study of post-mining hydrogeochemical conditions was carried out at the Brewery Creek gold deposit within the Tintina Gold Province. The deposit is characterized by epizonal mineralization with a consistent arsenic-gold-mercury-antimony geochemical signature. Surface discharges and seeps in the area are naturally alkaline (pH=7.6-8.2), Ca-HCO3¯-SO4²¯ waters. Upstream from the recognized mineralization, waters contain <3 ?g\\/L As and <1 ?g\\/L

Seth H. Mueller; Craig J. R. Hart; Richard J. Goldfarb; LeeAnn Munk

28

Geochemical characterization of acidic mine waters in Darrehzar copper deposit, Kerman province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is located in the south of Sar Cheshmeh copper mine. There are varieties of geological factors which control the composition of mine drainage waters. Surface samples were collected from the Darrehzar locality for chemical measurements. The measured quantities are: Cl-, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO42-, Al. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Mo, HCO3-, EC, pH and Eh. Phyllic alteration has the highest influence on the production of acid mine drainage. Mineralogical studies and analysis of water samples indicate a good correlation between sulfide minerals and acid mine drainage. Analysis of water samples showed that samples with low pH values have high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals. Correlation coefficients between different quantities were calculated and binary diagram prepared. Heavy metals increase with a decrease in pH except for Mo. Sulfate and heavy metals are positively related in mine water. The high positive correlation between Fe and Mn with respect to heavy metals indicates their adsorption on Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides.

Keshavarzi, B.; Shahabpour, J.; Naseh, R.

2009-04-01

29

The Future of Oil Shale Mining related to the mining and hydrogeological conditions in the Estonian deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to high oil price in 2005 number of oil shale mining claims were requested by mining companies in Estonia, which is indicator of rapid oil shale mining development. There will be new mines opened in near future which causes changes in environmental conditions, mainly decrease of water level. Estonia is leading Oil shale mining country in the world. Oil

Ingo Valgma; Helena Lind; Katrin Erg; Sergei Sabanov

2007-01-01

30

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new\\u000a principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence\\u000a are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network,\\u000a internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

S. G. Molotilov; V. K. Norri; V. I. Cheskidov; A. R. Mattis

2007-01-01

31

Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-01-15

32

Depositional Influences on Porewater Arsenic in Sediments of a Mining-Contaminated Freshwater Lake  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated.

Toevs, G.; Morra, M.J.; Winowiecki, L.; Strawn, D.; Polizzotto, M.L.; Fendorf, S.

2009-05-26

33

Depositional influences on porewater arsenic in sediments of a mining-contaminated freshwater lake.  

PubMed

Arsenic-containing minerals mobilized during mining activities and deposited to Lake Coeur d'Alene (CDA), Idaho sediments represent a potential source of soluble As to the overlying water. Our objective was to delineate the processes controlling porewater As concentrations within Lake CDA sediments. Sediment and porewater As concentrations were determined, and solid-phase As associations were probed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Although maximum As in the sediment porewaters varied from 8.4 to 16.2 microM, As sorption on iron oxyhydroxides at the oxic sediment-water interface prevented flux to overlying water. Floods deposit sediment containing variable amounts of arsenopyrite (FeAsS), with majorfloods depositing large amounts of sediment that bury and preserve reduced minerals. Periods of lower deposition increase sediment residence times in the oxic zone, promoting oxidation of reduced minerals, SO4(2-) efflux, and formation of oxide precipitates. Depositional events bury oxides containing sorbed As, transitioning them into anoxic environments where they undergo dissolution, releasing As to the porewater. High Fe:S ratios limit the formation of arsenic sulfides in the anoxic zone. As a result of As sequestration at the sediment-water interface and its release upon burial, decreased concentrations of porewater As will not occur unless As-bearing erosional inputs are eliminated. PMID:18853795

Toevs, Gordon; Morra, Matthew J; Winowiecki, Leigh; Strawn, Daniel; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Fendorf, Scott

2008-09-15

34

Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining.

Lonnie N. Tracy

1984-01-01

35

Metasedimentary influence on metavolcanic-rock hosted greenstone gold deposits: Geochemistry of the Giant mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Giant mine is a mesothermal, greenstone-hosted gold deposit that has produced ˜250 metric tons of gold, principally from sulfide ores in altered metavolcanic rocks. Previous studies concluded that mineralizing fluids acquired metals and other ore-forming components from within the ore-hosting metavolcanic rocks and ascended a steep-dipping shear zone to the site of ore deposition. Our studies indicate that although

Edmond H. P. van Hees; Kevin L. Shelton; Todd A. McMenamy; Louis M. Ross Jr.; Brian L. Cousens; Hendrik Falck; Malcolm E. Robb; Tim W. Canam

1999-01-01

36

Geochemistry of mine waters draining a low-sulfide, gold-quartz vein deposit, Bralorne, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bralorne and Pioneer mines, now inactive, produced over 4 million ounces of Au from an orogenic lode Au deposit located on the eastern edge of the Coastal Mountains of SW British Columbia. Between 2007 and 2009, drainage from a recently developed exploration adit was investigated in order to better understand and anticipate potential environmental management issues associated with the

Alexandre J. Desbarats; Michael B. Parsons; Jeanne B. Percival; Suzanne Beauchemin; Y. T. John Kwong

37

Post-Depositional Behavior of Cu in a Metal-Mining Polishing Pond (East Lake, Canada)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The post-depositional behavior of Cu in a gold-mining polishing pond (East Lake, Canada) was assessed after mine closure by examination of porewater chemistry and mineralogy. The near-surface (upper 1.5 cm) sediments are enriched in Cu, with values ranging from 0.4 to 2 wt %. Mineralogical examination revealed that the bulk of the Cu inventory is present as authigenic copper sulfides. Optical microscopy, energy-dispersion spectra, and X-ray data indicate that the main Cu sulfide is covellite (CuS). The formation of authigenic Cu-S phases is supported by the porewater data, which demonstrate that the sediments are serving as a sink for dissolved Cu below sub-bottom depths of 1-2 cm. The zone of Cu removal is consistent with the occurrence of detectable sulfide and the consumption of sulfate. The sediments can be viewed as a passive bioreactor that permanently removes Cu as insoluble copper sulfides. This process is not unlike that which occurs in other forms of bioremediation, such as wetlands and permeable reactive barriers. Above the zone of Cu removal, dissolved Cu maxima in the interfacial porewaters range from 150 to 450 ??g L-1 and reflect the dissolution of a Cu-bearing phase in the surface sediments. The reactive phase is thought to be a component of treatment sludges delivered to the lake as part of cyanide treatment. Flux calculations indicate that the efflux of dissolved Cu from the sediments to the water column (14-51 ??g cm-2 yr-1) can account for the elevated levels of dissolved Cu in lake waters (???50 ??g L-1). Implications for lake recovery are discussed.

Martin, A. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Pedersen, T. F.; Crusius, J.

2003-01-01

38

Mine design using column analysis: a tool for the incremental evaluation of open-pit mining deposits  

SciTech Connect

Column analysis is a method whereby down-hole drill data can be assessed for open-pit mining potential. This technique enables a single hole to be evaluated as a small pit, and can serve as a basis for preliminary mine design. Specific operating costs are assigned to intervals of material as they are encountered from the surface to the base of mining. Summed operating costs are then divided by the units of recoverable product anticipated. The resulting value (on a per unit basis) is then assigned to the individual hole being evaluated, and can be used directly in preliminary mine planning. Profitability can also be determined for each hole by multiplying the difference between the unit cost and the market value of the recovered product by the amount of recovered product. Mine planning can then proceed by evaluating the quantity of favorable holes within a given area, their continuity, and the overall cost and profitability relative to desired or available market and production conditions.

Tracy, L.N.

1984-04-01

39

Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.

2010-05-01

40

Technical and cost evaluation of candidate large-scale open-pit oil shale mining methods in Colorado. Volume II, Parts 1 and 2. Technical and economic study of an integrated single-pass mining system for open-pit mining of deep oil shale deposits. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the feasibility of mining the oil shale deposits of the Piceance Creek basin in Colorado by an integrated open pit system. The study is based upon a comprehensive analysis of pertinent environmental, economic, and engineering factors. Ten mining cases are investigated, and the mine design and cost estimates for each case are presented in this report. Nine

R. C. Adams; C. E. Banks; W. S. Bradley; L. L. Brannick; W. G. Christian

1976-01-01

41

Technical and cost evaluation of candidate large-scale open-pit oil shale mining methods in Colorado. Volume I. Technical and economic study of an integrated single-pass mining system for open-pit mining of deep oil shale deposits. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the feasibility of mining the oil shale deposits of the Piceance Creek basin in Colorado by an integrated open pit system. The study is based upon a comprehensive analysis of pertinent environmental, economic, and engineering factors. Ten mining cases are investigated, and the mine design and cost estimates for each case are presented in this report. Nine

r. C. Adams; C. E. Banks; W. S. Bradley; L. L. Brannick; W. G. Christian

1976-01-01

42

[Prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, P.R. China].  

PubMed

The prokaryotic microbial diversity of the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine, PR China was investigated using PCR-DGGE and rRNA approaches. Total community DNA was extracted and purified by a direct method, which yielded amplified DNA of high molecular weight for samples. A variable region of 16S rRNA gene was then amplified by PCR with bacterial and archaeal primers and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Twenty-seven major bands were detected in the bacterial DGGE profile of the sample, but only one band of pure culture strains of bacteria isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with one band of sample. No band of pure culture strains of archaea isolated from the Kunming Salt Mine matched with 18 major bands of sample. The results indicated that most of microbes in this environment are likely uncultivable. Clones on the plate were not the predominant species in the community. Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (bacteria and archaea) were also constructed, and 36 and 20 clones were selected for amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). ARDRA with enzymes Afa I, Hha I, Hae III revealed 10 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with three most abundant OTUs accounting for 38.9%, 25.0%, 16.7% of all the bacterial 16S rDNA clones, respectively. The remaining 7 OTUs presented at low levels, were represented by a single clone. Eight archaeal OTUs were obtained but no predominant OTUs. Some clones were sequenced and each sequence was compared with all nucleotide sequences in GenBank database. Examination of 16S rDNA clones showed that the ancient salt deposits in the Kunming Salt Mine contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain with members of three major lineages represented: alpha-proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, especially Pseudomonas. Surprisingly, we recovered a variety of sequence closely related to Actinobacteria which was not found in other salt deposits. All of archaeal clones are from Halorubrum, Haloterrigena and uncultured archaea. The results of DGGE and clone library profiling analysis both indicated that microbial community of the Kunming Salt Mine had higher diversity. In this initial survey, our polyphasic approaches demonstrated that novel and uncultured microbes thrive in the ancient salt deposits of the Kunming Salt Mine. Molecular analysis of the microbial diversity in salt deposits provides foundation for better application of microbial resources. PMID:17552238

Xiao, Wei; Peng, Qian; Liu, Hong-wei; Wen, Meng-liang; Cui, Xiao-long; Yang, Ya-ling; Duan, Dong-cheng; Chen, Wei; Deng, Lan; Li, Qin-yuan; Chen, Yi-guang; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ren, Zhen; Liu, Ji-hui

2007-04-01

43

Effects of some components of acid-mine drainage and acid deposition on the spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of low pH and the metals aluminum, zinc, and cadmium, components of acid-mine effluents and acid deposition, on spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, were investigated. Sperm were exposed to solutions of 400 ppm aluminum chloride, 50 ppm zinc chloride, 2 ppm cadmium chloride, separately and in combination, at pH values of 6.9, 4.8, and 3.8. Sperm were

1983-01-01

44

Distinguishing and characterising point-source mining dust and diffuse-source dust deposits in a semi-arid district of eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The routine monitoring of dust deposition around mines does not typically distinguish between allochthonous and locally-sourced dust. In this paper, contemporary aeolian dust deposition within a semi-arid part of eastern Australia is examined to determine the contribution of an open-pit gold mine to local dust dynamics. Over a 2.5 year period, monthly deposited dust samples were obtained from 12 sites located around the Cowal Gold Mine (CGM), and analysed for inorganic and organic proportions and granulometric properties. Although there was considerable variation in deposition between the gauges and sampling periods, there was a moderate and statistically significant seasonal trend, with mineral dust deposition lowest in winter. Imprinted over this seasonal pattern was a distinct spatial pattern of dust deposition, with gauges downwind of the CGM receiving significantly more dust than those gauges upwind (20 t/km2/yr). This effect was most pronounced adjacent to the mine (dust deposition of 60 t/km2/yr), where coarse-grained particles comprised a large proportion of the deposited dust, and diminished with distance east of the mine. Such a spatial trend is typical of a point source of dust. Average dust deposition at gauges located 8 km downwind of the mine was only slightly greater than that of gauges upwind of the mine. The 'background' dust populations captured at the upwind locations were dominated by fine particles, with modal particle diameters of 3-5 and 13-16 ?m common. The macro-organic component of dust deposits also tended to vary seasonally, but the spatial distribution of this material was quite erratic.

Cattle, Stephen R.; Hemi, Karl; Pearson, Garry L.; Sanderson, Todd

45

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids and groundwater during mineralization. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures (Th) between 85 and 95{degree}C. Aqueous inclusions have Th values ranging from {approximately}90 to 130{degree}C for sphalerite to below {approximately}50{degree}C for barite. Primary brine inclusions in calcite at the Jumbo mine contain goethite, apparently as a daughter mineral. Goethite has also been tentatively identified in inclusions from the Fletcher mine of Missouri. If goethite is a true daughter phase, it implies the presence of oxidized fluids during mineralization. This suggests that ore deposition resulted from interactions between hydrothermal fluids and dilute groundwater.

Blasch, S.R.; Coveney, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1988-05-01

46

A REVIEW OF CATASTROPHIC FLOW FAILURES OF DEPOSITS OF MINE WASTE AND MUNICIPAL REFUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catastrophic flow failures occur in mine tailings dams and dumps of discards and other mine waste with alarming frequency. In recent years catastrophic flow failures have also occurred in dumps of municipal refuse and even in what were considered to be carefully controlled and well engineered landfills. Apart from the environmental devastation caused by these flows, they are also dangerous

G. E. BLIGHT; A. B. FOURIE

47

Environmental impact of early Basque mining and smelting recorded in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than four metres of core, covering almost 5000 years of deposition, were collected in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit located in the High Aldudes valley (Basque country), an area well known for its mineral abundance, exploited from Roman Times at least. Although minerogenic peatlands are not generally considered as the best archives to reconstruct past atmospheric metal deposition

F Monna; D Galop; L Carozza; M Tual; A Beyrie; F Marembert; C Chateau; J Dominik; F. E Grousset

2004-01-01

48

Depositional models in coal exploration and mine planning in Appalachian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic studies in the Appalachian region have shown that many parameters of coal beds (thickness, continuity, roof and floor rock, sulfur, and trace-element content, and ash) can be attributed to the depositional environment in which the peat beds formed and to the tectonic setting at the time of deposition. With an understanding of the depositional setting of the coal seam

J. C. Horne; J. C. Ferm; F. T. Caruccio; B. P. Baganz

1978-01-01

49

Modelling atmospheric bulk deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted Flavocetraria nivalis lichens.  

PubMed

Atmospheric deposition of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) was investigated near the former Black Angel Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland during 2010-2011. Thalli of the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis were transplanted from an uncontaminated site into sites near the mine and collected the following year. At 20 of the total 21 sites, concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were significantly elevated in lichens after 1 year of transplantation compared to initial concentrations. Elevated concentrations were observed within a distance of approx. 20km from the mining area. Concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the mine and the relation was well described using a power function with a negative exponent (r(2)=0.90; 0.83 and 0.83 for Pb; Zn and Cd). To examine the relation between metal concentrations/uptake in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk deposition, 10 Bergerhoff dust samplers were placed near lichen transplants and samplers and lichens were collected after a 7-weeks exposure period. A significant linear correlation was observed between metal concentrations in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk metal deposition (r(2)=0.94; 0.88 and 0.89 for Pb; Zn and Cd). Combining the results and including an area distribution within a defined metal deposition area, the "annual" deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd as dust was estimated during the 2010-2011 snow-free period (?5months). The results reveal that 20years after mine closure, 770kg Pb, 3700kg Zn and 24kg Cd were still being deposited as dust per year (snow-free period only) within a distance of 20km from the mine. PMID:23211325

Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Asmund, Gert

2012-12-01

50

Uranium deposits at the Jomac mine, White Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

azurite, and chalcanthite occur locally with the uranium minerals. Principal ore guides at the Jomac mine are channels, and scours at the bottom of these channels coal-bearing sandstone or conglomerate at the base of the Shinarump conglomerate, coal, and jarosite.

Trites, A.F.; Hadd, G.A.

1955-01-01

51

Influence of Underground Coal Mining on the Environment in Horna Nitra Deposits in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical mining of brown coal takes place in the complicated engineering-geological conditions below the volcanic mountain range Vtacnik and under the Novaky tectonic basin of Neogene age. Vtacnik Mts is affected by huge gravitational slope deformations. The main mass of the mountain range is 300-800 m thick (andesites, agglomerate tuffs) it rests upon plastic clays in which lie coal seams

Jozef Malgot; Frantisek Baliak

2004-01-01

52

Influence of Underground Coal Mining on the Environment in Horna Nitra Deposits in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical mining of brown coal takes place in the complicated engineering-geological conditions below the volcanic mountain range Vtacnik and under the Novaky tectonic basin of Neogene age. Vtacnik Mts is affected by huge gravitational slope deformations. The main mass of the mountain range is 300-800 m thick (andesites, agglomerate tuffs) it rests upon plastic clays in which lie coal seams

Jozef Malgot; Frantisek Baliak

53

The respiratory health hazard of tephra from the 2010 Centennial eruption of Merapi with implications for occupational mining of deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ashfall into heavily populated areas during the October-November 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia created anxiety regarding the growing impacts to health as the eruption escalated and the hazard zone widened. We made a preliminary assessment of the respiratory hazards to human health of the tephra deposits (ashfall, lahar, and PDC surge) from the eruption using a laboratory protocol specifically developed to study the toxic potential of volcanic ash particles. Twenty samples collected from a range of locations were analysed for health-pertinent mineralogical parameters (grain size, crystalline silica content, morphology, surface area, bulk chemistry, and leachable elements) and bio-reactivity (hydroxyl radical generation, haemolytic potential, oxidative capacity, pro-inflammatory response). The grain size pertinent to respiratory health was variable, ranging from 1.4-15.6 vol.% sub-4 ?m and 3.0-28.9 vol.% sub-10 ?m diameter material. No fibre-like particles were observed. Cristobalite was present in all samples, ranging from 1.9-9.5 wt.%, but surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity assays showed low reactivity for all samples tested. The risk of direct exposure to ash from fallout was in any case low due to seasonal rains limiting its re-suspension and the immediate and effective clean-up of communities by local people who supplied the ash to the Indonesian construction industry for use as aggregate. However, mining of the lahar and thick PDC deposits in the valleys draining the volcano is performed on a vast, industrial scale, which could result in high occupational exposure to thousands of sand miners at Merapi during the dry seasons. Further study of the health hazard of the mined Merapi deposits is warranted.

Damby, D. E.; Horwell, C. J.; Baxter, P. J.; Delmelle, P.; Donaldson, K.; Dunster, C.; Fubini, B.; Murphy, F. A.; Nattrass, C.; Sweeney, S.; Tetley, T. D.; Tomatis, M.

2013-07-01

54

Granitic Rocks of the Rio dos Bugres Mine: Host Rocks of Fluorite Deposits in Southernmost Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fluorite deposits in southernmost Brazil are hosted by Neoproterozoic granitic associations. Fluorite deposits are, nevertheless, much younger than granitic magmatism, and the only probable role of granitic rocks in fluorite genesis was as a source of F. This paper characterizes granitic-dioritic associations in which these fluorite lodes and veins are localized. The granitic suite includes quartz diorites, tonalites, biotite-bearing

J. A. Flores; L. V. S. Nardi; M. L. L. Formoso; A. Meunier; M. L. Pascal; M. Fonteilles; A. C. Ferreira

2006-01-01

55

Evaluation of Thallium Contamination from an Open-Mined Yunfu Thallium-Bearing Pyrite Deposit, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yunfu pyrite deposit bearing thallium (Tl) with proven reserves of three million tons' Tl in Guangdong Province, China has been extensively exploited since 1970. This study investigated contamination levels of Tl and other trace metals in ecosystem such as soils, surface waters, vegetables and crops in the area near the deposit. Results show that Tl in these samples nearby has

Liu Juan; Wang Jin; Qi Jianying; Wang Chunlin; Chen Yongheng; Zhang Ping; Li Xiangping

2010-01-01

56

Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.  

PubMed

This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods. PMID:23813094

Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

2013-06-28

57

WATER QUALITY AND METAL TRANSPORT IN WATER-COVERED MINE TAILINGS DEPOSITS AT SULPHIDE ORE MINES - IN SITU MEASUREMENTS AND MODELLING BY DGT SAMPLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster to Mine Water 2009, presents results from studies of metals in the surface layers of a mine tailing sediment from a water covered pyrite mine tailing dam in Norway. We used the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) probe in parallell with Diffusive Equilbrium in Thin Films (DET) probe and a modified peeper to collect metals in porewater.

ODDVAR RØYSET; BIRGER BJERKENG; EIGIL IVERSEN; KARL JAN AANES

58

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

2005-04-26

59

Investigation for the Economic Assessment of Uranium Deposits and Mining Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the aim of this thesis to supply a comprehensive basis for decisions to be made in connection with the detection, exploration, extraction processing and marketing of uranium. The deposit types and forms, the technologies of exploration, extraction a...

N. Alnajim

1980-01-01

60

Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in soils affected by mine dust deposition.  

PubMed

Barium is a heavy metal to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in various settings--for example, in mineral extraction industries where the mining and milling of ores occurs. Aluminum is also an element abundant in soil and dust to which human and animal receptors may be exposed in association with such industries. This study investigated the solubility and bioaccessibility of barium and aluminum in simulated gastric fluids using an in vitro test method previously validated for lead. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of a mine and transport road that generated fugitive dust containing barium as barite (BaSO4). It was found that barium bioaccessibility in different tundra soil and fugitive dust source materials varied greatly, between 0.07 and 66.0%, depending on sample location, grain size, solid-to-fluid ratio used in the in vitro experiments, and the analytical method selected for determining total barium concentrations in the sample substrates. For X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analytical methods and a solid-to-fluid ratio of 1:100, barium bioaccessibility from the barite-rich mine waste rock and gyro crusher ore dust source materials was very low (0.07-0.36%). By contrast, the bioaccessibility of barium in tundra soil samples affected by fugitive dust deposition ranged from 3.8 to 19.5%. The relative solubility of barium measured in the simulated gastric fluids of this study is consistent with time-dependent dissolution of barite in mine waste rock and ore dust, and the presence of more soluble chemical forms in tundra soil. Laboratory XRF analysis was the only analytical method used in this study that accurately characterized total barium concentrations for all sample substrates. Aluminum bioaccessibility was distinguished from barium bioaccessibility by its generally lower values and smaller dependence on grain size and solid-to-fluid ratios. The range of aluminum bioaccessibility values (0.31-4.0%) is consistent with the predominance of aluminum in relatively insoluble aluminosilicate minerals. PMID:17695934

Shock, S S; Bessinger, B A; Lowney, Y W; Clark, J L

2007-07-01

61

Influence of Underground Coal Mining on the Environment in Horna Nitra Deposits in Slovakia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical mining of brown coal takes place in the complicated engineering-geological conditions below the volcanic mountain range Vtacnik and under the Novaky tectonic basin of Neogene age. Vtacnik Mts is affected by huge gravitational slope deformations. The main mass of the mountain range is 300-800 m thick (andesites, agglomerate tuffs) it rests upon plastic clays in which lie coal seams of 9 m thick. After excavation of the coal seams without backfilling, reactivation of extensive slope deformations (blocks, landslides) takes place. These are 100-400 m thick. This process has a large negative influence on the environment of the whole undermined area. In the Novaky basin, after mining out of the coal seam, occur large depressions on the surface. There are several villages, highways, and railways in endangered area. This paper deals with the negative influence of the activated landslides and subsidence on the environment. The methods to quantify the influence are based on engineering-geological mapping and special methods of monitoring.

Malgot, Jozef; Baliak, Frantisek

62

Formation of Acid Mine Drainage Water at Sb (Au) Deposit Pezinok  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of leaching experiments regarding the comparison of chemical and biological-chemical leaching of ores from the Sb-(Au-) base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty., the Western Carpathians) under the same conditions in solution. Discussed are the differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity. The extent and the kinetics of the biological-chemical leaching of the technogenous sediments from the setting-pits are significantly higher than those without bacteria.

Rusko, Miroslav; Andráš, Peter; Kušnierová, Mária; Aschenbrenner, Štefan; Krná?, Jozef; Dubiel, Ján

2011-01-01

63

Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over the tailings was also investigated for tailings TA1 (with high sulphide content). A protective layer of only 5 cm reduced the DO flux into the tailings at about 5 mg/m(2)/d, compared to 608 mg O2/m(2)/d without a protective layer, or an approximately 99% reduction in flux. PMID:23906653

Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

2013-07-29

64

Effects of some components of acid-mine drainage and acid deposition on the spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis  

SciTech Connect

The effects of low pH and the metals aluminum, zinc, and cadmium, components of acid-mine effluents and acid deposition, on spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, were investigated. Sperm were exposed to solutions of 400 ppm aluminum chloride, 50 ppm zinc chloride, 2 ppm cadmium chloride, separately and in combination, at pH values of 6.9, 4.8, and 3.8. Sperm were additionally exposed to test solutions in which the metal salt concentration was reduced by one-half and observed for changes in motility and in the ability to exclude stain. All test solutions at a low pH were deleterious, the greatest damage occurring in solutions of a combination of all 3 metal chlorides and of aluminum chloride separately. Motility tests showed that both full and reduced metal concentrations had significant effects on motility. Staining tests were supportive of motility test results and indicated that in most cases shorter exposure times did not significantly improve survival rates. It was generally found that a decrease in pH increased the effects of each metal separately and when combined. Aluminum, zinc, and cadmium chlorides appeared to act antagonistically when tested in combination. It was concluded that the components of acid waters which were tested have deleterious effects on longer spermatozoa, reducing their viability and thereby reducing reproductive success of the species.

Pearson, B.J.

1983-01-01

65

Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and zinc typically are adsorbed to the surface coatings of streambed-sediment grains. Mine waste and mill tailings contain high concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in a quartz-rich matrix. Most of the waste sites that were sampled had low acid-generating capacity, although one site (fine-grained mill tailings from the Nellie Grant mine deposited in the upper part of lower Frohner Meadows) had extremely high acid-generating potential because of abundant fine-grained pyrite. Two distinct sites were identified as metal sources based on streambed-sediment samples, cores in the meadow substrate, and mine and mill-tailings samples. The Frohner mine and mill site contribute material rich in arsenic and lead; similar material from the Nellie Grant mine and mill site is rich in cadmium and zinc.

Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

2004-01-01

66

Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of <0.1 weight percent NaCl in a sample of Calcite III is compatible with a relatively unaltered ground water origin for this fluid. Precipitation of the sparry calcite took place at much lower temperatures, around 160?? C. For quartz, ??18O values of 9.3 to 12.4 and ?? D values for inclusions of -53 to -28 are consistent with its late occurrence and paragenetic link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J. R.; Batchelder, J. N.

1980-01-01

67

Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.  

PubMed

In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited. PMID:22828923

Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

2012-07-25

68

Oil shale mining and the environment. [Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental mining of oil shale, to date, has been conducted only in the shallow Mahogany Zone and has utilized only the room and pillar mining method. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is planning a demonstration mine in the deep, thick oil-shale deposits in Colorado. This study describes the 4 mining concepts that are planned for demonstration and the interrelationship of

V. Rajaram; T. A. Kauppila; R. L. Bolmer

1977-01-01

69

Mercury dispersal in water, sediments and aquatic biota of a gold mining tailing deposit drainage in pocone, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Pocone district, Brazil, Hg distribution was studied in a small watershed which drains tailings from a 10 yr old gold mining operation. Heavy regional rains are responsible for continuous weathering, thereby making it possible to transport Hg into the ecologically important Pantanal area. Mercury concentrations in creek sediments range from -1. The highest concentrations occur close to the

L. D. Lacerda; W. C. Pfeiffer; R. V. Marins; S. Rodrigues; C. M. M. Souza; W. R. Bastos

1991-01-01

70

Depositional environment of Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation, in Gulf Mariano Lake mine, McKinley County  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mariano Lake mine, McKinley County, New Mexico, is developed in the lower portion of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). The sandstones typically are arkosic to subarkosic, moderately to poorly sorted, medium to coarse grained, subrounded, carbonaceous, and silica cemented. Early emplacement of uranium minerals occurred along geochemical boundaries in a roll-front geometry. In the

J. T. Jr. Jenkins; S. B. Cunningham

1980-01-01

71

Properties of nano- and microparticles emitted into the environment from open-pit mining of iron deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of nano- and microparticles (60 nm-200 ?m) of the dust formed by mass blasting in the iron ore open pit of the Lebedinsky Mining and Concentrating Combine have been studied. Data on the morphology of particles, their magnetic properties, mineralogy, and dimensions have been obtained. Quartz, magnetite, and mica were identified among these particles. The dust mostly consisted of fragmented iron ore formation from the rock massif involved in the blasting.

Adushkin, V. V.; Weidler, P. G.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Friedrich, F.

2010-10-01

72

Mobilization of Ag, heavy metals and Eu from the waste deposit of the Las Herrerias mine (Almería, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the mobility of silver, heavy metals and europium in waste from the Las Herrerías mine in Almería (SE Spain). The most abundant primary mineral phases in the mine wastes are hematite, hydrohematite, barite, quartz, muscovite, anorthite, calcite and phillipsite. The minor phase consisted of primary minerals including ankerite, cinnabar, digenite, magnesite, stannite, siderite and jamesonite, and secondary minerals such as glauberite, szomolnokite, thenardite and uklonscovite. The soils show high concentrations of Ag (mean 21.6 mg kg-1), Ba (mean 2.5%), Fe (mean 114,000 mg kg-1), Sb (mean 342.5 mg kg-1), Pb (mean 1,229.8 mg kg-1), Zn (mean 493 mg kg-1), Mn (mean 4,321.1 mg kg-1), Cd (mean 1.2 mg kg-1) and Eu (mean 4.0 mg kg-1). The column experiments showed mobilization of Ag, Al, Ba, Cu, Cd, Eu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, Pb and Zn, and the inverse modelling showed that the dissolution of hematite, hausmannite, pyrolusite and anglesite can largely account for the mobilization of Fe, Mn and Pb in the leaching experiment. The mobility of silver may be caused by the presence of kongsbergite and chlorargyrite in the waste, while the mobility of Eu seems to be determined by Eu(OH)3, which controls the solubility of Eu in the pH-Eh conditions of the experiments. The mineralogy, pH, Eh and geochemical composition of the mine wastes may explain the possible mobilization of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the absence of contaminants in the groundwater may be caused by the carbonate-rich environment of “host-rocks” that limits their mobility.

Navarro, A.; Cardellach, E.

2009-02-01

73

Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 ± 27.9 and 376.7 ± 73.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncan’s multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 ± 138.3 and 495.8 ± 115.5 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 ± 45.5 and 24.9 ± 5.6 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 ± 127.2 and 1009.7 ± 263.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Alberta’s bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Alberta’s bogs (~80%).

Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

2010-12-01

74

The lichen transplant methodology in the source apportionment of metal deposition around a copper smelter in the former mining town of Karabash, Russia.  

PubMed

The lichen transplant monitoring methodology has been tested for source apportionment of metal deposition around the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash. Transplants of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., collected from a 'control' site in July 2001, were set up at 10 stations along a 60 km NE-SW transect centred on Karabash. Samples were collected after 2 and 3 month monitoring periods and analysed using established wet-chemical techniques. The sources of particulate investigated were the smelter blast furnace and converter, floatation tailings, metallurgical slags, local road dusts, top soils and ambient airborne total suspended particulate. From multi-element least-squares modelling the blast furnace was the main source of particulate in transplants close to the smelter (<10 km). Particulate from the converter, with relatively high Pb and Zn, was found to be more widely dispersed, being finer-grained and so having a longer atmospheric residence time. Ambient airborne particulate, sampled in Karabash town using air-pump apparatus, was almost entirely derived from the converter, very different to the lichen transplants from the same area which mainly contained blast furnace particulate. It is proposed that lichens close to the smelter mainly trapped larger blast furnace-derived particulate as they have a low capture efficiency for smaller (converter) particles. The study demonstrates the utility of lichen transplants for monitoring atmospheric deposition and highlights the caution required in their use to assess ambient air quality in human health studies. PMID:17876714

Williamson, B J; Purvis, O W; Mikhailova, I N; Spiro, B; Udachin, V

2007-09-18

75

Hemimorphite as a natural sink for arsenic in zinc deposits and related mine tailings: Evidence from single-crystal EPR spectroscopy and hydrothermal synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemimorphite is a refractory mineral in surface environments and occurs commonly in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated hemimorphite from Mapimi (Durango, Mexico) reveal two arsenic-associated oxyradicals: [AsO 4] 4- and [AsO 4] 2-. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses confirm this sample to contain 270 ppm As and that hemimorphite from other Zn deposits has appreciable amounts of arsenic as well. Spin Hamiltonian parameters, including matrices g, A ( 75As) and P( 75As), show that the [AsO 4] 4- radical formed from electron trapping by a locally uncompensated [AsO 4] 3- ion substituting for [SiO 4] 4-. Matrices g, A( 75As) and P( 75As) of the [AsO 4] 2- radical show it to have the unpaired spin on the bridging oxygen of an [AsO 4] 3- ion at a Si site and linked to a monovalent impurity ion. This structural model for the [AsO 4] 2- radical is further supported by observed 29Si and 1H superhyperfine structures arising from interactions with a single Si atom (A/g e?e = ˜1 mT at B// c) and two equivalent H atoms (A/g e?e = ˜0.3 mT at B? b = 10°), respectively. Hydrothermal experiments at 200 °C and ˜9.5 MPa show that hemimorphite contains up to ˜2.5 wt% As 2O 5 and suggest that both the arsenate concentration and the pH value in the solution affect the As content in hemimorphite. These results demonstrate that hemimorphite is capable of sequestering arsenate in its crystal lattice, hence is a natural sink for attenuating As in supergene non-sulfide Zn deposits and Zn mine tailings. Moreover, results from hemimorphite potentially have more far-reaching implications for major silicates such as zeolites in the immobilization and removal of arsenic in surface environments.

Mao, Mao; Lin, Jinru; Pan, Yuanming

2010-05-01

76

Applications of computer modeling to the genesis, exploration, and in-situ mining or uranium and vanadium deposits. [Code WATEQF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemical behaviors of uranium and vanadium extremely complex. Adequate characterization of the movement and deposition of these elements in nature is virtually impossible without the aid of the computer. We have modified and enlarged an existing computer model, WATEQF, to include many dissolved species and solid compounds of uranium and vanadium. The enlarged model uses thermodynamic data and equilibrium

D. D. Runnells; R. Lindberg; S. L. Lueck; G. Markos

1980-01-01

77

Environmental Studies of Mineral Deposits in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of articles summarizes environmental geochemical studies of metallic mineral deposits in Alaska, including sulfide, gold, mercury, chromium, and uranium mines and deposits. The studies report metal and acid concentrations in samples collected around such mines and deposits, and evaluate environmental effects of the deposits. An introduction explains geochemical processes, how metals enter environments downstream from mineral deposits, and background geochemical studies. Other articles are: Studies of Mineral Deposits Rich in Heavy Metals; Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Southwestern Alaska; Environmental Geochemistry of Alaskan Gold Deposits; Geochemistry of Surface Waters Draining Alaskan Chromite Deposits; and Radioactivity Concerns of Uranium and Thorium Deposits at Bokan Mountain, Southeastern Alaska.

1996-01-01

78

DETECTION OF MINING EXPLOSIONS FOR A SOUTHERN ASIA SEISMIC DATABASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weston Geophysical maintains a high-quality seismic research database for southern Asia consisting of detailed mining information together with seismograms recorded from mine blasts in India, Pakistan, Iran, and the surrounding regions. This digital mining database contains data on more than 240 mines and mineral deposits in southern Asia, including information on location, geology, commodities, production, mineralogy, references, operator, and mining

James M. Britton; David B. Harris; Ileana M. Tibuleac; Jessie L. Bonner

79

Mining subsidence engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

If large, continuous cavities are created underground, as for example in coal mining, the layers of rock over the deposit\\u000a generally break and subside. The subsidence can be reduced in amount and severity by filling in, or “stowing,” the mine cavity\\u000a with waste material. In the course of subsiding, the land surface deforms into a generally flat, plate-shaped trough, the

Ing H. Kratzsch

1986-01-01

80

Cache and Quarry: Archaeological Deposits in the Trigo Mountains, Yuma County, Arizona. Hart Mine Quarry No. 1 (Cibola) and No. 2 Expansions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the results of a Class III intensive cultural resources inventory of 1,120 acres for the proposed expansion of Hart Mine Quarry No. 1 (Cibola) and Hart Mine Quarry No. 2. A total of 23 sites and 2 isolates were discovered on the weste...

J. Schaefer C. M. Elling

1987-01-01

81

Mine Disasters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction-Timeline; Legislative History; Mining Disaster Facts; Disasters: 1900-Scofield M ines No. 1 & 4, Carbon County, UT; 1907-Monongah No. 6 & 7, South of Fairmont, WV; 1910-Cherry Mine, Cherry, IL; 1911-Banner Mine, Littleton, AL; 1912-...

2000-01-01

82

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper

Henrik K. Hansen; Adrián Rojo; Lisbeth M. Ottosen

2005-01-01

83

A genetic model for a mesothermal Au deposit: evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopic studies at El Sid Gold Mine, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Sid Au mineralisation in the Fawakhir area, Eastern Desert, Egypt, is comprised of hydrothermal quartz veins cutting a Neoproterozoic granitoid pluton. The mineralisation is divided into Au-bearing, transitional and late carbonate vug stages. Pyrite- arsenopyrite and streaky pyrite-sphalerite-galena assemblages characterise the early and late episodes of the Au-bearing stage, respectively. These sulphide minerals sometimes contain Au as inclusions. Fluid inclusions from the Au-bearing stage are H2OCO2 rich fluids (ca 29-62 mole% CO2 and density, ca 0.51-0.66 g cm-3) with moderate to high salinities (ca 12-19 wt% NaCl equiv.). The trapping temperature of the ore occurred between 280 and 350°C, at pressures between 120-170 MPa (˜800-1800 m depth). However, fluid inclusions from the pyrite-arsenopyrite assemblage reflect lower homogenisation temperature measurements (Th) (265-295°C) than those in the streaky pyrite-sphalerite-galena assemblage (330-365°C). The minerals of the transitional and late carbonate vug stages (quartz and calcite) were formed between 180 and 265°C.Oxygen and H isotope data of fluid inclusions hosted in the quartz and calcite from the Au-bearing stage indicate a rather wide range of calculated ?18OH20 and ?DH20 (i.e. +3.2 to + 7.8%‰ and -75 to -32‰ , respectively). The data for the streaky pyrite-sphalerite-galena assemblage exhibit higher ?180H20 values (+ 5.3 to + 6.8%‰) and lower ?DH20 (-75 to -48‰) relative to that of the pyrite-arsenopyrite assemblage. Calculated isotopic temperatures of quartz-calcite fractionation range from 282 to 353°C and are consistent with the trapping temperatures (280-350°C).The fluid inclusion and stable isotope data imply that Au at the El Sid Gold Mine has been transported as a bisulphide complex. The high salinity and inferred occurrence of CH4 in some fluid inclusions collected from the graphite-rich zone along a serpentinite-granitoid contact suggest that the mineralising solutions gained their metal contents through circulation in the fractured zones and incorporation with a geothermal convective system by wall rock interaction. Deposition of Au sulphides has taken place at shallow crustal levels (˜800-1800 m) as a result of meteoric/magmatic-metamorphic water exchange with wall rocks through H2OCO2 immiscibility during fluid pressure drop and decreasing ligand activity.

Harraz, Hassan Z.

2000-02-01

84

DETECTION METHODS FOR MINING EXPLOSIONS IN SOUTHERN ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weston Geophysical maintains a high-quality seismic research database for southern Asia consisting of detailed mining information together with seismograms recorded from mine blasts in northwestern India, southern Pakistan and the surrounding regions. This digital mining database contains data on more than 260 mines and mineral deposits in southern Asia, including information on location, geology, commodities, production, mineralogy, references, operator, and

Ileana M. Tibuleac; James Britton; David B. Harris; Terri Hauk; Heather Hooper; Jessie L. Bonner

85

Economics of ocean mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present offshore mineral production approaches $5 billion per yr in value. Of this total, more than 90% is derived from the offshore output of petroleum and natural gas. The remaining 10% is accounted for by coal, iron ore, sulfur, beach sands, diamonds, and tin. Ocean mining is the exploitation of deposits on the surface of the sea bed, such

2009-01-01

86

Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

Spirakis, C. S.; Pierson, C. T.; Santos, E. S.; Fishman, N. S.

1983-01-01

87

Feasibility and Applicability of Hydraulic Mining and Transport in Underground Noncoal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study identifies and evaluates deposits of noncoal minerals in the United States that are most amenable to be mined underground hydraulically and transported hydraulically. A method was developed to screen and compare mineral deposits including econo...

W. C. Cooley

1981-01-01

88

Longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

NONE

1995-03-14

89

Tracking the Mineralogical Fate of Arsenic in Weathered Sulfides from the Empire Mine Gold-Quartz Vein Deposit by using Microbeam Analytical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several complementary microbeam analytical techniques are being employed to determine the mineralogical fate of arsenic (As) released by weathering of primary sulfide minerals from waste rock at a California gold mine. Because of the known association of As with Fe-oxides, special attention was paid to the fate of Fe during weathering of arsenian pyrite [Fe(S,As)2], arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and ferroan dolomite

T. Burlak; C. N. Alpers; A. L. Foster; A. Brown; L. C. Hammersley; E. Petersen

2010-01-01

90

Coal Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The panel on coal mining technology of the NRC committee on processing and utilization of fossil fuels was appointed to assess the distribution and quality of the nation's coal reserve, underground and surface mining techniques, processing techniques, man...

1978-01-01

91

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold–silver deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It\\u000a consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian\\u000a granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized,\\u000a temporally separated by a major

Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

2010-01-01

92

Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)---a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major

Bong Chul Yoo; Hyun Koo Lee; Noel C. White

2010-01-01

93

Horizontal mining machine and method of slot mining  

SciTech Connect

Mining apparatus for removing near surface narrow seams of mineral deposits such as coal without removal of overburden is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a horizontal coal mining machine which is adapted for use in cooperation with large scraper type earth moving machines or bucket type cranes utilized in strip mining operations. The horizontal mine apparatus comprises generally a wide track service vehicle on which an internal combustion engine and hydraulic motors are disposed. An elongated cutting tool for removing a mineral deposit in a deep slot having a large depth to thickness ratio is supported on an elevator assembly which is pivotally mounted to the vehicle chassis. Linear actuators are coupled to the elevator assembly and cutting tool for adjusting the elevation, sweep and pitch of the cutter assembly to accommodate various changes in elevation and slope of the coal seam.

Stratton, J.R.

1980-09-30

94

Data Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

Benoit, Gerald

2002-01-01

95

Fugitive Dust and Human Exposure to Heavy Metals Around the Red Dog Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Red Dog Mine is a high-grade open pit lead–zinc mine located in the northwestern Brooks Range, about 130 km north of Kotzebue,\\u000a Alaska (Kral 1992) (Fig. 1). The mine began operation in 1989 and exploration has revealed deposits such as the Aqqaluk Deposit\\u000a that would allow mining to continue until 2031 (Liles 2006; USEPA 2007). The mine is operated at

Elizabeth J. Kerin; Hsing K. Lin

96

Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n=226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified

L. Hasselbacha; J. M. Ver Hoef; J. Fordc; P. Neitlich; Eric A. Crecelius; Shanti D. Berryman; B. Wolk; T Boehle

2005-01-01

97

Overview of the Syncrude mining operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Syncrude Canada Limited Operation has been producing synthetic crude oil from a surface oilsand deposit since 1978. The Surface Mine currently supplies an average of 300,000 tonnes per day of ore to the Extraction plant utilizing a strip mining method with draglines, bucketwheel reclaimers, and conveyors. Overburden is removed in advance of the production operation by a large fleet

Wayne N. McKee

1989-01-01

98

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining

J. E. Coakley; J. J. Nolan

1982-01-01

99

Quantification of Mass Loading to Strawberry Creek Near the Gilt Edge Mine, Lawrence County, South Dakota, June 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gilt Edge mine, near Deadwood in Lawrence County, South Dakota, is part of the famous mining district in the northern Black Hills. Mining for gold, copper, and tungsten started in the Gilt Edge deposits in 1876. In the early mining days, small mines b...

B. A. Kimball R. L. Runkel K. Walton-Day J. E. Williamson

2006-01-01

100

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

Mining equipment for steering the cutting horizon of a mining machine cutter which is mounted on a ranging arm and which in use makes repeated traverses along the working face, comprises a boom urged into contact with the mine roof formed on a previous traverse of the machine. The boom is urged towards the mine roof by a ram hydraulically connected to a piston and cylinder device such that movement of the piston of the device is in accordance with that of the ram. Movement of the piston rod activates a flow control valve controlling operation of a ram controlling ranging of the arm.

Ford, J.A.; Whittaker, R.A.

1985-07-30

101

Integrated monitoring and modelling of ground subsidence in potash mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground subsidence is a subject of investigation in two potash mines in New brunswick, Canada. Geometry of salt and potash deposits and mining methods in the two mines are different. The goal of the investigation is to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of the salt rock deformation and to develop prediction models of gorund subsidence through a comparison

A. Chrzanowski; C. Monahan; B. Roulston; A. Szostak-Chrzanowski

1997-01-01

102

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

103

Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Im Blickpunkt dieses Artikels stehen die Funktionsweise und die Einsatzpotenziale des Text Mining. Text Mining läuft in einem mehrstufigen Prozess ab, dessen einzelne Schritte knapp vorgestellt werden. Der Fokus liegt hierbei auf der Datenaufbereitung, bei der mittels Techniken des Natural Language Processing Terme aus den zugrunde liegenden Texten extrahiert werden.

Hajo Hippner; René Rentzmann

2006-01-01

104

African mining  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

Not Available

1987-01-01

105

Contamination of Hydrographic Bassins in Uranium Mining Areas of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium-radium mining industry generated about six million tons of radioactive by-products composed mainly by the tailings of uranium milling facilities and by fine mud deposits resulting from treatment of acid mine waters. Most of these radioactive materials are deposited on the ground in the village of Urgeiriça, near Viseu, and are currently exposed to weathering. Following rains, leaching and

Fernando P. Carvalho; João M. Oliveira; Maria J. Madruga; Irene Lopes; Albertina Libânio; Lubélia Machado

106

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

PubMed

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2012-10-02

107

Solution mining water soluble salts at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subterranean formations of water soluble salt deposits are solution mined by introducing into the formation an aqueous solvent having a temperature substantially above the temperature of the deposit thereby heating the deposit and dissolving the soluble salts, and withdrawing from the deposit an aqueous solution enriched in the dissolved salts. An aqueous solvent, having a temperature lower than the temperature

Cuevas

1980-01-01

108

VALUING ACID MINE DRAINAGE REMEDIATION OF IMPAIRED WATERWAYS IN WEST VIRGINIA: A HEDONIC MODELING APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

States with active and abandoned mines face large private and public costs to remediate damage to streams and rivers from acid mine drainage (AMD), the metal rich runoff flowing primarily from abandoned mines and surface deposits of mine waste. AMD can lower stream and river pH ...

109

Tracking the Mineralogical Fate of Arsenic in Weathered Sulfides from the Empire Mine Gold-Quartz Vein Deposit by using Microbeam Analytical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several complementary microbeam analytical techniques are being employed to determine the mineralogical fate of arsenic (As) released by weathering of primary sulfide minerals from waste rock at a California gold mine. Because of the known association of As with Fe-oxides, special attention was paid to the fate of Fe during weathering of arsenian pyrite [Fe(S,As)2], arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and ferroan dolomite [Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2]. Samples were collected from waste rock dumps at the Empire Mine State Historic Park in Grass Valley, California, and polished thick (60-?m) sections were prepared for analysis. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (µXRF) investigations at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) involved mapping element distribution at the 100-?m pixel scale (beamline 10-2) and 2-µm pixel size (beamline 2-3) at four energies spanning the range of As valence states (11,867-11,890 eV). The maps provide spatial data on several elements (As, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S, and Zn), but without standardization this information remains qualitative. Good correspondence was found between the results of principal component analysis of the maps and the distribution of the two main As valence states, As(III) and As(V). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra collected on beamline 2-3 at the As and Fe K-edges show reduced and oxidized species of both elements and no evidence for secondary arsenate phases such as scorodite (FeAsO4 ? 2H2O). Spectra of As(III) were rare, and not often mixed with As(V). The same thick sections were also analyzed by electron microbeam methods. Chemical and element analysis using a Cameca SX-100 microprobe quantified mineral compositions at selected spots in the sections by comparison to well-characterized reference materials. Concentrations of As in pyrite ranged from less than 0.01% to 3.1 wt. % and pyrite and was heterogeneous at the sub-µm scale. Arsenopyrite and ferroan dolomite were also found to be heterogeneous in composition. Mineralogical and chemical maps at the 2.5-µm pixel scale were produced using QEMSCAN, a scanning electron microscope fitted with multiple energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometers. QEMSCAN data illustrate spatial relationships between unweathered sulfides, ferroan dolomite, weathered As-rich and As-poor sulfides, and their respective As-rich and As-poor Fe-oxide weathering rims. In summary, data from X-ray and electron microbeam techniques indicate that hydrous Fe oxides containing high levels of As(V) ( > 5 wt. %) are associated with the rims of weathered arsenopyrite grains, and that the As(V) content of hydrous Fe oxides rimming pyrite is typically less than 5 wt. %.

Burlak, T.; Alpers, C. N.; Foster, A. L.; Brown, A.; Hammersley, L. C.; Petersen, E.

2010-12-01

110

Acid Mine Drainage at the Abandoned Kettara Mine (Morocco): 1. Environmental Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kettara site (Morocco) is an abandoned pyrrhotite ore mine in a semi-arid environment. The site contains more than 3 million\\u000a tons of mine waste that have been deposited on the surface without concern for environmental issues. Tailings were stockpiled\\u000a in a dyke and pond and in piles, over an area of about 16 ha, and have generated acid mine drainage (AMD)

Rachid Hakkou; Mostafa Benzaazoua; Bruno Bussière

2008-01-01

111

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the drive body includes a pair of forwardly projecting flanges forming air passages in proximity to the cutting edges for the convey of detritus.

Sarin, V.K.

1983-08-16

112

Graph Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The contents of the book have focused so far on the mining of data where the underlying structure is characterized by special\\u000a types of graphs where cycles are not allowed, i.e. acyclic graphs or trees. The focus of this chapter is on the frequent pattern\\u000a mining problem where the underlying structure of the data can be of general graph type

Fedja Hadzic; Henry Tan; Tharam Dillon

113

Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden mercury mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils collected near the Almaden, Spain, mercury mine reflected increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg) with proximity to the mine due to weathered mineral deposits and to atmospheric deposition of Hg from the smelter. Extractions with NaHCOâ or NHâOAc removed small amounts of Hg from both control (20 km from the mine; total Hg = 2.3 ..mu..g\\/g) and mine site

S. E. Lindberg; D. R. Jackson; J. W. Huckabee; S. A. Janzen; M. J. Levin; J. R. Lund

1979-01-01

114

Precambrian Sulphide Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is dedicated to Howard S. Robinson, who was born and educated in the United States, but who spent his professional career in Canada with McIntyre Porcupine Mines, concentrating on Precambrian mineral deposits. Although his career in mineral exploration was distinguished, his major contribution to earth science was probably as one of the founders of the Geological Association of Canada, an institution to which he made a bequest in his will. With this background, the strong emphasis on Canadian Precambrian mineral deposits should come as no surprise; of the 23 papers in this book, 21 are solely or primarily devoted to Canadian deposits. The two exceptions—those describing the Balmat, N.Y., zinc mines (at times the largest zinc producer in the United States) and the Crandon, Wisconsin, volcanogenic zinc-copper massive-sulfide deposit (the largest deposit of its kind found in the 1970s)—are each within a couple of hundred kilometers of the Canadian border. Although the title of the book is more expansive than the actual topics discussed, Canada is rich in Precambrian rocks and ore bodies, and Canadian scientists have been especially alert to tectonic influences in the formation of mineral deposits. These features, plus the fact that the country contains a very well exposed expanse of Archean rocks which is the largest in the world, facilitate the study of early crustal evolution and make the book of particular interest to geophysicists.

Doe, Bruce R.

1984-04-01

115

Hydrogeologic and stratigraphic data pertinent to uranium mining, Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. Information series 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recoverable low-grade uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Laramie Formation in the Cheyenne Basin, Colorado. One of these deposits, the Grover deposit, has been test mined on a pilot scale using in-situ solution-mining techniques. A second deposit, the Keota deposit, is currently being licensed and will produce about 500,000 lb\\/yr (227,000 kg\\/yr) of yellowcake also

R. M. Kirkham; W. OLeary; J. W. Warner

1980-01-01

116

The Distribution of Platinum-Group Elements and Other Chalcophile Elements Among Mineral Phases of the Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit of Creighton Mine, Sudbury, Canada: A Quantitative Mass Balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of PGE and other chalcophile elements among minerals of the Creighton Ore Body of the Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE deposit has been investigated in order to: 1) better understand the petrogenesis of the ores and 2) aid efficient extraction of the PGE which are recovered as a by-product of mining these ores. A mass balance has been carried out by determining the concentrations of the elements in the; whole rock, the base metal sulphides (BMS) and the associated accessory minerals, including platinum-group minerals (PGM). Calculations show that the BMS host the majority (70-95%) of Co, Os, Pd, Ru and Se, that BMS host some (˜ 50%) Ag, Bi, Cd, Te and Zn but very little (< 20%) Ir, Rh, Re, Pt, Au, As, Pb, Sn and Sb. Discrete PGM and associated accessory minerals (e.g. galena (PbS), sphalerite (Zn(Cd)S), Ag-pentlandite and numerous Bi-Te phases) account for the trace elements that are 'missing' from the sulfide mass balance. Iridum, Rh and Pt are hosted by sulfarsenide-bearing PGM within the BMS. These comprise irarsite (IrAsS)- hollingworthite (RhAsS) cores, containing some Pt, Os and Ru, and Ni-cobaltite (NiCoAsS) rims. Rhenium- phases, such as (CuFe)(ReMoOs)S and RePb(Bi)S, are also hosted by the BMS. Palladium-bearing PGM (michenerite PdBiTe), Pt-bearing PGM (sperrylite PtAs2) and Au (electrum AuAg) are present but rare and are hosted by both BMS and silicates. The Ni-cobaltite is estimated to have equilibrated at 550-600°C, and thus the irarsite-hollingworthite cores probably formed at > 600°C possibly by exsolution from the BMS during cooling. Michenerite was observed to infill fractures in amphibole indicating that some Pd can remobilise during metamorphism and deformation at lower temperatures (˜ 490°C).

Dare, S. A.; Barnes, S.-; Prichard, H. M.; Fisher, P. C.

2009-05-01

117

Impact of historic mining activities on fluvial sediment dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holocene floodplain deposits are often used as environmental archives of terrestrial ecosystems, but often radiocarbon dating is problematic due to the absence of datable material. One of the possible alternatives is the use of floodplain contaminants, where the presence of contaminants in sediment indicates that these sediments were deposited after the initiation of contamination. The Geul river catchment (350 km²) is located in the loess region of eastern Belgium and southern Netherlands. Lead was probably mined since Roman times, but main mining activities started in 1844, and all mines were closed by 1882. Large amounts of Pb (and other) contaminants were deposited in channel bed and the floodplain following these mining activities, and contaminated deposits are still been reworked by the river. As a result, all sediments which are deposited since 1844 are polluted with Pb. Previous studies on point bar deposits have shown that peaks in Pb production of the mining sites can be recognized in these deposits as peaks in Pb concentration. Sediment samples for analysis were collected from 17 percussion drillings at three floodplain locations (with overbank deposits) and one point bar location, while 35 additional corings give information about the fluvial architecture. Lead concentrations of samples representing 0.05 to 0.2 m soil depth were determined using the flam atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Pb concentrations were plotted to depth, and peaks in Pb concentrations were linked with the mining history to allow the identification of sediments deposited during the start of the mining (1844-1847) and for some corings also during the peak in mining activities (1869). The presence of Pb in gravelly point bar deposits indicate that since the initiation of mining (1844) the lateral movement was 5 to 7 m. On the other hand, previous research suggests that the entire floodplain (150 m wide) has been reworked by meandering during the Holocene. Results for the overbank deposits show that sediment deposition was highest between 1847-1869 (8 mm/a). After the peak mining period (1869-2007) deposition was much lower (1.7 mm/a), but nevertheless still much higher than before the main mining period (early Holocene - 1847: 0.25 mm/a). Although measurement periods differ largely, these differences in rates clearly illustrate the influence of human land use, both mining and agriculture, on fluvial sediment dynamics.

Notebaert, B.; Verstraeten, G.; Haex, J.

2009-04-01

118

Use of mine spoils from Teruel coal mining district (NE, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal mine restoration projects increase public perception of mining companies. Spain has relatively few examples of completed opencast mine rehabilitation projects. This study seeks to obtain the use of mine spoils from coal mines in Teruel. The studied mine spoils may be used as raw material for the Spanish ceramic industry, located in the provinces of Castellon, Valencia and Teruel. This study specifically discusses the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous materials from coal deposits in Estercuel basin, around Teruel and Castellon in Spain. These provinces have a large ceramic industry. A characterization of mine spoils from coal deposits has been carried out. This characterization is based on the data of both mineral and chemical analysis. The mineralogical characterization was complemented with SEM/EDAX. The study of the chemical composition allows the evaluation of the applicability of the studied mine spoils to the following industries: refractory, fine clay, red clay for pavement and coating, and heavy clay. The clay used for refractory industry has the highest compositional demand. The positive results obtained on this set of preliminary tests lead us to envisage new research programs, focusing on testing these mine spoils on a semi-industrial scale.

Meseguer, S.; Jordán, M. M.; Sanfeliu, T.

2009-01-01

119

Solution mining potassium chloride from heated subterranean cavities  

SciTech Connect

Potassium chloride can be solution mined from a subterranean ore deposit containing potassium chloride and sodium chloride at a temperature higher than the natural deposit temperature, where the deposit ore has been rubblized into the cavity to effect a large contact surface area. The invariant composition of the cavity solution is reached at the highest temperature, preferably greater than the natural deposit temperature, and appreciable pumping rates are used. This is accomplished by 1) solution mining the ore rubble at the natural deposit temperature for a time sufficient to determine the mining rate at that temperature; 2) increasing the temperature of the cavity solution to a temperature determined to be near the highest temperature at which the invariant composition is achievable at the solvent dissolving rate; and 3) solution mining the ore at the higher temperature and withdrawing a solution near the invariant composition at the higher temperature. 17 claims.

Goldsmith, E.L.

1980-12-16

120

Audio Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Occasionally referred to as audio indexing, audio mining is a computerized task involving the processing of an audio file, extracting the dialog and creating a textual transcript, and searching the transcript for certain words or phrases. Considering the amount of audio content on the Internet and other sources, it is clear that audio mining is a growing technology.To get an idea of what audio mining is and how it can be used, people can read this article from the Cutter Consortium (1). It lists six broad areas that can benefit from using the technology and briefly discusses each one. A more detailed introduction is offered on the Leavitt Communications Web site (2). This article delves into how audio mining works by giving a basic technical understanding of the process. A new method of searching an audio file, dubbed the "phonetic search engine," is compared to traditional methods in this white paper (3). A publication from the Compaq Cambridge Research Laboratory (4) discusses ways of collecting and analyzing information from an audio file. It also mentions SpeechBot, a Web-based tool for multimedia retrieval. Several papers can be downloaded from the home page of a research project studying the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (5). The repository is comprised of massive historical audio content, and the team at the University of Colorado is investigating phrase recognition to index the data. Have you ever had a tune stuck in your head, but not known the name of the artist or song title? The Musical Audio-Mining project (6) is working on ways to search for information about a song simply by humming part of it. Audio mining can also be used in the War on Terrorism, as is described in this article of Federal Computer Week (7). Massive amounts of recorded phone conversations are intercepted by the government each day, and audio mining would be an efficient way to sort through irrelevant material and catch suspicious activity. The World Wide Web Consortium released this draft of the Voice Extensible Markup Language (8), which could have applications for the audio mining community.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

121

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

In a system for the supply of fluid under pressure to machinery of an underground mine working, lengths of fixed conduit are secured to parts of the conveyor assembly, prior to the assembly of said parts at the underground mine working. When the conveyor assembly has been assembled, the length of fixed conduits are interconnected, either by straight lengths of flexible conduit, or by branched lengths of flexible conduit, where take off for fluid under pressure is required for the machinery, for example a roof support unit.

Goff, J.R.; Spence, A.M.

1981-06-23

122

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the bit includes forwardly projecting support lands holding a cutting insert wherein the lands have a maximum dimension as measured in a direction perpendicular to a respective side surface of the cutting insert of less than about fifteen percent of the lengthwise dimension of the insert.

Sarin, V.K.

1984-12-18

123

Mining drill  

SciTech Connect

In a mine tool of the type having a drive body holding a bit, the bit and drive body include complementary and mating surfaces wherein one pair of surfaces are adapted to be in overlapping relationship when the bit is twisted in a direction opposite the rotational direction for detachably mounting the bit to the drive body.

Sarin, V.K.; Oberhauser, P.

1984-01-24

124

Longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Longwall mining theory and practice in the USA is covered. Chapters discuss: US panel layout, strata mechanics, design considerations for panel layout, powered supports, design and application of powered supports, methods of coal extraction with the shearer and plow, coal transportation, methane and dust control, longwall face move, surface subsidence and instrumentation.

Peng, S.S.; Chiang, H.S.

1984-01-01

125

Mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mining machine is disclosed in which a cutting drum undercuts a vein of coal and side relief cutters make vertical kerfs in the vein upwardly from the undercut. A chisel plate is forced into the coal vein and breaks loose the material above the undercut and between the side relief cuts. The coal falls into conveyors and is loaded

Mendola

1981-01-01

126

Enhanced mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals from mine tailings by humic acid.  

PubMed

Arsenic and heavy metal mobilization from mine tailings is an issue of concern as it might pose potential groundwater or ecological risks. Increasing attention recently has been focused on the effects of natural organic matter on the mobility behavior of the toxicants in the environment. Column experiments were carried out in this research study to evaluate the feasibility of using humic acid (HA) to mobilize arsenic and heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Pb and Zn) from an oxidized Pb-Zn mine tailings sample collected from Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. Capillary electrophoresis analyses indicated that arsenate [As(V)] was the only extractable arsenic species in the mine tailings and the addition of HA at pH 11 did not incur the oxidation-reduction or methylation reactions of arsenic. A 0.1% HA solution with an initial pH adjusted to 11 was selected as the flushing solution, while distilled water (initial pH adjusted to 11) was used as the control to account for the mobilization of arsenic and the heavy metals by physical mixing and the effect of pH. It was found that the HA could significantly enhance the mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals simultaneously from the mine tailings. After a 70-pore-volume-flushing, the mobilization of arsenic, copper, lead and zinc reached 97, 35, 838 and 224 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mobilization of arsenic and the heavy metals was found to be positively correlated with the mobilization of Fe in the presence of the HA. Moreover, the mobilization of arsenic was also correlated well with that of the heavy metals. The mobilization of co-existing metals to some extent might enhance arsenic mobilization in the presence of the HA by helping incorporate it into soluble aqueous organic complexes through metal-bridging mechanisms. Use of HA in arsenic and heavy metal remediation may be developed as an environmentally benign and possible effective remedial option to reduce and avoid further contamination. PMID:18977015

Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

2008-10-31

127

The Mechanization of Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mechanization of mining is explained in terms of its effect on the mining of coal, focusing on, among others, types of mining, productivity, machinery, benefits to retired miners, fatality rate in underground coal mines, and output of U.S. mining industry. (Author/JN)|

Marovelli, Robert L.; Karhnak, John M.

1982-01-01

128

Chapter 21 Western phosphate field — depositional and economic deposit models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Western Phosphate Field (WPF), composed of Permian marine sedimentary strata that cover over 300,000 km2 in the middle Rocky Mountains of Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming in the United States, contains vast resources of phosphate mined for fertilizer and a range of other industrial applications. The richest deposits of phosphate in the WPF occur in the Meade Peak Phosphatic

P. R. Moyle; D. Z. Piper

2004-01-01

129

Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

Thorman, C. H.; DeWitt, E.; Maron, M. A.; Ladeira, E. A.

2001-01-01

130

Data mining  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop and implement data mining technology suited to the analysis of large collections of unstructured data. This has taken the form of a software tool, PADMA (Parallel Data Mining Agents), which incorporates parallel data accessing, parallel scalable hierarchical clustering algorithms, and a web-based user interface for submitting Structured Query Language (SQL) queries and interactive data visualization. The authors have demonstrated the viability and scalability of PADMA by applying it to an unstructured text database of 25,000 documents running on an IBM SP2 at Argonne National Laboratory. The utility of PADMA for discovering patterns in data has also been demonstrated by applying it to laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients and autopsy reports in collaboration with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Lee, K.; Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.G.; Buescher, K.L.; Ravindran, B.

1998-12-31

131

Environmental impacts of mining of Ni-Mo black shale-hosted deposits in the Zunyi region, southern China: Preliminary results of the study of toxic metals in the system rock-soil-plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheZunyi region in Guizhou province (southern China) is well known by the occurrences of Mo-Ni-polyelement black shales that are locally mined and processed for Mo. The preliminary results of our environmentally oriented study covering the vicinity of the Xiao-Zhu mine, Jiepo-Ling and Tuan Shan Bao Mo-Ni prospects can be summarized as follows: (1) The studied surface soil samples from all

Taiji Luo

2003-01-01

132

43 CFR 3487.1 - Logical mining units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Logical...be enlarged by the addition of other Federal coal leases or with interests in non-Federal coal deposits, or both, in accordance with...

2012-10-01

133

GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL SHALE MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with risk management problems in Estonian oil shale mines. Investigations are focused on application of the method to determination of the quality of geological data. Various factors relevant to mining technology in Estonian oil shale deposit have been determined. For risk estimation, the empirical and judgmental approaches and the event tree were used. They allow determining the

S. SABANOV; T. TOHVER; E. VÄLI; O. NIKITIN; J.-R. PASTARUS

2008-01-01

134

Acid In Situ Leach Uranium Mining : 1 - USA and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. The history and problems of acid ISL sites

Gavin M. Mudd

135

Effects of Mining on the Environment--A National Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two of the most important points of this talk are: (1) Knowing the geology of the mine site is critical to understanding the environmental impact of mining at any given site; and (2) Hydrothermal alteration associated with the mineral deposit has a major ...

C. A. San Juan G. S. Plumlee S. E. Church T. S. Schmidt

2007-01-01

136

Ground water of coal deposits, Bay County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coal deposit in Bay County, Mich., typical of Pennsylvanian-coal deposits in the State, was studied to determine the degree to which hydrologic factors might affect future coal mining. The coal deposit, which averages about 0.5 meters in thickness, lies 50 meters below land surface. It is part of a multi-layered aquifer system that contains sandstone, shale, sand and gravel, and clay units in addition to beds of coal. Hydrologic characteristics (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) of each unit were evaluated by analyses of aquifer tests and a finite-difference groundwater flow model. A model simulating groundwater flow to a hypothetical mine was developed. Results of the study indicate that seepage will probably not be great enough to preclude mining coal. Also, pumping water to keep the mine dry will have little effect on heads in aquifers outside the mine during the first decade of mining. Although coal was mined in Michigan during 1860-1950, significant reserves remain. These deposits, part of the Saginaw Formation of Pennsylvanian age, are near the industrialized parts of the State. The quantity of pumped water needed to keep mines dry and the effect of pumping on aquifers surrounding the mines is a major factor in determining the feasibility of opening new mines. (USGS)

Stark, J. R.; McDonald, Michael G.

1980-01-01

137

Conceptions about Establishment of the Environmentally Harmless Oil Shale Mining and Chemical Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estonian oil shale deposits have the age-old experience of mining and thermal processing of this hydrocarbon mineral, which is unique in its natural and chemical properties. Oil shale mining perspectives and experience of its burning and thermal processing accumulated by mining, power, and chemical industries of Estonia are very important factors of the economic development of the country on a

I. Kuzmiv; J. Fraiman

2009-01-01

138

Expansion of the Commercial Output of Estonian Oil Shale Mining and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to pofyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with smallreserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations

JACOB FRAIMAN; IGOR KUZMIV

1996-01-01

139

Water management in oil shale mining. Volume II. Appendices. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: Bibliography; Legal and regulatory aspects of water management in a Colorado oil shale industry; Manual analysis of inflow to underground mines in tabular sedimentary deposits; Mine infow analysis results; Golder Associates' finite element computer programs for groundwater flow; Holes with hydrology information, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado; Predicted inflow to a proposed block caving demonstration mine, horse draw, Piceance Basin,

A. Brown; M. I. Schauer; J. W. Rowe; W. Heley

1977-01-01

140

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 2. Soviet Block and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. ISL mines in the former Soviet Union generally

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

141

Growth and selenium uptake of range plants propagated in uranium mine soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High soil selenium (Se) levels have been found in association with uranium deposits in Texas. A concern that high Se concentrations may be found in forages grown on reclaimed mine lands prompted this investigation. A native soil sampled near the mining area, and overburden materials sampled from two Se enriched uranium mine spoil sites were compared in a plant growth

L. R. Hossner; H. J. Woodard; Janis Bush

1992-01-01

142

Consideration of Geochemical Issues in Groundwater Restoration at Uranium In-Situ Leach Mining Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some mining processes use fluids to dissolve (or leach) a mineral from an ore deposit in the ground. Although these in-situ leach mining techniques are considered more environmentally benign then traditional mining and milling practices they still tend to...

G. P. Curtis J. A. Davis

2007-01-01

143

Mining Bench Height Evaluation for the Wallaby Resource - A Conditional Simulation Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the feasibility of mining the recently discovered Wallaby gold deposit is due for completion by mid-2000. Open pit mining is the favoured method. Determination of the impact of mining bench height on the recovery of ore, including the estimation of dilution and ore loss, is critical to the economics of the operation. Conditional simulation was used to

I M Glacken; M Noppé; M Titley

2000-01-01

144

Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings: Sulphuric and Citric Acid Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of 11 electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings with the addition of sulphuric and citric acid. Comparing this

Adrian Rojo; Henrik K. Hansen

2005-01-01

145

Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the pH range of 3.2-7.1 in streams impacted by mine drainage. The dissolved fraction of both mercury species is depleted and concentrated in iron oxyhydroxide such that the amount of iron oxyhydroxide in the water column reflects the concentration of mercury species. In streams impacted by mine drainage, mercury and methylmercury are transported and adsorbed onto particulate phases. During periods of low stream flow, fine-grained iron hydroxide sediment accumulates in the bed load of the stream and adsorbs mercury and methylmercury such that both forms of mercury become highly enriched in the iron oxyhydroxide sediment. During high-flow events, mercury- and methylmercury-enriched iron hydroxide sediment is transported into larger aquatic systems producing a high flux of bioavailable mercury. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Rytuba, J. J.

2000-01-01

146

Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

2012-01-01

147

Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as "historically mined" or "unmined," and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations. PMID:22645817

Schmidt, Travis S; Clements, William H; Wanty, Richard B; Verplanck, Philip L; Church, Stanley E; San Juan, Carma A; Fey, David L; Rockwell, Barnaby W; DeWitt, Ed H; Klein, Terry L

2012-04-01

148

Surface mining  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

Not Available

1989-06-01

149

Groundwater Flow Simulation of Uranium In-Situ Leach Mining in North-central Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uranium deposit in north-central Colorado is under consideration for in-situ leach mining. Uranium may be inadvertently transported into aquifers neighboring the mined formation through leaky confining layers during leaching. The stratigraphy of the area includes, in ascending order, the Pierre Shale, the Fox Hills sandstone, and the Laramie Formation. A large roll front mineral deposit is in the upper

M. Yoshino; S. Ge

2009-01-01

150

Controls on pit lake water quality at sixteen open-pit mines in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five mines in Nevada currently have, or will likely have, a pit lake. The large bulk mineable deposits in Nevada mined below the water table are of several types, including Carlin-type Au, quartz-adularia precious metal, quartz-alunite precious metal and porphyry-Cu (-Mo) deposits. Of the 16 past or existing pit lakes at 12 different Nevada mines, most had near neutral pH

Lisa Shevenell; Katherine A Connors; Christopher D Henry

1999-01-01

151

Uptake of radionuclides by a common reed ( Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) grown in the vicinity of the former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh  

Microsoft Academic Search

From uranium mining areas, in particular, the radionuclides are usually discharged to the environment during the mining and milling process. At the former uranium mine Žirovski vrh, Slovenia, mine waste and mill tailings were deposited at the Jazbec site and the Boršt site, respectively. Plants grown in soils contaminated with the seepage waters from tailings may represent radiological concern if

Marko ?erne; Borut Smodiš; Marko Štrok

2011-01-01

152

Carbon dioxide treatment of low density sludge: a new remediation strategy for acidic mining lakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is treated at several points in the Lausitz lignite mine district (Saxony, Germany) in treatment\\u000a plants. The remaining alkaline low density sludge (LDS) was deposited in acidic mining lakes without having an impact on the\\u000a lake water quality. Batch experiments show that alkalinity can be raised using LDS from acid mine drainage treatment plants\\u000a together with

Yvonne Unger-Lindig; Broder Merkel; Mandy Schipek

2010-01-01

153

Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet investigates potential environmental contamination around naturally occurring, mercury-rich mineral deposits in Alaska. Testing of mercury levels in streams and sediments is described, as well as mercury levels in fish downstream from mines and the environmental effects of mercury entering the food chain.

154

Coal mine subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress

Rahall

1991-01-01

155

Humane data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Mining has made tremendous strides in the last decade. It is time to take data mining to the next level of contributions, while continuing to innovate for the current mainstream market. We postulate that a fruitful future direction could be humane data mining: applications to benefit individuals. The potential applications include personal data mining (e.g. personal health), enable people

Rakesh Agrawal

2008-01-01

156

The Mechanization of Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the mechanisation of mining in the US is traced, concentrating almost exclusively on the coal industry. The effect that mechanisation has had on productivity is shown. Room and pillar mining and longwall mining are described and the machinery associated with each type of operation is examined. The increase in surface mining since 1945 has had a marked

Robert L. Marovelli; John M. Karhnak

1982-01-01

157

Enhanced N Deposition and Peatland Carbon Stocks in Boreal Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased deposition of reactive nitrogen due to anthropogenic activities may stimulate plant growth and soil C turnover in N-limited ecosystems. Many peatland ecosystems are particularly sensitive to nitrogen deposition due their ombrotrophic nature. Here, we capitalize on a regional gradient of N deposition associated with several decades of oil sands mining. At six peatlands varying in atmospheric N loading (modeled

M. R. Turetsky; L. A. Halsey; D. H. Vitt; R. K. Wieder

2003-01-01

158

Mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

Becker, H.R.

1984-12-04

159

Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

Rytuba, J. J.

2003-01-01

160

Radioactive wastes from uranium mining enterprises and their environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

content in the ore and the activity of the geochemical processes occurring in the deposit prior to mining, particularly natural leaching resulting from the shift in the equilibrium of uranium with regard to its decay products [i]. The level of radioactivity of the wastes from the exploitation of known uranium deposits is usually low, especially if it is compared with

V. N. Mosinets

1991-01-01

161

German mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

Not Available

1993-10-01

162

Method for Locating Abandoned Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems presented by old mine workings affect both present-day mining and land development. An automated method of locating these old mines from the surface using electrical resistivity techniques was developed earlier under a Bureau of Mines contrac...

R. G. Burdick L. E. Snyder W. F. Kimbrough

1986-01-01

163

Trace elements in the Goze Delchev coal deposit, Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemistry of trace elements in the underground and open-pit mine of the Goze Delchev subbituminous coal deposit have been studied. The coals in both mines are highly enriched in W, Ge and Be, and at less extent in As, Mn and Y as compared with the world-wide Clarkes for subbituminous coals. Ni and Ti are also enhanced in the

G. M. Eskenazy; Y. S. Stefanova

2007-01-01

164

Effects of three low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and pH on the mobilization of arsenic and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) from mine tailings.  

PubMed

Natural organic acids may play an important role in influencing the mobility of toxic contaminants in the environment. The mobilization of arsenic (As) and heavy metals from an oxidized Pb-Zn mine tailings sample in the presence of three low-molecular-weight organic acids, aspartic acid, cysteine, and succinic acid, was investigated at a mass ratio of 10 mg organic additive/g mine tailings in this study. The effect of pH was also evaluated. The mine tailings sample, containing elevated levels of As (2,180 mg/kg), copper (Cu, 1,100 mg/kg), lead (Pb, 12,860 mg/kg), and zinc (Zn, 5,075 mg/kg), was collected from Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada. It was found that the organic additives inhibited As and heavy metal mobilization under acidic conditions (at pH 3 or 5), but enhanced it under neutral to alkaline conditions (at pH above 7) through forming aqueous organic complexes. At pH 11, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn were mobilized mostly by the organic additives, 45, 46, 1,660, and 128 mg/kg by aspartic acid, 31, 28, 1,040, and 112 mg/kg by succinic acid, and 53, 38, 2,020, and 150 mg/kg by cysteine, respectively, whereas those by distilled water were 6, 16, 260, and 52 mg/kg, respectively. It was also found that the mobilization of As and the heavy metals was closely correlated, and both were closely correlated to Fe mobilization. Arsenic mobilization by the three LMWOAs was found to be consistent with the order of the stability of Fe-, Cu-, Pb-, and Zn-organic ligand complexes. The organic acids might be used potentially in the natural attenuation and remediation of As and heavy metal-contaminated sites. PMID:22648854

Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N

2012-05-16

165

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

166

Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USGS has recently released the report Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The 95-page open file report is an inventory of more than 1000 mines and mineral occurrences in the country that resources that include metals, industrial minerals, coal, and peat. The data was compiled from published literature and digital files of the members of the National Industrial Minerals project, and are presented in tables that list mineral showings, deposits, and pegmatite fields. This site is also reviewed in the May 3, 2002 Scout Report.

2002-01-01

167

The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine wastes are the largest volume of materials handled in the world (ICOLD, 1996). The generation of acidic drainage and the release of water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from these wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. Acidic drainage is caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Although acid drainage is commonly associated with the extraction and processing of sulfide-bearing metalliferous ore deposits and sulfide-rich coal, acidic drainage can occur wherever sulfide minerals are excavated and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Engineering projects, including road construction, airport development, and foundation excavation are examples of civil projects that have resulted in the generation of acidic drainage. On United States Forest Service Lands there are (2-5)×104 mines releasing acidic drainage (USDA, 1993). Kleinmann et al. (1991) estimated that more than 6,400 km of rivers and streams in the eastern United States have been adversely affected by mine-drainage water. About (0.8-1.6)×104 km of streams have been affected by metal mining in the western United States. The annual worldwide production of mine wastes exceeded 4.5 Gt in 1982 (ICOLD, 1996). Estimated costs for remediating mine wastes internationally total in the tens of billions of dollars ( Feasby et al.,1991).

Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Weisener, C. G.

2003-12-01

168

Toxic Element Levels in the Phosphate Deposits of Central Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphate deposits are used mainly as raw materials in the fertilizer industry. However, toxic elements content in both phosphate ores and final mining products has received little attention. The present study used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine levels of toxic elements in phosphate deposits in Al-Hisa and Al-Abyad mines, Jordan. Concentrations of elements were converted into

Mufeed Batarseh; Tayel El-Hasan

2009-01-01

169

Characterization of the Rare-Earth Mineralogy at the Pea Ridge Deposit, Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iron ore deposits in south-central Missouri have emerged as a possible resource for the rare-earth elements. The Pea Ridge Iron Mine is one such deposit. Rare-earth minerals at the Pea Ridge Iron Mine are contained in breccia pipes consisting primarily of...

C. W. Whitten R. J. Yancey

1990-01-01

170

Life Cycle of a Mineral Deposit: A Teacher's Guide for Hands-On Mineral Education Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of finding or exploring for a mineral deposit, extracting or mining the resource, recovering the resource, also known as beneficiation, and reclaiming the land mined can be described as the life cycle of a mineral deposit. The complete process...

D. Frank J. Galloway K. Assmus

2005-01-01

171

Acid Mine Drainage: the case of the Lafayette mine, Rapu Rapu (Philippines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acid streams resulting from mining activities from certain types of mineral deposits such as those at Rapu Rapu in the Philippines are highly toxic to the aquatic environment. The extreme acidity is harmful to most aquatic life and, even after neutralisation, the precipitate formed continues to affect aquatic organisms. Toxic elements, such as copper, cadmium and zinc are often

Janet Cotter; Kevin Brigden

2006-01-01

172

Acid Mine Drainage Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contaminated water flowing from abandoned coal mines is one of the most significant contributors to water pollution in former and current coal- producing areas. Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial p...

J. Fripp P. F. Ziemkiewicz H. Charkavorki

2000-01-01

173

76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to...

2011-10-12

174

76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This extension...Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA...

2011-11-10

175

Influences of water and substrate quality for periphyton in a montane stream affected by acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. Kevin Gulch, a headwater stream of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, receives acid mine drainage that maintains low pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, and high rates of metal hydroxide deposition. An acid- tolerant alga, Ulothrix sp., is present below the source of mine drainage in St. Kevin Gulch, but its biomass is limited by the deposition rates of

Dev K. Niyogi; Diane M. McKnight; William M. Lewis

1999-01-01

176

WATER QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER RECLAMATION AT THE ABANDONED VALZINCO Zn-Pb MINE SITE, SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY, VIRGINIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valzinco deposit was a massive sulfide ore body, dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite. It was mined intermittently in the first half of the 20th century by underground methods. The host rocks were metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks. Mine wastes were dominated by flotation tailings deposited in the stream channel, which were subsequently partially transported downstream by fluvial processes.

Robert R. Seal; Jane M. Hammarstrom; Allen Bishop; Nadine M. Piatak; Denise M. Levitan; Edward Epp; Robert G. Sobeck

177

Geochemistry of leachates from selected coal mining and combustion wastes. Project completion report, July 1977September 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the mining of coal, large amounts of inorganic material (gob) are removed with the coal. After cleaning of the coal, this waste is deposited adjacent to the mined area. One of these gob piles, located in Barton County, Missouri, is evaluated as to chemical composition of the waste, leaching characteristics of the waste and mineralogy of secondary minerals deposited

D. A. Kopsick; E. E. Angino

1981-01-01

178

Mining Made Simple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate operating an iron mine, from choosing property to writing an environmental impact statement to setting up the mining operation. Chocolate chip cookies (with the chocolate chips representing iron ore) are used for this experiment. Students are challenged to operate the most profitable and environmentally sound mine they can.

Cohen, Eric

179

Data Mining for CRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

Thearling, Kurt

180

Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing  

SciTech Connect

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1996-09-01

181

Hornicka Pribram ve vede a technice. Sekce O: Hornictvi a ekologie. (The mining Pribram in science and technology. Section O: Mining and the environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings contain 18 contributions, out of which 10 have been inputted in INIS. These deal with remedial work in uranium mining regions, geological environmental problems in the surroundings of uranium deposits, radioactivity monitoring at uranium m...

F. Reichmann F. Novak

1993-01-01

182

Problems in monitoring dust levels within mines.  

PubMed

The collection of dust samples in mines is a multifaceted problem. Initially, one must define the situation being sampled and the purpose of the sampling in order to establish an appropriate sampling plan, including specification of the type of mining process (surface vs. underground, metal vs. nonmetal vs. coal) as well as the mining system employed (equipment). The next step is to decide the nature of the hazard being monitored (i.e., dust depositing in alveolar air spaces entails use of respirable dust sampling, upper airways entails thoracic-fraction sampler, and systemic effects call for an inhalable-fraction sampler) in order to select the appropriate sampler. Deciding on a particular sampling strategy is a complex issue involving federal regulations as well as compliance. PMID:8456351

Hearl, F J; Hewett, P

183

Metagenomic mining for microbiologists.  

PubMed

Microbial ecologists can now start digging into the accumulating mountains of metagenomic data to uncover the occurrence of functional genes and their correlations to microbial community members. Limitations and biases in DNA extraction and sequencing technologies impact sequence distributions, and therefore, have to be considered. However, when comparing metagenomes from widely differing environments, these fluctuations have a relatively minor role in microbial community discrimination. As a consequence, any functional gene or species distribution pattern can be compared among metagenomes originating from various environments and projects. In particular, global comparisons would help to define ecosystem specificities, such as involvement and response to climate change (for example, carbon and nitrogen cycle), human health risks (eg, presence of pathogen species, toxin genes and viruses) and biodegradation capacities. Although not all scientists have easy access to high-throughput sequencing technologies, they do have access to the sequences that have been deposited in databases, and therefore, can begin to intensively mine these metagenomic data to generate hypotheses that can be validated experimentally. Information about metabolic functions and microbial species compositions can already be compared among metagenomes from different ecosystems. These comparisons add to our understanding about microbial adaptation and the role of specific microbes in different ecosystems. Concurrent with the rapid growth of sequencing technologies, we have entered a new age of microbial ecology, which will enable researchers to experimentally confirm putative relationships between microbial functions and community structures. PMID:21593798

Delmont, Tom O; Malandain, Cedric; Prestat, Emmanuel; Larose, Catherine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

2011-05-19

184

Depositional and post-depositional history of warm stage deposits at Knocknacran, Co. Monaghan, Ireland: implications for preservation of Irish last interglacial deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic-rich deposits, uncovered during overburden removal from mantled gypsum karst at Knocknacran opencast gypsum mine, Co. Monaghan, are the best candidate to date for a last interglacial record in Ireland. The two till and organic-rich deposits (preserved at different quarry elevations) were emplaced on to a Tertiary dolerite surface during high-energy flood events and subsequently folded and faulted by movement

A. P. M. Vaughan; L. A. Dowling; F. J. G. Mitchell; S.-E. Lauritzen; A. M. McCabe; P. Coxon

2004-01-01

185

Commercial Data Mining Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

186

Underground coal mining technology: An overview and a look ahead  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal mining systems have kept pace with developments that have occurred in other types of mining. A diversified group of machines are now available with high horsepower motors, built-in microprocessor technology, and numerous options to satisfy miners' needs in various geological environments. The results will be a greater degree of mechanization and recovery of coal from inclined seams, thins seams, and seams mined in lifts from shallow as well as deeper deposits. This article is based on a general survey carried out by the authors to determine the current status of mechanization and systems development in underground coal mining. It indicates that the next two decades will see increasing use of longwall mining, which has already reached a high degree of sophistication.

Singhal, R.K. (Canmet Coal Research Lab., Devon, Alberta (CA)); Fytas, K. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)); Lama, R.D. (Kembla Coal and Coke Proprietary Ltd., Wollongong, NSW (AU))

1989-09-01

187

Mechanism of the water invasion of Gaoyang Iron Mine, China and its impacts on the mine groundwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of mining of iron deposits in China, groundwater invasion and the impacts of groundwater drainage, such\\u000a as regional groundwater table lowering, overlapping cones of depression, subsidence, and water quality deterioration are environmental\\u000a problems which endanger mining production and human life. Effective prevention of water invasion or timely determination of\\u000a the mechanism of water bursting and rational design

He Keqiang; Guo Dong; Wang Xianwei

2006-01-01

188

An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J. M.; Ferreira, R. F.; Hoffman, R. J.

1978-01-01

189

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining operations. A hydraulic eductor pump located at the suction entrance to the inner conduit is used to raise drill cuttings to the surface; a separate slurry eductor pump within the inner conduit located only sufficiently below the slurry discharge of the tool to prevent cavitation at the jet is used to pump the ore slurry to the surface. Another embodiment of this invention employs both eductors to raise the drill cuttings and ore slurry to the surface. Valves controlling the flow of fluid to the drill bit, the mining jet and the slurry discharge eductor pump are located within the inner conduit and a novel valve actuating means is disclosed which employs the pressure within the annular space between the conduits to convert the tool from the drilling to the mining mode. Surface mounted flow control valves and flowmeters in the fluid feed line and in the slurry discharge line control the volume of fluid entering and discharging from the tool. These valves may be controlled by instrumentation to balance the flows, adjusted to control the mining cavity pressure or to compensate for the influx of ground water.

Coakley, J.E.; Nolan, J.J.

1982-09-07

190

Organic matter and clay anomalies associated with base-metal sulfide deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter and clay mineral anomalies surround the Polaris, Gays River and Gaspé Mines base-metal sulfide deposits. The Polaris mine, in the Canadian Arctic, is an MVT deposit formed by low temperature solutions (homogenization temperatures, Th: 105–120°C) and is characterized by a zone of pure illite above a kaolinite envelope surrounding the deposit. These clay mineral assemblages are laterally replaced

Yvon Héroux; André Chagnon; Martine Savard

1996-01-01

191

Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cangshang gold deposit of the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ~040° and dips 40-75°SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody

Xiao'ou Zhang; Peter A. Cawood; Simon A. Wilde; Ruqi Liu; Hailin Song; Wen Li; Lawrence W. Snee

2003-01-01

192

Deposit Collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal lending and savings institutions exist around the world, and often include regular door-to-door deposit collection of cash. Some banks have adopted similar services in order to expand access to banking services in areas that lack physical branches. Using a randomized control trial, we investigate determinants of participation in a deposit collection service and evaluate the impact of offering the

Nava Ashraf; Dean Karlan; Wesley Yin

2006-01-01

193

Potential Impacts of the Proposed Pebble Mine on Fish Habitat and Fishery Resources of Bristol Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

I.,Abstract The freshwater streams of the Bristol Bay drainages support important subsistence and commercial,salmon fisheries and internationally-famous sport fisheries for both resident species and salmon. Northern Dynasty Mines, Inc. (NDM) has proposed to mine a metallic sulfide deposit at the headwaters of some of these streams. The project, referred to as Pebble Mine, will have a preliminary lifespan of 40

William J. Hauser

194

Characterization of different road dusts in opencast coal mining areas of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust from haul and transport roads are the major source of air pollution in opencast coal mining areas. Dust generated during\\u000a mining operations pollutes air which causes different health problems. Various available techniques are implemented in the\\u000a field to minimize and control dust in mining areas. However, they are not very effective because dust deposited on road surfaces\\u000a are not

K. Mandal; A. Kumar; N. Tripathi; R. S. Singh; S. K. Chaulya; P. K. Mishra; L. K. Bandyopadhyay

195

43 CFR 3511.10 - Do certain leases allow me to mine other commodities as well?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorize you to mine potassium compounds as related products, and potassium leases authorize...related products. A phosphate lease allows you to use deposits of silica...the lease for use in the processing or refining of phosphate, phosphate...

2012-10-01

196

Impact of Potential Phosphate Mining on the Hydrology of Osceola National Forest, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Potentially exploitable phosphate deposits underlie part of Osceola National Forest. Hydrologic conditions in the forest are comparable with those in nearby Hamilton County, where phosphate mining and processing have been ongoing since 1965. Given similar...

J. A. Miller G. H. Hughes R. W. Hull J. Vecchioli P. R. Seaber

1978-01-01

197

Deposit Model for Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Ores, Chapter A of Mineral Deposit Model for Resource Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models that will be used for an upcoming national mine...

D. L. Frey D. L. Leach R. D. Taylor R. W. Saltus S. F. Diehl

2010-01-01

198

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2003-01-01

199

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to

Syd S. Peng

2005-01-01

200

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

201

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2001-01-01

202

EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE BOLTER DRILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of

Syd S. Peng

2002-01-01

203

The search for asbestos within the Peter Mitchell Taconite iron ore mine, near Babbitt, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos crystallizes within rock formations undergoing intense deformation characterized by folding, faulting, shearing, and dilation. Some of these conditions have prevailed during formation of the taconite iron ore deposits in the eastern Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. This range includes the Peter Mitchell Taconite Mine at Babbitt, Minnesota. The mine pit is over 8 miles long, up to 1 mile

Malcolm Ross; Robert P. Nolan; Gordon L. Nord

2008-01-01

204

Impacts of gold mine waste disposal on deepwater fish in a pristine tropical marine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the impacts of mine waste disposal, including deep-sea tailings, on tropical marine environments and this study presents the first account of this impact on deepwater fish communities. The Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea has deposited both excavated overburden and processed tailings slurry into the coastal environment since 1997. The abundances of fish species and

D. T. Brewer; D. A. Milton; G. C. Fry; D. M. Dennis; D. S. Heales; W. N. Venables

2007-01-01

205

Technical-Economic Parameters of the New Oil Shale Mining—Chemical Complex in Northeast Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize

Igor Kuzmiv; Jacob Fraiman

2006-01-01

206

Testing of a Fragmentation System for a Hard Rock Mining Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program was to develop deep-kerfing and core-breaking techniques to be incorporated into the design of a field prototype hard rock mining machine. The machine is designed to mine nonabrasive bedded deposits up to 20,000 psi in uniaxial...

T. Brunsing R. Morin

1983-01-01

207

Acid In Situ Leach Uranium Mining : 2 - Soviet Block and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of In Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulphuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. The history and problems of acid ISL sites

Gavin M. Mudd

208

Critical review of acid in situ leach uranium mining: 1. USA and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of in situ leach (ISL) uranium mining is well established in the USA, as well as being used extensively in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The method is being proposed and tested on uranium deposits in Australia, with sulfuric acid chemistry and no restoration of groundwater following mining. Test sites in the USA were required to

Gavin M. Mudd

2001-01-01

209

The Impacts of Coal Mining on the Economy and Environment of South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of the coal mining industry on the economy as well as the environment of South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The South Kalimantan Province is an area with abundant deposits of coal and contributes 16.36 per cent to the national coal stock. Coal mining is a profitable business. It creates employment, generates

Luthfi Fatah

2008-01-01

210

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U)

W. J. Deutsch; R. J. Serne; N. E. Bell; W. J. Martin

1983-01-01

211

Growth and Metal Accumulation of Geyer and Mountain Willow Grown in Topsoil versus Amended Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows (Salix spp.) are an integral component in the restoration of wetland plant communities that have been impacted by the fluvial deposition\\u000a of mine tailings. A greenhouse study was conducted to compare growth and metal uptake of Geyer (S. geyeriana) and mountain (S. monticola) willow grown in topsoil versus lime and biosolids amended mine tailings. Biomass, leader length, and tissue

M. J. Boyter; J. E. Brummer; W. C. Leininger

2009-01-01

212

Shredders and leaf breakdown in streams polluted by coal mining in the South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf breakdown and macroinvertebrate colonisation of artificial leaf packs were investigated in six streams experiencing coal mine discharge and metal deposition near Reefton, South Island, New Zealand. Nine sites; three with metal precipitates prominent on their beds, three with abundant metal bacterial flocs and three control sites with no mine related discharges were investigated over a nine week period during

Annabel R. Barnden; Jon S. Harding

2005-01-01

213

The historical effects of coal mining on the hydrology of Appalachia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Appalachian Mountains, a region known for its rich coal deposits, is also the headwaters to most important river systems draining to the Atlantic Ocean. Coal mined from the Appalachian's was fundamental to the industrialization of the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Deforestation and waste disposal associated with deep mining were common throughout the region. Anecdotal

C. M. Ruffing; A. J. Wreschnig; D. J. Bain; C. M. Hermans; S. M. McCormack; T. Urbanova

2009-01-01

214

Mining method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A method of single-entry mining of coal and analogous minerals is disclosed, which permits substantially 100% extraction of the coal or other mineral in a seam. All operations are carried out under hydraulic steel roof supports adjacent the mine face; farther back the roof is supported by non-yielding cast-in-situ pillars of quick-setting concrete rather than coal pillars or other supports. Mining machinery for these purposes is also disclosed.

Fitzgerald, H.J.; Spies, K.

1983-03-29

215

Surface Mining in Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, Congress enacted the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The Act, designed to protect the environment and society from the adverse effects of surface coal mining and to insure uniform minimum nationwide regulatory standards, established a comprehensive regulatory scheme for surface mining and reclamation operations of both federal and non-federal lands within the United States.\\u000aThe Secretary of

Carolyn S. Bratt

1983-01-01

216

Mining the hydrosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid technological progress over the past two decades has significantly lowered the cost of water desalination and has spurred an impressive growth of this industry. About half of the desalination capacity uses seawater, the other half uses continental brackish water. Most of the desalted water is consumed for domestic and municipal purposes. However, some of it, especially that derived from brackish water, is also competitive for irrigation of high-value crops, and for some industrial purposes, particularly in water-deficient regions. In addition to fresh water, at present only halite, magnesium, and bromine are commercially obtained from seawater. These commodities plus sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, I, Li, B, and potash are also produced from natural brines. Prior attempts to obtain potash, U, Au, and other mineral commodities from seawater failed because the market value of the recovered products was too low to cover the capital and operating costs of processing plants exclusively dedicated to recover them separately. The economics are more favorable if these and/or other elements or compounds are obtained as byproducts of seawater desalination, especially when combined with cogeneration of electricity. Under these circumstances the major capital and operating costs for pumping seawater and for disposing of the reject brine are absorbed mostly by the proceeds from freshwater production. The byproducts need only to pay for the additional recovery processes. One advantage of this strategy is to reduce the environmental impact of reject brine disposal. Another is to reduce the environmental, safety, and health impacts of land-based mining. Furthermore, obtaining nonmetallic mineral commodities from seawater at a number of localities scattered over the Earth can significantly reduce their transportation costs, which is a major proportion of their cost to nations lacking these resources. This is particularly pertinent for common salt (halite), potash, sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, S, and gypsum. These compounds, plus B, Cl, Calcium chloride, Li, and Sr (perhaps also F and U) are the best candidates for recovery from seawater because their value per ton of seawater is greater than that of other products. Further research aimed at recovering the aforementioned elements and compounds from seawater is justified and recommended. Given the many uncertainties involved, it is beyond the scope of this paper to present specific flow sheets and estimates of capital and operating costs for byproduct recovery. Rather, the purpose of this contribution is to provide a general overview of the potential benefits and problems, so that future research can be directed more fruitfully to the recovery of certain sets of elements or compounds under specific circumstances. Once a mineral commodity can be economically obtained from seawater, there is no further need to mine it on land from lower grade, deeper or more distant ore deposits (or to mine it in ecologically sensitive areas). Current producers need not excessively fear the proposed new supplies because in the past high transportation costs often prevented their nonmetallic commodities from reaching the distant potential markets that would be served by many byproduct-producing seawater processing plants. In addition, population growth and rising standards of living may well absorb much of the feared overcapacity in their spheres of influence. For traditional metals, such as Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, and Ag, byproduct recovery from seawater desalination appears to be out of reach for a long time.

Petersen, Ulrich

1994-05-01

217

Data mining support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main stream of research in data mining (or knowledge discovery in databases) focuses on algorithms and automatic or semi-automatic processes for discovering knowledge hidden in data. In this paper, we adopt a more general and goal oriented view of data mining. Data mining is regarded as a field of study covering the theories, methodologies, techniques, and activities with the goal of discovering new and useful knowledge. One of its objectives is to design and implement data mining systems. A miner solves problems of data mining manually, or semi-automatically by using such systems. However, there is a lack of studies on how to assist a miner in solving data mining problems. From the experiences and lessons of decision support systems, we introduce the concept of data mining support systems (DMSS). We draw an analogy between the field of decision-making and the field of data mining, and between the role of a manager and the role of a data miner. A DMSS is an active and highly interactive computer system that assists data mining activities. The needs and the basic features of DMSS are discussed.

Zhao, Yinliang; Yao, JingTao; Yao, Yiyu

2004-04-01

218

COMPARISON OF DATA FROM SYNTHETIC LEACHATE AND DIRECT SAMPLING OF ACID DRAINAGE FROM MINE WASTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERCURY TRANSPORT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining for sulfur started with surface operations and progressed to shaft, then open pit techniques to obtain mercury. Mining has resulted in deposition of approximately ...

219

Mojave Field Trips or Mining Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.

Jessey, David

220

The homogeneity of heavy metal deposition on glass fibre filters collected using a high-volume sampler in the vicinity of an opencast chrome mine complex at Kemi, Northern Finland.  

PubMed

The homogeneity of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe and Cd) distribution on glass fibre filters (Munktell MG 160, 203 x 254 mm, 75 g m(-2)) collected using a high-volume sampler (Wedding & Associates) at an opencast chrome mine complex at Kemi, Northern Finland was studied. The heavy metals in the total suspended particulate (TSP) material were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The glass fibre filters were digested in a microwave oven using a mixture of aqua regia+HF acids. There was significant non-uniform distribution of heavy metals on glass fibre filters. The TSP material containing chromite was very difficult to dissolve by acid digestion. The results from X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and from energy filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), showed that insoluble residue left after microwave oven digestion with aqua regia+HF acids was probably partly due to chemical reactions occurring during microwave heating. PMID:12610697

Pöykiö, R; Perämäki, P; Rönkkömäki, H

2003-01-18

221

30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200...highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and...

2013-07-01

222

Effects of surface mining on the aquatic insects of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The effects of surface mining on the aquatic insect community of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky, were examined. Sampling stations were established above the mine, near the mine and below the mine and selected biological and physiochemical factors were examined at these stations. Station 3 (above mine) had a higher pH, higher alkalinity, lower mineral hardness, less siltation and less ferric hydroxide deposition than either Station 2 (at mine) or Station 1 (below mine). The greatest number of specimens (81%) was collected at Station 3. There were 19 mayfly and stonefly taxa represented at Station 3. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Station 3 than at either Station 1 or Station 2. Examination of trophic relationships showed that shredders (chew and mine vascular plant tissue) were the most abundant group at Station 3, which may have been due to less ferric hydroxide deposition and thereby more vascular plant tissue available. Station 2 (at mine) had the least number of taxa collected, the lowest Shannon-Weaver diversity index value and predators were the most important (Importance Value) trophic group. Station 1 (below mine) was intermediate between Station 2 and Station 3, i.e., it seemed to be a recovery zone where the number of taxa collected began to increase and the physiochemical parameter values began to approach those of Station 3.

Adkins, D.A.

1981-01-01

223

Soil Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blast and throwout areas immediately surrounding the detonation points of the four Operation Roller Coaster events were investigated extensively for plutonium radioactive isotopes deposition and distribution. Device placement and explosive yield diffe...

W. S. Johnson

1966-01-01

224

Radionuclides associated with potential phosphate mining and their possible hazards  

SciTech Connect

Phosphate deposits exist in several regions in Saudi Arabia. Uranium and thorium and their decay products are known to be in phosphate rocks. Radionuclides of the uranium decay series are the more significant in terms of potential radiation hazard to people. Some of these radionuclides are leachable by acidic solutions. Since the local deposits will eventually be mined and processed, it is important to assay the concentrations of uranium and leachable daughter radionuclides in these ores.

AbdulFattah, A.R.F.; Mamoon, A.; Addas, Y.; Sohsah, M. [King Abdulaziz Univ. (Saudi Arabia)

1994-12-31

225

Strategy for African Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the reasons for the demise of Africa's mining performance, and proposes a strategy for accelerating mining sector growth so that the sector can make a greater contribution to economic activity in the region. The report draws heavily on...

1992-01-01

226

Oil shale mining method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for mining underground oil-shale formations consists of drilling a series of small diameter shot holes from the surface vertically downward to near or into the roof of a room previously dug out and mined from the formation, lowering explosive charges to the same depth in each hole and simultaneously exploding these charges to bring down into the room

Arendy

1970-01-01

227

Mining Chains of Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional data mining applications consider the prob- lem of mining a single relation between two attributes. For example, in a scientific bibliography database, authors are related to papers, and we may be interested in discovering association rules between authors. However, in real life, we often have multiple attributes related thoughchains of relations. For example, authors write papers, and papers concern

Foto N. Afrati; Gautam Das; Aristides Gionis; Heikki Mannila; Taneli Mielikäinen; Panayiotis Tsaparas

2005-01-01

228

Continuous mining machine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

Kiefer, H.E.

1992-02-11

229

Human factors in mining  

SciTech Connect

This Bureau of Mines report is directed toward summarizing the application of human factors to improving safety, productivity, and the general physical and psychological working conditions of miners and toward familiarizing readers with the role of human factors in the mining industry and the benefits that car accrue by systematically applying human factors principles and data.

Sanders, M.S.; Peay, J.M.

1988-01-01

230

Distributed Data Mining Bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in computing and communication over wired and wireless networks have resulted in many pervasive distributed computing environments. Many of these envi- ronments deal with different distributed sources of voluminous data, multiple compute nodes, and distributed user community. Analyzing and monitoring these distributed data sources require a data mining technology designed for distributed applications. The field of distributed data mining

Kanishka Bhaduri; Kamalika Das; Kun Liu; Hillol Kargupta; Jessica Ryan

2004-01-01

231

Complete coal mining simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the development and application of a dynamic model of coal mining. The model simulates the movement of in-place coal from multiple mine faces to panel arrangements. Development programs and the evaluation of face and haulage equipment are encompassed by the model. In order to aid management progress from an area of subjective decision making to an objective

C. B. Manula; R. L. Sanford

1969-01-01

232

Acid Mine Drainage Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

Ket

2011-01-11

233

Hydrologic Investigations Concerning Lead Mining Issues in Southeastern Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Good stewardship of our Nation's natural resources demands that the extraction of exploitable, minable ore deposits be conducted in harmony with the protection of the environment, a dilemma faced by many land and water management agencies in the Nation's mining areas. As ore is mined, milled, and sent to the smelter, it leaves footprints where it has been in the form of residual trace metals. Often these footprints become remnants that can be detrimental to other natural resources. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the earth's complex physical and biological processes and their interactions at increasingly smaller scales because subtle changes in one component can substantially affect others. Understanding these changes and resulting effects requires an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific approach. As ore reserves are depleted in one area, additional exploitable deposits are required to replace them, and at times these new deposits are discovered in previously unmined areas. Informed decisions concerning resource management in these new, proposed mining areas require an understanding of the potential consequences of the planned mining actions. This understanding is usually based on knowledge that has been accumulated from studying previously mined areas with similar geohydrologic and biologic conditions. If the two areas experience similar mining practices, the information should be transferable. Lead and zinc mining along the Viburnum Trend Subdistrict of southeastern Missouri has occurred for more than 40 years. Additional potentially exploitable deposits have been discovered 30 miles to the south, within the Mark Twain National Forest. It is anticipated that the observation of current (2008) geohydrologic conditions in the Viburnum Trend can provide insight to land managers that will help reasonably anticipate the potential mining effects should additional mining occur in the exploration area. The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of previously unpublished information that was collected as part of a larger multidisciplinary study of lead mining issues in southeastern Missouri. The report resulted from the application of a multidisciplinary approach to investigate current hydrologic and biologic conditions in streams of the Viburnum Trend and the exploration area in the Mark Twain National Forest.

Edited by Kleeschulte, Michael J.

2008-01-01

234

Towards the automated analysis of regional aeromagnetic data to identify regions prospective for gold deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of geoscientific data to determine areas most likely to contain mineral deposits is becoming increasingly common in the mining industry. The approach is based on characterising areas known to contain deposits and seeking similar areas elsewhere. This paper presents an automatic image processing technique for the prospectivity analysis of Archaean lode-gold deposits, which differs from previous methods in

Eun-Jung Holden; Mike Dentith; Peter Kovesi

2008-01-01

235

Trapper Canyon Deposit, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming: tar sand or heavy oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trapper Canyon Deposit (Battle Creek Deposit in US Bureau of Mines Monograph 12) is located on the western flank of the Bighorn Mountains approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Greybull, Wyoming. The petroleum occurs in the upper eolian sequence of the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone which dips from 5° to 8° to the southwest. The deposit was initially reported

A. J. Verploeg; R. H. Debruin

1983-01-01

236

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF SULLIVAN MINE ON RIGHT WITH PHILLIPS MINE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200 YARDS THROUGH TREES IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MOUND ON THE LEFT SIDE OF ROAD. CAMERA POINTING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

237

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

238

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF PHILLIPS MINE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. SULLIVAN MINE IS LOCATED ROUGHLY 75 YARDS BEYOND AND ROUGHLY IN LINE WITH THE SNOW ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Phillips Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

239

Principles of projecting mining-and-engineering systems for integrated mineral mining with a combined geotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a new scientific-technical approach to projecting the integrated development of ore deposits with combining\\u000a physico-technical and physicochemical geotechnologies. The paper generalizes the theoretical backbone of integrated subsoil\\u000a development, presents the modern concept and principles of projecting the combined physico-technical and physicochemical geotechnology,\\u000a and shows mining-and-engineering systems for integrated ore extraction with an expanded geotechnological cycle.

D. R. Kaplunov; M. V. Ryl’nikova

2008-01-01

240

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

1996-02-01

241

Thoracic Dust Exposures on Longwall and Continuous Mining Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past data on the prevalence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and decreases in pulmonary function indicate a potential problem due to deposition of coal mine dust in the bronchial airways. Difficulty with dust control in certain jobs indicates that chronic bronchitis may continue to be a problem.Compliance with the respirable dust standard does not equally limit the thoracic dust exposure

J. Drew Potts; Michael A. McCawley; Robert A. Jankowski

1990-01-01

242

Method and apparatus for strip mining. [13 claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of strip mining in which a plurality of vertical shafts of square cross section are formed closely adjacent to one another with each shaft extending through overburden and a layer of valuable material such as coal is described. As spoil is removed in forming one shaft it is conveyed to a previously formed shaft and deposited therein. The

1977-01-01

243

Further appraisal of dosimetry related to uranium mining health hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents include: introduction; characterization of mine atmosphere; lung model and breathing patterns; deposition of active material in the respiratory system; regional translocation and equilibrium activities; target tissue and dose; subjective basis of dose comparisons; conclusions and recommendations. Appendices are devoted to: radon (222) decay scheme; comparison of lung models; regional translocation and equilibrium activities; development of dose; dose equations

I. C. Nelson; H. M. Parker

1974-01-01

244

Assessment of radiation dose around uranium mining complex, Jaduguda, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining and ore processing activities are associated with changes in the surrounding environment and may pose a risk to human health, if adequate safety measures are not taken. The uranium ore generally varies worldwide between 0.03 - 3% U3O8, except for a few deposits where higher levels of uranium is reported. More than 95% of the ore is converted into

R. M. Tripathi; S. K. Sahoo; V. N. Jha; Rajesh Kumar; A. K. Shukla

2007-01-01

245

Analytical chemistry in the exploration, mining and processing of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical chemistry is important for the mineral industry, as it is a research method used not only in the exploration and exploitation of mineral deposits but also in the processing of materials. This book contains papers presented at a symposium on analytical chemistry in the exploration, mining and processing of materials. The importance of analytical chemistry in the production of

L. R. P

1986-01-01

246

Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.  

PubMed

Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

2005-01-31

247

Coal mine safety and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining is already a highly mechanized activity, and likely to become more so. It is obvious that the necessary advances in technology will involve machinery as well as mining systems. While the mining engineer of necessity has been highly interdisciplinary in the application of equipment and technology in mining operations, rarely has the interdisciplinary effort reached back into the basic

1983-01-01

248

Data Mining in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

2000-01-01

249

Closed Multidimensional Sequential Pattern Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method, called closed multidimensional sequential pattern mining, for mining multidimensional sequential patterns. The new method is an integration of closed sequential pattern mining and closed itemset pattern mining. Based on this method, we show that (1) the number of complete closed multidimensional sequential patterns is not larger than the number of complete multidimensional sequential patterns (2)

Panida Songram; Veera Boonjing; Sarun Intakosum

2006-01-01

250

Coal mining and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From national western mining conference; Denver, Colorado, USA (9 Feb ; 1974). The vast bulk of the U. S. coal resource lies at depths which render it ; forever inaccessible to recovery by surface mining methods. In the long term, ; underground mining must become the predominant form of coal extraction. The ; longwall method of mining shows great potential

Nephew

1973-01-01

251

Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

1984-01-01

252

Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.  

PubMed

The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems. PMID:18450374

Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

2008-03-20

253

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

254

From Web Mining to Social Multimedia Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web mining is a well established field with many applications. Over the last years we experience a vast and rapidly growing amount of multimedia content that becomes available online. Web 2.0 and online social networks have dramatically influenced the growing amount of multimedia content due to the fact that users become more active producers and distributors of such multimedia context.

Georgios Lappas

2011-01-01

255

OPTIMUM COAL MINE WATER RECLAMATION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum Coal Mine comprises numerous defunct, active and future mining sections. The mine is primarily a large opencast coal mine. Opencast and underground mining activities have a significant impact on surface and groundwater resources. To ensure that the mine will be able to continue with their mining operation in the catchment, the extent of this impact requires that substantial intervention

V. E. COGHO; A. M. van NIEKERK

256

Oil and brine inclusions at the Jumbo and Prescott mines, Linn County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Well north of the Tri-State district, small deposits containing Pb, Zn, and Ba associated with organic matter occur in M. Pennsylvanian beds. One of these, the Jumbo Pb mine lies 2.5 km SE of Pleasanton, Kansas, and takes the form of a mineralized pipe or circle deposit. Similar mineralization occurs at the Prescott Zn deposit located approximately 12 km SSE of the Jumbo in a abandoned coal mine. Several minerals at both mines contain amber petroleum inclusions, fluorescent in UV light. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite from the Jumbo and Prescott mines homogenize at 83-93/sup 0/C. Freezing data for aqueous inclusions in sphalerite imply salinities of 21-23 wt% NaCl equivalent. Some primary inclusions in calcite contain translucent reddish crystals, which may be a daughter mineral, possibly ferroan dolomite. It is not clear whether organics have played an active chemical role in either transporting or precipitating the sulfides of the Jumbo and Prescott mines. Nevertheless, data from both mines are consistent with the basinal brine theory of origin postulated for Mississippi Valley-type deposits and suggest the possibility that these small deposits formed at or near a local oil-water interface or that local formational waters were exceptionally rich in oil droplets.

Blasch, S.R.; Ragan, V.M.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.

1985-01-01

257

Data mining in business services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining applies traditional statistical tools as well as artificial intelligence algorithms to the analysis of large datasets.\\u000a Data mining has proven very effective in many fields, including business. This paper reviews applications of data mining relevant\\u000a to the service industry, and demonstrates primary business functions and data mining methods. Typical industry data mining\\u000a process is described, analytic tools are

David L. Olson

2007-01-01

258

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly lists the various literature reviews dealing with (a) Environmental regulations and impacts, and (b) Characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation, with respect to minerals and mine drainage. 47 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

259

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turney, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

260

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15

261

Uranium Mining in Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the...

G. A. Mackay

1978-01-01

262

Coal mine subsidence  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

Rahall, N.J.

1991-05-01

263

43 CFR 3484.1 - Performance standards for exploration and surface and underground mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...MER, and preparation and handling of coal under Federal leases and licenses, and...plug the hole through the thickness of the coal bed(s) or mineral deposit(s)...

2012-10-01

264

Hydrogeologic Characterization of the Cachoeira Deposit Massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrogeologic applications for the characterization of rock massifs in future mining activity areas are presented. The study was performed in the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Anomaly No. 13 - Lagoa Real Project) located in the south-central portion of t...

J. A. Bottura J. L. Albuquerque Filho L. M. Ojima

1984-01-01

265

TRACE AND POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH URANIUM DEPOSITS IN SOUTH TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmentally sensitive trace elements molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium are concentrated with uranium in ore deposits in South Texas. Cattle grazing in some pastures in mining areas have contracted molybdenosis, a cattle disease resulting from an imbalance of molybdenum an...

266

Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chem...

J. K. Panitz W. L. Hsu D. R. Tallant M. McMaster C. Fox

1995-01-01

267

Ekati Diamond Mine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The page on the Ekati Diamond Mine, which is located in the Northwest Territories and is North America's only operating diamond mine, presents a satellite image and informational text. A detailed map of the region is also included which will allow users to compare the satellite image to what the area looks like on a map. The CCRS was last mentioned in the May 24, 2000 Scout Report for Science and engineering.

2001-01-01

268

Mining method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of single-entry mining of coal and analogous minerals is disclosed, which permits substantially 100% extraction of the coal or other mineral in a seam. All operations are carried out under hydraulic steel roof supports adjacent the mine face; farther back the roof is supported by non-yielding cast-in-situ pillars of quick-setting concrete rather than coal pillars or other supports.

H. J. Fitzgerald; K. Spies

1983-01-01

269

NVESD mine lane facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NVESD Mine Lane Facility has recently undergone an extensive renovation. It now consists of an indoor, dry lane portion, a greenhouse portion with moisture-controlled lanes, a control room, and two outdoor lanes. The indoor structure contains six mine lanes, each approximately 2.5m (width) × 1.2m (depth) × 33m(length). These lanes contain six different soil types: magnetite\\/sand, silt, crusher run

James D. Habersat; Christopher Marshall; George Maksymonko

2003-01-01

270

Women in coal mining  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents views of a female mine engineer with regard to acceptance of women into America's coal industry. Topics include how attitude toward women in mining has greatly changed, how female miners eroded the ''macho'' image, and how unbalanced media coverage slowed acceptance. Suggests that the transition period is over and that women are firmly entrenched in the industry. Concludes that more should be done in the areas of motivation and safety.

Cooley, F.

1982-11-01

271

Placer Gold Deposits of the Eagle Trough, Upper Yukon River Region, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gold placer deposits along the upper Yukon River, in the region between the river villages of Circle and Eagle, were investigated by the Bureau of Mines. The investigation was conducted intermittently between 1976 and 1985 as part of an evaluation of mine...

J. C. Barker

1986-01-01

272

Review of characteristics of mercury speciation and mobility from areas of mercury mining in semi-arid environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation of mercury—including most phase minerals, secondary phases, gaseous and aqueous species—is very important for\\u000a evaluating the environmental impact and mobilization of this contaminant. Mining activities produce mercury mine waste, which\\u000a includes several types of material (mainly mine waste and calcines) with varying mercury content and speciation depending\\u000a on the ore deposit and processing technology. The main phase minerals

Andrés Navarro

2008-01-01

273

Study of Mine Fires and Mine Ventilation. Part I. Computer Simulation of Ventilation Systems under the Influence of Mine Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An existing computer program for mine ventilation network is modified so that it can simulate ventilation conditions under the influence of mine fires. New program parts considered are methane productions in coal mines, heat and gas productions of mine fi...

R. E. Greuer

1977-01-01

274

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous intelligence in agents, data mining, and agent mining. This paper presents a novel but preliminary investigation of ubiquitous intelligence in these areas. We specify five types of ubiquitous intelligence: data intelligence, human intelligence, domain intelligence, network and web intelligence, organizational intelligence, and social intelligence. We define and illustrate them, and discuss techniques for involving them into agents, data mining, and agent mining for complex problem-solving. Further investigation on involving and synthesizing ubiquitous intelligence into agents, data mining, and agent mining will lead to a disciplinary upgrade from methodological, technical and practical perspectives.

Cao, Longbing; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

275

A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However, all water samples collected downstream from the mine site have low Pb concentrations and variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Water samples from a well on the mine site and a pipe discharging water from below the tailings dam also have non-ore Pb isotope ratios. The isotopic compositions of low-Pb samples do not lie on a mixing line between ore and local host rocks, but rather lie on a mixing line between agricultural ditch and stream waters upstream of the mine and New Calumet ore. These waters may form a groundwater system flowing under the mine site that is virtually uncontaminated by the overlying ores and tailings. Compared to the Sullivan case, metals from the New Calumet ore and tailings are only weakly mobilized into local waters, probably due to buffering of waters by carbonate-bearing host rocks. We are impressed with the fingerprinting ability of Pb isotopes to track the sources of heavy metals in water systems, and suggest that other radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd) may also be useful in environmental studies.

Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.

2004-12-01

276

Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.  

PubMed

Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca(2+), while the most common anions were found to be SO4 (2-) and HCO3 (-). Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4 (2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality. PMID:23872888

Atanackovi?, Nebojša; Dragiši?, Veselin; Stojkovi?, Jana; Papi?, Petar; Zivanovi?, Vladimir

2013-07-20

277

The present day genesis and evolution of cave minerals inside the Ojo de la Reina Cave (Naica Mine, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ojo de la Reina is the first and the smallest cave intersected at the -290 level in the Naica Mine (Mexico), therefore it was the first cavity in which the lowering of temperature induced by mine ventilation caused condensation over crystals’ surface since 2005. The consequent dissolution of the gypsum crystals and subsequent condensed water evaporation lead to the deposition

Giovanni Badino; José Maria Calaforra; Paolo Forti; Paolo Garofalo; Laura Sanna

2011-01-01

278

Microbial Methane Formation from Coal and Wood in Abandoned Coal Mines - Analogues for biogenic methane formation in Black Shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

About seven percent of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured

M. Krüger; S. Beckmann; B. Engelen; H. Cypionka

2009-01-01

279

Valuing a Multi-Zone Mine as a Real Asset Portfolio - A Modern Asset Pricing (Real Options) Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern asset pricing (MAP; commonly known as real options valuation) has been used as an alternative to discounted cash flow (DCF) methods in the mining industry to improve the representation of project structure within project valuation models. Previous mining applications of MAP have tended to treat the ore deposit as a homogenous entity as opposed to a heterogenous one in

Michael R. Samis; David Laughton; Richard Poulin

2001-01-01

280

CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative  

SciTech Connect

Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

Hiett, J. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States). Mine Map Repository and Mine Map Information Systems

2007-07-01

281

Proceedings of the American Mining Congress  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings include papers presented at a mining conference. Topics include: fine coal flotation and cleaning; coal preparation; longwall mining techniques; underground coal mining; and surface mine environmental reclamation.

Not Available

1988-01-01

282

Underground mine communications: a survey  

SciTech Connect

After a recent series of unfortunate underground mining disasters, the vital importance of communications for underground mining is underlined one more time. Establishing reliable communication is a very difficult task for underground mining due to the extreme environmental conditions. Until now, no single communication system exists which can solve all of the problems and difficulties encountered in underground mine communications. However, combining research with previous experiences might help existing systems improve, if not completely solve all of the problems. In this survey, underground mine communication is investigated. Major issues which underground mine communication systems must take into account are discussed. Communication types, methods, and their significance are presented.

Yarkan, S.; Guzelgoz, S.; Arslan, H.; Murphy, R.R. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

2009-07-01

283

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute. Final report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During 1990--1991, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program. About 70% of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1990 calendar year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 17 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, characterization and processing, extractive metallurgy, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, and mined-land reclamation. Research areas include the following: Fluid-inclusion studies on fluorspar mineral deposits in an actively mined region; Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Characterization of coal particles for surface-based beneficiation; Impact of surface mining and reclamation of a gypsum deposit area on the surrounding community; Stress-strain response of fine coal particles during transport and storage; Recovery of metal values from mining wastes using bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Mathematical modeling of breakage for optimum sizing during crushing of rock.

Not Available

1991-08-01

284

Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations.  

PubMed

The underground mining of hard coal is widespread in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland). In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous. These waters cause severe damage to the natural environment due to the salinity, but additionally radioactive pollution occurs. The region is densely populated, therefore mitigation methods are very important. The method of radium removal has been applied in full technical scale in two coal mines with very good results--in one of the mines radium-bearing waters are treated at the rate of approximately 0.1 m3 s(-1), while in another mine salty waters are purified at the rate of 0.1 m3 s(-1). The purification takes place in special underground galleries without any contact of the mining crew with the radioactive deposits produced during the process. As a result, release of radium is significantly lower, more than 200 MBq of 226Ra and 228Ra remains underground each day. PMID:18430497

Chalupnik, Stanislaw; Wysocka, Malgorzata

2008-04-21

285

Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

1984-12-01

286

Public feelings and environmental impacts from uranium mining inside Kakadu National Park and around Grand Canyon National Park  

SciTech Connect

There are two uranium mines in the Northern Territory of Australia, Ranger and Nabarlek. The Ranger mine, the only producing operation, is located in the Kakadu National Park, which has been listed on the United Nations' World Heritage list. The park is dedicated to preserving the Australian aboriginal culture: It contains several aboriginal villages and historic sites. Uranium mining in the park has been accepted quite well by the public and the aborigines. Employees of the Ranger mine and their relatives have established a public information program that includes tours of the mining and milling operations. There is no environmental impact to the area from the mining and milling of uranium at the Ranger site. The region around the Grand Canyon contains many highgrade uranium deposits. The ore is contained in unique breccia pipe formations. The pipes, which resemble a cylinder with a diemter of {approx} 100 m and a height of {approx} 300 m, originated as limestone solution cavities located {approx} 400 m below the plateau. There are several exposed deposits along the canyon walls, but no mining operations are allowed within the park boundaries. While the real environmental impact is insignificant, the perceived impact is tremendous. Many special-interest groups have attempted to halt the mining operations. No valid environmental impacts have been predicted or observed as a result of the current mining operations. However, one mine has been delayed for religious reasons by a local tribe or native Americans.

McKlveen, J.W.; Kvasnicka, J.

1989-01-01

287

Copper electrowinning from acid mine drainage: a case study from the closed mine "Cerovo".  

PubMed

Copper removal from acid mine drainage originating from closed copper mine "Cerovo" RTB Bor, Serbia and containing approximately 1.3 g dm(-3) of copper and a very small amount of Fe2+/Fe3+ ions, has been successfully performed by the direct electrowinning method using either a porous copper sheet or carbon felt as the cathode. A cell with a fluidised bed of inert turbulent promoters, also used in this study, may be considered as unacceptable for the purpose view, having a cell voltage between 12 and 14 V. The cells used in the electrowinning experiments were compared in terms of cell voltage, pH and copper concentration. The results showed that it is possible to remove copper successfully from the mine waters with a high degree of electrowinning--higher than 92% and with a satisfactorily average current efficiency (>60%). Depending on the process time and the applied current, a final copper concentration less than 0.1 g dm(-3) was achieved. The specific energy consumption was approximately 7 kWh kg(-1) of deposited copper. A dense copper deposit was obtained when a three-dimensional electrode was used. PMID:19493615

Gorgievski, M; Bozi?, D; Stankovi?, V; Bogdanovi?, G

2009-05-14

288

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

289

Near term results: coal mine safety research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This progress report highlights some of the significant products from Bureau of Mines coal mine health and safety research that are available for industry use. Research has been conducted in the areas of advancements in mining systems, improved conventional and continuous mining equipment, new conventional mining systems, shortwall mining, single entries, roof and rib control, respirable dust, machinery and electrical

Yanrik

1974-01-01

290

Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.  

PubMed

Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

Zolnikov, Tara R

2012-01-31

291

Study and application on mine clean mining technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on describing the environmental pollution by mining and the concept of mine clean mining technology, we further explained the technological principle and process with paste backfilling, and described the constitutes of filling material and its characteristic, the constitutes of paste backfilling system and its process in detail. What is more, this paper summarized the technological characteristic and the scope

Qingliang Chang; Zhi Li; Huaqiang Zhou; Guangwei Wang

2011-01-01

292

Mine Explosion Source Phenomenology Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seismic and acoustic discrimination of large surface and underground mine blasts, including mine collapses and rock bursts, continues to be a difficult scientific problem (Report of a Working Group from Government, Industry and National Laboratories, ...

A. Urzua J. F. Lewkowicz J. L. Bonner

2000-01-01

293

Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the

L. G. Hayes; R. D. Brackett; F. D. Floyd

1981-01-01

294

Type and Distribution of Gold Deposits along the Northern Margin of the North China Craton, People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold deposits and prospects are widely distributed along the northern margin of the North China craton. Up to the present, about 900 individual gold deposits, which constitute one of the most important gold metallogenic belts and the second largest gold-producing base in China, have been discovered, explored, and mined. About one-third of China's endogenic gold deposits and 45% of its

Feng-Jun Nie

1997-01-01

295

Preview: Data Warehousing\\/Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many who are interested in the topics related to data mining, a common question is “What exactly is data mining?” In the\\u000a community of statistics, data mining can be perceived as investigating and applying statistical techniques for EDA — Exploratory\\u000a Data Analysis [Tukey 1977]. In the community of machine learning or artificial intelligence, data mining can be about algorithms

Bon K. Sy; Arjun K. Gupta

296

WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

Zvi H. Meiksin

2002-04-01

297

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-09-15

298

Remote Mine Fire Suppression Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal mine fires in the United States continue to present a significant hazard to the safety and health of mine workers. The leading causes of mine fires include flame cutting and welding operations, frictional heating and ignitions, electrical shorts, mobile equipment malfunctions, and spontaneous combustion The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting an in-depth program

Michael A. Trevits; Alex C. Smith; Jürgen F. Brune

299

Data Mining for Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve software productivity and quality, software engineers are increasingly applying data mining algorithms to various software engineering tasks. However, mining SE data poses several challenges. The authors present various algorithms to effectively mine sequences, graphs, and text from such data.

Tao Xie; Suresh Thummalapenta; David Lo; Chao Liu

2009-01-01

300

In Brief: Coal mining regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced on 18 November measures to strengthen the oversight of state surface coal mining programs and to promulgate federal regulations to protect streams affected by surface coal mining operations. DOI's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is publishing an advance notice of a proposed rule about protecting streams from adverse impacts

Randy Showstack

2009-01-01

301

Predictive Data Mining: Practical Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses some theoretical and practical aspects of data mining, focusing on predictive data mining, where two central types of prediction problems are discussed: classification and regression. Further accent is made on predictive data mining, where the time-stamped data greatly increase the dimensions and complexity of problem solving. The main goal is through processing of data (records from the

Slavco Velickov; Dimitri Solomatine

302

Appling Parallelism in Image Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image mining deals with the study and development of new technologies that allow accomplishing this subject. A common mistake about image mining is identifying its scopes and limitations. Clearly it is different from computer vision and image processing areas. Image mining deals with the extraction of image patterns from a large collection of images, whereas the focus of computer vision

J. Fernandez; N. Miranda; R. Guerrero; F. Piccoli

303

Mining coal on Black Mesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black Mesa is a remote highland in northeastern Arizona. Peabody Coal Company began surface mining operations on Black Mesa in 1970, leasing 64,868 acres from the Navajo and Hopi tribes. Approximately 12 million tons of coal are mined annually. The paper presented discussed Peabody's mining operation on Black Mesa. Topics detailed include transportation of the coal via the Black Mesa

Grow

1981-01-01

304

Continuous mining apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous mining apparatus and method for the underground mining of coal. The continuous mining apparatus includes a cutter assembly, conveyor assembly and base assembly. The base assembly is adapted to be maintained in a stationary position during a cutting operation. The cutter assembly is adapted to be projected outwardly from the stationary base assembly into the seam of coal

Thompson

1982-01-01

305

REMOTE SENSING AND MOUNTAINTOP MINING  

EPA Science Inventory

Coal mining is Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. Modem mining practices know as Mountaintop Mining (MTM) and Valley Fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations....

306

Carbon Sequestration in Mine Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining of silicate rocks produces as waste a reactive, fine-grained residue that is an ideal feedstock for mineral sequestration of carbon. Natural weathering of Mg-silicate mine tailings is rapid because of the fine grain size, and produces mineral crusts that bind carbon. Stable and radiogenic carbon isotope fingerprinting on the minerals confirms an atmospheric carbon source. In active mines that

G. M. Dipple; G. Southam; I. Power; J. Thom; S. Wilson

2005-01-01

307

Hyperspectral mine detection phenomenology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the US Army Hyperspectral Mine Detection Phenomenology program was to determine if spectral disciminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines. A primary goal wa to determine the presence and persistence of spectral features produced by buried anti- tank mines as associated with soil properties and vegetation changes over time. Details of the collections

Alexandra M. Smith; Arthur C. Kenton; Robert Horvath; Linnea S. Nooden; Jennifer Michael; James A. Wright; J. L. Mars; James K. Crowley; Marc D. Sviland; Stan Causey; David Lee; Mary M. Williams; Kurt Montavon

1999-01-01

308

FSP: Frequent Substructure Pattern mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs have become increasingly important in modeling the complicated structures. Mining frequent subgraph patterns is an important research topic in graph mining that helps to analyze the structured database. It has been applied in many applications, such as chemistry, biology, computer networks, and world-wide web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called FSP (frequent substructure pattern mining), which

Shuguo Han; Wee Keong Ng; Yang Yu

2007-01-01

309

Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2011-01-01

310

The environmental impact of mine wastes — Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mine wastes have been generated for several centuries, and mining activity has accelerated significantly during the 20th century. The mine wastes constitute a potential source of contamination to the environment, as heavy metals and acid are released in large amounts. A great variety of microorganisms has been found in mine wastes and microbiological processes are usually responsible for the environmental hazard created by mine wastes. However, microorganisms can also be used to retard the adverse impact of mine wastes on the environment. Conventionally, the mine drainage as well as the waste itself can be treated with alkali to increase pH and precipitate metals. The main drawback of this method is that it has to be continuously repeated to be fully effective. There may also be negative effects on beneficial microorganisms. Several other treatment methods have been developed to stop weathering processes thereby reducing the environmental impact of mine wastes. One approach has been to influence the waste deposit itself by reducing the transfer of oxygen and water to the waste. This can be achieved by covering the waste or by placing it under water. Vegetating the cover will probably also decrease the transfer of oxygen and water, and will give the deposit area a more aesthetical appearance. The other main approach to reduce the environmental impact of mine wastes is to treat the drainage water. Various methods aim at using microorganisms for this in natural or engineered systems. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, metal-transforming bacteria and metal accumulating microorganisms are some examples. Often, some kind of reactor design is needed to effectively control these processes. Recently, much interest has been focused on the use of natural or artificial wetlands for treatment since this generally is a low-cost and low-maintenance method. Bacterial sulfate-reduction and microbial metal accumulation are processes wanted in such systems. Few studies have dealt with long-term effects of wetland systems, but there are some indications that the wetland material has to be replaced for effective treatment. Furthermore, bacterial iron reduction may take place instead of sulfate-reduction in some wetlands. In general, the activity of microorganisms is neglected in the design of mine waste treatment systems, and the treatments are created merely from a technical point of view. This can result in situations where unexpected microbial processes take over, and, in the worst scenario, the overall effect is opposite to the desired.

Ledin, M.; Pedersen, K.

1996-10-01

311

Under-mining health: environmental justice and mining in India.  

PubMed

Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries. PMID:21130678

Saha, Shubhayu; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Sills, Erin O; Singha, Ashok K

2010-09-29

312

Environmental geochemical studies of selected mineral deposits in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental geochemical investigations at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, between 1994 and 1997 included studies of the Kennecott stratabound copper mines and mill area; historic mines and mill in the Bremner District, gold placer mines at Gold Hill; the undisturbed porphyry, Cu-Mo deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek, and the historic mines and mill at Nabesna, The study was in cooperation with the National Park Service and focused on sample media including surface water, bedload sediment, rock, mine waste, and mill tailings samples. Results demonstrate that bedrock geology and mineral deposit type must be considered when environmental geochemical effects of historic or active mine areas are evaluated.

Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Rosenkrans, Danny; Ballestrazze, Vanessa

2000-01-01

313

Mine ventilation and air conditioning. 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

This revised edition presents an engineering design approach to ventilation and air conditioning as part of the comprehensive environmental control of the mine atmosphere. It provides an in-depth look, for practitioners who design and operate mines, into the health and safety aspects of environmental conditions in the underground workplace. The contents include: Environmental control of the mine atmosphere; Properties and behavior of air; Mine air-quality control; Mine gases; Dusts and other mine aerosols; Mine ventilation; Airflow through mine openings and ducts; Mine ventilation circuits and networks; Natural ventilation; Fan application to mines; Auxiliary ventilation and controlled recirculation; Economics of airflow; Control of mine fires and explosions; Mine air conditioning; Heat sources and effect in mines; Mine air conditioning systems; Appendices; References; Answers to selected problems; and Index.

Hartman, H.L. [Univ. of Alabama, University, AL (United States); Mutmansky, J.M.; Ramani, R.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Wang, Y.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1998-12-31

314

Mining software engineering data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software engineering data (such as code bases, execution traces, historical code changes, mailing lists, and bug databases) contains a wealth of information about a project's status, progress, and evolution. Using well-established data mining techniques, practitioners and researchers have started exploring the potential of this valuable data in order to better manage their projects and to produce higher quality software systems

Ahmed E. Hassan; Tao Xie

2010-01-01

315

Mining Software Engineering Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software engineering data (such as code bases, exe- cution traces, historical code changes, mailing lists, and bug databases) contains a wealth of information about a project's status, progress, and evolution. Using well- established data mining techniques, practitioners and re- searchers can explore the potential of this valuable data in order to better manage their projects and to produce higher-quality software

Tao Xie; Jian Pei; Ahmed E. Hassan

2007-01-01

316

Continuous coal mining  

SciTech Connect

Methods under development that will result in greater automation of coal winning both underground and in surface mining are discussed. The impact of automation on individual operations in the winning cycle underground is assessed and presented in tabular form. Cost estimates of the development and production of longwall automation elements are shown. A new type of continuous open-pit is also described.

Laptev, A.

1985-06-01

317

Continuous mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous mining machine is described comprising an elongated conveyor assembly for continuously conveying coal cut from a coal seam rearwardly away from the face of the coal seam being cut. The conveyor assembly has a frame structure associated therewith, power driven cutting and conveying means disposed forwardly with respect to the frame structure for cutting coal from the coal

A. G. Jr. Wilcox; R. D. Plumley

1986-01-01

318

Mining Behavior Graphs for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing the executions of a buggy software program is es- sentially a data mining process. Although many interesting methods have been developed to trace crashing bugs (such as memory violation and core dumps), it is still difficult to analyze noncrashing bugs (such as logical errors). In this paper, we develop a novel method to classify the structured traces of program

Chao Liu; Xifeng Yan; Hwanjo Yu; Jiawei Han; Philip S. Yu

2005-01-01

319

Oil recovery mining apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid and cuttings control assembly is described for gravity-type drain oil wells used in oil well mining comprising a stop valve mounted on a drainage oil well pipe casement for securement to a firmly anchored collar pipe providing the outer linear for an access opening to a gravity-type drainage oil well. The stop valve and pipe casement have an

M. F. Ayler; G. Vranesh

1986-01-01

320

Mountaintop mining under scrutiny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed new regulations call for mountaintop surface coal mining in U.S. Appalachian states to reduce “burying” and other adverse impacts on streams and watersheds.The draft regulations, issued on 29 May by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies, affect a 12-million-acre area encompassing parts of Kentucky West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee.

Showstack, Randy

321

What price strip mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the choices society must make in the development of resources are illustrated in this case study of strip mining in Kentucky. In East Kentucky, the fill bench, where excavation is done, and the overburden of removed rock and soil are unstable and erode easily, causing ecological damage. In addition, the interruption of waterways and the sedimentation and

Landy

2009-01-01

322

Sealing an underground coal deposit for in situ production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously mined underground coal deposit is sealed so that the underground void space can be pressurized for production by in situ techniques. Excavated communication passages are sealed by barricades which are further sealed by applying hydrostatic head pressure. Subsidence cracks are sealed by injection of mud slurry with additional sealing effected by maintaining hydrostatic head pressure with a column

1978-01-01

323

In situ Gas Measurements in Five Experimental Waste Rock Piles, Antamina Mine, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Antamina mine (Peru), a skarn deposit consisting of a quartz-monzonite porphyry hosted in limestone is mined for copper, zinc, lead, and molybdenum. Five (5) experimental waste rock piles were constructed at Antamina and instrumented to evaluate processes controlling metal release under neutral-pH drainage conditions. The piles were built over a 3-year period and each contains approximately 25,000 tonnes

O. Singurindy; S. R. Blackmore; A. Wild; K. U. Mayer; R. D. Beckie; L. Smith

2009-01-01

324

Effects of Mine Drainage on Breakdown of Aspen Litter in Mountain Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of aspen litter breakdown were measured at 40 sites in streams of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, U.S.A. The sites encompassed a range of effects of mine drainage, from pristine (no effects) to highly stressed. The pH, concentrations of dissolved zinc, and deposition rates of metal oxides (the three main stresses from mine drainage) were measured in each stream.

Dev K. Niyogi; Diane M. Mcknight; WILLIAM M. LEWIS JR

2002-01-01

325

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

Not Available

1990-08-01

326

Discovery and exploration of the Gosowong epithermal gold deposit, Halmahera, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gosowong epithermal gold deposit, on the island of Halmahera in eastern Indonesia, is located in an area of primary tropical rain forest with no previous history of gold mining or record of gold mineralisation. The deposit occurs in a newly recognised mineral district which contains a number of epithermal vein systems and at least two centres of low-grade porphyry

J. C Carlile; G. R Davey; I Kadir; R. P Langmead; W. J Rafferty

1998-01-01

327

Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE- Database and Grade and Tonnage Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part o...

D. A. Singer G. J. Orris V. I. Berger

2009-01-01

328

Advanced methodologies for the analysis of databases of mineral deposits and major faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of some novel software tools used for clustering and classifying multivariate data is tested and used to evaluate mineral exploration criteria by examining a mineral deposit and major fault database. The database containing 364 diverse mineral deposits is divided into natural groups utilising a vector quantisation data-mining approach based on a self-organising map (SOM), and phenetic and cladistic

F. P. Bierlein; S. J. Fraser; W. M. Brown; T. Lees

2008-01-01

329

Ground penetrating radar investigations in Upper Kama potash mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An understanding of the structure and state of the rock mass surrounding underground openings in the potash mines is critically important for safe mining, planning the methods of extraction of an orebody, and preventing the influx of ground water. Continuous common offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were acquired in the potash mine operated by the Joint Stock Company (JSC) "Silvinit" (Russia) as part of an investigation of both pre-existing fractures exposed by mine workings and other anomalous geological structures. During the course of GPR investigation, the electrical properties of salt-bearing units were determined, site-specific data acquisition techniques and object-oriented data processing schemes adapted to the geological and geotechnical environment of the Upper Kama potash deposit were developed, and the methodology of 2-D and 3-D GPR data interpretation using interactive modeling was worked out. Open fractures and fault and fold features were successfully mapped using 2-D and 3-D GPR techniques. FK filtering significantly improved the reliability of fracture detection. Spatial models of mapped fractures were created using 3-D GPR imaging technique. Migration of the georadar data was required to obtain the true geometry of folded salt beds. The results of this GPR-based investigation demonstrate that the ground penetrating radar georadar method is capable of providing valuable information about deformation structures within the evaporite units of the Upper Kama potash deposit.

Kovin, Oleg Nikolaievich

330

Active oil seep at Nevada gold mine holds intrigue for more exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an active oil seep has been discovered in one of Nevada's famous Carlin-type low grade disseminated gold deposits. This unique seep, at the Yankee gold mine in White Pine County, may have important implications for both oil and gas and gold exploration in the Basin and Range province of the western U.S. The open pit Yankee mine, near the western margin of Long Valley, exploits one of numerous Carlin-type gold ore bodies in the alligator Ridge mining district; all are currently owned and operated by USMX Corp.

Pinnell, M.L.; Blake, J.G. (Pioneer Oil and Gas, Midvale, UT (US)); Hulen, J.B. (Univ. of Utah Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-15

331

SEDIMENT-HOSTED PRECIOUS METAL DEPOSITS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Dee mine is a sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposit in the Roberts Mountains allochthon of north central Nevada. Soil samples were collected from the C-horizon in undisturbed areas over the deposit in order to investigate the usefulness of soil geochemistry in identifying this type of deposit. Each sample was sieved to minus 80 mesh and analyzed quantitatively for Au, Ag, As, Sb, Hg, Tl and semi-quantitative data for an additional 31 elements. Rank sum analysis is successful for the Au, Ag, As, Sb, Hg, Tl suite, even though bedrock geology is disregarded. This method involves data transformation into a total element signature by ranking the data in ascending order and summing the element ranks for each sample. The rank sums are then divided into percentile groups and plotted. The rank sum plot for the Dee soils unequivocally identifies three of four known ore zones.

Bagby, W. C.; Pickthorn, W. J.; Goldfarb, R.; Hill, R. A.

1984-01-01

332

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

333

43 CFR 3507.18 - What do I need to submit to show that I have found a valuable deposit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Preference Right Lease Applications § 3507.18 What...extent and character of the deposit; (b) The anticipated mining and processing methods and costs; (c) Anticipated...

2012-10-01

334

Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.  

PubMed

Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 ?S cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards. PMID:23223936

Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

2012-12-06

335

Carbon mineralization: insights from field observations, experiments and modeling of accelerated weathering in mine tailings (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon exchange through kinetically controlled mineral-microbe-fluid-gas reactions in mine waste occurs on a scale that can rival the generation of greenhouse gases in large industrial operations. Field observations from four Canadian and Australian mine sites demonstrate carbon mineralization by natural weathering of mine tailings at inactive mines and as a by-product of mineral processing and tailings deposition at active mines. Carbon is trapped within magnesium carbonate minerals. Rates of carbon exchange between geologic, industrial, and atmospheric reservoirs varies by several orders of magnitude and are influenced by local climate and tailings handling practices. Stable isotopic data and laboratory experiments of kinetically limited carbon dioxide exchange between air and aqueous solution indicate that the rate of carbon uptake may be limited by the rate of carbon supply to some mine sites, making them prime candidates for acceleration. Silicate mineral depletions in vertical profiles through mine tailings deposits are consistent with dissolution of serpentine and brucite as the primary source of magnesium for carbon mineralization. Geochemical reactive transport models suggest that the rates of mineral dissolution inferred from field data are consistent with laboratory-determined mineral dissolution rate laws. Incorporation of these rate laws into geochemical models for carbon sequestration during underground injection into ultramafic rocks provides estimates of the rates of carbon mineralization that are significant but remain untested.

Dipple, G. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Bea, S.; Mayer, K. U.; Power, I. M.; Barker, S. L.; Southam, G.

2010-12-01

336

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

SciTech Connect

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d`Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Rember, W.C.; Erdman, T.W.; Hoffmann, M.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-11-01

337

Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

1993-11-01

338

SAPONITE FROM THE EMET COLEMANITE MINES, KUTAHYA, TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clay mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry of the borate-bearing layers of the Hisarclk and Esbey mines were examined. The Hisarok clays occur as laminated or unlaminated clay layers with sharp contacts. Unlaminated layers contain quartz derived from metamorphic rocks and carbonate fragments in a clay matrix, and are interpreted as reworked tufts deposited in playa-lake environments. An important feature is that

MARINO MAGGETTI

339

Aquifer restoration techniques for in-situ leach uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

In-situ leach uranium mines and pilot-scale test facilities are currently operating in the states of Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. This report summarizes the technical considerations involved in restoring a leached ore zone and its aquifer to the required level. Background information is provided on the geology and geochemistry of mineralized roll-front deposits and on the leaching techniques used to extract the uranium. 13 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

Deutsch, W.J.; Bell, N.E.; Mercer, B.W.; Serne, R.J.; Shade, J.W.; Tweeton, D.R.

1984-02-01

340

Aquifer restoration techniques for in-situ leach uranium mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ leach uranium mines and pilot-scale test facilities are currently operating in the states of Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. This report summarizes the technical considerations involved in restoring a leached ore zone and its aquifer to the required level. Background information is provided on the geology and geochemistry of mineralized roll-front deposits and on the leaching techniques used

W. J. Deutsch; N. E. Bell; B. W. Mercer; R. J. Serne; J. W. Shade; D. R. Tweeton

1984-01-01

341

Uranium ISL Mining Activities at the International Atomic Energy Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the International Atomic Energy Agency’s foundation in 1957 the IAEA has had an increasing interest in uranium production\\u000a cycle issues. The recent activities cover tasks including uranium geology & deposits, uranium resources, production, demand,\\u000a uranium exploration and uranium mining & milling technologies. All the tasks include environmental issues. In addition, many\\u000a training courses (also on ISL topics) have been

Jan Slezak

342

Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

343

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the abandoned Valzinco (lead-zinc) and Mitchell (gold) mine sites prior to reclamation, Spotsylvania County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Virginia gold-pyrite belt, part of the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, hosts numerous abandoned metal mines. The belt extends from about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., for approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. The rocks that comprise the belt include metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (noncarbonate) sedimentary rocks that were originally deposited during the Ordovician). Deposits that were mined can be classified into three broad categories: 1. volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, 2. low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, 3. gold placer deposits, which result from weathering of the vein deposits The massive sulfide deposits were historically mined for iron and pyrite (sulfur), zinc, lead, and copper but also yielded byproduct gold and silver. The most intensely mineralized and mined section of the belt is southwest of Fredericksburg, in the Mineral district of Louisa and Spotsylvania counties. The Valzinco Piatak lead-zinc mine and the Mitchell gold prospect are abandoned sites in Spotsylvania County. As a result of environmental impacts associated with historic mining, both sites were prioritized for reclamation under the Virginia Orphaned Land Program administered by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy (VDMME). This report summarizes geochemical data for all solid sample media, along with mineralogical data, and results of weathering experiments on Valzinco tailings and field experiments on sediment accumulation in Knights Branch. These data provide a framework for evaluating water-rock interactionsand geoenvironmental signatures of long-abandoned mines developed in massive sulfide deposits and low-sulfide gold-quartz vein deposits in the humid temperate ecosystem domain in the eastern United States.

Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Seal, Robert R., II; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul L.; Piatak, Nadine M.

2006-01-01

344

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

SciTech Connect

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01

345

Asturian mercury mining district (Spain) and the environment: a review.  

PubMed

Mercury is of particular concern amongst global environmental pollutants, with abundant contaminated sites worldwide, many of which are associated with mining activities. Asturias (Northwest of Spain) can be considered an Hg metallogenic province with abundant epithermal-type deposits, whose paragenetic sequences include also As-rich minerals. These mines were abandoned long before the introduction of any environmental regulations to control metal release from these sources. Consequently, the environment is globally affected, as high metal concentrations have been found in soils, waters, sediments, plants, and air. In this paper, a characterization of the environmental affection caused by Hg mining in nine Asturian mine sites is presented, with particular emphasis in Hg and As contents. Hg concentrations found in the studied milieu are similar and even higher than those reported in previous studies for other mercury mining districts (mainly Almadén and Idrija). Furthermore, the potential adverse health effects of exposure to these elements in the considered sites in this district have been assessed. PMID:23589252

Ordóñez, A; Alvarez, R; Loredo, J

2013-04-16

346

Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute has worked diligently to further the objectives of the Mineral Institute Program (ISMMRRI). The majority of our Allotment Grant funding goes toward research and education of graduate students within the participating departments of the university. It is our goal to encourage graduate students in diverse fields such as agronomy, engineering, geology, landscape architecture, and many others to pursue a career in mining- and mineral-related fields by preparing them to either enter the private or public sectors. During the 1991--1992 academic year, ISMMRRI granted research assistantships to 12 graduate students to perform research in topics relating to mineral exploration, extractive metallurgy, characterization and processing, mining engineering, fuel science, mineral waste management, mineral handling, and mineral-energy utilization. Research areas include the following: Geochemical modeling of gold and gold-telluride deposits; Study of shale strength to predict and reduce roof falls in mines; Characterization of the combustion performance of chemically-cleaned coal; Predicting the performance of coal cleaning by selective agglomeration; Temperature sensitive surfactants for surface-based coal cleaning; Conversion of sulfur-dioxide wastes to hydrochloric acid; Evaluating the mechanical properties of coal filter cake; Recovery of metal values from mining wastesusing bioleaching; Coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging in a fast fluidized bed; and Improved impact crushing of limestone.

Not Available

1992-08-01

347

Coal mine safety and productivity  

SciTech Connect

Mining is already a highly mechanized activity, and likely to become more so. It is obvious that the necessary advances in technology will involve machinery as well as mining systems. While the mining engineer of necessity has been highly interdisciplinary in the application of equipment and technology in mining operations, rarely has the interdisciplinary effort reached back into the basic creative processes necessary for substantial innovation. What is needed is a program that matches equipment possibilities and constraints with mining needs and hazards at the outset, considering the system and equipment simultaneously. The Center for Innovative Mining Systems and Equipment, combining the pertinent strengths of M.I.T. and Penn State, will provide the ideal interdisciplinary team to develop practical, innovative, and substantial improvements in mining technology. By working together these two leading institutions provide the breadth and technical excellence to conceive, design, evaluate, and develop new systems that demand simultaneous consideration of mining systems, mine planning and operation, machine design, control systems, and commercial realities. The mining industry's longstanding problems are likely to remain standing if its considerable research expenditures are continually dribbled away in fragmented, piecemeal, short-range efforts. Although revolutionary programs cannot be neglected, the Center provides a new vehicle through which a portion of the total research expenditure can be directed to a sustained, long-range, coordinated, industry program, stepping beyond the unnecessary constraints and complexity of mature conventional systems and the prohibitive economic barriers faced by any single commercial venture.

Peterson, C.R.

1983-10-25

348

Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.  

PubMed

Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge. PMID:19244711

Dym, Warren Alexander

2008-11-01

349

Characterization of historical amphibole samples from the former vermiculite mine near Libby, Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if the composition or morphology of amphiboles occurring in the Rainy Creek vermiculite deposit near Libby, Montana, has changed as the deposit has been mined over the last 70 years, we assembled amphiboles collected in the ? 1920s, ? 1960s, and 1999. Amphibole morphologies range from ? 20-50 mm prismatic single crystals to massive aggregates of fine-grained, asbestiform

Matthew S. Sanchez; Mickey E. Gunter; M. Darby Dyar

2008-01-01

350

Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

1980-02-01

351

Mobile robots in mine rescue and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining accidents have occurred since the early days of mining. Therewere a total of 525 mining disasters (incidents with five or more fatalities) in both coal and metal\\/nonmetal mines from 1900 through 2007 in the United States, resulting in 12,823 fatalities. Most of these disasters involve mine rescue teams, which are specially trained to perform search and rescue operations in

ROBIN R. MURPHY; Jeffery Kravitz; SAMUEL L. STOVER; Rahmat Shoureshi

2009-01-01

352

Trace and Rare-Earth Element Geochemistry of the Karalar (Gazipafla—Antalya) Barite-Galena Deposits, Southern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karalar barite-galena deposits are typical examples of carbonate-hosted barite-galena deposits that occur widely in the central Taurides. Recent mining activity has been concentrated in the Büyük and Boyal›k mine areas. The mineralisation occurs as ore veins along fault zones and as ore-filled breccia zones along the strongly deformed lower walls of limestone blocks in the Permian limestones of the

GÜLCAN BOZKAYA; AHMET GÖKÇE; Nadir Toprak; Element Jeokimyas; Güney Türkiye

2004-01-01

353

Geochemical changes in mine tailings during a transition to pressure–oxidation process discharge, Macraes mine, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Macraes gold mine, in southern New Zealand, was developed in a low grade mesothermal deposit. A pressure–oxidation plant was commissioned in 1999 to oxidize pyrite and arsenopyrite in the ore and release gold from within the sulphide grains. Pressure–oxidation discharges include anhydrite, jarosite, and amorphous Fe arsenates with molar Fe\\/As of 2–7 and up to 0.5 mol% S. Discharge

D. Craw

2003-01-01

354

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States are found in lake beds that formed millions of years ago. These diatom-rich sediments are among the Nation's largest commercial diatomite deposits. Each deposit contains billions of tiny diatom skeletons, which are widely used for filtration, absorption, and abrasives. New studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are revealing how ancient lakes in the Western States produced such large numbers of diatoms. These findings can be used by both land-use managers and mining companies to better evaluate diatomite resources in the region.

Wallace, Alan R.; Frank, David G.; Founie, Alan

2006-01-01

355

Complex Mining and Dressing Systems Match of Regional Mine Based on CAS Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex mining and dressing systems match of regional mine is a kind of specify systems composed by mining and ore dressing agent in regional mine, in certain scopes or environments, and realize every kind of ore resources optimum match under certain constraints. we have studied mining and dressing systems match of regional mine applied complex adaptive system theory creatively, analyzed

Chen Junzhi; Ren Chunfang; Guo Tao

2010-01-01

356

Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD), a disease most commonly found in middle-aged individuals, is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous attachme...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio S. J. Upton

2006-01-01

357

Mine roof bolt  

SciTech Connect

A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

Gillespie, H.D.

1993-07-27

358

Surface mine reclamation manual  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides a discussion of the methods of surface mine reclamation. Combining essential theory and practice from such diverse fields as soil science, agronomy, forestry, hydrology, and engineering, the book describes, in three major sections: surface mine revegetation theory, practical methods of revegetation, and methodology of erosion and sedimentation control. Emphasis is placed on revegetation methods that will ensure the best chance for successful vegetation establishment. In addition, plant cultivation theory is explained to help in understanding why revegetation projects succeed or fail so that future revegetation problems can be remedied. Topics of discussion have been carefully selected according to their utility, and only those factors that a reclamationist will need to know for application have been included.

Lyle, S.

1986-01-01

359

Realtime mine ventilation simulation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a Windows based, interactive mine ventilation simulation software program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To enhance the operation of the underground ventilation system, Westinghouse Electric Corporation developed the program called WIPPVENT. While WIPPVENT includes most of the functions of the commercially available simulation program VNETPC and uses the same subroutine to calculate airflow distributions, the user interface has been completely rewritten as a Windows application with screen graphics. WIPPVENT is designed to interact with WIPP ventilation monitoring systems through the sitewise Central monitoring System. Data can be continuously collected from the Underground Ventilation Remote Monitoring and Control System (e.g., air quantity and differential pressure) and the Mine Weather Stations (psychrometric data). Furthermore, WIPPVENT incorporates regulator characteristic curves specific to the site. The program utilizes this data to create and continuously update a REAL-TIME ventilation model. This paper discusses the design, key features, and interactive capabilities of WIPPVENT.

McDaniel, K.H. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.; Wallace, K.G. Jr. [Mine Ventilation Services, Inc., Fresno, CA (United States)

1997-04-01

360

Mining with microbes  

SciTech Connect

Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the {open_quotes}bioleaching{close_quotes} of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as {open_quotes}absorbants{close_quotes} of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs.

Rawlings., D.E. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Silver, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-08-01

361

Environmental effects of mining  

SciTech Connect

The mining and mineral process industry has had very strong demands placed on it in recent decades, as the extent of its effects on the environment has become better understood and public concern has increased. Important progress has been made in both awareness and comprehension of the problems created by mineral production and in knowledge of how to prevent, mitigate and correct them. The first half of the book covers exploration and development, extraction processes, metallurgical processing and refining, decommissioning, environmental and ecological analysis, transportation analysis, residual dispersion, protection, rehabilitation, reclamation, regulation, standards and monitoring. The second half consists of chapters devoted to specific mined commodities. Each chapter covers a commodity, its production history, the situation of orebodies, ore extraction, ore processing, specific impacts on the environment, and short- and long-term remediation methods. Case histories are used to provide detail.

Crowder, A.A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Ripley, E.A.; Redmann, R.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1995-12-01

362

Minerals and mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of minerals and mine drainage, the present paper deals with the following aspects: environmental impacts; environmental regulations; characterization; prevention; treatment; and reclamation. 34 refs.

Thomson, B.M. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Turney, W.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1994-06-01

363

Drum cutter mining machine  

SciTech Connect

A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

1980-02-19

364

Fungus speeds mine reclamation  

SciTech Connect

A bacterial fungus, Pislothus tinctorius is showing potential in coal-mine reclamation. The fungus typically appears as puffballs, and roots of pine, spruce, cedar, fir, yew and oak are found to increase in size because of the fungus and are better able to absorb moisture and nutrients and thus to survive in adverse conditions. Research is being undertaken at the US Forest Service into inoculating pine seedlings with the fungus.

Wolf, C.H.

1982-09-01

365

Mining the Mars Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of concepts have been developed to mine the atmosphere of Mars and process it to extract or generate compressed carbon dioxide, compressed buffer gas mixtures of nitrogen and argon, water, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and/or carbon. Such products can be of use to science instruments, robotic, and human missions. The products can be for utility purposes, life support, propulsion (both interplanetary and on the planet's surface), and power generation.

Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.

1997-01-01

366

Underground mining from above  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely operated and autonomous ore-excavation technology could eventually eliminate the need for miners to travel deep underground. Though mining tools have evolved from primitive wood-and-antler pickaxes to modern diesel-powered drills, miners have always had to go underground to dig ore. Soon, however, going down the shafts may no longer be part of the daily routine for miners excavating some of

Ashley

1995-01-01

367

Mining API Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When designing a piece of software, one frequently must choose between multiple external libraries that provide similar services.\\u000a Which library is the best one to use? We mined hundreds of open source projects and their external dependencies in order to\\u000a observe the popularity of their APIs and to give recommendations of the kind: “Projects are moving away from this API

Yana Momchilova Mileva; Valentin Dallmeier; Andreas Zeller

2010-01-01

368

Abductive Workflow Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a new approach to discovering important workflows from event logs, referred to as abductive workflow mining, as the process of determining activity that would necessarily imply that certain predetermined critical activity should\\u000a necessarily take place. Whenever critical activity is observed, one can inspect the abductive workflow to ascertain whether\\u000a there was sufficient reason for the critical activity to

Scott Buffett; Bruce Hamilton

2008-01-01

369

Germany knows mining  

SciTech Connect

Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

NONE

2006-11-15

370

Organizational Data Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

371

Comparison Between Kriging Variance and Interpolation Variance as Uncertainty Measurements in the Capanema Iron Mine, State of Minas Gerais—Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Capanema Mine, an iron ore deposit, is located in the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Mine development data from approximately 7000 drillholes were used for a comparative study between kriging variance and interpolation variance as uncertainty measurements associated with ordinary kriging estimates. As known, the traditional kriging variance does not depend on

Marcelo Monteiro da Rocha; Jorge Kazuo Yamamoto

2000-01-01

372

High cadmium residues observed during a pilot study in shorebirds and their prey downstream from the El salvador copper mine, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untreated mining wastes, at the rate of 39,000 tons per day, are discharged through a semi-artificial canal directly to the marine shore from the El Salvador copper mine in northern Chile. The tailings were deposited on a sandy beach near Chanaral between 1938 and 1974 and since 1975 at Caleta Palito, 8 km north of Chanaral. Since no chemical analyses

Kees Vermeer; Juan Carlos Castilla

1991-01-01

373

Mineralogical and geochemical controls on the release of trace elements from slag produced by base- and precious-metal smelting at abandoned mine sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slag collected from smelter sites associated with historic base-metal mines contains elevated concentrations of trace elements such as Cu, Zn and Pb. Weathering of slag piles, many of which were deposited along stream banks, potentially may release these trace elements into the environment. Slags were sampled from the Ely and Elizabeth mines in the Vermont copper belt, from the copper

Nadine M Piatak; Robert R Seal; Jane M Hammarstrom

2004-01-01

374

Ubiquitous Intelligence in Agent Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent mining, namely the interaction and integration of multi-agent and data mining, has emerged as a very promising research\\u000a area. While many mutual issues exist in both multi-agent and data mining areas, most of them can be described in terms of\\u000a or related to ubiquitous intelligence. It is certainly very important to define, specify, represent, analyze and utilize ubiquitous\\u000a intelligence

Longbing Cao; Dan Luo; Chengqi Zhang

2009-01-01

375

STUDY OF ANOMALOUS MINE BLASTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai-Sayan mining region located east of Novosibirsk, Russia, comprises over 72 mines which are located between 7 and 559 km from the International Monitoring System (IMS) primary 3-component station ZAL. We have origin time and location estimates of 853 blasts that have occurred in this trend between 1\\/1\\/1995 and 6\\/30\\/2000. The mines are known to use millisecond delay-fire blasting

Michael A. H. Hedlin; Vitaly I. Khalturin

376

Remote sensing and mountaintop mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mining in Appalachia has undergone dramatic changes in the 1990s. Large?scale surface mining practices known as mountaintop mining (MTM) and valley fills (VF) are at the center of an environmental and legal controversy that has spawned lawsuits and major environmental investigations. Current MTM\\/VF operations are a major source of low?sulfur, less?air?polluting coal, which is desired for much of the

E. Terrence Slonecker; Mary J. Benger

2001-01-01

377

Mining coal on Black Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Black Mesa is a remote highland in northeastern Arizona. Peabody Coal Company began surface mining operations on Black Mesa in 1970, leasing 64,868 acres from the Navajo and Hopi tribes. Approximately 12 million tons of coal are mined annually. The paper presented discussed Peabody's mining operation on Black Mesa. Topics detailed include transportation of the coal via the Black Mesa pipeline, dewatering of the slurry, water supply, and Peabody's cross-cultural training program. (JMT)

Grow, G.D.

1981-01-01

378

FSP: Frequent Substructure Pattern Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Graphs have become,increasingly important in modeling the complicated structures. Mining frequent subgraph patterns is an important research topic in graph mining that helps to analyze the structured database. It has been applied in many applications, such as chemistry, biology, computer networks, and World-Wide Web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called FSP (Frequent Substructure Pattern mining), which im-

Shuguo Han; Wee Keong; Ng Yang Yu

2007-01-01

379

Data Mining in Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The rise of online social media is providing a wealth of social network data. Data mining techniques provide researchers and\\u000a practitioners the tools needed to analyze large, complex, and frequently changing social media data. This chapter introduces\\u000a the basics of data mining, reviews social media, discusses how to mine social media data, and highlights some illustrative\\u000a examples with an emphasis

Geoffrey Barbier; Huan Liu

2011-01-01

380

Data Mining in Social Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of online social media is providing a wealth of social network data. Data mining techniques provide researchers and practitioners the tools needed to analyze large, complex, and frequently changing social media data. This chapter introduces the basics of data mining, reviews social media, discusses how to mine social media data, and highlights some illustrative examples with an emphasis on social networking sites and blogs.

Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

381

Radiological hazards from uranium mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At all the French uranium mines where it made radiological surveys, the CRIIRAD laboratory discovered situations of environmental\\u000a contamination and a lack of proper protection of the inhabitants against health risks due to ionizing radiation. Radiological\\u000a problems are not only to be addressed during mining or milling operations but also on the longer term after mine closure.

Bruno Chareyron

382

Scientific Data Mining in Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the application of data mining algorithms to research problems in\\u000aastronomy. We posit that data mining has always been fundamental to\\u000aastronomical research, since data mining is the basis of evidence-based\\u000adiscovery, including classification, clustering, and novelty discovery. These\\u000aalgorithms represent a major set of computational tools for discovery in large\\u000adatabases, which will be increasingly essential in

Kirk D. Borne

2009-01-01

383

A study of the fluid inclusion, stable isotope and mineralogical characteristics of the Denton fluorspar deposit, Cave-in-Rock, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district contains numerous vein type deposits and larger bedded replacement deposits containing fluorite with lesser amounts of sphalerite, galena and barite. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and paragenetic studies were undertaken to determine the changes in depositional temperatures and salinities of the ore fluids responsible for mineralization at the Denton mine, and to combine these data with information from other deposits to help develop a picture of regional ore deposition. 38 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Koellner, M.S.

1988-07-01

384

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1980. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work inju...

1981-01-01

385

Hydraulic Sandfill in Deep Metal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines and industry (mining and private) have studied the placement of hydraulic sandfill in deep vein mines to identify existing problems and to develop techniques to strengthen the support characteristics of the sandfill. The hydraulic sand...

L. M. McNay D. R. Corson

1975-01-01

386

Multisensor system for mine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a vehicular mine detection system which automatically detects and marks buried land mines using very recent breakthroughs in mine detection technology. It combines proven detection technologies to realize a near 100% probability of detection for anti-tank mines. The detection system utilizes information from forward looking thermal and imaging system with downward looking radar and inductive pulse metal detection to sense the presence of buried or obscured land mines. Detection subsystems include: a sensor module, system processor, geographic location module and a real-time mine marking system. It also contains a registration process module which brings all selected targets, either in pixel space or sensor array position, to common platform coordinates, which in turn, are referenced to earth coordinates through GPS tracking of the platform. This registration process is extremely important, especially when integrating IR images from cameras whose positions are in non- nadir orientations. The detection system output provides geographic location of target mines, depth information, approximate mine shape and size, a natural scene image with graphically annotated mine locations.

Garriott, Ray; Lang, David A.; Nilles, James T.; Vance, Gary L.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.

1996-05-01

387

Power from mine cooling water  

SciTech Connect

Mining is a heavy user of electric power in the daily activities associated with underground operations. These activities include excavation, ground stabilization, haulage, and ore processing. It is well known in the mining industry that as mines go deeper (>1000 m), the mining environment becomes hotter. The higher temperatures and humidities encountered at these depths require air conditioning systems in addition to the normal mine ventilation system. Refrigeration equipment further increases the demand for power. These refrigeration systems can be located on the surface or on the underground working levels of the mine. Regardless of location, relatively large quantities of water are required to be brought into the mine either as direct chilled water or as chiller service water. The large head associated with this water represents a significant amount of of available potential energy. Current United States mining practices have not generally placed a significant value on this available energy. In many instances, the incoming water is allowed to flow inside steel pipelines to the desired depth, and at that point, the available potential energy is dissipated by friction and momentum transfer. The water is then stored for redistribution around the mine.

Torbin, R.N.; Thimons, E.

1986-03-01

388

Mining's impact on groundwater assessed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

389

Data mining applications in healthcare.  

PubMed

Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions. PMID:15869215

Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

2005-01-01

390

Mining-induced seismicity prediction in the Khibiny mines by complex of precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem of mining-induced seismicity is important now for many world regions with an advanced mining industry, including the Khibiny massif region (Kola Peninsula). Studying of seismic activity in rock mass and prediction of rockbursts and mining-induced earthquakes for exploited deposits is carried out using complex assessment method. The following precursors are considered to be rock seismicity characteristics: decreasing fractal dimension, b-value, concentration, and average length of fractures These precursors are analyzed by complex assessment method developed. Influence of determinative factors is taken into consideration as well: presence of discontinuous disturbances, stope zone limits and edge of falls of the hanging wall rocks. Changing of the complex assessment is considered in space and time. It has been determined that there are increases of complex assessment values and seismically active zone size before a strong seismic event or events series. Timely detection of the focal source forming is an important stage of the prediction. The program MIEPS was developed to automate the calculations. By this program we can analyze the seismicity in both real-time and retrospectively. One of successful prediction by complex assessment is detection of main fault forming and occurrence of roofing failure in the United Kirovsky mine, "Apatit" JSC. A precursor was detected 3 days before seismic events group occurrence (105-107J). In this time a complex assessment value changed from 0.49 to 0.54 (transfer of stable seismic zone to increasing seismic zone), and a seismic active zone increased in 1.5 times within 24 hours. Factors determining the region's seismicity are high horizontal stresses in the rock mass, long-term exploited deposits and seasonal rock watering. They result to blocks movements on faults. The blasting of blasthole rings in this part of the rock mass (23.05.2012) triggered growing of the main fault, accompanied by seismic events (energy < 2×107J). This caused rocks self-caving. Complex assessment method of seismic setting using different precursors allows immediate analysis of the monitored rock mass part. At present the complex assessment method and the software are tested at the mines owned by "Apatit" JSC.

Zhuravleva, Olga; Fedotova, Iuliia

2013-04-01

391

Building protection against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for polish mining industry / Problematyka ochrony obiektów budowlanych na tle sytuacji i perspektyw rozwoju górnictwa w polsce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses issues involved in protecting buildings and utilities infrastructure located on areas affected by mining exploration. They have been presented against the backdrop of current situation and growth perspectives for Polish mining. Characteristics of Polish mineral deposits have been determined and the scale of mining-induced impact has been given as an aggregate mining areas and regions. Current situation and growth perspectives have been evaluated through analysing geological concessions granted by Ministry of the Environment. The nature of mining influences induced by underground coal - black coal being the most intensively explored mineral in the country - mining has been discussed. Building protection issues have also been presented from three angles: forecasting of mining influences, designing protections and structural health monitoring.

Florkowska, Lucyna

2012-12-01

392

Proceedings, 26th international conference on ground control in mining  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the following topic headings: multiple-seam mining, surface subsidence, coal pillar, bunker and roadway/entry supports, mine design and highwall mining, longwall, roof bolting, stone and hardrock mining, rock mechanics and mine seal.

Peng, S.S.; Mark, C.; Finfinger, G. (and others) (eds.)

2007-07-01

393

30 CFR 785.14 - Mountaintop removal mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Mountaintop removal mining. 785.14 Section...CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.14 Mountaintop removal mining. (a) This section...surface mining activities by mountaintop removal mining. (b)...

2013-07-01

394

PRESERVING GREY LITERATURE ON MINING AND THE ENVIRONMENT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mining Environment Database provides access to peer-reviewed literature on mine waste management areas, abandoned and orphaned mines, acid mine drainage, land reclamation, and related topics. As well, it offers a broad range of mine-related \\

Glen Kelly; Ron Slater; Laura Luopa; Margarete Kalin; William N. Wheeler

395

30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated...The area within 100 feet of main mine fans and intake air openings shall be...ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine fans are used, the mine ventilation...

2009-07-01

396

30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated...The area within 100 feet of main mine fans and intake air openings shall be...ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine fans are used, the mine ventilation...

2010-07-01

397

In-mine evaluation of smart mine fire sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of a nuisance-emissions-discriminating smart mine fire sensor system was made in an operating coal mine. These field evaluations were conducted to determine the sensor system's ability to discern nuisance emissions, such as diesel exhaust, emissions from flame cutting and welding operations, or hydrogen gas from a charging station, from real fires and to compare the number of falsely

R. A. Franks; G. F. Friel; J. C. Edwards; A. C. Smith

398

Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the

J. C. Lozano; F. Vera Tomé; V. Gómez Escobar; P. Blanco Rodr??guez

2000-01-01

399

PlanMine: Sequence Mining for Plan Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the P LANMINE sequence mining algo- rithm to extract patterns of events that predict failures in databases of plan executions. New techniques were needed because previous data mining algorithms were overwhelmed by the staggering number of very frequent, but entirely un- predictive patterns that exist in the plan database. This paper combines several techniques for pruning out

Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Neal Lesh; Mitsunori Ogihara

1998-01-01

400

REVEGETATION AUGMENTATION OF SURFACE MINES WITH TREATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study provided a field demonstration of an earlier feasibility study. Treated acid mine drainage was utilized to augment revegetation on graded spoil areas. Acid mine drainage was treated utilizing limestone (rock dust) and the resulatant water was spray irrigated under high...

401

CMI (Central Mining Institute) Inert Gas Mine Firefighting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of inert gas systems to extinguish mine fires has been the subject of research for some time in the United States. In some European countries, it is an established practice. Tests were conducted with the Central Mining Institute (CMI) Inert Gas Sy...

M. Paczkowski G. A. Tracey A. Wojtyczka

1982-01-01

402

Complete Mining of Frequent Patterns from Graphs: Mining Graph Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Basket Analysis, which is a standard method for data mining, derives frequent itemsets from database. However, its mining ability is limited to transaction data consisting of items. In reality, there are many applications where data are described in a more structural way, e.g. chemical compounds and Web browsing history. There are a few approaches that can discover characteristic patterns

Akihiro Inokuchi; Takashi Washio; Hiroshi Motoda

2003-01-01

403

Complete Mining of Frequent Patterns from Graphs: Mining Graph Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basket Analysis, which is a standard method for data mining, derives frequent itemsets from database. However, its mining ability is limited to transaction data consisting of items. In reality, there are many applications where data are described in a more structural way, e.g. chemical compounds and Web browsing history. There are a few approaches that can discover characteristic patterns from

Akihiro Inokuchi; Takashi Washio; Hiroshi Motoda

2003-01-01

404

Agent Mining: The Synergy of Agents and Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous agents and multiagent systems (or agents) and data mining and knowledge discovery (or data mining) are two of the most active areas in information technology. Ongoing research has revealed a number of intrinsic challenges and problems facing each area, which can't be addressed solely within the confines of the respective discipline. A profound insight of bringing these two communities

Longbing Cao; Vladimir Gorodetsky; Pericles A. Mitkas

2009-01-01

405

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

406

Introduction to Land Mines and the Land Mine Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 60 years land mines have become a ubiquitous weapon. Ease of employment, cost, and effectiveness of the land mine has resulted in its widespread use both in a classic military sense and as a tool for harassment of both combatants and non-combatants. The result of this is a devastating humanitarian problem worldwide. Current estimates of casualties resulting

Thomas W. Altshuler

2004-01-01

407

ArcMine: A GIS extension to support mine reclamation planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new GIS extension, named ArcMine, developed to support reclamation planning in abandoned mining areas. ArcMine provides four tools to (a) assess mine subsidence hazards, (b) estimate the erosion of mine wastes, (c) analyze flow paths of mine water at the surface, and (d) identify suitable tree species for mine reforestation. A spatial database incorporating a topographical map, geological map, mine drift map, and borehole data was designed and utilized in ArcMine to examine distributed mine hazards that can damage the surrounding environment. Application to abandoned mining areas in Korea shows that ArcMine could provide useful information on mine hazards to support reclamation planning. This paper reports the concept, development, and implementation of ArcMine.

Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon; Suh, Jangwon; Oh, Sungchan; Park, Hyeong-Dong; Yoon, Suk-Ho; Go, Wa-Ra

2012-09-01

408

Thrust-controlled gold mineralisation at the Elandshoogte Mine, Sabie-Pilgrim's Rest goldfield, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratiform quartz-sulphide-gold veins, locally termed “reefs” are hosted within the Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence sedimentary succession, in the Sabie-Pilgrim's Rest goldfield, eastern Transvaal. These deposits have produced about 180 tonnes of gold and share many characteristics with those of Telfer, Western Australia. Detailed examination of the Elandshoogte Mine shows that gold deposition occurred in two stages, both linked to bedding-parallel thrust

M. Harley; E. G. Charlesworth

1992-01-01

409

Logistics of underground coal mining  

SciTech Connect

This book investigates and analyzes the major logistical functions associated with underground coal mining in the U.S.--the activities and services that indirectly support the producing sections of a mining operation. These logistics activities include transportation of personnel, supplies, and equipment; transporation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. The book provides an understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. The support services for underground coal mine production are so essential that no coal would be produced without them. Since no two mines are alike, logistics problems can be quite varied. Developing and improving systems which, not only directly but indirectly, affect production is an extremely important factor in mining economics. This book presents extensive analytical data which demonstrate the significance of logistical controls on the profitability of coal production. Numerous aspects of underground mine logistics and the costs of various logistical functions are investigated; cost analyses of the major logistics categories clearly identify a particular category's effects on various equipment combinations and seam heights. Current mining practices and problems are reviewed, accompanied by opinions and comments from mining industry representatives; and short- and long-term areas for further research are suggested. The book contains an extensive set of tables for illustrative purposes.

Hanslovan, J.J.; Visovsky, R.G.

1984-01-01

410

Mine roof geology information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been

S. S. Peng; T. Sasaoka; D. X. Tang; Y. Wilson; G. Wilson

2005-01-01

411

Mining data streams: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in hardware and software have enabled the capture of different measurements of data in a wide range of fields. These measurements are generated continuously and in a very high fluctuating data rates. Examples include sensor networks, web logs, and computer network traffic. The storage, querying and mining of such data sets are highly computationally challenging tasks. Mining

Mohamed Medhat Gaber; Arkady B. Zaslavsky; Shonali Krishnaswamy

2005-01-01

412

Enforcement of strip mining laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal strip mining has affected Appalachian life, peace of mind, livelihood, and environment, but not to the extent that citizens are helpless; they can act. This report is meant to inspire citizens to employ proper methods to ensure the enforcement of state strip-mining laws. The study looks at Appalachia's three leading coal producing states--Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The methods

A. J. Fritsch; M. L. Morgan; G. G. Yanik; T. J. Conry; D. E. Taylor

1975-01-01

413

Alaska Placer Mining Metals Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-one placer mine sites were visited by EPA and State personnel during August 1997 as the first phase of a study of the occurrence of metals in surface water above and below mines, and in effluent. Field measurements were made of temperature, pH, ele...

1998-01-01

414

Fast vertical mining using diffsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of vertical mining algorithms have been proposed recently for association mining, which have shown to be very effective and usually outperform horizontal approaches. The main advantage of the vertical format is support for fast frequency counting via intersection operations on transaction ids (tids) and automatic pruning of irrelevant data. The main problem with these approaches is when intermediate

Mohammed Javeed Zaki; Karam Gouda

2003-01-01

415

Emergency escapeways from coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To illustrate the importance of maintaining travelable emergency escapeways from all coal mines, this paper cites three coal-mine fires in which some miners lost their lives and others escaped uninjured. With text and maps, it suggests a way of laying out interconnecting systems that will not only provide emergency exits from all working sections but may also reduce cost of

R. T. Artz; O. V. Simpson

1948-01-01

416

Lunar surface mine feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

Blair, Brad R.

417

The mine hunter/killer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term 'mine hunter/killer' has frequently served as a catch-all for almost any discussion of the integration of mine detection and neutralization technology. With the Army's recent approval of the mine hunter/killer advanced technology demonstration, the term now takes on a specific set of challenges and goals. In this paper, the author discusses the developing operational and functional requirements for the mine hunter/killer, the mine types considered as targets for the system, and the implications of these factors for detection systems and neutralizers alike. The issue of 'stand-off' is explored with an emphasis on the trade-offs that must be made between it and overall system effectiveness. The author further discusses recent developments in both detection and neutralization technology that make the notion of a stand-off mine detection and neutralization system more realistic. This discussion includes a summary of forward looking radar, forward looking IR sensors, and advanced signal processing architectures and algorithms. However, it focuses on stand-off neutralization technology and fire control techniques, their stand-off and area kill capabilities, and the synergism between them and the detection suites. Recent neutralizer test results are provided as a basis for considering the requirements of stand-off mine detection systems for probability of detection, detection halo, and false alarm rate. The author concludes with a review of the mainstream mine hunter/killer concept.

Stanfield, Ricky W.

1997-07-01

418

Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65%

George H. Read

2009-01-01

419

Privacy preserving frequent itemset mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

One crucial aspect of privacy preserving frequent itemset mining is the fact that the mining process deals with a trade-off: privacy and accuracy, which are typically contradictory, and improving one usually incurs a cost in the other. One alternative to address this particular problem is to look for a balance between hiding restrictive patterns and disclosing nonrestrictive ones. In this

Stanley R. M. Oliveira; Osmar R. Zaïane

2002-01-01

420

Uranium mining in East Germany (\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground uranium mining was performed in East Germany after World War II on a large scale. Working conditions were very poor during the post-war years from approx. 1946 to 1955. During later years mining conditions improved. In 1990, uranium production was generally stopped as a consequence of German reunification. A company-based health care system commenced in the early years with

G. J. Enderle; K. Friedrich

1999-01-01

421

Eye injuries in coal mining.  

PubMed

The incidence of eye injuries in the coal mining industry in one British Coal Area in 1 year is presented and discussed. The discussion reviews the literature on eye injuries generally. The problems of ensuring adequate eye protection in mining operations are described: plans for a future survey to pinpoint critical areas are outlined. PMID:2599638

Carreck, G C

1989-05-01

422

Logistics of underground coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book investigates and analyzes the major logistical functions associated with underground coal mining in the U.S.--the activities and services that indirectly support the producing sections of a mining operation. These logistics activities include transportation of personnel, supplies, and equipment; transporation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. The book provides an

J. J. Hanslovan; R. G. Visovsky

1984-01-01

423

Mining of Association Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mining of \\u000a \\u000a association rules from databases has attracted great interest because of its potentially very useful applications. \\u000a \\u000a Association rules are derived from a type of analysis that extracts information from coincidence [\\u000a \\u000a Blaxton and \\u000a \\u000a Westphal, 1998]. Sometimes called \\u000a \\u000a market basket analysis, this methodology allows a data analyst to discover correlations, or co-occurrences of transactional events. In the classic\\u000a example, consider

Evangelos Triantaphyllou

424

Optical coatings deposited using ion assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect

The properties of Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ optical coatings deposited using oxygen-ion assisted deposition (IAD) were investigated. Previously, we reported preliminary results for Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coatings deposited using IAD. In this paper, we present results illustrating the effects of oxygen-ion bombardment on film optical constants, environmental durability, and laser damage resistance. The coatings were bombarded with 200-, 300-, 500-, and 1000-eV oxygen ions during deposition. Increased values of refractive index were obtained for coatings deposited with simultaneous O/sup +//sub 2/ bombardment. Antireflection coatings deposited using IAD did not exhibit increased laser damage thresholds at lambda = 351 nm.

McNally, J.J.; Jungling, K.C.; Williams, F.L.; McNeil, J.R.

1987-07-01

425

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOEpatents

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

426

Geology of the Eymir iron mine, Edremit, Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eymir mine near Edremit on Turkey's Aegean coast (long 27?30'E.,1at 39?36'N.) was investigated as part of the Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutsu (MTA)-U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral exploration and training project, for the purpose of increasing the known mineral reserves. Geologic mapping of the mine area indicates that hematite is restricted to argillized, silicified, and pyritized dacite and possibly andesite. Hematite is present as massive replacements, impregnations, disseminations, and fracture fillings. Most of the upper part of the iron deposit consists of a breccia composed mostly of silicifiled dacite fragments in a hematite matrix. The iron deposit was apparently formed in three steps: 1. Argillation, silicification, and pyritization of the andesitic lava and dacite units as a result of a regional intrusion. 2. Intrusion of the Dere Oren dacite stock, with associated faulting, fracturing, and breccia formation at the surface. 3. Deposition of hematite by oxidation of pyrite, and transfer of iron via fractures and faults by hydrothermal or meteoric fluids. The Eymir iron deposit is a blanketlike deposit on the crest of the Sivritepe-Eymir ridge. It is 1300 meters long, 80 to 450 meters wide, and has an average thickness of 18.6 meters. Drill holes in the deposit show the iron content to range from 32.0 to 57.6 percent, and to average 46.5 percent. Most of the gangue is silica, and an arsenic impurity averaging 0.39 percent is present. Most of the deposit cannot be utilized as iron ore because of low iron content, high silica content, and high arsenic content. Ore-dressing tests have shown that it is feasible to concentrate the low-grade material, producing a concentrate having increased iron content and reduced silica content. Tests have shown also that the arsenic content of the ore can be reduced substantially by sintering. Further tests and economic feasibility studies are necessary to determine whether an economic marketable iron ore can be produced. If such studies indicate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing all the Eymir iron deposit, detailed additional studies are recommended including: 1. A detailed drilling and sampling program to include 60 drill holes averaging 40 meters in depth and detailed sampling of mine dumps. 2. Pilot-plant testing of concentration and sintering procedures. 3. A detailed pre-investment economic feasibility study.

Jacobson, Herbert Samuel; Turet, Erdogan

1972-01-01

427

Modelling of mine flooding and consequences in the mine hydrogeological environment: flooding of the Koenigstein mine, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach to modelling of flooding of the underground mines and hydrogeological consequences in the downstream aquifers of the mine followed in the WISMUT Decommissioning and Reclamation Programme is illustrated for the case of the uranium underground leach mine in Koenigstein, near Dresden, Germany. The modelling of the present and future quantity and quality of the water in the mine

A. T. Jakubick; U. Jenk; R. Kahnt

2002-01-01

428

Surface saline deposits and their substrates in a polluted arid valley (Murcia, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the mineralogical and geochemical variations of surface saline deposits and their substrates along an arid\\u000a valley with an ephemeral river system (Spanish: rambla) affected by pollution from the now closed Cabezo de San Cristóbal mine. This mine, which is close to Mazarrón, Spain, once\\u000a produced Pb, Zn, Ag and Fe ores. Saline efflorescences and crusts were found

M. A. Bustillo; A. Aparicio; R. García

2010-01-01

429

Tourmaline in Appalachian - Caledonian massive sulphide deposits and its exploration significance.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several types of stratabound mineral deposits, including some massive base-metal sulphide ores of the Appalachian - Caledonian orogen. It is most abundant (sometimes forming massive foliated tourmalinite) in sediment-hosted deposits, such as those at the Elizabeth Cu mine and the Ore Knob Cu mine (North Carolina, USA). Trace amounts of tourmaline occur associated with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Piedmont and New England and also in the Trondheim district. Tourmaline associated with the massive sulphide deposits are Mg- rich dravites with major- and trace-element compositions significantly different from schorl. It is suggested that the necessary B was produced by submarine exhalative processes as a part of the same hydrothermal system that deposited the ores. An abundance of dravite in non-evaporitic terrains is believed to indicate proximity to former subaqueous fumarolic centres.-R.A.H.

Slack, J. F.

1982-01-01

430

Computer-assisted mine design procedures for longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has developed a unique new mine design procedure to determine the changing static load distributions imposed on underground support structures during the mining cycle. The procedure reduces the complexities associated with analyzing a three-dimensional problem. A combination of the multiple-seam displacement-discontinuity model and a two-dimensional finite-element window model produces refined results for a specific area of interest by assuming displacement compatability between models. Input to the procedure includes the geometry of mined-out areas in up to two adjacent seams, the rock mass characteristics of the surrounding geology, the in situ stress conditions, and the mining sequence. The displacement-discontinuity program calculates expected loadings for mine structures affected by the mining cycle and/or by overlying or underlying seams. Pseudoelastic finite-element analysis using a yield-factor approach determines the stability of coal pillars by simulating the degree and extent of progressive rib failure and subsequent load transfer. Application of the procedure is demonstrated on a field problem. Induced stress changes predicted from the numerical model analysis are in reasonably good agreement with stress measurements obtained from an instrumented chain pillar affected by remnant workings in an upper seam.

Kripakov, N.P.; Beckett, L.A.; Donato, D.A.; Durr, J.S.

1988-01-01

431

Introduction to Land Mines and the Land Mine Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 60 years land mines have become a ubiquitous weapon. Ease of employment, cost, and effectiveness of the land mine has resulted in its widespread use both in a classic military sense and as a tool for harassment of both combatants and non-combatants. The result of this is a devastating humanitarian problem worldwide. Current estimates of casualties resulting from land mines exceed 15,000 per year. A significant fraction of these victims are civilian, many children. Land mines are deployed in as many as 90 countries, throughout the world, including controlled military deployments, targeted harassment of militaries, militias and non-combatants, and as post conflict waste. Estimates for the total numbers of land mines that pose a threat is in excess of 45 million. And the problem appears to be only getting more severe since the current rate of clearance is more than an order of magnitude less that the rate of emplacement. This talk will provide an overview of the extent of the land mine problem. An introduction to land mine technology will be presented. Both military and non-military use will be discussed. Examples of critical technical issues that currently impede attempts to alleviate this worldwide problem will be provided.

Altshuler, Thomas W.

2004-03-01

432

Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-09-15

433

Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

1999-07-01

434

Development of a Tracer Test in a flooded Uranium Mine using Lycopodium clavatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymetallic Niederschlema\\/Alberoda uranium deposit in the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. The objectives of the tests were to investigate the quality and rate of flow within a large part of the flooded mine to predict the mass flow of the pollutants. Based on the results of a first tracer test with Lycopodium clavatum in mid

Christian Wolkersdorfer; Nicole Feldtner

435

Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of

Arvi Toomik; Valdo Liblik

1998-01-01

436

The Affects of Mountain Top Removal Mining on Headwater Streams in Eastern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain Top Removal\\/Valley Fill (MTR\\/VF) coal mining is a relatively new coal extraction technology that is widely utilized throughout the Appalachian region. During this process, the mountaintop is blasted away, the coal removed and the leftover material (spoil) is then deposited into the surrounding valleys. The potential negative ecological effects of these operations on stream biodiversity has received some attention

D. A. Word; J. D. Jack; R. Kelley

2005-01-01

437

Arsenic distribution in soils and plants of an arsenic impacted former mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mining area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten deposit was studied in order to assess its arsenic pollution level and the feasibility of native plants for being used in phytoremediation approaches. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analysed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations

V. Otones; E. Álvarez-Ayuso; A. García-Sánchez; I. Santa Regina; A. Murciego

2011-01-01

438

Geology and geochemistry of the Mercur mining district, Tooele County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mercur mining district is located in the southern end of the Oquirrh Mountains approximately 35 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah. The gold deposits occur in the east dipping limb of the Ophir anticline and are confined to favorable beds in the Mercur Member of the Mississippian Great Blue Formation. Host rocks are thin bedded bioelastic limestones and

Tafuri

1987-01-01

439

Solution mining and resultant evaporite karst development in Tully Valley, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution mining operation was conducted in Tully Valley, New York from 1889 to 1988. In excess of 37 million m³ of halite was removed from 335 to 518 meters below the ground surface. An interbedded sequence of gypsum, shales, limestones, and sandstone overlie the halite beds. This sequence is capped by thick, unconsolidated deposits of till, sand and gravel,

P. A. Rubin; J. C. Ayers; K. A. Grady

1991-01-01

440

Legal regimes for mining hard rock marine minerals within 200 miles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will discuss the legal regime for mining of hard rock marine minerals within 200 miles of the U.S. coasts. The paper will also deal with emergent legal concepts which may become applicable within the foreseeable future. The particular minerals upon which this paper will focus include consolidated subsurface deposits such as coal, iron ore, sulpher and polymetallic sulphides,

T. Kronmiller

1982-01-01

441

A new approach for economic evaluation of in-situ mining ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for evaluating the economic feasibility of solution mining a hypothetical uranium roll-front deposit. It is assumed the wellfield will be operated in a prudent manner and that leaching tests were performed in depth in both lab and field (push-pull) prior to startup. Leach test results are reduced to two important parameters and used as the

R. H. Jacobson; Z. A. Gray

1985-01-01

442

Potential of coal strip-mine spoils as aquifers in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tongue River Formation contains most of the strippable coal deposits in the Powder River Basin. Flat lying low sulfur coal beds up to 200 ft. thick are typically overlain by semiconsolidated shale and sandstone. Typical overburden to coal thickness ratios in working mines are 2:1. The overburden is generally dragline or scraper-dumped into the excavated pit. Pump tests were

Rahn

1976-01-01

443

Effects of Depressing Attachment Ration of Radon Daughters in Uranium Mine Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficient of particles 5 to 8 A in diameter primary radon daughters, for instanceis roughly 100 times that for condensation nuclei (200 to 1000 A in diameter) to which radon daughters normally attach. This difference should manifest itself as a measurable increase in daughter deposition on uranium mine walls were condensation nuclei previously removed by air filtration. This

J. D. Jr. Shreve; J. E. CLEVELAND

1972-01-01

444

Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

McCormick, K. A.; McDonald, A. M.

1999-01-01

445

Resource appraisal and preliminary planning for surface mining of oil shale Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods used in the computerized resource mapping of the Piceance Creek Basin are discussed. Study of seven succeeding oil shale zones shows that the thickest and richest oil shale deposits in the Piceance Creek Basin occur in the central portions of the northern half of the basin. Information on resource recovery, environmental impacts, technical mining limitations, and cost was gathered

C. E. Banks; B. C. Franciscotti

1976-01-01

446

A pricing and planning model for surface-coal-mining projects utilizing dragline stripping methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining sequence selected for a new surface coal operation can have a significant impact on equipment selection, capital and operating costs, and, ultimately, the price of coal required to provide a reasonable return on investment. A model and a computer program are developed that address the problem. The model permits characterization of the deposit by a reserve summary and

Hrebar

1989-01-01

447

Impact of potential phosphate mining on the hydrology of Osceola National Forest, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potentially exploitable phosphate deposits underlie part of Osceola National Forest, Fla. Hydrologic conditions in the forest are comparable with those in nearby Hamilton County, where phosphate mining and processing have been ongoing since 1965. Given similarity of operations, hydroloigc effects of mining in the forest are predicted. Flow of stream receiving phosphate industry effluent would increase somewhat during mining, but stream quality would not be greatly affected. Local changes in the configuration of the water table and the quality of water in the surficial aquifer will occur. Lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer because of proposed pumpage would be less than five feet at nearby communities. Flordian aquifer water quality would be appreciably changed only if industrial effluent were discharged into streams which recharge the Flordian through sinkholes. The most significant hydrologic effects would occur at the time of active mining: long-term effects would be less significant. (Woodard-USGS)

Miller, James A.; Hughes, G. H.; Hull, R. W.; Vecchioli, John; Seaber, P. R.

1978-01-01

448

Brackish water in unsaturated confining beds at a Texas lignite mine  

SciTech Connect

A surface lignite mine in Texas was studied to identify the origin of the brackish water, containing up to 8000 mg TDS/l, which occurred near the outcrop of argillaceous sediments. Data on the hydrogeology of the area and the chemical composition of rainwater and groundwater are presented and discussed, and it is concluded that the brackish water probably originated as Eocene sea water. The effects of dilution and ion exchange on this water are estimated, and changes to the system caused by mining operations are discussed. Such argillaceous deposits underlying surface mines might act as natural barriers of low permeability which should restrict movement of water from reclaimed land into nearby aquifers, and thus minimise the effect of mining on groundwater quality.

Dutton, A.R.

1985-01-01

449

The Growth of Diamond Mining in Canada and Implications for Mining Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond mining in Canada began in 1998, with the first production from the Ekati mine in the Northwest Territories. Since then the Diavik mine has begun production, and two other mines are slated to begin production within two years. Canada’s share of the world value of diamond production was 15 per cent in 2003, the third largest worldwide. These mines

Jeremy Smith

2004-01-01

450

Rock mass—mine workings interaction model for Polish copper mine conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological and mining conditions characteristic for the Polish Legnicko–Glogowski Okreg Miedziowy (LGOM) copper mines as well as various exploitation systems utilized in that area are presented. The historical background of mining systems development as well as their classification are also reviewed.Presently, due to difficult mining conditions, a new more universal analytical tool for mine workings geometry selection is required. Therefore,

W. Pytel

2003-01-01

451

POST-MINING DEVELOPMENT USING RESOURCES FROM FLOODED UNDERGROUND MINE WORKINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Post-mining issues of land and surface utilization now serve to accentuate how important it is to incorporate sustainable development aspects into hard rock mining. In an effort to revitalize lands degraded by historic mining, 10 acres of mine tailings near the Belmont Mine have...

452

Study on moist-locking mining technique of cool water well coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool water Wells coal mine is a modern large mine in Shaanxi Yulin-Shenmu coal mine areas. Coal mining had caused serious destruction and pollution to local geological environment and threatened the groundwater resources. If it couldn't control properly, the great accidents would be caused easily and even influence the development of mining cities later. Therefore, the paper puts forward some

Liu Yujie; Fan Limin; Nie Zhongquan; Liu Guodong

2011-01-01

453

Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.  

PubMed

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 ?m aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 ?m diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

2011-10-01

454

Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations  

PubMed Central

Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 ?m aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 ?m diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site.

Csavina, Janae; Landazuri, Andrea; Wonaschutz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Saez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

2013-01-01

455

Motor applications in adverse mining environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and physical conditions in the hard rock mining industry include the high temperatures of desert southwest open pit mines, the thin air of high altitude mines and concentrators, the humidity and heat of mile-deep mines, and exposure to dust and corrosive agents in smelters and refineries. These variations in ambient temperature, elevation, moisture, and corrosive agents require careful selection

JERRY M. TURNER

1994-01-01

456

A data mining algorithm in distance learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is an increasing interest in data mining and educational systems, making educational data mining as a new growing research community. One of the challenges in developing data mining systems is to integrate and coordinate existing data mining applications in a seamless manner so that cost- effective systems can be developed without the need of costly proprietary products. The

Dai Shangping; Zhang Ping

2008-01-01

457

Improving the Prospects for Educational Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is an important paradigm for educational assessment. The usual assumption is that mining is performed after educational activity with that activity having been designed without regard for the mining process. This paper discusses how the prospects for successful mining can be improved by imposing constraints or biases on the activities and instruments that generate the data. These biases

Steven L. Tanimoto

458

Teaching an introductory course in data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal is to supply the participant with the tools to teach a course or unit about data mining and knowledge discovery. A basic understanding of the benefits and limitations of data mining as a problem-solving strategy will be offered. Several data mining techniques will be discussed. Prior knowledge about data mining and the knowledge discovery process is not necessary.

Richard J. Roiger

2005-01-01

459

GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING APPLICATIONS IN MINING HYDROGEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presented paper some specific features and problems of numerical modelling applications in mining environment are briefly discussed. The issues discussed are documented by three modelling case studies. Two of the applications are aimed at mine dewatering problems in active coal mines. The first represents the underground hard coal mining region in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian

Nadia Rapantová; Arnost Grmela; David Vojtek; Josef Halir; Bedrich Michalek

460

A new algorithm for graph mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent substructures has gained importance in the recent past. Number of algorithms has been presented for mining undirected graphs. Focus of this paper is on mining frequent substructures in directed labeled graphs since it has variety of applications in the area of biology, web mining etc. A novel approach of using equivalence class principle has been proposed for reducing

B. Chandra; Shalini Bhaskar

2011-01-01

461

Coal mining technology, economics and policy 1990  

SciTech Connect

The conference began with several presentations on the US coal energy policy and trends in the coal industry, including tax impacts and changes in environmental regulations. Technical topics included diesel exhaust emissions in underground mines; use of wetlands; occupational safety; land reclamation techniques; and advanced technologies for longwall mining, surface mining, and underground mining. Forty-two papers have been indexed separately.

Not Available

1990-01-01

462

A Collaborative Educational Association Rule Mining Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a collaborative educational data mining tool based on association rule mining for the ongoing improvement of e-learning courses and allowing teachers with similar course profiles to share and score the discovered information. The mining tool is oriented to be used by non-expert instructors in data mining so its internal…

Garcia, Enrique; Romero, Cristobal; Ventura, Sebastian; de Castro, Carlos

2011-01-01

463

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines.

Robert L. P. Kleinmann

1990-01-01

464

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

465

DRY DEPOSITION MODULE FOR REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods to compute surface dry deposition velocities for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, ozone, NO plus NO2, and nitric acid vapor over much of the North American continent have been developed for use with atmospheric numerical models of long-range transport and deposition. The resultin...

466

Depositional environments as ore controls in salt wash member, Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Carrizo Mountains area, Arizona and New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium deposits in the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in the Carrizo Mountains area are closely related to depositional facies. In the vicinity of the Eastside mines, southeastern Carrizo Mountains, the Salt Wash Member consists of a lower part, 30 to 50 ft (9 to 15 m) thick, and an upper part, 180 to 200 ft (55 to

A. C. Jr. Huffman; A. R. Kirk; R. J. Corken

1980-01-01

467

Dispersal of coal and rock dust deposits. [Dispersal by air flow as from a weak gas explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine minimum air velocities and entrainment rates for coal and rock dust dispersion in wind tunnel experiments under conditions that simulate dispersion from surfaces in coal mines where airflows are induced by weak gas explosions. Dust deposits were bed- or ridge-shaped; particle sizes were 6 to 80 microns (cohesive deposits) or 100 to

J. M. Singer; E. B. Cook; J. Grumer

1972-01-01

468

Comparison of indicator kriging, conditional indicator simulation and multiple-point statistics used to model slate deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resources in an ornamental slate deposit can be estimated using geostatistical estimation techniques applied to information collected from drill cores. The result, however, is a smooth approximation that fails to take account of the natural variability in mineralization, which is fundamental to proper design and evaluation of the financial viability of a mining deposit. Geostatistical simulation techniques are more

F. G. Bastante; C. Ordóñez; J. Taboada; J. M. Matías

2008-01-01

469

Heavy metal pollution and lake acidity changes caused by one thousand years of copper mining at Falun, central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand years of mining of sulfurous ores at the Falun copper mine, central Sweden, and the resulting atmospheric emissions of metals and sulfur dioxide, gives a unique opportunity to study long-term responses to acid deposition. Copper production peaked in the 17th century, when Falun supplied 2\\/3 of the world's copper production. Thereafter production and associated emissions have declined, and

Anna S. Ek; Ingemar Renberg

2001-01-01

470

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of ²³⁸U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along

H. B. L. Pettersson; J. Koperski

1991-01-01

471

Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine  

SciTech Connect

About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

2008-07-01

472

Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.  

PubMed

This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ? base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

2011-08-04

473

Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium  

SciTech Connect

The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

None Available

1999-06-24

474

Mining High-Dimensional Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid growth of computational biology and e-commerce applications, high-dimensional data becomes very common. Thus, mining high-dimensional data is an urgent problem of great practical importance. However, there are some unique challenges for mining data of high dimensions, including (1) the curse of dimensionality and more crucial (2) the meaningfulness of the similarity measure in the high dimension space. In this chapter, we present several state-of-art techniques for analyzing high-dimensional data, e.g., frequent pattern mining, clustering, and classification. We will discuss how these methods deal with the challenges of high dimensionality.

Wang, Wei; Yang, Jiong

475

Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected that a better knowledge on growing conditions of the selected plant species will contribute to the development of a phytoremediation technique for a low-cost and sustainable restoration of the old mine sites. Moreover, this will have direct utility to other areas in the Mediterranean region, that are similarly threatened by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

2009-04-01

476

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number ...

W. Leith A. Spivak

1997-01-01

477

Mining Environmental Target Investigation of Kaolin Clay Mining and Milling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kaolin, a white clay considered to be one of the earth's most abundant minerals, has been mined in the United States for a century. Commercial kaolins are composed primarily of the aluminum silicate clay mineral kaolinite. Published epidemiological report...

D. C. Pickup

1982-01-01

478

Some Future Trends in Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers four key data mining areas which seem to have a promising future. These areas are: web mining, visual\\u000a data mining, text data mining, and distributed data mining. The reason of their importance is to be found in the valuable\\u000a applications they can support but also in the proliferation of the web and in the dramatic improvements in

Xiaoting Wang; Peng Zhu; Giovanni Felici; Evangelos Triantaphyllou

479

Shortwall mining machine  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides a shortwall mining machine comprising an assembly, which preferably is articulated and has a protective canopy. The assembly is arranged parallel to a shortwall mineral face, and a cutter is hauled along a guide on the assembly to cut the face. As the face is cut the assembly is moved towards the face by use of rams connected between the assembly and stay units located in roadways adjacent the face. The cutter may be a scraper bucket or a plough, and is hauled across the face by either one motor in one of the roadways, or by two motors, one located in each roadway. The cutter may be steered by use of jacks on the assembly located in the roadways.

MacRae, R.L.

1980-04-08

480

Mineral mining machines  

SciTech Connect

A mineral mining machine incorporates a guideway defining runs for a cutter chain which carries cutter picks. The guideway is movable as a whole and is formed with runs for the chain. The runs of the guideway are of generally l-shaped cross section, although the invention is not so limited, and have relatively outer and relatively inner supporting guide surfaces for the cutter chain. The relatively inner guide surface is positioned to the rear of the drive member, E.G. A sprocket, for the chain, I.E. Behind the center line of the chain in the cutting direction. The guide surfaces are continuous around the whole of the guideway thus providing continuous support for the chain during the whole of its movement around the guideway.

Higgs, R.H.; Nicholls, J.T.; Oven, T.

1980-06-24