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Sample records for depression eastern estonia

  1. Drumlins of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõuk, Aarend-Mihkel; Raukas, Anto

    1989-05-01

    Drumlins, megaflutings and other subglacial streamlined forms, highly variable in shape and size, are widely distributed in Estonia as well as on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland, which was also affected by continental ice. Their total number amounts to 1000. The main drumlin fields are most common in Central Estonia on lateral slopes of bedrock uplands and/or in depressions between them, and they serve as a transitional landscape type between predominantly erosional (in northern Estonia) and depositional zones (in southern Estonia) of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Nevertheless, the local details of bedrock topography and glacial and deglacial history have led to some deviations (e.g. the unique Saadjärv field of big drumlins and megaflutings is situated in a "glacier shadow", on the lee side of a bedrock upland). Being of varied composition and age, drumlins and related streamlined forms represent complex interactions between erosional, transporting and depositional processes, although the dynamics of their formation are still somewhat enigmatic. It seems that in Estonia drumlins were formed both during ice advances and retreats. In some cases there are moraine hillocks, kames and eskers and other ice disintegration features superimposed on drumlins.

  2. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  3. Astronomy in the society and culture of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedjärv, Laurits

    2011-06-01

    History and present state of astronomy in a small North-Eastern European country are considered. There is a rather big number (about 35) of professional astronomers in Estonia, including 21 IAU members. Through some outstanding persons, astronomy in Estonia has significant relations with the society. The same can be said about the culture. Well-developed astronomy has contributed into the cooperation of Estonia with the European Space Agency, and thus, has an indirect effect to the country's economy.

  4. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  5. Biobanking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Keis, Aime

    2016-03-01

    Estonia is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a health care system that is built on the principle of compulsory, solidarity-based insurance and the all-round availability of services of private service providers. Estonia has specific biobank legislation as well as oversight via data protection laws. Its population-based biobank, the Estonian Genome Center (EGCUT), established in 2001, is one of the largest biobanks in Europe, and its database may be used only for scientific research, public health research, and statistics. The EGCUT can issue data to a third party, but only in coded form. This comprehensive database of genotypic, phenotypic, health, and genealogical information represents about 5% of Estonia's adult population, and is the largest cohort ever gathered in Estonia. Government approval is required for international data sharing, and sharing can be further limited by the requirement of ethics approval and permission from Estonian government. PMID:27256120

  6. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in the Eastern Province Capital of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alasoom, Lamia I.; Koura, Manal R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive episode that occurs four weeks after delivery. Its risk increases during the first ninety days after delivery and continues for almost two years. The aim of present study is to assess the prevalence of PPD and the associated risk factors in the Eastern Province capital of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the five largest Primary Healthcare Centers of Dammam. Four hundred and fifty mothers – visiting the health centers for immunizing their children at age two to six months – were selected by proportionate allocation to the population served by each health center. The mothers were screened for PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and interviewed for the associated risk factors. Results: It was found that 17.8% of the women had PPD. Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of PPD was a family history of depression, followed by non-supportive husband, lifetime history of depression, unwanted pregnancy, and stressful life events. It was recommended to screen all high-risk mothers for PPD, while visiting the Primary Care Well-Baby Clinics. PMID:25161973

  7. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A.

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  8. Country report: Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  9. Sequence-stratigraphy of Visean incised-valleys within Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression in Tatarstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgalieva, Nuriya; Nuriev, Annur

    2010-05-01

    In present paper it was examined the Visean sedimentary oil-containing section within Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression known as incised-valley's section. The subsurface data (mainly core and log data) have been used for sequence-stratigraphic reconstructions. The investigated section is represented by Tournaisian carbonate rocks and Visean terrigenous rocks of common thick~ 50-150 m. Main oil deposits are found in zone up and down nearly erosion boundary of Tournaisian and Visean just in incised-valley's complex. Sequence stratigraphy is very successful for reconstruction such the complexes. In present paper sequence stratigraphic analysis based on well logs are tied to biostratigraphic markers. Using these two bases in combination one can 1) identify, match and tie sequence stratigraphic surfaces and 2) interpret the stacking patterns of the vertical sedimentary sequences. The character of electric and gamma-ray logs of wells that penetrate clastics often reflect changes in grains size and so are easier to use in this process, while the logs of wells that penetrate carbonates often should be calibrated with cores, since carbonates are more susceptible to diagenesis and their change in character may be affected by more than changes in grain size. Core data (optical microscopy, EPR, grain size measerments) reflect and control facial composition of Tournaisian-Visean complex. The sections that follow initally focus on the well log and core data response to shallow water clastics and then move on to their response to shallow water carbonates. In both clastics and carbonates the second and often co-incident step in the interpretation of well logs and cores is the use of parasequence stacking patterns (the vertical occurrence of repeated cycles of coarsening or fining upwards sediment) of to identify the lowstand system tracts (LST), transgressive system tracts (TST) and highstand system tracts (HST) that are enveloped by the mfs, TS and SB. These parasequence

  10. Core and geophysical criteria of carbonate facial successions within Bashkirian formation, Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Mikhael; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2010-05-01

    One of the main Bashkirian carbonate susccessions problems is to understand facies heterogeneities and porosity distribution on exploration and production scales. Present paper consists of a core investigation combined with geophysical data (logs and seismics) on a lot of oil fields of Eastern Slope of Melekess Depression. Cores from wells provide an opportunity to assess the sequence stratigraphic distribution of facies and diagenetic modification in platform carbonate reservoirs represented by rocks from micrite to sorted biosparite. Log and laboratory data from these wells calibrate the rock properties and provide insights into porosity/permeability in platform Bashkirian carbonates. It was regarded the spatial heterogeneity within a carbonate platform, a facies belt or individual facies bodies, while simultaneously exploring the fundamental controlling processes. The main results of the present paper are 1) to illustrate the processes that produce heterogeneities in carbonates, 2) to improve the interpretation of subsurface data sets of carbonate systems and 3) to outline solutions for the construction of carbonate reservoir models.

  11. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning. PMID:26585350

  12. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2015-11-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  13. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature <-10 °C, which could be classified as "uncomfortable or worse," were investigated. Additional thresholds were used to measure weather risk. The 25th percentile of daily minimum WCET was tested to measure classical prevalent wind directions in Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  14. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... make negative thinking worse. previous continue Depression Can Go Unrecognized People with depression may not realize they ... themselves or who have eating disorders or who go through extreme mood changes may have unrecognized depression. ...

  15. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Bipolar disorder is different from depression but is included in this list is because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extreme low moods (depression). But ...

  16. Estonia: health system review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. PMID:24334730

  17. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  18. A Connecticut Yankee in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the real incomes of U.S. and Estonian workers using a procedure from Mark Twain's "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Argues that the application of Twain's logic to the recent economic development of Estonia provides a colorful approach to teaching economic issues. (DSK)

  19. Family- and Classroom-Related Factors and Mother-Kindergarten Teacher Trust in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of family-related (mother's education, depressive symptoms and child's gender) and kindergarten-related (teacher's experience, teaching practices and class size) factors in mothers' and teachers' mutual trust in Estonia and Finland. Six hundred eighteen (206 Estonian and 412 Finnish) mothers of kindergarten children…

  20. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... it might motivate the person to go for treatment. Treating Depression Your doctor or mental health expert can often treat your depression successfully. Different therapies seem to work for different people. For instance, ...

  1. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    Drug Fact Sheet Depressants Overview Includes barbiturates (barbs), benzodiazepines (benzos) and sedative-hypnotics. Depressants will put you ... unsafe, increasing the likelihood of coma or death. Benzodiazepines were developed to replace barbiturates, though they still ...

  2. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Study of structural geology in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay has achieved great breakthroughs in recent years. However the studies of structure and dynamics still remain much controversy. Based on the 3D and partial 2D seismic data, combined with regional geology and well data, the characteristics of structures in the north Jizhong Deprssion are analyzed, the dynamics is discussed. Our analyses show that the Cenozoic structures in the north Jizhong Depression can be subdivided into extensional system and strike-slip system. Extensional system concludes series of normal faults and transfer faults. Normal faults are mainly trend NNE and NE. They control the Paleogene sediments in sub-depressions of hanging-wall, and bottom out into a sub-horizontal detachment zone in deep level shaped like listric. Transfer faults mainly adjust displacement of normal faults, yet some like Tongbozhen and Niutuozhen are transfer faults in Paleocene and Eocene but change to normal faults in Oligocene. Strike-slip system is predominantly consisted by sub-vertical right-lateral strike-slip faults such as Xin`anzhen and Maxi. From seismic profiles, Xin`anzhen and Maxi cut into basement but only influence the sediments of Ed of Paleogene and Lower Neogene. Based on the relation of sedimentary sequence and faults, the extensional system mainly develops from Paleocene to Late Oligocene, but strike-slip system predominantly develops from Late Oligocene to Miocene. From the superposed section of crustal structure and basin structure in Jizhong Depression, the Cenozoic sub-basin is just located on the thinner zones of crustal, corresponding with the location of mantle uplift. It indicates that the Paleogene development of Jizhong Depression is related to the horizontal tension caused by uplift of magma in mantle. The results illustrate that extensional deformation in Jizhong depression is caused by the uplift of magma. The right-lateral strike-slip deformation, same with Tancheng

  3. The role of the interaction between polar and subtropical jet in a case of depression rejuvenation over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezerakos, N. G.; Flocas, H. A.; Brikas, D.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to investigate the synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions and dynamic processes leading to the rejuvenation of depressions or cyclogenesis over the Eastern Mediterranean during the cold period of the year. A case study analysis is carried out when the Polar Front Jet (PFJ) is positioned to the south of its normal seasonal position and interacts with the Subtropical Jet Stream (SJS), which is positioned to the north of its normal seasonal position. It was found that the vigorous rejuvenation of a northeastwards moving Atlas mountains depression on 15 March 1998 over Cyprus region is associated with an increase of the hydrodynamic instability due to the juxtaposition of a polar front jet streak to the subtropical jet stream. Furthermore, the rejuvenation is related to the combined effect of the direct and indirect cross vertical circulations appearing on the right side of the entrance of a polar jet streak and the left side of a subtropical jet streak exit, respectively.

  4. Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  5. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... marketed in the United States. Common places of origin Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Teens can obtain depressants from the family medicine cabinet, friends, family members, the Internet, doctors, ...

  6. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, as well as jitteriness, difficulty feeding, and low blood sugar after delivery. However, moms who stop medications can ... a kind of antidepressant for treating depression and anxiety disorders. However, a number of research studies show ...

  7. Depressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Doctors use them to treat things like insomnia or anxiety . But if depressant drugs (like sedatives, ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar ...

  8. Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eat at all Not being able to sleep, or sleeping too much Feeling very tired Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems Thoughts of death or suicide Depression is a disorder of the brain. There are a variety of ...

  9. Sequence stratigraphy and architectural variability in Late Eocene lacustrine strata of the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Youliang; Li, Sitian; Lu, Yongchao

    2013-09-01

    Stratigraphic sequences and architectural variability in the Late Eocene lacustrine strata of the Dongying Depression, eastern China, were investigated using the interpretation of 2-D and 3-D high-resolution seismic profiles, analysis of spontaneous potential and resistivity curves, and observation of drill cores. Four third-order sequences controlled by syndepositional faults or fault slope break zones were identified, based on the characteristics of sequence boundaries and sedimentary successions. The architecture of the sequences in the different structural belts of the depression is complicated by the relationship between the rate at which fault-controlled accommodation was created and the rate of sediment supply. At fault margins, the rate of sediment supply exceeded accommodation space. Here, lowstand systems tracts consist of lowstand fan deltas with small progradational to retrogradation stacking patterns controlled by steeply dipping, parallel and cross-shaped syndepositional faults or fault slope-break zones; transgressive systems tracts consist of fan deltas with retrogradational to aggradational stacking patterns; and highstand systems tracts consist of fan deltas with normal regressive or progradational stacking pattern. At hinged margins, the rate of sediment supply was equal to or exceeded accommodation controlled by faults. Lowstand systems tracts at hinged margins consist of incised channel fills deposited on the landward side of gently dipping parallel and broom-shaped syndepositional faults or fault slope break zones and lowstand fans or sublacustrine fans deposited on the shores of lakes. Transgressive systems tracts consist of delta systems and shore to shallow-lake subfacies with retrogradational stacking patterns. Highstand systems tracts consist of braided deltas and fluvial delta systems with progradational or normal regressive and aggradational stacking patterns. Along the axis, the rate of sediment supply far exceeded accommodation. Only

  10. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  11. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations. PMID:27183110

  12. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  13. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  14. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  15. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  16. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  17. Deciphering the Late Quaternary fluvial dynamics at the foothill of an active orogen - the example of the Transcaucasian depression in eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Faust, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    Generally, the dynamics of fluvial systems can be triggered by climate, tectonics, anthropogenic activity or internal mechanisms. The lowland of the Transcaucasian depression is located between the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. Both mountainous massifs form a part of the Alpidic orogenic belt and are thus characterized by a high tectonic activity. During the Weichselian glaciation, due to their altitude >3000 m the massifs were strongly glaciated. During the last years, we investigated fluvial sediment sequences of several rivers that originate from the mountain belts and cross the eastern semi-arid part of the Transcauscasian depression towards the Caspian Sea (e.g. Algeti, Khrami, Kura, Alazani), in order to decipher changes of their fluvial dynamics during the past. The investigated sediments of Late Pleistocene and Holocene age show thicknesses up to 50 m and are mostly well outcropped. Our morphologic, sedimentologic and chronostratigraphic investigations of different sediment sequences demonstrate distinctive changes of the fluvial dynamics between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, and show that high-frequent Holocene changes of the fluvial pattern of the rivers are probably linked to climatic and/or anthropogenic triggers. Additionally, on a longer time scale the fluvial dynamics of the rivers is obviously controlled by ongoing tectonic processes.

  18. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamets, Raul; Philips, Kaia; Annus, Tiina

    During the years 1989-1997 in Estonia, employment has decreased; unemployment and inactivity have increased. Females have tended to move to inactivity while males have become unemployed. The wage patterns are very flat relative to those in market economies. Estonia has opted for very low levels of unemployment benefits, pensions, and a low minimum…

  19. Application of high-pass filtering techniques on gravity and magnetic data of the eastern Qattara Depression area, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Oweis, Hesham T.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a reconnaissance study is presented to delineate the subsurface tectonics and lithological inferences of the eastern area of Qattara Depression using the Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic data. To achieve this goal, several transformation techniques and filtering processes are accomplished on these maps. At first, the total intensity aeromagnetic map is processed through the application of reduction to the magnetic north pole technique. The fast Fourier transform is carried out on the gravity and RTP magnetic data for establishing and defining the residual (shallow) sources. The frequency high-pass filtering is used to enhance the anomaly wavelengths associated with the shallow sources. The used processing techniques are the polynomial surface fitting enhancement, Laplacian, Strike Filtering, Enhancement Utilization, Suppression Utilization, Butterworth Filtering Utilization, Butterworth high-pass filter, Euler's deconvolution and forward modeling. The equivalent depths of the isolated short wavelength anomalies are 0.759 and 0.340 km below the flight surface, and the depths of the intermediate wavelength anomalies are 1.28 and 2.00 km for the gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Finally, the quantitative interpretations of the Bouguer gravity and RTP magnetic maps of the study area, reflect the occurrence of the various types of structures and their components. The main tectonic deformations of the study area have NNW-SSE, NNE-SSW, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W trends.

  20. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2014-09-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  1. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Presents part of a series that highlights this journal's interest in informing readers of international literacy research beyond what appears in featured articles. Discusses reports on literacy research in Estonia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. (SG)

  3. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  4. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  5. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  6. New Investigations of the Alleged Meteorite from Igast, Estonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, John A.; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a reinvestigation of the object which allegedly fell at Igast, Estonia, in 1855, and which may be the only example of a meteorite with the chemical composition of a tektite. R is concluded that generally quoted opinions of the artificial nature of this object are based on spurious samples, specifically melted brick and quartz basalt porphyry distributed by a Russian collector. Possibly genuine specimens from this observed fall are in the British Museum, the Paris Museum, and perhaps at the University of Dorpat, Estonia. It is recommended that these specimens be re-examined and that a search for similar objects be made.

  7. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  8. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  9. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  10. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  11. Adoption of National Curricula by Vocational Teachers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkor, Sirje; Ümarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to study the adoption of national curricula by vocational teachers. In the paper, we review the process of vocational education and training curriculum reform in Estonia over the last 20 years, and, in particular, the introduction of national curricula. As teachers should be considered the key agents of curricular change, we look…

  12. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Estonia. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Reform of education, training, and human resource development is an integral part of the transition to a democratic society and market economy. Estonia has made progress in all these areas since reform began in 1990. The challenge for the Ministry of Education has been to promote and support changes that meet the needs of the new economy and…

  13. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Estonia has experienced an HIV epidemic among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with the highest per capita HIV prevalence in Eastern Europe. We assessed the effects of expanded syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the capital city, Tallinn, which has an estimated 10,000 IDUs. Methods SEP implementation was monitored with data from the Estonian National Institute for Health Development. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys with HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2005, 2007 and 2009 (involving 350, 350 and 327 IDUs respectively). HIV incidence among new injectors (those injecting for < = 3 years) was estimated by assuming (1) new injectors were HIV seronegative when they began injecting, and (2) HIV infection occurred at the midpoint between first injection and time of interview. Results SEP increased from 230,000 syringes exchanged in 2005 to 440,000 in 2007 and 770,000 in 2009. In all three surveys, IDUs were predominantly male (80%), ethnic Russians (>80%), and young adults (mean ages 24 to 27 years). The proportion of new injectors decreased significantly over the years (from 21% in 2005 to 12% in 2009, p = 0.005). HIV prevalence among all respondents stabilized at slightly over 50% (54% in 2005, 55% in 2007, 51% in 2009), and decreased among new injectors (34% in 2005, 16% in 2009, p = 0.046). Estimated HIV incidence among new injectors decreased significantly from 18/100 person-years in 2005 and 21/100 person-years in 2007 to 9/100 person-years in 2009 (p = 0.026). Conclusions In Estonia, a transitional country, a decrease in the HIV prevalence among new injectors and in the numbers of people initiating injection drug use coincided with implementation of large-scale SEPs. Further reductions in HIV transmission among IDUs are still required. Provision of 70 or more syringes per IDU per year may be needed before significant reductions in HIV incidence occur. PMID:21718469

  14. A policy of introducing a new contract and funding system of general practice in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lember, Margus

    2002-01-01

    The socialist bloc of post-war Europe was obliged to follow the Soviet example with a hierarchical, centrally controlled health care system based on polyclinics and other facilities providing extensive specialist services at the first level of contact. All the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have now expressed their wish to totally change their health care systems. Changes in these countries include: the introduction of market economy mechanisms in health care, an increased focus on population health needs in guiding health care systems, and the possibility of introducing a more general type of care at primary level. Patient expectations of access, choice and convenience are factors in shaping new models of health care delivery. Appropriate timing is the key determinant of the success of reforms. In Estonia the beginning of the 1990s was the time when several interest groups in society supported changes in the health care system. The first step after regaining independence was the reintroduction of a Bismarck-type insurance system. In the late 1990s the primary care reforms have changed the initial plans and elements of a National Health Service were introduced, especially general practitioners' lists, capitation payment and gate-keeping principles. The family medicine reform in Estonia has two main objectives: introduction of general practice as a specialty into Estonian health care and changing the remuneration system of primary care doctors. The specific tasks are: to provide practising primary care doctors with opportunities for retraining to gain the specialty status of a general practitioner, to create a list system for the population to register with a primary care doctor, to introduce a partial gate-keeping system and to give the status of the independent contractor to primary care doctors. PMID:11963443

  15. The status and correlates of depression and anxiety among breast-cancer survivors in Eastern China: a population-based, cross-sectional case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer presents specific challenges both physiologically and psychologically to women, and consequently affect the patients’ mental health. Psychosocial factors may play important roles in the symptoms and development of mental disorders among breast-cancer survivors. This study assesses the depression and anxiety status of breast-cancer survivors and further identifies the risk factors. Methods A 1:1 matched, case–control study was conducted with a total sample of 222 individuals. Participants were selected from a national epidemiological survey. The Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety. The Social Support Rating Scale and Perceived Social Support Scale were used as measures of social support and perceived social support, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale as a measure of self-esteem. Coping style was assessed using the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. The predictive effect of these psychosocial factors for depression and anxiety was investigated with hierarchical linear regressions. Results Breast-cancer survivors experienced a high level of depressive and anxious symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that breast cancer functions as an independent but not a main risk factor of both depression and anxiety. Higher levels of depression and anxiety were positively associated with a higher level of passive coping style, and negatively with perceived social support, objective social support and an active coping style. Conclusions The mental health of breast-cancer survivors should be promoted through the transformation of coping styles and improvement of social support. PMID:24708474

  16. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  17. On Connections Between Weather Types and the Arrival of Migratory Birds in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.

    2010-09-01

    Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the

  18. Phenolic compounds in five Epilobium species collected from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Remmel, Indrek; Vares, Lauri; Toom, Lauri; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2012-10-01

    Epilobium species have been traditionally used as medicinal plants to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. The present study investigated the content of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in Epilobium parviflorum Schreb., E. hirsutum L., E. adenocaulon Hausskn., E. montanum L., and E. palustre L. growing in Estonia. The total contents of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were studied using UV spectroscopy with subsequent HPLC quantification of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin as marker compounds. All roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of the plants investigated contained comparable amounts of polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. There was a clear positive correlation between the contents of tannins and flavonoids in various plant parts. The content of these biologically active compounds suggests the use of E. parviflorum, E. hirsutum, E. adenocaulon, E. montanum, and E. palustre collected from Estonia as herbs both individually or as a blend. PMID:23156999

  19. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  20. The verification of GIA in Estonia using GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Oja, Tõnis

    2014-05-01

    Estonia is situated at the South-East corner of the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound (PGR) area, thus the impact of ongoing Glacial Isostatic Adjustment could be noticed on accurate geodetic measurements; e.g. in Estonia the uplift rates up to 4 mm/yr have been observed so far. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates derived from (1) the time series of several Estonian GNSS permanent reference stations (CORS), and (2) nation-wide GPS campaigns held in 1997 and 2008. Different methods and software were used to process and analyse GNSS data and time series. Slight discrepancies between the results helped to evaluate the effects of different approaches in data processing. To model the surface displacements and other geodetic quantities in response to the melting of ice sheets the open source software SELEN (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) with several ice models was used. The observed displacements of geodetic points as well as velocity estimates of CORS were compared with the predictions of latest PGR empirical models (e.g. NKG2005LU) and with the results from GIA modelling. In most cases good fit between the observations and models was found within study area. The higher discrepancies appeared in the East and South-East Estonia. Besides noise in aforementioned measurements the reason could be that almost no observed data from study area have been used in compilation of widespread (common, well-known) ice and GIA models. Keywords: GNSS measurements, postglacial rebound, glacial isostatic adjustment, Estonia. References Spada, G., Stocchi, P. (2007). SELEN: A Fortran 90 program for solving the "sea-level equation". Computers & Geosciences, 33:538-562, 2007.

  1. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  2. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Trichinella spp. in three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, A; Paulauskas, V; Järvis, T; Keidans, P; Eddi, C; Kapel, C M O

    2007-03-01

    Meat of domestic pigs and wild boars has been the significant source of emerged human trichinellosis in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia over the past two decades. However, there is very little known on the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in main wildlife reservoirs and its transmission in domestic and sylvatic cycles in these countries. The present study demonstrated considerably higher endemicity of Trichinella spp. in main sylvatic reservoirs (28.9-42% in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in all three countries than previously reported. Molecular identification of Trichinella larvae from more than 500 sylvatic and domestic animals revealed four Trichinella species (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella pseudospiralis) sympatric in a relatively small area and several as the first records for the respective countries. The nonencapsulating T. pseudospiralis is found for the first time in the Eastern Europe. Sylvatic T. britovi was found in domestic pigs in Lithuania and Latvia (16 and 57.1%, respectively) and only in these countries, domestic T. spiralis was detected in sylvatic animals in areas where domestic trichinellosis was registered. The study suggests that transmission of Trichinella between domestic and sylvatic cycles in Lithuania and Latvia is favored by improper human behavior, e.g., pig and slaughter waste management. PMID:17013647

  4. Modelling the petroleum generation and migration of the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaowen; He, Sheng; Liu, Keyu; Shi, Zhongsheng; Bachir, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The mudstones in the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) are the primary source rocks in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin. They are rich in organic matter with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content up to 3.5%. The sandstones in the Es3 member are the deepest proven hydrocarbon reservoir rocks with measured porosity and permeability values ranging from 3.6% to 32.4% and from 0.01 md to 3283.7 md, respectively. One, two and three-dimensional basin modelling studies were performed to analyse the petroleum generation and migration history of the Es3 member in the Banqiao Depression based on the reconstruction of the burial, thermal and maturity history in order to evaluate the remaining potential of this petroleum province. The modelling results are calibrated with measured vitrinite reflectance ( R o), borehole temperatures and some drilling results of 63 wells in the study area. Calibration of the model with thermal maturity and borehole temperature data indicates that the present-day heat flow in the Banqiao Depression varies from 59.8 mW/m 2 to 61.7 mW/m 2 and the paleo-heat flow increased from 65 Ma to 50.4 Ma, reached a peak heat-flow values of approximately 75 mW/m 2 at 50.4 Ma and then decreased exponentially from 50.4 Ma to present-day. The source rocks of the Es3 member are presently in a stage of oil and condensate generation with maturity from 0.5% to 1.8% R o and had maturity from 0.5% to 1.25% R o at the end of the Dongying Formation (Ed) deposition (26 Ma). Oil generation (0.5% R o) in the Es3 member began from about 37 Ma to 34 Ma and the peak hydrocarbon generation (1.0% R o) occurred approximately from 30 Ma to 15 Ma. The modelled hydrocarbon expulsion evolution suggested that the timing of hydrocarbon expulsion from the Es3 member source rocks began from 31 Ma to 10 Ma with the peak hydrocarbon expulsion shortly after 26 Ma. Secondary petroleum migration pathways in the Es3 member of the Banqiao Depression are modelled based on the

  5. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability. PMID:19234772

  6. Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical

  7. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  8. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  9. Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Hower, J.C.; Lis, G.; Hatch, J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Kukersite samples from Estonia and Iowa were analyzed for elemental composition, functional group distribution, and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios. The elemental and hydrogen isotope values, together with other analytical data, suggest a higher thermal maturity for the Iowa kukersite. The wide carbon isotopic range of 9.3??? among kukersites, with unusually negative ??13C values reaching -33.2???, indicates isotopically variable carbon sources for production of biomass, and thus major paleoceanographic differences between the environments supporting biosynthesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  11. Recharge to Shale Bedrock at Averill Park, an Upland Hamlet in Eastern New York - An Estimate Based on Pumpage within a Defined Cone of Depression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Finch, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Water levels beneath parts of Averill Park, a residential hamlet in an upland area of till-mantled shale bedrock in east-central New York, have declined in response to increased withdrawals from new wells. Similar experiences in many upland localities in the northeastern United States have resulted in awareness that the rate of recharge to bedrock can be an important constraint on the density of new development in uplands. Recharge at Averill Park was calculated on the basis of careful estimation of pumpage within a defined cone of depression. The data-collection and recharge-estimation procedures documented herein could be applied in a variety of upland localities in support of community-planning studies. Static water levels measured in 145 wells at Averill Park during the late summer of 2002 defined a 0.54-square-mile cone of depression within which ground-water discharge took place entirely as withdrawals from wells. Rates of withdrawal were estimated largely from surveys in similar neighborhoods a few miles away served by public water supply. Comparison of the water-level measurements in 2002 with measurements on other dates revealed localized declines that could be attributed to new housing developments or commercial demands, but also demonstrated that water levels in 2002 within the cone of depression had stabilized and were not declining persistently over time. Therefore, the current withdrawals were equated to recharge from infiltrating precipitation. Recharge within this area was estimated to average 104 gallons per day per acre, equivalent to 1.4 inches annually, and was sufficient to sustain a residential population of 1.9 persons per acre. This recharge rate is much lower than rates estimated from streamflow records for upland watersheds elsewhere in the northeastern United States. This rate is an average of an unknown larger rate in the 30 percent of the study area where bedrock is discontinuously overlain by less than 30 feet of till and an unknown

  12. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. PMID:19052463

  13. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. Methods The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008–2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Results Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5–54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23–4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21–3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13–2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05–2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01–2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. Conclusions This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of “non-lump” symptoms of breast cancer and

  14. The sociodemographic patterning of drinking and binge drinking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, 1994–2002

    PubMed Central

    Helasoja, Ville; Lahelma, Eero; Prättälä, Ritva; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pudule, Iveta; Tekkel, Mare

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively low recorded alcohol consumption level, the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and neighbouring Finland suffer from similar harmful consequences related to the use of alcoholic beverages, including socio-economic inequalities in alcohol related mortality. Comparative evidence is needed to understand harmful drinking patterns and to implement preventive alcohol policies also in the Baltic countries. This study compared heavy and binge drinking by sex, age, education, urbanisation and marital status in the Baltic countries and Finland. Methods The data were nationally representative postal surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 6271), Latvia (n = 6106), Lithuania (n = 7966) and Finland (n = 15764) during 1994–2002. The criterion for heavy drinking was at least 15 portions weekly among men, and at least five among women, and for binge drinking at least six portions per one occasion. Results Heavy drinking was more common among younger participants in all countries, and in Latvia among the less-educated. Among Finnish men, and among women from all countries except Latvia, the better-educated were more often heavy drinkers. In Latvia and Finland, urban men, and in all countries, urban women, were more often heavy drinkers. Heavy drinking was more common among non-married Lithuanian and Finnish men, and Finnish women. Binge drinking was more common among less-educated Estonian and Latvian men, and among younger and less-educated women in all countries. Conclusion Our results support the continued power of traditional drinking habits in the North Eastern part of Europe. In the future the target groups for prevention of excessive drinking should also include young and less-educated women in all four countries studied. PMID:17854484

  15. Improving the terrestial gravity dataset in South-Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, T.; Gruno, A.; Bloom, A.; Mäekivi, E.; Ellmann, A.; All, T.; Jürgenson, H.; Michelson, M.

    2009-04-01

    The only available gravity dataset covering the whole of Estonia has been observed from 1949 to 1958. This historic dataset has been used as a main input source for many applications including the geoid determination, the realization of the height system, the geological mapping. However, some recent studies have been indicated remarkable systematic biases in the dataset. For instance, a comparison of modern gravity control points with the historic data revealed unreasonable discrepancies in a large region in South-Estonia. However, the distribution of the gravity control was scarce, which did not allow to fully assess the quality of the historic data in the study area. In 2008 a pilot project was called out as a cooperation between Estonian Land Board, Geological Survey of Estonia, Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian University of Life Sciences to densify the detected problematic area (about 2000 km2) with new and reliable gravity data. Field work was carried out in October and November 2008, whereas GPS RTK and relative Scintrex gravimeter CG5 were used for precise positioning and gravity determinations, respectively. Altogether more than 140 new points were determined along the roads. Despite bad weather conditions and unstable observation base of the gravimeter (mostly on the bank of the road), uncertainty better than ±0.1 mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2) was estimated from the adjustment of gravimeter's readings. The separate gravity dataset of the Estonian Geological Survey were also incorporated into the gravity database of the project for further analysis. Those data were collected within several geological mapping projects in 1981-2007 and contain the data with uncertainty better than ±0.25 mGal. After the collection of new gravity data, a Kriging with proper variogram modeling was applied to form the Bouguer anomaly grids of the historic and the new datasets. The comparison of the resulting grids revealed biases up to -4 mGal at certain regions

  16. Support Structures for Innovation and Research-based Entrepreneurship in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkivi, Raivo

    1999-01-01

    In a transition economy, Estonia is taking a systematic approach to research and development and technology transfer through two programs: a science park for incubation of small enterprises and a technical university innovation center. (SK)

  17. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women. PMID:27222251

  18. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Estonia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  19. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  20. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  1. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  2. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    solely by the basin depth and duration of the ice cover period. A normal grading is observed in most of the studied winter layers of individual varves. Relatively large errors in the estimated terminal grain size permits only to conclude that it is in line with previously reconstructed water depth constrained by the maximum possible duration of the lake ice cover. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF Mobilitas grant No MJD309. References Hang, T., Kohv, M. 2013. Glacial varves at Pärnu, south-western Estonia: a local varve chronology and proglacial sedimentary environment. GFF, June, 37-41. doi:10.1080/11035897.2013.775598 Rosentau, A., Vassiljev, J., Hang, T., Saarse, L., Kalm, V. 2009. Development of the Baltic Ice Lake in the eastern Baltic. Quaternary International, 206(1-2), 16-23. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.10.005

  3. Aeolian Coastal Landscapes in changes (a study from Tahkuna, Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The openness of the coast to the winds and storm waves has an important part in changing aeolian coastal landscapes as well as anthropogenic factor. The aeolian coastal landscapes are probably the most dynamic areas. Occurrence of aeolian coastal landscapes in Estonia is limited. They consist of sandy beaches, sandy beach ridges and dunes. The coastal ecosystems are strongly affected by their topography, based on the character of deposits and moisture conditions. The majority of their ecosystems are quite close to the specific natural habitat. These ecosystems are represented in the list of the European Union Habitats (Natura 2000). In recent decades human influence has changed the landscape over time in different activities (recreation, trampling, off-road driving) and their intensities, which has led to destruction or degradation of various habitats. Previously coastal landscapes were used for forestry and pasture. Nowadays one of the most serious threats to open landscape is afforestation. This study examines the relationships between landscape components during last decades. Trying to find out how much aeolian coastal landscapes are influenced by natural processes or human activities. The results are based on cartographic analysis, fieldwork data. The method of landscape complex profile was used. The profiles show a cross-sections of landforms and interrelationships between landscape components, most frequently describing the relations between soils and vegetation. In each sample point the mechanical composition of sediments, vegetation cover and soil is determined. Results show that changes in landscapes are induced by their own development as well as changes in environmental factors and human activities. Larger changes are due to increase of coastal processes activity. These processes can be observed in sandy beaches, which are easily transformed by waves. Higher sea levels during storm surges are reaching older beach formation, causing erosion and creating

  4. Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Odlind, Viveca; Irs, Alar; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-12-01

    Aims of the study were to compare the paediatric outpatient antibiotic use in two countries with low overall antibiotic consumption and antibacterial resistance levels - Sweden and Estonia - and to describe the adherence to Estonian treatment guideline. All prescriptions for systemic antibiotics for children less than 18 years during 2007 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and Estonian Health Insurance Fund database were identified to conduct a descriptive drug utilisation study. The total paediatric antibiotic use was 616 and 353 per 1000 in Estonia and Sweden, respectively. The greatest between country differences occurred in the age group 2 to 6 years -Estonian children received 1184 and Swedish children 528 prescriptions per 1000. Extended spectrum penicillin amoxicillin (189 per 1000) or its combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor (81 per 1000) and a newer macrolide clarithromycin (127 per 1000) were prescribed most often in Estonia whereas narrow spectrum penicillin phenoxymethylpenicillin (169 per 1000) and older generation macrolide erythromycin (21 per 1000) predominated in Sweden. For acute bronchitis, 17 different antibiotics (most commonly clarithromycin) were prescribed in Estonia despite the guideline recommendation not to use antibiotics. The higher rate of antibiotic use especially of extended spectrum antibiotics in Estonia compared to Sweden emphasizes the need for national activities to promote appropriate use of antibiotics while treating children, even when the overall antibiotic consumption is low. PMID:23667800

  5. Satellite Movie Shows Three Tropical Cyclones in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-Wast satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Depression Genevieve (left) southwest of Hawaii, Hurricane Iselle (center) in the Eastern...

  6. Mutual Trust between Kindergarten Teachers and Mothers and Its Associations with Family Characteristics in Estonia and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Kontoniemi, Marita; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual trust between mothers and kindergarten teachers along with its relation to mother's educational level and child's gender was studied in two neighboring countries--Estonia and Finland. From Estonia 543 ratings of mothers and 232 ratings of teachers were collected, and, from Finland, 712 ratings of mothers and 712 ratings of teachers. Trust…

  7. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  8. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  9. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  10. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  11. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  12. Teen Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... shown that certain types of talk therapy or psychotherapy can help teens deal with depression. These include ... behaviors, and feelings related to depression, and interpersonal psychotherapy, which focuses on working on relationships. Read more ...

  13. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  14. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  15. Depression - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of ... one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of ...

  16. Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina M.

    Affective disorder is characterized by maladaptive changes in mood, attitudes, energy level, and physical status. These changes constitute the basic dimensions of depression. Depression results from a combination of genetic and experiential factors. There are sex differences and age differences with regard to depression, and there is a high…

  17. Perinatal depression

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  18. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  19. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304

  20. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers. PMID:12295097

  1. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine the…

  2. The National Status of the Preparation of School Psychologists in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Estonia is a small republic that has undergone several big societal changes (from belonging to the Soviet Union to becoming a free republic, and the process of integrating into the European Union) during the last several decades. Psychology has been taught as a separate discipline starting from 1968, but its content has been changed from very…

  3. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  4. When Failing Is the Only Option: Explaining Failure to Finish PhDs in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassil, Kristjan; Solvak, Mihkel

    2012-01-01

    That PhD candidates fail to graduate on time in large numbers across a number of countries is a well-known fact. An extreme example is Estonia, where according to some estimates less than a third of PhD students complete their studies on time. A number of studies have addressed the likely reasons for such behavior, both comparatively and…

  5. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  6. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  7. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  8. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment…

  9. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  10. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional…

  11. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  12. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  13. An Examination of the Flynn Effect in the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, William

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn Effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia from Scale B of the National Intelligence Test using both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) methods. Secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of students were analyzed, using both classical test theory (CTT)…

  14. Family medicine as a model of transition from academic medicine to academic health care: Estonia's experience.

    PubMed

    Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the development of academic family medicine in an environment of traditional academic medicine at the Tartu University, Estonia. The introduction of university family medicine teachers to everyday practice and practitioners to academic teaching and research helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, and it shows changed approach to academic medicine. PMID:15495281

  15. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  16. E-Learning as Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness of the VET Teachers' Community in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Kruusvall, Juri; Umarik, Meril

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the acceptance of e-learning by teachers of vocational secondary and professional higher education institutions (hereafter: VET teachers) in Estonia has been analysed. The analysis is based on questionnaire study, carried out in 2007. The theoretical framework of the article has been inspired by Everett Rogers' innovation…

  17. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child" debate in…

  18. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  19. Postglacial land uplift in Estonia based on four precise levelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kall, Tarmo; Oja, Tõnis; Tänavsuu, Kalmer

    2014-01-01

    The vertical velocities of the fundamental benchmarks of Estonian 1st order leveling network were estimated, based on the four precise leveling campaigns from 1933 to 2010. The kinematic least squares adjustment of the network was used, where heights and velocities were introduced as unknown parameters. For detection of outliers, Baarda's data snooping method was applied. Estimation of variance components by the Helmert's and the IAUE methods provided realistic weights in the network adjustment and revealed also that the observation errors of the first three levelings are up to 3 times larger than was assumed a priori. To obtain apparent uplift rates and fix velocity in kinematic adjustment, the velocity value + 2.1 mm/yr of the Ristna tide gauge on island Hiiumaa was transferred to the nearest stable benchmark by using precise levelings from tide gauge to the national height network. Average standard deviation of velocities at benchmarks was estimated to be ± 0.5 mm/yr. Based on apparent vertical velocities of the benchmarks, an interpolated land uplift surface was created using “kriging” and “minimum curvature” gridding methods. Although the two methods gave similar surfaces (RMS of differences was below ± 0.1 mm/yr), the kriging solution was used in comparison with the results of the earlier studies. The uncertainty of new velocity surface was estimated to be ± 0.5 to ± 0.7 mm/yr. The new land uplift model fits well with the Fennoscandian land uplift model NKG2005LU. The RMS of the differences was ± 0.2 mm/yr. Good agreement was also confirmed with the earlier land uplift maps of Estonia (RMS of differences ± 0.6 mm/yr). However, clear disagreement was noticed when tide gauge observations from several studies were used in comparison (RMS of differences up to ± 1.0 mm/yr). Apparently, different velocity solutions of Estonian tide gauges are systematically biased; the reasons for these biases need further investigation.

  20. Elemental composition and oxidative properties of PM(2.5) in Estonia in relation to origin of air masses - results from the ECRHS II in Tartu.

    PubMed

    Orru, Hans; Kimmel, Veljo; Kikas, Ulle; Soon, Argo; Künzli, Nino; Schins, Roel P F; Borm, Paul J A; Forsberg, Bertil

    2010-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was sampled at an urban background site in Tartu, Estonia over one-year period during the ECRHS II study. The elemental composition of 71 PM(2.5) samples was analyzed for different chemical elements using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF). The oxidative activity of 36 samples was assessed by measuring their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The origin of air masses was determined by computing 96-hour back trajectories of air masses with the HYSPLIT Model. The trajectories of air masses were divided into four sectors according to geographical patterns: "Russia," "Eastern Europe," "Western Europe," and "Scandinavia." During the study period, approximately 30% of air masses originated from "Scandinavia." The other three sectors had slightly lower values (between 18 and 22%). In spring, summer, and winter, higher total PM levels originated from air masses from continental areas, namely "Russia" and "Eastern Europe" (18.51+/-7.33 and 19.96+/-9.23microg m(-3), respectively). In autumn, the PM levels were highest in "Western Europe". High levels of Fe, Ti, and AlCaSi (Al, Ca, and Si) were also detected in air masses from the Eurasian continent. The oxidative properties were correlated to the origin of air masses. The OH values were approximately 1.5 times higher when air masses originated from the direction of "Eastern Europe" or "Russia." The origin of measured particles was evaluated using principal component factor analysis. When comparing the PM(2.5) elemental composition with seasonal variation, factor scores, and other studies, the factors represent: (1) combustion of biomass; (2) crustal dust; (3) traffic; and (4) power plants and industrial processes associated with oil burning. The total PM(2.5) is driven mainly by biomass and industrial combustion (63%) and other unidentified sources (23%). Other sources of PM, such as crustal dust and traffic, contribute a total

  1. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction. PMID:12806530

  2. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  3. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  4. Survey of the Presence of Toxocara spp. Eggs in Dog Feces in Tartu, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-03-01

    Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples. PMID:26854385

  5. Mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer patients in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Innos, Kaire; Valvere, Vahur; Padrik, Peeter; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine past mammography use and mode of detection among breast cancer (BC) patients in Estonia, a country that has low screening coverage and high BC mortality. Women newly diagnosed with primary BC in Estonia in 2008-2010 were interviewed. Determinants of past mammography use and the detection of BC by mammography were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Among 977 participants, almost half reported no mammograms prior to the detection of BC. Overall, 22% of the cases were detected by mammography (16% by screening mammography). Detection by mammography was strongly related to age, past mammography use, and obesity. Among cases detected by mammography, 10% were stage III/IV at diagnosis (32% among cases detected by other modes). This study showed low mammography utilization and high rate of self-detection of BC in Estonia. Increased detection by mammography would help diagnose the disease at an earlier stage and consequently avoid premature BC deaths. Efforts should be undertaken to increase participation in screening and improve the availability of mammography among older and high-risk women. The results are likely to be relevant for other countries and population groups with low screening coverage. PMID:26327255

  6. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very severe, you may have hallucinations and delusions (false beliefs). This condition is called depression with ... This helps relieve your symptoms. If you have delusions or hallucinations, your provider may prescribe additional medicines. ...

  7. Comparative Study: Impact of Family, School, and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukakidze, Berika

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on PISA 2009 International Assessment Study. Two counties were selected: a developed country, Estonia and a developing country, Azerbaijan. The following Datum was used for statistical analysis: students average scores in reading (162 schools, 4 600 students from Azerbaijan; 17 schools, 4 923 students from Estonia). The work is…

  8. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... daylight are shorter; for example, during winter months. Bipolar disorder (also called manic depression or bipolar depression) is ... to a Therapist Anxiety Disorders Cutting Word! Depression Bipolar Disorder Why Am I So Sad? Sadness and Depression ...

  9. International conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2013), 21-24 April 2013, Tartu, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2014-04-01

    The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research

  10. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  11. Amber bearing deposit in SW Saaremaa, Estonia - sedimentary environment and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Triine; Ots, Mirja; Rosentau, Alar

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a deposit of natural amber found form Estonia. Finds of natural amber are important in the context of the Bronze Age archaeology, because the amount of Bronze Age archaeological amber found in Estonia is very small. Most of the amber is from the Late Bronze Age and is mainly discovered from the fortified settlements in Saaremaa, some also from burials of the same time. Now, the discovery of the deposit of natural amber in the island of Saaremaa makes us reconsider the general opinion that all archaeological amber items found in Estonia have been imported. The aim of this study is to clarify the origin and age of the natural amber using scientific methods. A layer of buried organic matter (BOM) containing pieces of natural amber was discovered in Holocene coastal plain on Sõrve peninsula, island of Saaremaa. The BOM layer is buried under ca 90 cm-thick sandy coastal deposits and consists of remains of coastal plants and pieces of driftwood. Palaeogeographic reconstructions and sediment composition indicate that the layer was deposited in the coastal zone and buried quickly by sandy marine sediments. According to radiocarbon dating of the seeds of Polygonum lapathifolium the formation of the BOM layer remained in the Late Bronze Age (2480 ± 30 14C yr BP). Amber finds have been characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and isotope analysis of light elements (H and C) - both are referring to Baltic amber. Therefore it is probable that amber was transported to Saaremaa within organic matter from the Latvian-Lithuanian coastal zone where secondary Baltic amber deposits are widely known.

  12. High prevalence of rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization in Estonia and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pallasaho, Paula; Kainu, Annette; Juusela, Maria; Meren, Mari; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis and atopy are more common in urban than rural environments. Non-allergic rhinitis has not been studied to a great extent. We aimed to assess the relationship of rhinitis symptoms with different profiles of allergic sensitization, comparing this in rural and urban environments. Methods The study population consisted of population-based cohorts of adults aged 26–60 from Helsinki, Finland, and rural Saaremaa and urban Tallinn, Estonia. We compared the results of a structured interview and skin prick tests and assessed the risk factors for rhinitis. Results The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms with atopy was 32.7% in Helsinki, 20.8% in Tallinn, and 12.5% in Saaremaa (p<0.001). Rhinitis symptoms without atopy were found in 26.4%, 29.8%, and 29.3% (p=n.s.), respectively. In Helsinki, 87.3% of participants with atopy identified symptoms as allergic, compared to 57.0% in Tallinn and 47.5% in Saaremaa. Childhood in the countryside (OR 0.63), family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.89), and polysensitization (OR 15.99) were significantly associated with rhinitis symptoms with atopy in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common sensitizers were pollens and animals in Helsinki and mites in Estonia. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (OR 1.50) and family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.70) were associated with rhinitis symptoms without atopy. Conclusion Rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization were common in both Finland and Estonia and were associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Family history of allergic rhinitis predisposed to rhinitis symptoms irrespective of atopy status. PMID:26557256

  13. The Kaali crater field and other geosites of Saaremaa Island (Estonia): the perspectives for a geopark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raukas, Anto; Stankowski, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    The Island of Saaremaa in Estonia offers highly spectacular geological features that belong to the most interesting in the Baltic Sea area. A unique geological monument on the island is the Kaali meteorite-crater field, formed by nine meteorite impacts. There are also attractive coastal cliffs, huge erratics, alvars (limestone areas covered by a very thin soil) and well-developed glacial and marine landforms. Limestone cliffs and shingle beaches abound with Silurian fossils and offer great opportunities to fossil collectors. The island is a prospective geopark. During the past few years, the geology of the island has become an intensely studied object of Estonian and Polish geologists.

  14. Reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on TGME-464 boiler of IRU power plant (Estonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for realization of measures on a reduction in nitrogen oxides emission on a TGME-464 (plant no. 2) boiler of the IRU power plant (Tallinn, Estonia) is investigated. Low-cost techno-logical measures, namely, nonstoichiometric burning and burning with the moderate controlled chemical underburning, are proposed and experimentally tested. Recommendations on the implementation of low-emission modes of burning natural gas into mode diagrams of the boiler are given. Nitrogen oxides emissions are reduced to the required level as a result of the implementation of the proposed measures.

  15. [Postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Guo, S F

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in Beijing, China, in 1992. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to inquire the mothers at 6-12 month after delivery. A total of 550 women were investigated by mailing. 425 women replied. The positive rate of PPD in our study was 17.9%. Women who had had a history of mood disorder before pregnancy had a higher risk of PPD. Social and psychological factors such as lacking support from the women's relatives, the poor marital relationship and the bad living condition shown to be significantly associated with postnatal depression. PPD can seriously affected the physical and mental health and well-being of women, her child's early education causing delayed development and her family causing a great deal of suffering, personal distress and marital troubles even causing divorce and suicide. Thus it is important to identify the high risk women and give treatment as early as possible. PMID:8313745

  16. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica)

    PubMed Central

    Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Toom, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The earliest bioeroded inorganic hard substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia appear in the Dapingian. Hardgrounds are also known from the Sandbian and Katian. Most of the bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates occurs as the boring Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932 along with some possible Gastrochaenolites borings. North American hardground borings are more diverse than those in Baltica. In contrast to a worldwide trend of increasing boring intensity, the Estonian record seems to show no increase in boring intensities during the Middle and Late Ordovician. Hardgrounds seem to be more common during the temperate climate interval of the Ordovician calcite sea in Estonia (seven hardgrounds during 15 my) than in the part with a tropical climate (four hardgrounds during 12 my). Bioerosion is mostly associated with carbonate hardgrounds, but cobbles and pebbles broken from the hardgrounds are also often penetrated by Trypanites borings. The general diversity of boring ichnotaxa in Baltica increased from one ichnospecies in the Cambrian to seven by the end of Ordovician, showing the effect of the GOBE on bioeroding ichnotaxa. The diversity of inorganic hard substrate borers increased by only two times. This difference can be explained by the wider environmental distribution of organic as compared to inorganic substrates in the Ordovician seas of Baltica, and their more continuous temporal availability, which may have caused increased specialization of several borers. The inorganic substrates may have been bioreroded only by the generalists among boring organisms. PMID:26218582

  17. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. PMID:25130924

  18. Gravity change from repeated absolute measurements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1994-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Falk, R.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Lapushka, K.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Petroškevičius, P.; Timmen, L.

    2009-04-01

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania belong to the margin of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area. Vertical rates predicted by PGR models are in the range 0 to +3 mm/yr. Our first absolute gravity campaigns in the area were performed with the JILAg-5 gravimeter in 1994-1995 when three stations were measured in each country. All three stations in Lithuania were repeated with the JILAg-5 in 2002 and one of them (Vilnius) with the FG5#221 gravimeter in 2007. In Latvia one station (Riga) was remeasured with the FG5#101 and FG5#107 (D. Stizza, NIMA) in 1986 and with the FG5#221 in 2007. In Estonia two of the stations (Suurupi and Töravere) were remeasured with the FG5#220 in 2007 and with the FG5#221 in 2008, the third (Kuressaare) was only remeasured in 2008 with the FG5#221. This amounts to seven repeated stations with time spans of 8-13 years. In interpreting gravity change, special attention must be paid to subsurface water storage, as (due to inaccessibility of crystalline bedrock) many stations are on thick sediments, the repeat measurements were partly made in different seasons, and in some cases there is evidence of strong interannual variation in hydrology. We discuss the constraints to PGR implied by the observed gravity change and compare it with PGR models and with available observations of vertical motion.

  19. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  20. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  1. Stable isotope record of Holocene precipitation changes from Lake Nuudsaku in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Carolyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Dodd, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated, finely laminated lake sediments record Holocene precipitation changes from southern Estonia. Modern water isotope data suggest that Lake Nuudsaku is a mostly open system that is primarily fed by winter precipitation and groundwater, and summer precipitation plays only a secondary role in the overall hydrologic balance. Initial results indicate that changes in insolation likely drove the overall Holocene pattern with relatively wet conditions during the early Holocene, followed by arid conditions during the middle Holocene and a return to wetter conditions during the late Holocene. However, there is pronounced millennial and centennial-scale variability that cannot be explained by insolation forcing alone. Notably, there is a trend toward wetter conditions from ~4.0 to 2.0 ka, followed by a trend toward drier conditions during the last 2 millennia. This late Holocene pattern diverges from the pattern observed in records from north-central Estonia that suggest an overall trend of wetter conditions for the last ~4 ka. These initial results thus indicate that the Lake Nuudsaku sediments have the potential to yield a unique near-annual to decade-scale record of past precipitation changes from the southern Baltic region.

  2. Subduction Initiation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction is often reported to be difficult to initiate, yet in the West Pacific and Eastern Indonesia there are many young subduction zones. Few theoretical or modelling studies consider such settings in which subduction commonly began close to boundaries between ocean crust and thickened crust of arc or continental origin. In Eastern Indonesia there are subduction zones at different stages of development. Some young examples such as the Banda Arc developed by propagation of an existing trench into a new area by tearing, probably along an ocean-continent boundary. This 'solves' the problem since the older subducted slab provides the driving force to drag down unsubducted ocean lithosphere. However, similar explanations cannot account for other subduction zones, such as North Sulawesi, nearby examples in which the subducted slab is not yet at 100 km depth, or troughs where subduction appears to be beginning. These examples show that subduction initiated at a point, such as a corner in an ocean basin, where there were very great differences in elevation between land and adjacent ocean floor. Depression of ocean crust by flow of arc/continent crust is associated with granitic magmatism and detachments within the upper crust. Once the oceanic corner reaches depths of c.100 km, eclogite formation may lead to slab pull that causes the new subduction zone to grow in both directions along strike; arc magmatism may or may not begin. The close relationship between subduction and extension in Eastern Indonesia links dramatic elevation of land, exhumation of deep crust, and spectacular subsidence of basins imaged by oil exploration seismic and multibeam data. Exhumed granites and high-grade metamorphic rocks at elevations up to 3 km, separated by Neogene alluvial sediments from carbonate reefs now at depths of 2 kilometres, imply vertical movements of several kilometres in a few million years. These observations raise the question of whether subduction is driving extension

  3. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  4. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  5. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. PMID:26519691

  6. Preschool Achievement in Finland and Estonia: Cross-Cultural Comparison between the Cities of Helsinki and Tallinn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Mikko; Talts, Leida

    2007-01-01

    Each child In Finland and in Estonia receives preschool training for a year before going to school, based on a new national framework curriculum of preschool education. The aim of the present study was to compare children's learning achievements in nine target areas, based on the teacher's evaluations at the end of the preschool year, in both…

  7. FIRST REPORT OF A GROUP 16SRI, SUBGROUP B, PHYTOPLASMA IN DISEASED EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM IN THE REGION OF TALLIN, ESTONIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of phyllody of flowers and general plant yellowing, indicating possible phytoplasma infection, were observed in diseased plants of hairy willow-weed (Epilobium hirsutum L., family Onagraceae) growing in a meadow of Harku village near Tallin, Estonia. Sequences of ribosomal (r) RNA genes we...

  8. Beyond Words: Dance and Movement Sessions with Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodgame, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    This article details an experimental project in Estonian schools, using therapeutic dance and movement as a basis to explore beyond the boundaries of language in supporting young people to develop their creative expression. The author visited three residential schools in different areas of Estonia in September 2006 to lead sessions with groups of…

  9. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  10. The Role of Values in Citizenship Education: A Comparative Study of Estonian- and Russian-Speaking Schools in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu

    2003-01-01

    For emerging democracies civic education issues have special meaning. Often these issues play a vital role in the process of nation building and democratic consolidation, which makes the interplay between the school system and the socio-political environment particularly important. Estonia, which inherited from the half-century Soviet occupation a…

  11. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  12. Motivation for Obtaining the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karner, Anita; Kukemelk, Hasso; Herdlein, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This is essentially a qualitative study, a fact-finding activity to gather, analyze, and interpret evidence of student motivation in completing the terminal degree in Estonia. It uses a variety of interpretive research methodologies appropriate for a phenomenological approach. Thirteen doctoral candidates who defended their doctoral thesis…

  13. The Unintended and Intended Academic Consequences of Educational Reforms: The Cases of Post-Soviet Estonia, Latvia and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khavenson, Tatiana; Carnoy, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to unravel some of the unintended and intended academic effects associated with post-Soviet educational reforms by focusing on three cases: Estonia, Latvia and Russia. We have chosen this comparison because a unique "natural experiment" in the three countries allows us to compare the changing academic performance on…

  14. Depression: What We Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Brana; Hirschfeld, Robert M. A.

    This booklet is concerned with the area of clinical depression. Questions about clinical depression are briefly answered in an overview section and are examined in greater detail in the five chapters that follow. In chapter 1, depression is defined and various types of depression are identified. The origins of depression are explored in the second…

  15. Nutritional Interventions in Depression and Perinatal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Depression is the leading cause of mental disability worldwide. Women who are depressed during pregnancy are at a higher risk for preterm delivery, preeclampsia, birth difficulties, and postpartum depression. The treatment of depression in conventional medicine has focused on physiological factors that lead to impaired neurotransmitter function and treatments to improve neurotransmitter function. Pharmaceutical substances pose risks for pregnant and lactating women, and lower risk options are preferred. Micronutrients, including certain B vitamins, folate, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in the synthesis and absorption of neurotransmitters. Experimental studies suggest that supplementation with specific micronutrients may alleviate depressive symptoms and improve birth outcomes in patients with perinatal depression. Alternative treatments for depression, including nutritional supplements, are an important treatment option for depressive symptoms while limiting potential side effects and treatment costs. This article explores the biological basis of perinatal depression and reviews the potential benefits of non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:23766734

  16. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  17. Depression after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library CARING FOR SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Depression After Stroke After a stroke, your loved one ... available! Almost half of all stroke survivors have depression. Depression is a normal response to the losses ...

  18. Effects of changes in land use on soil properties in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Reintam, Endla

    2013-04-01

    One important factor influencing the soil properties is the human activity and especially the agricultural activity. Effects of changes in land use and human activities on soil properties are remarkable on the topsoil, the lower soil layers are less affected. During the last century the land use in Estonia has considerably changed. In Estonia the area of abandoned agricultural land has been rapidly increasing during the last decades. The purpose of our study was to estimate the effects of changes in land use on soil properties in Estonia. The field experiment has been established on the experimental station of Estonian University of Life Sciences in Rõhu. The experimental area was used during the years 1960-2006 as an apple garden, 2006-2007 it was ploughed and since 2008 the experimental area has been used as grassland. In our trial we compared the changes in soil properties before and after the experimental area was used as grassland (2007 and 2008). The two grassland species in the trial were Phalaris arundinacea L. and Dactylis glomerata L. The soil of experimental area was a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol (siltic). Soil properties like the soil bulk density, soil porosity and the water permeability were studied in 30 cm soil column in every 5 cm soil layer. The results indicated changes in the soil properties. Before the grassland management the soil bulk density was in the upper layer (0-5 cm) approximately 19 % and in deeper layer (15-20 cm) 10 % higher as under the grassland. Changes of soil porosity were not so considerable before and after the grassland management. The highest alteration occurred in the values of soil air capacity were the change was from low to high in upper layer (0-5 cm) and from medium to high in the deeper layer (15-20 cm). The water permeability before the grassland management was medium and under Dactylis glomerata in the upper layer (0-5 cm) low and in the deeper layer (15-20 cm) high. Our results showed that the vegetation provided

  19. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  20. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. PMID:20206101

  1. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  2. Cryptosporidiosis – an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Conclusion Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted. PMID:24902957

  3. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found. PMID:24861103

  4. Gullied Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies formed in the wall of a depression located on the floor of Rabe Crater west of the giant impact basin, Hellas Planitia. Gullies such as these are common features on Mars, but the process by which they are formed is not fully understood. The debate centers on the role and source of fluids in the genesis of these features.

    Location near: 44.1oS, 325.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  5. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  6. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia. PMID:23590318

  7. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  8. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS--an international comparison between Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Raid, Ulla; Istomina, Natalja; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Välimäki, Maritta

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents baseline data on nurses' knowledge of and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in three countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is steadily increasing in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. At the same time, labour mobility and also nursing mobility between these countries increases. Previous international studies have shown that lack of knowledge and negative attitudes continue to exist. A total of 681 registered nurses from one Finnish (n = 322), one Estonian (n = 191) and one Lithuanian (n = 168) hospital were surveyed in spring 2006. The questionnaire was originally developed by Held in 1993 and modified for this study. The questionnaire has three scales: demographic and other background variable, nurses' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and nurses' attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS and towards the disease itself. Across the whole sample respondents showed average levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Years of work experience correlated negatively with the knowledge and attitude levels. A significant correlation was found between the level of knowledge and attitudes. Significant differences were found between countries, Finnish nurses showing the highest knowledge levels and most positive attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS. Factors positively influencing levels of knowledge and attitudes were education, previous experience of providing care to HIV/AIDS patient or knowing someone with the infection, and willingness to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen nurses' knowledge. It is important to recognize that there might be differences in knowledge and attitudes between neighbour countries. This needs to be taken into account when planning education for degrees and for further nursing education. PMID:20487059

  9. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  10. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life. PMID:24709788

  11. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  12. Modelling obesity trends and related diseases in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Webber, L; Kilpi, F; Marsh, T; Rtveladze, K; McPherson, K; Brown, M

    2012-08-01

    Obesity has increased at an alarming rate across the world and, in turn, rates of non-communicable diseases have escalated. In Eastern Europe, this epidemic has probably occurred at a later stage than the West due to the economic transition following the demise of communism. Knowing how these trends will change is important. We used a micro-simulation model to project obesity trends and related incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke, cancer and type 2 diabetes 20 and 40 years into the future. Where nationally representative data were available, obesity levels were shown to increase with most prominent increases seen amongst men in Latvia and Estonia, and amongst women in Croatia and Latvia. The exception was Lithuania where a decrease in overweight and obesity was observed in both men and women. We showed that interventions effective in reducing obesity would have a significant impact upon the number of new cases of each disease. It is necessary to improve surveillance of obesity and disease incidence as well as implement policies that are effective in reducing body fat. PMID:22568760

  13. Magnetic history of Early and Middle Ordovician sedimentary sequence, northern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plado, J.; Preeden, U.; Pesonen, L. J.; Mertanen, S.; Puura, V.

    2010-01-01

    Alternating field and thermal demagnetization of lime- and dolostones from the Lower and Middle Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian stages) subhorizontally bedded sequences in NW and NE Estonia reveal two characteristic magnetization components (named P and S). The intermediate-coercivity (demagnetized at 30-60 mT, up to 300-350°C) reversed polarity component P (mean of Floian Stage: Dref = 147.8 +/- 10.8°, Iref = 65.8 +/- 5.4° combined mean of Dapingian and Darriwilian stages: Dref = 166.0 +/- 8.4°, Iref = 56.1 +/- 6.5°) is regarded as the primary remanence of early diagenetic (chemical) origin. On the Baltica's apparent polar wander path (APWP), the palaeopoles (Floian: Plat = 25.0°N, Plon = 50.8°E, K = 52.7, A95 = 7.2° Dapingian and Darriwilian: Plat = 11.4°N, Plon = 39.1°E, K = 33.8, A95 = 6.7°) are placed on the Lower and Middle Ordovician segment. The poles indicate that Estonia was located at southerly latitudes, decreasing with time (Floian: ~48°S Dapingian and Darriwilian: ~37°S), when the remanence was acquired. A high-coercivity and high-unblocking-temperature component S (mean of samples: Dref = 33.7 +/- 6.3°, Iref = 51.9 +/- 5.7°) that is regarded as a secondary remanence has both normal and reversed polarities. On the European APWP, its palaeopole (Plat = 52.5°N, Plon = 157.9°E, K = 38.9, A95 = 5.3°) gives middle to late Permian age. According to mineralogical (SEM and optical microscopy) and rock magnetic (three-component induced remnant magnetization) studies, component P is carried by magnetite (coexisting with glauconite) and component S by haematite. Magnetite is of chemical origin, formed in the course of early diagenesis and/or dolomitization. During the Permian continental period haematite, the carrier of component S, was likely precipitated from oxidizing meteoric fluids in the already existing or simultaneously formed pore space between the dolomite crystals.

  14. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... your depression or making it worse. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used for severe depression that is ... does not respond to medication or therapy. Although ECT once had a bad reputation, it has greatly ...

  15. Genetic biomarkers of depression

    PubMed Central

    Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on the assessment of symptoms. In order to identify the biological markers for depression, we have focused on gathering information on different factors responsible for depression including stress, genetic variations, neurotransmitters, and cytokines and chemokines previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present review illustrates the potential of biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The review highlighted the biomarker signatures for depression, warranting further investigation. PMID:22754217

  16. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also have an episode of major depression at some point in their lives. ...

  17. Depression in the Workplace

    MedlinePlus

    ... on treatment for heart disease iv . The annual economic cost of depression in 1995 was $600 per ... Lowe SW, Berglund PA, Corey-Lisle PK. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how ...

  18. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... a type of talk therapy commonly used to treat depression. It helps you change thinking patterns and behaviors ... are two of the most common used to treat depression. Your provider or therapist can help you find ...

  19. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  20. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  1. Irrational Beliefs in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Eric

    1977-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that certain types of irrational beliefs covary with the severity of depression, 156 undergraduates completed the Beck Depression Inventory and R. G. Jone's Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). (Author)

  2. Depression: Working It Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Working It Out Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... of this technique. Especially when combined with medications, it can help relieve depression. Research shows that it ...

  3. Help With Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Girls Raises the Risk of Depression New York Times Well Blog) Earlier onset of breast development in ... Bell: I’m Over Staying Silent About Depression Time: Motto There’s nothing weak about struggling with mental ...

  4. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  5. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  6. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  7. Assessment of Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Monroe M.; Tesiny, Edward P.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Peer Nomination Inventory of Depression (PNID). Reliability proved highly acceptable. Content validity was determined by experts' judgments. Subjects with high PNID scores exhibited depressed intellectual functioning, poor social behavior, and diminished ebullience. (Author)

  8. Managing your depression - teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jansen KL, Cloy JA. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Am Fam Physician . 2012;86:442-448. PMID: ... Services Task Force. Screening and treatment for major depressive ... Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Pediatrics . ...

  9. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  10. Ground-water concerns for the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia is a peninsula that is surrounded on three sides by salty water and has no major fresh surface-water sources; groundwater provides the sole freshwater supply. Beginning in about 1965, increases in groundwater withdrawals for agricultural, commercial, urban, and industrial uses have caused water-level declines and have created cone-like depressions in the water-level surface around major pumping centers near the Towns of Accomac, Cape Charles, Cheriton, Chincoteague, Exmore, and Hallwood, Virginia. Increased water withdrawals could adversely affect the supply of fresh groundwater on the Eastern Shore. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the counties of Accomack and Northampton, completed a comprehensive study of the groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore. This report highlights the major results of that study. (USGS)

  11. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  12. On the move: explaining migration patterns in Estonia during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Tammaru, T; Sjoberg, O

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the migration patterns during the transition period in Estonia. A structuration approach was used to analyze data from the Estonian Statistical Office collected in 1997. Findings show that for migration between urban and rural areas, work-related reasons have been the most important motivating factor in urban growth during the transition period. Also considered are the family and education. In relation to sociodemographic structure of the population, men cite work, while women count family-related reasons, as the main motive for migrating. As to nonregistration, the most significant reason relates to issues of ownership. Because migrants are living in rented housing, it is not possible for them to register even if they desire to do so. Other reasons include "temporary", associated with study and work; "juridical", bureaucratic matters; and "multiple places of residence". This analysis, however, is incomplete because the attitudes and patterns of behavior have only partially or perfunctorily been related to the dramatic changes that have occurred in Estonian society. Proper statistical data are needed to help examine trends at a more disaggregated spatial level. PMID:12322305

  13. Bone mineral density reference range in Estonia: a comparison with the standard database (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2009-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accepted as a standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. Several databases are available for T-score calculation worldwide. Our aim was to compare hip bone mineral density (BMD) in young Estonian adults with the mean BMD in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) femur database and to compare the performance of these 2 databases. A population sample of 304 subjects was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ DXA machine (GE Lunar Co., Madison, WI). Seventy-seven healthy young individuals were selected based on their age (25-39 yr). Their femur neck, trochanter, and total hip mean standardized BMD was compared with the corresponding data from the NHANES III database. Diagnostic agreement was assessed in a population sample of adults and in a clinical convenience sample from the densitometry unit. The BMD in the proximal femur in healthy young Estonian adults did not differ from the mean BMD in the NHANES subjects (p > 0.05). Differences in diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia are present if the Estonian reference database is used instead of the US standard database. Prospective studies with fracture data for assessing the predictive capability of these reference databases and the additional benefit of adding the FRAX (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK) tool to fracture prediction and osteoporosis diagnosis are needed in Estonia. PMID:19880053

  14. Cyclic sedimentation pattern in Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarse, Leili

    2015-03-01

    A sediment core from Lake Veetka, southeast Estonia, 1077 cm in length and covering 10,500 calibrated years, was examined using loss-on-ignition, grain-size distribution and AMS 14C dating to reconstruct depositional dynamics. The studied core, recovered from the northern part of the lake, shows a cyclic pattern of organic and mineral matter concentration with cycle durations of 100-400 years. Cyclicity is displayed better in sediments laid down between 9,200 and 5,600 cal BP. Within two time windows (5,600-5,100 cal BP and from 1,200 cal BP to the present), sediment composition changed drastically on account of a high and fluctuating mineral matter content, obviously driven by different factors. Little Ice Age cooling is characterised by the highest proportion of mineral matter, and the Medieval Warm Period is typified by high organic matter content. The cyclic change of organic and mineral matter has been related to climate dynamics, most likely an alternation of wet and dry conditions, changes in the water level of the lake and differences in bioproduction

  15. Morbidity and mortality in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the 1980's.

    PubMed

    Zvidriņs, P; Krumiņs, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the general morbidity and mortality rates in the three Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during a decade before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Official statistical data were used to compare morbidity and mortality rates. A method of standardization and life table functions were employed. Soviet morbidity statistics were predominantly descriptive, and based mainly on crude rates registered cases of illness during a year per 100,000 population. The death rates during the Soviet period are a better indicator of the health of the populations than more specific health indicators. A general deterioration of the ecological, social and economic situation in the Baltic republics at the end of the 1980s and early 1990s may have resulted in the mortality rising and aborted any trends to increasing life expectancy in the next few years thus requiring more radical reforms in health and social policy. The study demonstrates a noticeable difference in mortality rates between demographic and socio-economic groups in the Baltic states. PMID:8235500

  16. Baltic blues: for women workers in Estonia, new jobs are lacking.

    PubMed

    Alyanak, L

    1999-01-01

    This article reports employment discrimination faced by women in the transition economy of Estonia. Since the country regained its independence in 1991, the shrinking jobs market has hit women the hardest. About 38.3% of women compared with only 24.7% of men are unemployed or underemployed. In addition to unemployment, women also tend to hold the lowest-paid jobs even when they are more skilled, and often work in the low paid public sector rather than in private enterprise. In the 1999 Human Development Report on transition economies, it said that countries in transition experience a marked increase in gender inequality in political, economic and social spheres. Such experience is shared across the Soviet Union, Moscow, Russia, Poland, Latvia, and Croatia. Many of these countries have laws against gender discrimination in hiring, but are often unenforced. However, both the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Estonian government are working in assuring equality among working women. ILO's International Programme on More and Better Jobs for Women seek to reinforce ILO commitment to gender equality at work. PMID:12295603

  17. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health. PMID:27279259

  18. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  19. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region. PMID:26458391

  20. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    PubMed Central

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  1. Factors affecting re-vegetation dynamics of experimentally restored extracted peatland in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karofeld, Edgar; Müür, Mari; Vellak, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Increasing human activity continues to threaten peatlands, and as the area of natural mires declines, our obligation is to restore their ecosystem functions. Several restoration strategies have been developed for restoration of extracted peatlands, including "The moss layer transfer method", which was initiated on the Tässi extracted peatland in central Estonia in May 2012. Three-year study shows that despite the fluctuating water table, rainfall events can compensate for the insufficient moisture for mosses. Total plant cover on the restoration area attained 70 %, of which ~60 % is comprised of target species-Sphagnum mosses. From restoration treatments, spreading of plant fragments had a significant positive effect on the cover of bryophyte and vascular plants. Higher water table combined with higher plant fragments spreading density and stripping of oxidised peat layer affected positively the cover of targeted Sphagnum species. The species composition in the restoration area became similar to that in the donor site in a natural bog. Based on results, it was concluded that the method approved for restoration in North America gives good results also in the restoration of extracted peatland towards re-establishment of bog vegetation under northern European conditions. PMID:26490883

  2. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  3. Fatal poisoning in Estonia 2000-2009. Trends in illegal drug-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Tuusov, J; Vals, K; Tõnisson, M; Riikoja, A; Denissov, G; Väli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of deaths caused by poisoning (especially illicit drugs) in Estonia from 2000 to 2009. The data on poisoning deaths (N = 4132) were collected from the autopsy reports of the Estonian Forensic Science Institute. Ethanol poisoning was the most frequent cause of death (N = 1449, 35.1%), followed by carbon monoxide (N = 1151, 27.9%) and poisoning from illicit drugs (N = 888, 21.5%). The study included 3267 male (79.1%) and 865 female fatalities, with the prevalent age group being 35-64 years. Since 2002, deaths from fentanyles have increased sharply and remained at a high level - from 63 cases in 2002 to 138 cases in 2009. This high number indicates that in spite of the state's drug policies, illegal drugs remain easily available and that this area requires more attention. Alcohol abuse prevention policies - restrictions on alcohol advertisements in the media, limitations on sale times and anti-alcohol campaigns concerning traffic - have not brought about a significant decrease in ethanol poisoning. PMID:23217376

  4. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  5. Method of treating depression

    DOEpatents

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  6. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  7. [Attempted suicide and depression].

    PubMed

    Stenager, E N; Christensen, L L; Jepsen, I M; Krarup, G; Petersen, P; Rasmussen, G T; Benjaminsen, S

    1991-03-18

    The frequency of depressive illness was investigated in 195 patients who had been referred consecutively after attempted suicide during the period 15. February 1989-15, October 1989. A total of 130 of these patients were admitted to hospital while the remainder were treated in the psychiatric emergency room or admission department. Registration of depressive symptoms on admission revealed that 85% had depressed mood and other depressive symptoms. According to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 51% suffered from definite depressive disease on admission. According to Zung's Depression Scale, 60% were depressed. On the basis of observations during hospitalization, 25% suffered from depressive disease according to the criteria established by Feighner et al. 19% of these patients suffered from endogenic depression according to the Newcastle I scale which corresponds to 5% of all the hospitalized patients with attempted suicide. Approximately 10% were treated with antidepressives. Only 8% were discharged with the diagnoses of endogenic or reactive psychoses (ICD-8). It is concluded that depressive symptoms occur in the majority of patients with attempted suicide but that slight non-endogenic depressive states are most commonly concerned and that many of these improve rapidly during hospitalization without medicinal treatment. Restraint should be observed in prescription of antidepressive medicine to patients with attempted suicide until the diagnosis of depressive disease is verified. PMID:2014567

  8. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  9. Depression and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  10. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  11. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  12. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  13. [Symptomatic and concurrent depressions].

    PubMed

    Terra, J L

    1999-04-01

    The symptomatic and concurrent depressions description need to resort to comorbidity and symptomatic co-occurrence concepts. Patients with depressive symptoms or in a major depressive episode may also be suffering from another nonmood psychiatric disorders as alcoholism, anxiety or eating disorders. Many general medical conditions which are link with depression are illustrated with the examples of cancer, coronary artery disease, endocrinologic diseases, dementia, stroke and chronic fatigue syndrome. When depression and another psychiatric or medical conditions occur together, it is important to provide to the practitioner guidelines for the decision to treat one of the two disorders. This paper contains an example of decisional algorithm. PMID:10337217

  14. Basic concepts of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paykel, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews concepts of depression, including history and classification. The original broad concept of melancholia included all forms of quiet insanity. The term depression began to appear in the nineteenth century as did the modern concept of affective disorders, with the core disturbance now viewed as one of mood. The 1930s saw the introduction of defined criteria into official diagnostic schemes. The modern separation into unipolar and bipolar disorder was introduced following empirical research by Angst and Perris in the 1960s. The partially overlapping distinctions between psychotic and neurotic depression, and between endogenous and reactive depression, started to generate debate in the 1920s, with considerable multivariate research in the 1960s. The symptom element in endogenous depression currently survives in melancholia or somatic syndrome. Life stress is common in various depressive pictures. Dysthymia, a valuable diagnosis, represents a form of what was regarded earlier as neurotic depression. Other subtypes are also discussed. PMID:18979941

  15. Depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  16. First report of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in raccoon dogs in Estonia, and comparisons with other countries in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Süld, Karmen; Moks, Epp; Valdmann, Harri; Umhang, Gérald; Knapp, Jenny; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-09-15

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an alien species in Europe and an important vector of zoonotic diseases. However, compared to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), less attention has been paid to the raccoon dog as a potentially important host for Echinococcus multilocularis, the infective agent of alveolar echinococcosis, which is an emerging infectious disease with a high mortality rate. We examined the small intestines of 249 Estonian raccoon dogs and found 1.6% of individuals to be infected with E. multilocularis. The relatively large difference between this prevalence and that found in sympatric red foxes (31.5%) sampled during the same time period might be due to differences in diet: red foxes consume significantly more arvicolid rodents - the main intermediate hosts of the parasite - especially during the coldest period of the year when raccoon dogs hibernate. Nonetheless, given the relatively high density of raccoon dogs, our results suggest that the species also represents an important definitive host species for E. multilocularis in Estonia. Compared with other countries in Europe where E. multilocularis-infected raccoon dogs have been recorded (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Slovakia), the prevalence in Estonia is low. The longer hibernation period of raccoon dogs at higher latitudes may explain this pattern. Both mitochondrial and nuclear loci were analysed for Estonian isolates: based on EmsB microsatellite genotyping the Estonian isolates shared an identical genotype with E. multilocularis in northern Poland, suggesting a common history with this region. The data from more than a quarter of the mitochondrial genome (3558 bp) revealed two novel haplotypes specific to Estonia and placed them into the same haplogroup with isolates from other European regions. Considering that the raccoon dog is becoming increasingly widespread and is already relatively abundant in several countries in Europe, the role of the species must be taken into

  17. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff. PMID:16919838

  18. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of

  19. Factors Predicting Suicide among Russians in Estonia in Comparison with Estonians: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kõlves, Kairi; Sisask, Merike; Anion, Liivia; Samm, Algi; Värnik, Airi

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore differences between suicide victims among Russian immigrants in Estonia and native Estonians, according to socio-demographic background, substance use pattern, and recent life events to find out immigration-specific factors predicting suicide. Methods The psychological autopsy study included 427 people who committed suicide in 1999 and 427 randomly selected controls matched by region, gender, age, and nationality. Results The only variable that differed significantly between Russian and Estonian suicide cases was substance use pattern. Logistic regression models showed that factors associated with suicide for both nationalities were substance dependence and abuse (Russians: odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.2-39.2; Estonians: OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.9-16.4), economical inactivity Russians: OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.3-22.9; Estonians: OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), and recent family discord (Russians: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.9; Estonians: OR, 4.5; 95%, CI, 2.1-9.8). The variables that remained significant in the final model were having no partner (Estonians: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5), being unemployed (Estonians: OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.0-15.4), and being an abstainer (Estonians: OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.5-17.6) for Estonians, and somatic illness (Russians: OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.7), separation (Russians: OR, 32.3; 95% CI, 2.9-364.1), and death of a close person (Russians: OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7) for Russians. Conclusion Although the predicting factors of suicide were similar among the Estonian Russians and Estonians, there were still some differences in the nature of recent life events. Higher suicide rate among Estonian Russians in 1999 could be at least partly attributable to their higher substance consumption. PMID:17171808

  20. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  1. Nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behavior: a study in Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    The continuing escalation of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed our perceptions of sexual health. This article reports on a study of nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania and of how these perceptions are associated with background variables. Questionnaire data were collected in year 2006 with a modified version of Chng and Moore's Safer Sex Scale (1993), which consists of 12 background questions and 10 items exploring nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour. Responses were obtained from 1152 nurses and nursing students. Their perceptions of sexual risk behaviour appeared to be quite cautious. The results revealed statistically significant country differences, with Finnish and Estonian respondents showing more cautious perceptions of sexual risk behavior than Lithuanian respondents. Some background variables were found to be associated with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses' perceptions differed from those of nursing students: the latter were less cautious in their perceptions. The most important background factor was previous experience of nursing an HIV/AIDS patient: nurses and students who had such experience reported more cautious perceptions than those who did not. In addition, age was found to correlate with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses and nursing students need to be more aware of their own perceptions of sexual risk behavior and the impact of those perceptions on their clinical practice. Interventions need to be developed in order to promote safer sex practices. Health care personnel should have the opportunity in their training to work with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:18847386

  2. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  3. The depressive situation

    PubMed Central

    A. Jacobs, Kerrin

    2013-01-01

    From a naturalistic perspective on mental illness, depression is often described in terms of biological dysfunctions, while a normative perspective emphasizes the lived experience of depression as a harmful condition. The paper relates a conceptual analysis of “depressive situation” to an analysis of the lived experience of depression. As such, it predominantly aims to specify depression as a harmful condition in lights of normative perspective on mental disorder, but partially refers to empirical research, i.e., naturalistic perspective on depression, to exemplarily stress on the methodological merits and limits of relating phenomenological considerations closer to empirical research. The depressive situation is further specified with an examination of the evaluative dynamics by which individuals meaningfully relate to themselves, others and the world. These evaluative dynamics emerge out of the interplay of pre-reflective and reflective processes, which are significantly altered in depression. Such alterations of the evaluative structure are inextricably intertwined with significant distortions of practical sense in depression. From a phenomenological perspective, these distortions of practical sense show in characteristic experiences of evaluative incoherence and impairments of agency. Finally, this paper focuses on an examination of “evaluative incapacity,” which has the integrative potential to capture a range of typical changes of meaningful relatedness that determine the depressive situation. PMID:23882238

  4. Amyloid-Associated Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Steffens, David C.; Au, Rhoda; Folstein, Marshal; Summergrad, Paul; Yee, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2010-01-01

    Context A high ratio of plasma amyloid-β peptide 40 (Aβ40) toAβ42, determined by both high Aβ40 and low Aβ42 levels, increases the risk of Alzheimer disease. In a previous study, we reported that depression is also associated with low plasma Aβ42 levels in the elderly population. Objective To characterize plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio and cognitive function in elderly individuals with and without depression. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Homecare agencies. Participants A total of 995 homebound elderly individuals of whom 348 were defined as depressed by a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression score of 16 or greater. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive domains of memory, language, executive, and visuospatial functions according to levels of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides. Results Subjects with depression had lower plasma Aβ42 levels (median, 14.1 vs 19.2 pg/mL; P = .006) and a higher plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio (median, 8.9 vs 6.4; P < .001) than did those without depression in the absence of cardiovascular disease and antidepressant use. The interaction between depression and plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio was associated with lower memory score (β = −1.9, SE = 0.7, P = .006) after adjusting for potentially confounders. Relative to those without depression, “amyloid-associated depression,” defined by presence of depression and a high plasma Aβ40:Aβ42 ratio, was associated with greater impairment in memory, visuospatial ability, and executive function; in contrast, nonamyloid depression was not associated with memory impairment but with other cognitive disabilities. Conclusion Amyloid-associated depression may define a subtype of depression representing a prodromal manifestation of Alzheimer disease. PMID:18458206

  5. Ethiopathogenesis of Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, M; Berardelli, I; Biondi, M

    2014-01-01

    Etiology of depressive disorders is still unknown. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology such as neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine alterations, genetics, life events and their appraisal. Some of these components are strictly linked. Subjects with a family member affected by mood disorders are more prone to suffer from depressive disorders. It is also true that receiving feedbacks of indifference or neglect during childhood from one parent who suffer from depression may represent a factor of vulnerability. Indeed, reaction to a specific negative event may determine an increased allostasis which lead to a depressive episode. Thus, a psychological cause does not exclude a neurobiological cascade. Whereas in other cases recurrent depressive episodes appear in absence of any negative life event. This review provides a set of data regarding the current etiopathogenesis models of depression, with a particular attention to the neurobiological correlates and vulnerability factors. PMID:25614753

  6. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  7. Diabetes and Depression

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and depression occur together approximately twice as frequently as would be predicted by chance alone. Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of both conditions are worsened by the other. Although the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression, this explanation does not fully explain the relationship between these 2 conditions. Both conditions may be driven by shared underlying biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors. Depression is frequently missed in people with diabetes despite effective screening tools being available. Both psychological interventions and antidepressants are effective in treating depressive symptoms in people with diabetes but have mixed effects on glycemic control. Clear care pathways involving a multidisciplinary team are needed to obtain optimal medical and psychiatric outcomes for people with comorbid diabetes and depression. PMID:24743941

  8. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  9. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines. PMID:26601451

  10. Depression and the Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the incidence of depression and signs of depression in gifted children, including perfectionism, emotional sensitivity, existential depression, and a history of depression in the family. A list of questions to consider regarding possible signs of depression in children is provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. [Sleep in depression].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  12. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  13. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  14. Overlapping Democracies, Europe's Democratic Deficit, and National Education Policy: Estonia's School Leaders as Heirs to a Soviet Legacy or as Agents of Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Eleven years after Estonia regained independence, its government sought admission to the European Union and NATO, which pressured the country to act on issues related to the Holocaust and in particular to adopt a Holocaust education day in schools. The policy, though adopted, was deeply unpopular within the country, leading to the dilemma of…

  15. The Occupational Well-Being of School Staff and Maintenance of Their Ability to Work in Finland and Estonia--Focus on the School Community and Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…

  16. "It's Good to Live in Jarva-Jaani but We Can't Stay Here": Youth and Belonging in Rural Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2012-01-01

    In the broader context of post-socialist transition and rural decline, we examine the everyday lives of young people in rural Estonia. We focus in particular on key places of belonging for youths and the practices and experiences through which rural young people develop a sense of belonging to their local places. Our aim is to identify links…

  17. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  18. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  19. Counseling Interventions with Depressed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Defines depression and anxiety in children and addresses assessment issues. Describes nine specific interventions within the home and school that have helped depressed children. Provides case example of depressed sixth grade boy. (ABL)

  20. Seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 balance in two hemi-boreal forests in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Two eddy towers, one in the mixed Norway spruce - Silver birch forest in Liispõllu (58°16'N 27°16'E tower height 20 m) and another one in Scots pine forest in Soontaga (58°01'N 26°04'E; 36 m) both located in southern Estonia - were equipped with CO2/H2O analyzer for mixing ratio of CO2 (Licor 7200 Li-Cor Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA) and 3-D ultrasonic anemometer for wind measurements (Gill Windmaster Pro; Solent, Lymington, UK) and used for measurement of carbon dioxide balance and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In Liispõllu, the studies were conducted in Auguat and September 2011 above the forest canopies and at 1.5 m above the soil surface.. In Soontaga, measurements lasted from April to October 2012. The data acquisition system consists of the LI-7550 Analyzer Interface Unit, 3G wireless router and analog-to-digital converter that were used to record turbulence and scalar signals. Signals from the sensor and anemometer were recorded 20 times sec-1. The eddy fluxes were averaged over 30 minute time intervals. The flux calculations and corrections of were done using EddyPro program. In addition, soil respiration was measured with automatic chambers in Liispõllu and with closed chambers in Soontaga twice a month from April to October 2011 and 2012. In both study areas around the towers, soil physical and chemical parameters in 3 depths, biomass of trees and understory species, C sequestration in biomass and litter decay has been measured. In Soontaga pine forest the average monthly CO2 flux varied from -59.2 to -388.8 mg m-2 h-1 showing a regular seasonal temperature-related variation. CO2 flux from lowered in spring and summer as plants consume the gas through photosynthesis and days are longer, and rise during the autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay and when also the daytime is shorter. The average monthly flux over the analyzed period was -246.5 mg m-2 h-1. In consequence, the CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere was highest in June. In Liisp

  1. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  2. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  3. Real Stories of Depression

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Depression Background on Educational Materials Resources for Health Care Providers Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Join A Study Depression Studies for Adults Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

  4. Treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2013-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164

  5. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of ... Depression often responds to treatment. The outcome is usually better for people who have access to social services, family, and friends ...

  6. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  7. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... that concern you or may be due to depression. The doctor may: Ask you and other family members questions. Do some tests to rule out ... one of these medicines might be causing the depression, the doctor will ... advice for you and other family members and caregivers on how to cope. He ...

  8. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  9. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  10. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  11. [Depression in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Murata, Miho; Okamoto, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is approximately 30-40%. Depression has a significantly negative impact on the QOL in Parkinson's disease patients. It leads to the worsening of tremors and frozen gait without disease progression and decreases the patient's motivation to participate in rehabilitation. The distinguishing feature of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is that guilt, self-blame and suicidal ideation are rarely seen compared to that observed in patients with major depression. Depression can occur in the pre-motor, diagnostic and advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. In particular, patients with wearing-off symptoms are apt to develop anxiety. As for treatment, it is very important to optimize dopamine replacement therapy. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have beneficial effects not only on the motor symptoms of the disease, but also the patient's mood. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and peer counseling may also be beneficial. PMID:24622217

  12. Depression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Becker, R E

    1988-12-01

    Depressive syndromes that occur during the course of schizophrenia are not clearly understood but have important implications for the treatment of the schizophrenic patient. In this review of the literature on depression secondary to schizophrenia, the author notes that lack of tested diagnostic criteria has led to a misunderstanding of its relatively high frequency and its association with poor outcome features such as impaired psychosocial functioning, schizophrenic relapse, and suicide. Differential diagnosis, including ruling out akinetic depression, is essential, he believes, partly because the concept of schizophrenic depression as postpsychotic is not supported by evidence. Clinical management must address such increased risk factors as relapse and suicide, but evidence indicates that secondary depression in schizophrenia does not respond to antidepressant medication. PMID:3068116

  13. Lao Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  14. Depression in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    King-Wing Ma, Terry; Kam-Tao Li, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The reported prevalence of depression in dialysis population varied from 22.8% (interview-based diagnosis) to 39.3% (self- or clinician-administered rating scales). Such differences were attributed to the overlapping symptoms of uraemia and depression. Systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies showed that depression was a significant predictor of mortality in dialysis population. The optimal screening tool for depression in dialysis patients remains uncertain. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) have been validated for screening purposes. Patients who scored ≥14 using BDI should be referred to a psychiatrist for early evaluation. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID) remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Non-pharmacological treatment options include cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise training programs. Although frequent haemodialysis may have beneficial effects on patients' physical and mental well-being, it cannot and should not be viewed as a treatment of depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally effective and safe in ESRD patients, but most studies were small, non-randomized and uncontrolled. The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) guideline suggests a trial of SSRI for 8 to 12 weeks in dialysis patients who have moderate-major depression. The treatment effect should be re-evaluated after 12 weeks to avoid prolonging ineffective medication. This review will discuss the current understanding in the diagnosis and management of depression in dialysis patients. PMID:26860073

  15. Ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia: two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Background Estonian and Russian ethnic groups in Estonia differ from one another in several aspects, such as historic and socio-economic background, language and culture. The aim of the current study was to examine ethnic differences in cancer incidence in Estonia, and to compare the situation before and after the profound political and economical changes in the early 1990s. Methods Two cross-sectional unlinked census-based cancer incidence analyses were performed. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry. Population denominators came from the population censuses of 1989 and 2000. Standardized cancer incidence rates were calculated for men and women for the aggregate periods 1988–1990 and 1999–2000. Differences in cancer incidence between Estonians and Russians in 1989 and 2000 were estimated for both sexes, using standardized rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results In 1988–1990, the total cancer incidence in Russian men was higher than that in Estonian men (SRR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.19–1.34). In 1999–2000, the total cancer incidence in men showed only slightly higher estimates in Russians than in Estonians (SRR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.99–1.32). Cancers of stomach, colon and lung had persisting higher values in Russian men in 1999–2000. In women, the differences were smaller than in men, and the total cancer incidence showed no differences relating to neither of the time periods studied. With regard to specific sites, excess of stomach cancer incidence was seen in Russian women (SRR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.15–1.81). The ethnic differences in general decreased between the two time periods studied. Conclusion Some of the differences in cancer rates between the Estonians and Russians in Estonia are likely to be attributable to the variation in exposure to specific etiologic factors that are causedby differences in lifestyle and habits, such as hygiene, smoking and drinking. Further research with a view to understanding these

  16. [Depression and the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T; Lôo, H

    2009-06-01

    "Depression" and "old age" are often associated among our contemporaries. In this case, "depression" is understood to be "existential despair" and not a "depressive disease": an amalgam is made of the tragedy of the patient's existence and a pathological condition. Clinical pictures of depression, the pathological nature of which is obvious, are frequent in the elderly; however, the line between normal and pathological becomes less clear above a certain symptomatic threshold, in the presence of chronic evolutions and in situations of comorbidity. The nosographical tool, in spite of its limits, is precious. Epidemiological studies that include the comorbidities of the depressive episode with cognitive and/or somatic affections permit better estimations of the prevalence of the symptoms and the depressive problems among elderly populations. The formula "depression is depression at whatever age" harbours a certain truth if one takes into account the multiple factors that modify the symptomatic expression of depression in later life. The most documented factor is the comorbidity of depression with somatic affections that is present in the majority of those aged over 80. Other psychological or sociocultural factors are also apparent, but their influence has been studied less. The decline in cognitive performance observed during depression is not exclusive to the elderly but is undeniably more marked in this population. Making an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, conversely, eliminating this diagnosis in a depressed patient complaining of diminished cognition is an essential step in the subsequent management. Together with the neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging, required for diagnosis, a neuropsychogeriatric pluridisciplinary assessment is obviously required. The management of geriatric depression is based on various approaches that include somatic care, psychotropic drugs, brain stimulation techniques and psychotherapy, but also requires

  17. Lesbians’ Constructions of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Lesbians are a marginalized group of women living in a heteronormative society. This study describes lesbians’ subjective experiences of depression, and identifies the ways that dominant and alternative discourses shaped their understandings of depression and sexuality. Twelve self-identified lesbians participated in up to three in-depth interviews conducted over a nine month period. Thematic analysis led to themes that explicated their physical and emotional descriptions of depression; identified troubled interpersonal relationships as a primary source of depression; and the means implemented to cope with depression, including taking medication, engagement in therapy, developing social support networks, and discovering their own spirituality. Depression and sexuality were understood within the framework of the dominant discourses of (1) medical model (2) dysfunctional family and (3) organized religion; and the alternative discourses of (1) lesbian identity, (2) alternative families and (3) spirituality. Nurses in clinical practice can assist depressed lesbians clients by bolstering explorations of spirituality and the development of strong support networks within the lesbian and gay communities. Politically, institutionalized heteronormativity must be attacked at every level. PMID:19350435

  18. [Depression and aging].

    PubMed

    Léger, J M; Clément, J P

    1992-09-01

    Old age is a qualitative state during which depression frequently occurs. This illness presents particular features which should be considered in the course of both normal ageing and senility. Viewed as an existential crisis, ageing may be considered as a depression promoting factor. Rich in depression promoting factors, this period of life is a sequence of crises which result in reorganizations heavily dependent on the adaptive capabilities of the aged person. During ageing, depression exhibits particular features that one should be able to recognize and distinguish from the consequences of deficits that are the normal adjuncts of the ageing process. The same is true of alterations occurring in the cognitive sphere and which might result from demential alteration. During ageing, depression should be identified among the other decompensation patterns occurring in the aged patient by viewing the situation in terms of overhelmed mechanisms. Depression exhibits a pattern whereby it relates closely with the risk of dementia. Therapeutic management should take into account such a perspective, that one might call transnosographic, when considering the depressiveness of aged patients as a high-risk situation requiring long-term follow-up of their biological, psychodynamic, social and cognitive functions. PMID:1308847

  19. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  20. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  1. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  2. Depression and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Sue; Schmidt, Mike; Patton, George; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Venn, Alison

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7–36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5–22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (−3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (−4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. PMID:20185745

  3. The impact of water supply and sanitation on infant mortality: Individual-level evidence from Tartu, Estonia, 1897-1900.

    PubMed

    Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems. PMID:27207615

  4. Dating a small impact crater: An age of Kaali crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, A.; Wild, E. M.; Geppert, W. D.; Huber, M. S.; Jõeleht, A.; Kriiska, A.; Kulkov, A.; Paavel, K.; Pirkovic, I.; Plado, J.; Steier, P.; VäLja, R.; Wilk, J.; Wisniowski, T.; Zanetti, M.

    2016-04-01

    The estimates of the age of the Kaali impact structure (Saaremaa Island, Estonia) provided by different authors vary by as much as 6000 years, ranging from ~6400 to ~400 before current era (BCE). In this study, a new age is obtained based on 14C dating charred plant material within the proximal ejecta blanket, which makes it directly related to the impact structure, and not susceptible to potential reservoir effects. Our results show that the Kaali crater was most probably formed shortly after 1530-1450 BCE (3237 ± 10 14C yr BP). Saaremaa was already inhabited when the bolide hit the Earth, thus, the crater-forming event was probably witnessed by humans. There is, however, no evidence that this event caused significant change in the material culture (e.g., known archeological artifacts) or patterns of human habitation on Saaremaa.

  5. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  6. Comparison of thunderstorm hours registered by the lightning detection network and human observers in Estonia, 2006-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enno, S. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relationships between the lightning detection network data and human-reported thunderstorms were studied in Estonia during the period of 2006-2011. Estonia is located in northeastern Europe between 57.5° to 59.5° N and 21° to 28.5° E. Numbers of thunderstorm days (TD) and thunderstorm hours (TH) reported by 61 volunteer observers and six meteorological stations were compared to the data of the lightning detection network. Results indicated that the flash data within 9.0 km from the sites of volunteer observers should be used in order to derive TD numbers equal to human observations. Larger radius of 14.7 km was found on the basis of six meteorological stations with probably better quality of thunderstorm observations. Due to data quality issues, the daily and monthly numbers of THs reported by individual observers explained only 12-39 % of variations in the flash counts within 40 km of their observing sites. In contrast, the average TH data of all observers successfully explained 75-86 % of variations in daily and monthly flash counts within 40 km of the observation sites. The main advantage of using the average data of many human observers seems to be that in case of a dense network, the neighboring observers tend to compensate for each other's errors. In general, intense storms close to observing sites were found to be most successfully reported by human observers. The most important conclusion of the study is that although human observations of thunderstorms and automatic lightning observations are very different methods, they generally give similar results.

  7. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  8. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  9. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  10. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  11. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  12. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  13. Depression Affects the Whole Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnar, Laura; Thomas, Dawn V.; Stillwell, Margaret; Bennett, Tess; Allison, Anita

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how expanding one's knowledge of depression can help in supporting Head Start families. Defines depression and lists symptoms of depression for adults and children of various ages, describes how parent's depression can affect child development and the family, and considers how Head Start and support agencies can support children and…

  14. Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research is giving people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area. PMID:22895696

  15. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  16. Recognizing teen depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... are twice as likely as boys to have depression. Your teen has trouble being social Your teen has learning disabilities Your teen has a chronic illness There are family problems or problems with their parents

  17. Caregiving and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dosage or interactions with other medications. Complementary and Alternative Therapies St. John’s wort . One of the most studied alternative treatments for depressive symptoms is St. John’s wort ( ...

  18. [Melancholia and neurotic depression].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S

    1999-11-01

    The author considers the psychopathological distinction between endogenous and neurotic depression as one of differing psychodynamics. In so doing he embeds both illnesses within psychoanalytic theory while at the same time allowing a sharp differentiation. Even the premorbid personalities of patients with endogenous and neurotic depression are different. The personalities of those with endogenous depression bear a similarity to those with obsessional character and betray a pathological super-ego monopolized by defence mechanisms. The personalities of patients with neurotic depression show an oral-dependent structure characterised by a structural deficit of the ego functions and of an autonomous super-ego. These factors are responsible for the greatly differing pathodynamics found in these illnesses and point to different etiological factors in socialization. PMID:10593139

  19. Depression and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby. In this case, controlling depression with medications prescribed by a health care provider may help prevent more serious problems from substance abuse. I’m considering trying an alternative treatment for ...

  20. Post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge Moncayo; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most common emotional disorders afflicting stroke sufferers. Approximately one third of stroke survivors experience an early or later onset of depression. PSD impedes the rehabilitation and recovery process, jeopardizes quality of life and increases mortality. Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath. Therefore, it often remains unrecognized and/or undertreated. The interaction between depression and stroke is very complex and the pathophysiological mechanisms have not as yet been fully elucidated, although an interaction between anatomical and psychosocial factors may be important in PSD development. Neurochemical changes and clinical findings are similar to endogenous depression. PSD is potentially treatable, although no conclusive benefits of antidepressant agents and nonpharmacological interventions have been observed. The efficacy of preventive strategies in PSD remains essentially undetermined. PMID:18088202

  1. Eastern US report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-10

    Northeastern oil producers employ a relatively high level of technology as documented in this report. While this has increased capital requirements, the extra investments are paying off. Wells are so small that producing companies may need 100 or more just to justify the expense of an office. More labor intensive operations result. Operators' main complaints include gas curtailments, EPA saltwater disposal regulations, high and growing unemployment insurance, inept state regulation, depressed prices, high taxes, workman's compensation payments, and fear of newly elected lawmakers. The gas cutailments run 5 mo. full production or 10 mo. at half normal flow. Produced brine, previously given to local governments for road dust and ice control, must now be pumped into special injection wells. Unemployment and workman's comp payments have escalated by 20%/yr or more, and can run as high as 30% of payroll. This work discusses drilling and producing practices and problems in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and West Virginia.

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  3. The Radiologist and Depression.

    PubMed

    Bender, Claire E; Parikh, Jay R; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Bluth, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Clinical depression affects physicians, including radiologists. Medical professionals, including radiologists, may be more comfortable treating a patient than being one, and psychiatric issues may be regarded as taboo for discussion, so the issue of clinical depression in the specialty and subspecialty has not received widespread attention. Specifically, a review of the national and international literature in PubMed, Scopus, and Google reveals few publications dedicated to the issue of clinical depression in radiology; although statistically, they must exist. The purpose of this report is to define the terms and describe the manifestations and scope of the issues related to clinical depression, with special attention given to risk factors unique to radiologists, such as working in low ambient light or near different fields of magnetic strength. By the end of the article, it is the authors' hope that the reading radiologist will be aware of, and open to, the possibility of clinical depression in a colleague or within his or herself because clinical depression is common and it is important to get help. PMID:27085789

  4. Overweight and depression.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E

    1994-03-01

    Is being overweight distressing? If it is, is the distress due to negative appraisals by others, to the stresses of trying to fit norms of thinness by dieting, or to the health consequences of being overweight? If being overweight is stigmatizing, negative evaluations by others may be internalized as high levels of depression. This perspective predicts that being overweight has a direct effect on depression, and that the effect is greater in social groups where being overweight is less common, especially among women, Whites, younger people, the well-educated, and the well-to-do. Alternatively, overweight may not be distressing per se. Instead, attempting to fit norms of appearance that equate thinness with attractiveness by dieting is distressing. According to this perspective, the association between being overweight and depression is explained by dieting. Finally, this association may be due to the health consequences of being overweight. A random sample of 2,020 U.S. adults aged 18-90 were interviewed by telephone in 1990. Results showed that being overweight has no direct effect on depression in any social group except among the well-educated. Overweight persons are more likely to diet and to experience worse physical health, both of which are associated with depression. Combined, these explain the negative effects of being overweight on depression. PMID:8014430

  5. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  6. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  7. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  8. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-cung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  9. Cenozoic diapiric traps in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, F.; Xie-Pei, W.; Jia-Hua, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Genetically, there are 2 types of Cenozoic diapiric traps in the oil fields in eastern China. One type is produced by cold diapirism owing to the rise of evaporites and soft mudstone. This type can be divided into 3 patterns. The first pattern is the faulted ridge with 1000 m (3300 ft) closure and flanks dipping up to 30/sup 0/. A complex graben system is developed on the top. The amplitude of the core of the anticline is about 3000 m (9800 ft). The Xiangzheng structure in the Shengli oil field and the Wang-atcung structure in the Qian-jiang depression are examples. The second pattern is the gentle anticline or dome with 50-300 m (160-985 ft) closure and 3/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ dip on the flanks. The incompetent strata beneath it are about 1000 m (3300 ft) thick. The Tuocung-Shengli structure in the Shengli oil field is an example. The third pattern is a nose-like structure with less than 50 m (160 ft) closure. This pattern is usually located near the zero edge of incompetent strata. The Serniusi structure in the Dagang oil field is an example. Another type of Cenozoic diapiric trap results from hot diapirism associated with the intrusion of gabbro or diabase. Such traps are typically small, round domes. The dip of the flanking strata generally increases with depth as the diapir is approached. A graben system is developed on top of the diapir. The distribution of these traps is related usually to regional fault zones and coincides with the distribution of the magmatism. The Matouzung structure in the Jinhu depression is one of the examples.

  10. Hydrocarbon plays evaluation of eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shou Cheng )

    1991-03-01

    In eastern China there are 78 depressed basins, most of which are tilt-block basins. Each of them engenders petroleum generation except the Cretaceous sag basin of Song-Liao. These depressed basins set up in the order of older to younger depending on the change of the mantle convection. Consequently, the order of sedimentation and source-reservoir are changed and the exploration targets are also changed. Tan-Lu fault system is of great significance in NNW (early) and NEE (later) accompanying faults for exploration play. The hydrocarbon accumulation rules of these plays are: (1) As a result of the Tertiary tilt-block basins, compaction-flow basins contain similar hydrodynamic, thermodynamic, and buried pressure fields. The direction of fluid flow is from generation center of the basin to the margins. So the hydrocarbon plays are distributed nearby the generation center and circum-center belt. (2) The richness of hydrocarbon plays is controlled by the form and distribution of source rock due to structural change of the tilt-block. The richest is the center uplift play and then the low-raised play, steep slope play, gentle-slope play, and, poorest, the low-lying play. (3) A variety of the composite hydrocarbon play models are formed by the different structure models, sedimentary model, and hydrocarbon model. Most of the recovery reserves are set in one or two plays even though there are many hydrocarbon plays in a tilt-block basin. (4) There are 3 types and 25 subtypes of petroleum pools formed by the different characters of plays. Therefore, there are numerous technologies, methodologies, and strategies of petroleum exploration.

  11. Nonsomatic treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Joel T; Kovacs, Maria

    2002-07-01

    There is solid evidence that active and goal-oriented cognitive-behavioral or relationship-focused therapies are generally superior to more generic therapies or to no treatment for clinically diagnosed and for undiagnosed but symptomatic youths. Between 50% to 87% of diagnosed youths who received a targeted treatment had recovered from their depressive episodes, in comparison to 21% to 75% of those who received some other generic therapy and 5% to 48% of wait-listed youths. The cognitive behavioral and relationship-oriented interventions that were tested tended to be even more successful in reducing depressive symptoms in school-based samples, possibly because the participants in the school-based studies may have been less disturbed than the clinically diagnosed cases. Although the targeted treatments generally yielded better results than the comparison conditions, the targeted interventions seem to be similarly successful in ameliorating depression. Determining which psychosocial therapy works best for a given depressed youngster remains problematic. As noted in recent reviews [30,46,47], little attention has been devoted to which interventions, or parts of an intervention, are likely to be effective with children with various characteristics. This issue acquires added importance because in some diagnosed samples half or more of the treated participants were still in a depressive episode at the end of the trial. Likewise, in intervention studies involving symptomatic, school-based youngsters, not all children improved, and gains were not uniform across domains of functioning (e.g., severity of depression, self-esteem, global functioning). Possibly, for some of the nonresponders, the participant's characteristics and relevant problems and the target interventions were mismatched. For example, a depressed youth with a long history of highly dysfunctional relationships may not respond optimally to a therapy focusing on negative cognitions; alternatively

  12. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  13. A tale of two cities: stigma and health outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n = 381 in St. Petersburg; n = 288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  14. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening. PMID:25953131

  15. A Tale of Two Cities: Stigma and Health Outcomes Among People with HIV who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara E.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Dovidio, John F.; Levina, Olga S.; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of stigma are often associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. The present work tested the associations between stigma and health-related outcomes among people with HIV who inject drugs in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia and St. Petersburg, Russia. These two cities share some of the highest rates of HIV outside of sub-Saharan Africa, largely driven by injection drug use, but Estonia has implemented harm reduction services more comprehensively. People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling; those who indicated being HIV-positive were included in the present sample (n=381 in St. Petersburg; n=288 in Kohtla-Järve). Participants reported their health information and completed measures of internalized HIV stigma, anticipated HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, and anticipated drug stigma. Participants in both locations indicated similarly high levels of all four forms of stigma. However, stigma variables were more strongly associated with health outcomes in Russia than in Estonia. The St. Petersburg results were consistent with prior work linking stigma and health. Lower barriers to care in Kohtla-Järve may help explain why social stigma was not closely tied to negative health outcomes there. Implications for interventions and health policy are discussed. PMID:25703668

  16. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  17. Depressive symptoms, socio-economic background, sense of control, and cultural factors in university students from 23 countries.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Tsuda, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Wardle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    We measured depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory in 17,348 university students from 23 high-, middle-, and low-income countries, and assessed associations with individual level and ecological level factors using multi-level random effects regression modelling. Wide variations in depressive symptoms were observed between countries, with lower levels in Western and Southern Europe and South and North America, intermediate levels in Central and Eastern Europe, and higher levels in Pacific-Asian samples. Poorer socio-economic background and low sense of control were associated with depressive symptoms within each country. Independently of individual level effects, higher depressive symptoms were recorded in countries with greater income inequality and with less individualistic cultures. Personal circumstances, beliefs, and cultural factors may all contribute to depressive symptoms in this population. PMID:17926438

  18. Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: their traditional Oriental medicine equivalents.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Peggy; de Rover, Peter; Staudte, Heike; Lim, Sabina; van den Noort, Maurits

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders can be described and treated from both a Western (allopathic) and an Eastern perspective, which should be taken into account when conducting research. Patients with schizophrenia or depression are likely to be undergoing Western treatment when they are referred to an acupuncturist for (add-on) treatment, and knowledge of both types of treatments is necessary to integrate them successfully. In this study, the different Traditional Oriental Medicine (TOM) diagnostic patterns in patients with a Western diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, or sleep disorders are described from a literature and a clinical perspective. The data on 30 depression and 30 schizophrenia patients from a German study are presented. Our results show that if a psychiatric group, sorted in accordance to Western diagnostic principles, is diagnosed on the basis of TOM diagnostic patterns, it can be categorized into different groups of patients with psychiatric disorders; this finding has far-reaching consequences in scientific research on acupuncture. Moreover, we found a high prevalence of sleep disorders in patients with both schizophrenia and depression, which could be explained from the perspective of a TOM diagnostic pattern. Finally, we discuss sleep quality as a treatment objective that may play a crucial role in mediating acupuncture-induced treatment effects in patients with schizophrenia and depression. PMID:25660440

  19. Neuronal correlates of depression.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Liu, He; Han, Ming-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder effecting approximately 121 million people worldwide and recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that it will be the leading contributor to the global burden of diseases. At present, the most commonly used treatment strategies are still based on the monoamine hypothesis that has been the predominant theory in the last 60 years. Clinical observations show that only a subset of depressed patients exhibits full remission when treated with classical monoamine-based antidepressants together with the fact that patients exhibit multiple symptoms suggest that the pathophysiology leading to mood disorders may differ between patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that depression is a neural circuit disorder and that onset of depression may be located at different regions of the brain involving different transmitter systems and molecular mechanisms. This review synthesises findings from rodent studies from which emerges a role for different, yet interconnected, molecular systems and associated neural circuits to the aetiology of depression. PMID:26542802

  20. Nature against depression.

    PubMed

    El-Alfy, A T; Abourashed, E A; Matsumoto, R R

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major health problem currently recognized as a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. In the United States alone, depression affects approximately 20% of the population. With current medications suffering from major shortcomings that include slow onset of action, poor efficacy, and unwanted side effects, the search for new and improved antidepressants is ever increasing. In an effort to evade side effects, people have been resorting to popular traditional herbal medicines to relieve the symptoms of depression, and there is a need for more empirical knowledge about their use and effectiveness. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge state regarding a variety of natural plant products commonly used in depression. Herbal medicines discussed that have been used in clinical trials for the treatment of mild to moderate depression states include the popular St. John's wort, saffron, Rhodiola, lavender, Echium, and the Chinese formula banxia houpu. In addition, new emerging herbal products that have been studied in different animal models are discussed including Polygala tenuifolia, the traditional Chinese herbal SYJN formula, gan mai da zao, and Cannabis sativa constituents. A comprehensive review of the chemical, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of each of the reviewed products is provided. Finally, recent preclinical studies reporting the antidepressant action of marine-derived natural products are discussed at the end of the review. PMID:22414105

  1. Somatic symptoms in depression

    PubMed Central

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Both painful and nonpainful somatic symptoms essentially characterize clinical states of depressive mood. So far, this well-established psychopathological knowledge has been appreciated only insufficiently by the official diagnostic sys-terms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IVTR) and the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (ICD-10). From a perspective of primary care services, this unmet diagnostic need is deplorable, as the main mode of presenting a depression is by reporting somatic symptoms. This somatic form of presentation, however, significantly contributes to low rates of recognition in primary care. A diagnostic challenge may be seen in the differentiation of a depression with prevailing somatic symptoms from anxiety, somatoform disorders, and medical conditions. When somatic symptoms, particularly painful physical conditions, accompany the already debilitating psychiatric and behavioral symptoms of depression, the course of the illness may be more severe, implying a higher risk of early relapse, chronicity suicide, or mortality due to other natural causes, the economic burden increases considerably, the functional status may be hampered heavily, and health-related quality of life may be lowered dramatically. The neurobiological underpinnings of somatic symptoms in depression may guide more promising treatment approaches. PMID:16889108

  2. Magnesium in depression.

    PubMed

    Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wlaź, Piotr; Nowak, Gabriel; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Skalski, Michał; Poleszak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the most essential mineral in the human body, connected with brain biochemistry and the fluidity of neuronal membrane. A variety of neuromuscular and psychiatric symptoms, including different types of depression, was observed in magnesium deficiency. Plasma/serum magnesium levels do not seem to be the appropriate indicators of depressive disorders, since ambiguous outcomes, depending on the study, were obtained. The emergence of a new approach to magnesium compounds in medical practice has been seen. Apart from being administered as components of dietary supplements, they are also perceived as the effective agents in treatment of migraine, alcoholism, asthma, heart diseases, arrhythmias, renal calcium stones, premenstrual tension syndrome etc. Magnesium preparations have an essential place in homeopathy as a remedy for a range of mental health problems. Mechanisms of antidepressant action of magnesium are not fully understood yet. Most probably, magnesium influences several systems associated with development of depression. The first information on the beneficial effect of magnesium sulfate given hypodermically to patients with agitated depression was published almost 100 years ago. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies confirmed the initial observations as well as demonstrated the beneficial safety profile of magnesium supplementation. Thus, magnesium preparations seem to be a valuable addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for management of depression. PMID:23950577

  3. [Transcultural aspects of depression].

    PubMed

    Aichberger, M C; Schouler-Ocak, M; Rapp, M A; Heinz, A

    2008-04-01

    For many decades it was assumed that depressive disorders are mainly a problem of Western societies. However, a World Bank report published in 1993 revealed that Major Depression is already the fifth leading contributor to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) among women in developmentally disadvantaged countries. The core symptoms of depression are disorders of affect, conduct and somatic complaints. In Western societies, the key symptom of depression is regarded to be a disorder of affect. However, in other cultural settings, different symptoms may be more central for depression. Nowadays mental health specialists have regular contact with patients from different cultural backgrounds. In order to achieve optimal results in diagnosing and treating mental disorders, it is important to consider the cultural background of a patient and her or his explanatory model of the disease. Transcultural psychiatry and psychotherapy aims at developing culture-sensitive concepts for treatment and mental health services and tries to increase insight in culture-related psychopathology and epidemiology. PMID:18345470

  4. Depression, masochism, and biology.

    PubMed

    Asch, S S

    1985-01-01

    In examining the conditions of depression and masochism, my intention has been to expand our area of study beyond psychodynamics alone. My first aim was to present what I believe are the intimately intertwined dynamics of each condition, a metaphorical double helix of depression and masochism in a matrix of narcissism. It may make clearer how either depression or masochism may present clinically in combination, at times in tandem, or manifestly as either state alone. My second, but major, aim is ecumenical: to interweave contributions from outside psychoanalysis. The neurophysiological bases and genetic determinants for most depressions are by now well-recognized. Masochism, much like depression, with which it is closely allied, may not necessarily arise out of conflict alone. I have presented brief excerpts of material, much of it still speculative, from areas of genetics, biochemistry, and ethology, to support the concept of a biological anlage for masochism. This would help explain the enormous difficulties therapists find in the path of its successful treatment. I believe Lorenz's theories on animal "bonding" suggest precursors to our concepts of masochism. I further believe our field of study has reached the point at which these and probably additional scientific disciplines can be helpful or even necessary for the further understanding of character, and for the solution of the persistent riddle of masochism, whose full understanding has continued to elude us. PMID:2991102

  5. Depression - The Proteus of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba

    2004-01-01

    Depression is discussed as a disease of antiquity with suitable contemporary references also. The prevalence of this disorder, which at a given time constitutes 121 millions world-wide is mentioned. Among the types of depression, comorbid depression forms an important one. Classical depression forms the visible part of the depression iceberg while somatic and other life contextual situation forms the submerged part. Somatic manifestations per se do not carry diagnostic weightage unless the core features of depression are elicited. Non-recognition of somatic manifestations result in under-diagnosis and under treatment of the disorder. PMID:21408045

  6. Depression in mothers.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H

    2007-01-01

    Whether one takes a biological, psychological, or psychosocial perspective, depression in mothers raises concerns about risks for the development of psychopathology in the children. This review addresses the complexity of that risk and the essential role of development in a model that explains processes of transmission. This article addresses the following aims: (a) to provide convincing evidence that depression in mothers is an important topic for clinical psychologists; (b) to summarize current theoretical models of mechanisms of risk for the development of psychopathology in children of depressed mothers and the status of empirical support for those models; (c) to examine the theoretical bases and current status of evidence for moderators of this risk; (d) to argue for the advantages to be gained from a developmental psychopathology perspective on this topic; and (e) to point to future directions for theory, research, and practice. PMID:17716050

  7. Depression in new fathers.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing awareness about the burden of ill-health experienced by men. Research has shown that fatherhood has a protective effect on men's health. However, the transition can be complex and demanding, and may cause distress, anxiety and increased risk of depression. This article discusses paternal postnatal depression, which is a significant public health issue that is not acknowledged widely or well researched. As a result, men are under-screened, under-diagnosed and under-treated for the condition and other postnatal mental health problems, causing detrimental effects on their health and negative effects on the health and wellbeing of mother and child. Read Paternal postnatal depression: an overview for primary healthcare professionals in Primary Health Care. PMID:27387639

  8. [Childhood and adolescent depression].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2007-09-01

    Depression is a common, chronic and recurrent disorder in children and adolescents. This article reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, natural course and treatment (pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment) of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents. Several randomized controlled trials have shown that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in particular fluoxetine, and psychotherapeutic treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are efficacious in children and adolescents with MDD. However, in Japan only three SSRIs (fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline) are currently available, and few clinicians are trained to deliver psychotherapeutic treatment. Further clinical researches on the treatment to children and adolescents with MDD are needed in Japan. PMID:17876994

  9. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and ... if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from symptoms of depression ...

  10. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  11. The Paranoid-Depressive Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty J.

    1977-01-01

    Few investigators have attempted to lay a conceptual base for comparative studies of paranoia and depression within a single general framework. The paranoid-depressive continuum is an attempt to develop such a framework. (Author)

  12. Depression Plagues Many with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159436.html Depression Plagues Many With COPD Studies found 1 in ... pulmonary disorder (COPD) may raise the risk of depression among patients with the incurable respiratory illness, two ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  14. Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about ... time Thoughts about death or suicide What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is the most common type ...

  15. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone is depressed. Depression is treatable . Medications and psychotherapy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of ... few side effects. What about counseling? Counseling or psychotherapy is often misunderstood. There are many different kinds ...

  16. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Shakir M.; Bhatia, Subhash; Hurwitz, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder associated with several medical conditions, increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, and overall healthcare expenditure. There is higher prevalence of depression in people with obstructive sleep apnea in both clinical and community samples. Many symptoms of depression and obstructive sleep apnea overlap causing under-diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in depressed patients. Sleep problems, including obstructive sleep apnea, are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with depressive disorders, but they may be responsible for antidepressant treatment failure. The mechanism of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression is complex and remains unclear. Though some studies suggest a mutual relationship, the relationship remains unclear. Several possible pathophysiological mechanisms could explain how obstructive sleep apnea can cause or worsen depression. Increased knowledge of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and depression might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcomes for both obstructive sleep apnea and depression. PMID:21922066

  18. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often with periods of normal mood in between. Postpartum depression can make new mothers feel restless, anxious, fatigued, ... themselves or their babies. Unlike the "baby blues," postpartum depression does not go away quickly. Researchers think that ...

  19. Depression Plagues Many with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159436.html Depression Plagues Many With COPD Studies found 1 in ... pulmonary disorder (COPD) may raise the risk of depression among patients with the incurable respiratory illness, two ...

  20. Structure Characteristics of the Depression in Gushi Town of Weihe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, Y.; Feng, X.; Li, M.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Weihe Basin is located at the southern margin of Ordos block in Mainland China, and it is one of the fault basins around the stable Ordos block. The basin trends nearly EW; it is 500km in length, 40-50km in width. The sedimentary thickness of Cenozoic is 7000m; the maximum thickness of quaternary is 1400m. The basin shows an extremely asymmetry dustpan in shape, the sedimentary thickness is thick in south thin in north, and is controlled by a series of normal faults, it is an extensional fault basin. Weihe Basin is formed by salient and fault-concaves, and shows a motion feature of different settlement. There are two main depressions in the basin——Gushi depression and Xi'an depression. Gushi depression has the thickest sediment of quaternary in Weihe Basin. Many artificial earthquake prospecting have been done in Gushi depression recent years, and we are able to summarized some characteristics from the cross sections as below: 1. The southern margin of Gushi depression is Weinan front loess tableland and frontal zones of Huashan Mt., northern margin is Kouzhen——Linyi fault, western margin is Jingyang——Weinan fault, eastern margin is along the Yellow River. The long axis of Gushi depression is in the direction of NEE. 2. A series of normal faults dipping south are found in the trench, and centralized in the southern part of the depression. Secondary faults cut the bottom boundary of quaternary strata, some reach a depth of around 1200m, and some faults in the upper part cut the late Pleistocene strata. They are secondary antithetic faults in the hanging wall of Weinan front loess tableland faults(fig.). Fig. stucture of Gushi depression F1 Lishan piedmont fault F2 .F3 Weinan front tableland faults F4 Kouzhen-guanshan fault 3.A series of secondary antithetic faults are also found in the hanging wall of Lintong-Chang'an fault, eastern margin of Xi'an depression. Therefore, Gushi depression and Xi'an depression have the same structural feature. In Xi

  1. Neediness and depression in women.

    PubMed

    Campos, Rui C; Mesquita, Isabel; Besser, Avi; Blatt, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    In a 6-month longitudinal design, the authors examined the links between neediness and increases in depressive symptoms in women. Neediness was assessed with the self-report Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), supplemented by a projective measure that assessed an important component of dependency, oral dependency, on the Rorschach. Results indicate that neediness correlated significantly with increases in depressive symptoms over the 6 months. Orality interacted with neediness to substantially increase the prediction of increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:24552427

  2. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  3. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  4. Sadness, Depression, and Avoidance Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Allan M.

    2008-01-01

    Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…

  5. Empirical Evidence for Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    Although several theoretical positions deal with the concept of childhood depression, accurate measurement of depression can only occur if valid and reliable measures are available. Current efforts emphasize direct questioning of the child and quantification of parents' observations. One scale used to study childhood depression, the Personality…

  6. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  7. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  8. Responding to a Student's Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…

  9. Depressive Illness: Pervasive Yet Mystifying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Doctors annually treat between approximately four and eight million Americans for depression. Behavioral changes in depressed individuals are characterized by sadness, loneliness, and apathy. Other symptoms include fatigue, early morning insomnia, loss of appetite, and suicide attempts. Underlying depression may mask itself in physical symptoms,…

  10. Perinatal depression: A clinical update.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-05-19

    Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes. PMID:26934457

  11. Parenting a Child of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoof, Katharene Kaufman

    1993-01-01

    Presents interviews with two mothers of depressed children. Interviews mother of 11-year-old boy diagnosed with depressive disorder at age 8, who is receiving treatment for her own depressive disorder. Also interviews mother of 12-year-old boy who was interviewed himself in previous article. Mothers describe the difficulties they face in parenting…

  12. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  13. Inbreeding Depression and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews sex studies of children of cousin marriages and three studies of children of incestuous matings. It is argued that these studies, taken as a whole, provide no substantial evidence for an inbreeding depression effect within the polygenic system commonly asserted to determine IQ. (Author/DB)

  14. [Toloxatone and depression].

    PubMed

    Fernández Labriola, R; Caetano Esquivel, G; Alvarez, M; Servidio, M

    1991-12-01

    One hundred and one depressed inpatients were treated by the authors with a second-generation antidepressive original molecule: Toloxatone, a specific and reversible MAO A inhibitor. Upon admission, all 101 patients with depressive illness did not score higher than 20 on Hamilton's Scale, and did not score lower than 4 on Fischer, Fernández Labriola and Rodríguez Casanova's Endogeneity Test. Biological profiles (Phenyl-ethylamine, NA, and MHPG) were available on 57 subjects. At the beginning of the experiment: (a) No subject was taking antidepressives, (b) Patients' age averaged 46; (c) The 6-week experiment was a double-blind vs. placebo type. Daily toloxatone dose was standardized in a 400 mg intake. Significant modifications were detected in 51 subjects. Among the 59 subjects that were administered active substance, 37 achieved either "excellent" or "good" outcomes. Biological markers pointed out a profile of patients with a better response to Toloxatone: Namely, patients with a lower noradrenergic activity. Anxiety-free depression as well as inhibited depressions are a psychiatrist's choice for administering Toloxatone. PMID:1843597

  15. Hypothyroidism and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Colin M.; Panicker, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Background: A relationship between hypothyroidism and depression has been assumed for many years; however, the true nature of this association has been difficult to define with many conflicting studies. In recent years, our knowledge in this area has increased significantly with large cohort studies and genetically driven studies being published. Objectives: We reviewed the literature on thyroid function and depression to determine if this relationship has been clarified. Methods: We performed a search on the Pubmed database using the terms ‘thyroid
 ’ and ‘mental health
 ’, ‘depression
 ’ and ‘well-being
 ’. Results: Large epidemiological studies generally suggest no association between thyroid function and depression in subjects without thyroid disease. Subjects on thyroxine have poorer psychological well-being than subjects with no thyroid disease even if biochemically euthyroid, they also show an association between thyroid function and well-being. Whilst there is some early evidence that genetic factors can influence well-being on thyroxine and response to combination therapy, there is also evidence to suggest that much morbidity on thyroxine may be due to initial misdiagnosis and mis-attribution of symptoms. Conclusion: Despite the large number of studies, the relationship between thyroid function and depression remains poorly defined. Clarification of the proportion of subjects on thyroxine incorrectly may assist the large (perhaps genetically driven) studies needed to move forward in this area, as it is expected that they cloud the results. PMID:24847450

  16. Depressive Stories for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    While stories with a depressing message are now common for teenagers, resistance to them remains where smaller children are concerned. But is this more a case of the publishers and providers concerned protecting their own particular image of childhood? This article looks at the case for books that also convey a sense of sadness to infants,…

  17. Helping Students through Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Data from the federal Center for Mental Health Services indicate that one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents may be suffering from depression. Up to 70% of children with diagnosable mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders are not receiving mental health services, according to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health.…

  18. Sex, Anger and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Lively, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A social problem that has preoccupied sociologists of gender and mental health is the higher rate of depression found among women. Although a number of hypotheses about this health disparity between men and women have been advanced, none consider the importance of subjectively experienced anger. Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from…

  19. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the

  20. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  1. Causes, Detection and Treatment of Childhood Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahraes, Herbert

    Three types of depressive illness of childhood (masked depression, acute depressive illness, and chronic depressive illness) are described; contributing factors (heredity and parental behavior) are discussed; and indications of depression are considered. Briefly reviewed are various methods of treating depressed children, including the use of…

  2. Depression and bulimia: the link between depression and bulimic cognitions.

    PubMed

    Schlesier-Carter, B; Hamilton, S A; O'Neil, P M; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R

    1989-08-01

    This study assessed the link between bulimic and depressive cognitions. Twenty-nine bulimics and 16 controls from the general population were first assessed on levels of depression using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Bulimics were significantly more depressed than controls. Bulimics differed significantly from controls on all cognitive measures associated with depression (Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and Attributional Style Questionnaire), but differences on these measures were nonsignificant when depression, as measured by the BDI, was controlled. Bulimics differed from controls regardless of level of depression on the three scales of the Restraint Inventory, the Rationalization and All-or-None scales of the Thoughts About Eating Inventory, and most of the eight scales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. Bulimics showed more maladaptive thinking associated with depression, but these differences likely reflect the levels of depression for each group. The differences on the measures of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of bulimia remained when the level of depression was controlled statistically. This suggests that although depression can be frequently diagnosed in a bulimic sample, specific maladaptive cognitions and behaviors reflect a distinct disorder (bulimia) and are not simply the expression of an affective disorder. PMID:2768669

  3. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  4. Kärdla (Hiiumaa Island, Estonia)—the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuroja, Kalle; Suuroja, Sten; All, Tarmo; Floden, Tom

    The Kärdla marine impact structure (Estonia, 58°58'N, 22°46'E) was formed at 455 Ma (Upper Ordovician), in a shallow epicontinental sea some tens of kilometres from the land and erosion area. The iron-rich projectile about 200 m in diameter approached from the west at an angle of 30-45°. The impactor penetrated about 50-m-thick water layer and the sedimentary cover and exploded in the uppermost part of the crystalline basement. A complex crater, 4 km wide and about 500 m deep, with a central uplift rising 130 m from the crater floor, was formed. The highest point of the rimwall is 110 m above the target level. The rimwall is cut by at least two resurge-excavated gullies. The variable height of the rimwall obviously results from the obliqueness of the impact. Outside the crater an elliptical area was revealed, 12-15 km in diameter, with deformed sedimentary rocks below the target level. The elliptical shape of this area may also be due to the oblique impact. Because the crater and its surroundings were buried directly after the impact, the whole complex of impact-related sediments is preserved there. They are recovered by 160 wells, six of which penetrate the entire complex of impact breccias inside the crater.

  5. Hindcast experiments of the derecho in Estonia on 08 August, 2010: Modelling derecho with NWP model HARMONIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Rõõm, Rein

    2015-05-01

    On August 8, 2010, a derecho swept over Northern Europe, causing widespread wind damage and more than 2 million Euros in economic loss in Estonia during its most destructive stage. This paper presents a modelling study of the derecho-producing storm utilising the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Europe (HARMONIE) model. The model setup is chosen to mimic near-future, nearly kilometre-scale, operational environments in European national weather services. The model simulations are compared to remote sensing and in situ observations. The HARMONIE model is capable of reproducing the wind gust severity and precipitation intensity. Moreover, 2.5-km grid spacing is shown to be sufficient for producing a reliable signal of the severe convective storm. Storm dynamics are well simulated, including the rear inflow jet. Although the model performance is promising, a strong dependence on the initial data, a weak trailing stratiform precipitation region and an incorrect timing of the storm are identified.

  6. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues. PMID:27476299

  7. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  8. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

  9. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  10. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  11. Ecosystem-scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions of a hemiboreal mixed forest stand at Järvselja, Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Steffen M.; Kimmel, Veljo; Hüve, Katja; Copolovici, Lucian; Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Püttsepp, Ülle; Jõgiste, Kalev; Niinemets, Ülo; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    During two measurement campaigns, from August to September 2008 and 2009, we quantified the major ecosystem fluxes in a hemiboreal forest ecosystem in Järvselja, Estonia. The main aim of this study was to separate the ecosystem flux components and gain insight into the performance of a multi-species multi-layered tree stand. Carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method above and below the canopy in conjunction with the microclimate. Leaf and soil contributions were quantified separately by cuvette and chamber measurements, including fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene and monoterpenes). The latter have been as well characterized for monoterpenes in detail. Based on measured atmospheric trace gas concentrations, the flux tower site can be characterized as remote and rural with low anthropogenic disturbances. Our results presented here encourage future experimental efforts to be directed towards year round integrated biosphere-atmosphere measurements and development of process-oriented models of forest-atmosphere exchange taking the special case of a multi-layered and multi-species tree stand into account. As climate change likely leads to spatial extension of hemiboreal forest ecosystems a deep understanding of the processes and interactions therein is needed to foster management and mitigation strategies. PMID:24347809

  12. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr‑1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  13. The increasing burden of depression.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large. PMID:21750622

  14. Occupational Health in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Malan, R. M.

    1963-01-01

    Progress may be fostered as much by spreading information as by research. The aim of this review is to add to the existing knowledge of the pattern of occupational health services in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. The work consists of two main parts. Part I is based on official information issued by government departments or typewritten reports prepared by government officials, and relates mostly to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to Czechoslovakia. Part II is largely based on direct observation, discussion, and comparison of the occupational health services in Czechoslovakia, of which I have more extensive knowledge than of the other countries of Eastern Europe. This part embodies a number of conclusions and is followed by a list of bibliographical references. Throughout the review I have endeavoured to show how problems which exist all over the world are dealt with in Eastern Europe. PMID:13932439

  15. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  16. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Safaie, Nasser; Jodati, Ahmad Reza; Raoofi, Mohammad; Khalili, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001). In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001). Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences. PMID:24250990

  17. [Prevalence of depression among firefighters].

    PubMed

    Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-04-01

    Depression burder is high worldwide. Socioeconomic factors and exposure to extreme situations at work may be associated with the illness. This study focused on the prevalence of depression and associated factors among firefighters in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted among male firefighters in Belo Horizonte (n = 711). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the association between socio-demographic characteristics, occupational stressors, health status, and depression. Prevalence of depression in the sample was 5.5%. The likelihood of developing depression was higher among firefighters who reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (OR = 12.47; 95%CI: 5.64-27.57) and alcohol abuse (OR = 5.30; 95%CI: 2.35-11.96). The results are discussed considering the interrelationships between mental disorders, the healthy worker effect, and social recognition of firefighters' work. PMID:25945983

  18. Whiplash-associated disorders: who gets depressed? Who stays depressed?

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Linda J.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Depression is common in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Our objectives were to identify factors associated with depressive symptomatology occurring in the initial stages of WAD, and to identify factors predicting the course of depressive symptoms. A population-based cohort of adults sustaining traffic-related WAD was followed at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline measures (assessed a median of 11 days post-crash) included demographic and collision-related factors, prior health, and initial post-crash pain and symptoms. Depressive symptomatology was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We included only those who participated at all follow-ups (n = 3,452; 59% of eligible participants). Using logistic regression, we identified factors associated with initial (post-crash) depression. Using multinomial regression, we identified baseline factors predicting course of depression. Courses of depression were no depression; initial depression that resolves, recurs or persists, and later onset depression. Factors associated with initial depression included greater neck and low back pain severity, greater percentage of body in pain, numbness/tingling in arms/hand, dizziness, vision problems, post-crash anxiety, fracture, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Predictors of persistent depression included older age, greater initial neck and low back pain, post-crash dizziness, vision and hearing problems, numbness/tingling in arms/hands, anxiety, prior mental health problems, and poorer general health. Recognition of these underlying risk factors may assist health care providers to predict the course of psychological reactions and to provide effective interventions. PMID:20127261

  19. Homonegativity and Associated Factors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Mangine, Cara; Rüütel, Kristi

    2016-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at higher risk for negative health outcomes including HIV, STIs, depression, substance use, suicidality, and anxiety. Associative relationships between homonegativity (internal and external) and these outcomes are used to explain the observed disproportionate impact. The current study assessed associations between internalized homonegativity and high-risk behaviours, markers of substance use and symptoms of mental illness as well as openness and level of same sex attraction. A 2013 Internet-based survey was conducted among MSM, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexuality, drug and alcohol use, mental health, suicidality, and internalized homonegativity. The sample (n = 265) had a median age of 31 years, with 85 % employed at least part-time; at least a college-level education in 43 %; and 87 % lived in an urban setting. Sexual orientation was reported as: gay, 72 %; bisexual 23 %; other 5 %. Almost all men (97 %) reported ever having sex with a man, with more than one-third (36 %) having a steady male partner. Statistically significant higher homonegativity scores were detected among men reporting any level of opposite sex attraction compared to men attracted to only men; mostly men (p = 0.001), men and women equally (p = 0.002), and mostly women (p = 0.004), as well as less openness of same sex attraction to family and friends; >50 % family (p = 0.032), no family knowing (p = 0.042), and few friends knowing (p = 0.011). Anxiety risk and increased homonegativity also had a statistically significant increasing relationship. The identified associations between homonegativity and opposite sex attraction among MSM warrants further exploration as well as the relationship with increased anxiety risk. PMID:26728280

  20. Stress, Depression and Coping among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Burke Winkelman, Sloane; Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one in four migrant farmworkers experienced an episode of one or more mental health disorders such as stress, depression, or anxiety in their lifetime. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore experiences and perceptions related to stress and depression among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs), and to identify their coping behaviors for dealing with these mental health conditions. Using a mixed methods research approach, three focus group interviews of a sample of Latino MSFWs (N = 29) were conducted and a quantitative survey was implemented (N = 57) at community sites in eastern North Carolina. Four major themes emerged from the focus group data: (1) physical stress related to working conditions; (2) mental stress related to family situations, work environment, documentation status, and lack of resources; (3) depression related to separation from family and the lack of resources; and (4) use of positive and negative mechanisms for coping with stress and depression. A discussion of these themes, results from the survey findings, implications for intervention and outreach programs, along with recommendations for further research, are provided. PMID:23644829

  1. Neurosurgical treatments of depression.

    PubMed

    Temel, Yasin; Lim, Lee Wei

    2013-01-01

    The neurosurgical treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has entered a new era with more and more patients being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) via surgically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Although the mechanisms of action of DBS are still not fully understood, preclinical studies are being conducted to elucidate how the treatment might work. DBS in its present form can be considered as a relatively new neurosurgical treatment for TRD. However, the use of neurosurgery in the management of depression has a much longer history particularly with ablative procedures but also vagal nerve stimulation. Here, we provide a review of the clinical neurosurgical treatments for TRD, with a main emphasis on DBS. In addition, we discuss relevant preclinical data that are revealing new information about DBS mechanisms. PMID:22865464

  2. Bibliotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Usher, Tegan

    2013-04-01

    Bibliotherapy can be used to treat mild to moderate depression or subthreshold depressive symptoms, as a sole or supplementary therapy. Bibliotherapy is a form of guided self-help. The patient works through a structured book, independently from the doctor. The role of the doctor is to support and motivate the patient as they continue through the book and to help clarify any questions or concerns the patient may have. Relevant books can be purchased or often borrowed from a library, with limited cost and good accessibility from a patient perspective. Patients need to have a reading age above 12 years and have a positive attitude toward self-help. Bibliotherapy has NHMRC Level 1 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. This article forms part of a series on non-drug treatments, which summarise the indications, considerations and the evidence, and where clinicians and patients can find further information. PMID:23550243

  3. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that epigenetics is a key mechanism through which environmental exposures interact with an individual’s genetic constitution to determine risk for depression throughout life.1 Epigenetics, in its broadest meaning, refers to stable changes in gene expression that are mediated via altered chromatin structure without modification of DNA sequence. According to this hypothesis, severe stress triggers changes—in vulnerable individuals—in chromatin structure at particular genomic loci in the brain’s limbic regions, which drive sustained changes in gene expression that contribute to episodes of depression. A corollary of this hypothesis is that such stress-induced epigenetic modifications also occur early in life and help determine an individual’s lifetime vulnerability or resistance to subsequent stressful events. PMID:24499927

  4. [Anhedonia in depression].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, R; Gourion, D; Llorca, P M

    2013-09-01

    Anhedonia, or markedly diminished interest or pleasure, is a hallmark symptom of major depression, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The term "anhedonia" was introduced by the French psychologist Ribot in 1896 to describe the counterpart to analgesia in his patients, for which "it was impossible to find the least pleasure". Over the last decades, the clinical definition of anhedonia has remained relatively unchanged, but recently, behavioral neurosciences have significantly changed our knowledge of reward-related processes. Now, the construct of anhedonia reflects deficits in hedonic capacity, and is closely linked to the processes of reward valuation, decision-making, anticipation, and motivation. The neural circuits underlying these reward-related mechanisms include essentially the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortical regions. Here, we review the clinical concepts, neural bases and psychopharmacological data related to the deficits of hedonia in depression. Understanding anhedonia will facilitate diagnosis and treatment management. PMID:23937895

  5. Complementary medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Karen; Rampes, Hagen; Richardson, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted. PMID:17144787

  6. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  7. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  8. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  9. Eastern New Mexico University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes efforts by Eastern New Mexico University (ENMU) to recast its mission more narrowly while at the same time reducing the sense of remoteness and disconnection, as well as geographic isolation, between the main campus and its branch campuses. In the early 1980s, ENMU suffered from mission drift, in part as a result of its…

  10. Testing atypical depression definitions.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2005-01-01

    The evidence supporting the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression (AD) is weak. This study aimed to test different definitions of AD. Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients (N = 254) and bipolar-II (BP-II) outpatients (N = 348) were interviewed consecutively, during major depressive episodes, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. DSM-IV criteria for AD were followed. AD validators were female gender, young onset, BP-II, axis I comorbidity, bipolar family history. Frequency of DSM-IV AD was 43.0%. AD, versus non-AD, was significantly associated with all AD validators, apart from comorbidity when controlling for age and sex. Factor analysis of atypical symptoms found factor 1 including oversleeping, overeating and weight gain (leaden paralysis at trend correlation), and factor 2 including interpersonal sensitivity, mood reactivity, and leaden paralysis. Multiple logistic regression of factor 1 versus AD validators found significant associations with several validators (including bipolar family history), whereas factor 2 had no significant associations. Findings may support a new definition of AD based on the state-dependent features oversleeping and overeating (plus perhaps leaden paralysis) versus the current AD definition based on a combination of state and trait features. Pharmacological studies are required to support any new definition of AD, as the current concept of AD is based on different response to TCA antidepressants versus non-AD. PMID:16175877

  11. Trends in cancer patient survival in Estonia before and after the transition from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy.

    PubMed

    Aareleid, Tiiu; Brenner, Hermann

    2002-11-01

    Cancer patients' survival is strongly dependent on socioeconomic factors, including access to and quality of medical care. During the past decade, Estonia has undergone a major political and economic change from a Soviet republic to an open-market economy country, and the health care system was transformed from a centralised state-controlled system into a decentralised health insurance-based one. Using data from the population-based Estonian Cancer Registry, we assessed trends in cancer patient survival before and after this transition by application of period analysis, a new method of survival analysis, which allows more timely disclosure of time trends than traditional survival analysis. Our study included 83,138 patients diagnosed with 1 of the 11 most frequent malignancies in Estonia from 1969-1998. Patients were followed up to the end of 1998. Despite a moderate increase in 5- and 10-year relative survival over time, prognosis for many common forms of cancer, such as stomach, colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer, remained considerably worse than the survival rates achieved in more affluent European countries many years ago. By contrast, a very steep increase in survival rates was observed for common urologic cancers, including prostate, kidney and bladder cancer, which went along with a rise in incidence rates of these cancers over time. For prostate cancer, similar survival rates as in other European countries have now been achieved. The most likely explanation for these trends is enhanced availability and utilization of laboratory and technical diagnostic equipment. Despite recent improvement, major efforts in delivering modern cancer care to the population of Estonia will be required to close the gap that continues to exist between prognosis of cancer patients in this country and other European countries. PMID:12353233

  12. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  13. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  14. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention

  15. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  16. Seasonal Variation of Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Bryan S.; Coryell, William H.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A.; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort – the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. PMID:25176622

  17. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. Yu.

    1993-03-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  18. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  19. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  20. Association of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with child cognition at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tse, Alison C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2010-05-01

    We examined the association of prenatal depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy with child cognition at age 3 years in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of 1030 mother-child pairs in eastern Massachusetts. We measured maternal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a self-report measure validated for use during pregnancy. Measures of child cognition included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). At mid-pregnancy, 81 mothers (7.9%) scored 13 or above on the EPDS, indicating probable depression. In the unadjusted model, children born to mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms had PPVT scores that were 3.8 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.1, -0.5]. With adjustment for sociodemographic variables, the association substantially attenuated [adjusted regression coefficient b for PPVT score = -0.7 (95% CI -3.6, 2.3)]. In both unadjusted and multivariable models, prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with WRAVMA scores [adjusted b for total WRAVMA score = -0.5 (95% CI -3.0, 2.1)]. We found no evidence to suggest that maternal prenatal depression is independently associated with early child cognition. PMID:20415752

  1. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  2. [Association of obesity and depression].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György; Faludi, Gábor; Halmy, László

    2008-10-01

    It has been long known that the frequency of overweight and obese people is higher among depressed and bipolar patients than in the general population. The marked alteration of body weight (and appetite) is one of the most frequent of the 9 symptoms of major depressive episode, and these symptoms occur during recurrent episodes of depression with a remarkably high consequence. According to studies with representative adult population samples, in case of obesity (BMI over 30) unipolar or bipolar depression is significantly more frequently (20-45%) observable. Since in case of depressed patients appetite and body weight reduction is observable during the acute phase, the more frequent obesity in case of depressed patients is related (primarily) not only to depressive episodes, but rather to lifestyle factors, to diabetes mellitus also more frequently occurring in depressed patients, to comorbid bulimia, and probably to genetic-biological factors (as well as to pharmacotherapy in case of medicated patients). At the same time, according to certain studies, circadian symptoms of depression give rise to such metabolic processes in the body which eventually lead to obesity and insulin resistance. According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy. Certain lifestyle factors relevant to healthy metabolism (calorie reduction in food intake, regular exercise) may be protective factors related to depression as well. The depression- and possibly suicide-provoking effect of sibutramine and rimonabant used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity is one of the greatest recent challenges for professionals and patients

  3. Regulatory Biology: Depressed Metabolic States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, E. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Exobiological aspects of depressed metabolism and thermoregulation are discussed for subsequent development of biological space flight experiments. Included is a brief description of differential hypothermia in cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  5. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

  6. The molecular neurobiology of depression

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling the pathophysiology of depression is a unique challenge. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but symptoms such as guilt and suicidality are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, other symptoms have been accurately modelled, and these, together with clinical data, are providing insight into the neurobiology of depression. Recent studies combining behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological techniques reveal that certain aspects of depression result from maladaptive stress-induced neuroplastic changes in specific neural circuits. They also show that understanding the mechanisms of resilience to stress offers a crucial new dimension for the development of fundamentally novel antidepressant treatments. PMID:18923511

  7. Scaling characteristics of topographic depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristic of land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Landscapes with high density of depressions increase the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increase runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity and the climate--soil--vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high resolution LiDAR based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these distribution attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a fractal structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions, accounting for 4 to 200 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the fractal landscapes on the redistribution of surface energy fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  8. [Alzheimer's disease and depression].

    PubMed

    Gallarda, T

    1999-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia (60% of all dementias) and affects nearly 300,000 people in France. Alzheimer's disease is a disease of the elderly which generally begins after 60 years and whose prevalence increases markedly after age 75 years. The elderly population is increasing in all Western countries. Alzheimer's disease thus constitutes a veritable emergent public health problem. The rapid inflation of the epidemiological and etiopathogenetic data have contributed to enhanced nosographic definition and finer semiological characterization of the disease. Thus, the classic concept of senile dementia has been totally abandoned. In contrast, the concept of depressive pseudodementia as defined by Kiloh (1961) remains present in the "psychiatric culture". The concept refers to rare clinical situations in which the controversial concept of "test therapy" with antidepressants retains, in the author's opinion, some utility. Depressive or psychobehavioral signs and symptoms frequently inaugurate Alzheimer's disease giving rise to first-line psychiatric management. The use of multidimensional evaluation instruments such as the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) has enabled demonstration of the signs and symptoms and their quantification through the course of the disease. In the dementia stage, the psychobehavioral symptoms are related to the patient's awareness of the degradation in his intellectual functions and the loss of independence and to specific neuropathological lesions responsible for "frontal deafferentation". Certain clinical forms of depression of late onset are also characterized by symptoms reflecting hypofrontal signs (blunted affect, apathy, defective initiative, etc.) and severe cognitive disorders. Those depressions are associated with risk factors shared with Alzheimer's disease (sex, age, vascular function, APOE 4) and constitute a risk factor for progression to dementia, requiring regular clinical and neuropsychological

  9. South Polar Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a circular depression and a suite of eroding mesas of carbon dioxide. These features occur in the south polar residual cap of Mars. The eroding carbon dioxide creates landforms reminiscent of 'Swiss cheese.' The circular feature might indicate the location of a filled, buried impact crater.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 111.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Cognitive biases in depressed and non-depressed referred youth.

    PubMed

    Timbremont, Benedikte; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Van Vlierberghe, Leen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cognitive vulnerability in both depressed and non-depressed referred youngsters. Formerly depressed (FD) children and adolescents (n = 16) were compared to a currently depressed (CD) group (n = 18) on a self-referent encoding and memory task imbedded in a mood induction paradigm. In order to test the specificity of the findings to depression, the results of the FD were further compared with those of a clinical but never depressed (ND) group (n = 39) diagnosed with anxiety and/or disruptive behaviour disorders. The study confirmed the hypothesized differences between the groups in terms of self-referent encoding bias. Both the ND (p < 0.001) and FD (p < 0.001) group rated more positive words than negative words as self-descriptive while the CD endorsed a closer balance of positive and negative words (non-significant difference). No interaction effect was found for the recall task. The FD group evinced a similar memory bias than the CD group. However, also in the ND group, the number of proportional recalled positive words did not differ from the proportional recalled negative words. The findings yielded no evidence for a depression-specific information-processing bias. However, all subjects (FD, CD as well as ND) exhibited a memory bias and therefore 'clinical status' is considered as a cognitive vulnerability risk factor for developing a depressive disorder in the future. PMID:19115452

  12. Complementary Treatment of the Common Cold and Flu with Medicinal Plants – Results from Two Samples of Pharmacy Customers in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable. PMID:23484045

  13. Climate parameters of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region derived from the high-resolution reanalysis database BaltAn65+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männik, Aarne; Zirk, Marko; Rõõm, Rein; Luhamaa, Andres

    2015-10-01

    The high-resolution reanalysis data-base BaltAn65+ covers the period of 1965-2005. Here, this dataset is used to derive essential climate parameters for the Baltic Sea region and Estonia. In particular, monthly mean temperature and total precipitation are calculated and a trend analysis is performed to analyze the temporal evolution of these climatological parameters during the reanalysis period. Monthly, seasonal, and annual maps of the climate characteristics, including trend maps, are created for the Baltic Sea region. Time series of monthly and annually averaged temperature and precipitation sum are presented over the Baltic Sea and Estonian domains together with fitted linear trends and trend significance analysis. Then, comparison with an observational database is performed to assess the quality of the reanalysis database. Additionally, the time series are compared with official climate normals for the period of 1971-2000, as calculated by the Estonian Environment Agency (EtEA). Findings of other publications in the scientific literature dealing with the climate of similar time period for Estonia and the Baltic Sea region are discussed. The quality of the BaltAn65+ reanalysis is found to be generally good for temperature but weak for precipitation.

  14. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  15. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities and…

  16. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  17. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P < 0.05) relative to controls. Parents given 4.4 ppm selenium produced no malformed nestlings, but femur lengths of young were shorter (P = 0.015) than those of controls. Liver biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  18. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei )

    1996-01-01

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km[sup 2] and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  19. Structural evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation of Luxi Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongliang; Qian Hua Xiao; Angui Lei

    1996-12-31

    Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 km{sup 2} and is one of the more than 250 small rifts of Northeast Rift System, the basement of which is Hercynian told belt. The Depression has undergone two Late Jurassic events: rifting and depression. The rifting sedimentation (the main period) may be divided into four stages: in the initial tensional faulting stage (Yixian Age) are accumulated a set of mantle-sourced volcanic rocks; in the fast subsiding stage (Jiufotang Age) the sedimentary system is distributed in belts under the control of boundary faults; in the steep area alluvial fans and near-shore sublacustrine fans are developed; in the gentle area braided deltas are developed; in the central deep area dark mudstones and sublacustrine gravity flows are developed. Meanwhile the rollover structures began to form on the down-thrown walls of the faults and the drape structures are formed on the convex side of the volcanic rocks. The stable subsiding stage (Shahai Age) is mainly a shallow-semi-deep lacustrine system; the rollover structures are generally finished (Fuxin Age). Most of the fill of the re-rising shrinking stage are near-shallow-lake and marsh facies sedimentation. There are five kinds of oil reservoirs distributed around the oil-generating depressions: rollover anticline, structure-lithology reservoir, updip pinch out, lenticular sandstone, and impermeable sandstone seals. Such reservoir formation models are relatively representative in rift system and can be a model for oil and gas exploration in similar depressions.

  20. Depression--Medicines To Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Depression--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... who take medicines for depression. Important Warnings about Medicines for Depression Children and teens who take antidepressants ...

  1. Motivational Deficit in Depressed Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Christopher; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested accuracy of motivational theory of depression for adjustment disorder with depressed mood in 48 patients with terminal and nonterminal cancer. Results supported motivational theory: cancer patients exhibited low expectations and low values; hence, they were unmotivated and depressed. (NRB)

  2. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Print Email Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients ACHE Newsletter Sign ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, ...

  3. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  4. Depression in Diagnostic Subtypes of Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Javad H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Delinquent boys (18 percent of 120) were found to be depressed when DSM III criteria for Major Depressive Disorder were utilized. Results indicated the prevalence of depression was not significantly more frequent among socialized, undersocialized, aggressive or nonaggressive subtypes. (Author)

  5. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  6. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  7. Assessing Interpersonal Subtypes in Depression.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sarah; Cain, Nicole M; Wallner Samstag, Lisa; Meehan, Kevin B; Muran, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The context-free diagnoses outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders might not provide enough information to represent the heterogeneity observed in depressed patients. Interpersonal factors have been linked to depression in a mutually influencing pathoplastic relationship where certain problems, like submissiveness, are related to symptom chronicity. This study evaluated interpersonal pathoplasticity in a range of depressive presentations. We examined archival data collected from 407 participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder (DD), or subthreshold depression (sD). Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 5 interpersonal subtypes (vindictive, intrusive, socially avoidant, exploitable, and cold). Apart from gender, the subtypes did not differ significantly on demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, or self-report depression severity. Socially avoidant participants were more likely to meet criteria for a clinical depression diagnosis (MDD or DD), whereas vindictive participants were more likely to have sD. Our results indicate that interpersonal problems could account for heterogeneity observed in depression. PMID:25803309

  8. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  9. Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    The perception that menopause leads to mood disturbances such as depression has a long history. How did these beliefs come about, and are they supported by the scientific literature? This article reviews the theories of menopause and depression, the scientific literature, and the implications of these findings for prevention and treatment.…

  10. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  11. Depression in an evolutionary context

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Sadness and low levels of depression are adaptive since they lead the individual to try and make up a loss. By contrast, severe or clinical depression is not adaptive, but can be thought of as sadness having become malignant. PMID:18312654

  12. Depression Rating Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…

  13. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  14. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  15. Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

    1992-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

  16. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  17. Depressive Dyadic and Triadic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, David; Timmins, Joan F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes some of the characteristics of relationship patterns established by partners with one depressed member. Depressive dyadic and triadic relationships are characterized by repetitive and patterned verbal and non-verbal behavior designated "microcycling". Treatment approaches include therapy of the partners' relationship and of…

  18. Metabolic depression in hibernation and major depression: an explanatory theory and an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, John A

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic depression, an adaptive biological process for energy preservation, is responsible for torpor, hibernation and estivation. We propose that a form of metabolic depression, and not mitochondrial dysfunction, is the process underlying the observed hypometabolism, state-dependent neurobiological changes and vegetative symptoms of major depression in humans. The process of metabolic depression is reactivated via differential gene expression in response to perceived adverse stimuli in predisposed persons. Behavior inhibition by temperament, anxiety disorders, genetic vulnerabilities, and early traumatic experiences predispose persons to depression. The proposed theory is supported by similarities in the presentation and neurobiology of hibernation in bears and major depression and explains the yet unexplained neurobiological changes of depression. Although, gene expression is suppressed in other hibernators by deep hypothermia, bears were chosen because they hibernate with mild hypothermia. Pre-hibernation in bears and major depression with atypical features are both characterized by fat storage through overeating, oversleeping, and decreased mobility. Hibernation in bears and major depression with melancholic features are characterized by withdrawal from the environment, lack of energy, loss of weight from not eating and burning stored fat, changes in sleep pattern, and the following similar neurobiological findings: reversible subclinical hypothyroidism; increased concentration of serum cortisol; acute phase protein response; low respiratory quotient; oxidative stress response; decreased neurotransmitter levels; and changes in cyclic-adenosine monophosphate-binding activity. Signaling systems associated with protein phosphorylation, transcription factors, and gene expression are responsible for the metabolic depression process during pre-hibernation and hibernation. Antidepressants and mood stabilizers interfere with the hibernation process and produce their

  19. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. PMID:25413803

  20. Pseudodementia caused by severe depression

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of pseudodementia may be difficult in a patient with a history of major depressive disorder. Clinical case history. A 70-year-old man with a history of major depressive disorder, in remission for 3 years, presented with confusion, agitation and cognitive disorder. The differential diagnosis included depression with pseudodementia, drug-induced dementia or Alzheimer disease. Mild cognitive improvement was noted after discontinuation of simvastatin. After 9 months of treatment for depression, the patient had remission that was sustained for >1 year, with mild residual difficulty remembering words of songs. The differential diagnosis of dementia includes major depressive disorder and adverse events from simvastatin. PMID:23242083

  1. Spectral reflectance patterns and temporal dynamics of common understory types in hemi-boreal forests in Järvselja, Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge about spectral properties and seasonal dynamics of understory layers in boreal forests currently holds several gaps. This introduces severe uncertainties while modelling the carbon balance of this ecosystem, which is expected to be prone to major shifts with climate change in the future. In this work the seasonal reflectance dynamics in European hemi-boreal forests are studied. The data for this study was collected at Järvselja Training and Experimental Forestry District (Estonia, 27.26°E 58.30°N). Measurements were taken in three different stands. The silver birch (Betula Pendula Roth) stand grows on typical brown gley-soil and its understory vegetation is dominated by a mixture of several grass species. The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand grows on a bog with understory vegetation composed of sparse labrador tea, cotton grass, and a continuous Sphagnum moss layer. The third stand, Norway spruce (Picea abies), grows on a Gleyi Ferric Podzol site with understory vegetation either partially missing or consisting of mosses such as Hylocomium splendens or Pleurozium schreberi [1]. The sampling design was similar to the study by Rautiainen et al. [3] in northern European boreal forests. At each study site, a 100 m long permanent transect was marked with flags. In addition, four intensive study plots (1 m × 1 m) were marked next to the transects at 20 m intervals. The field campaign lasted from May to September 2013. For each site the fractional cover of understory and understory spectra were estimated ten times i.e. every 2 to 3 weeks. Results from Järvselja forest were compared with the seasonal profiles from boreal forests in Hyytiälä, Finland [2]. References [1] A. Kuusk, M. Lang, J. Kuusk, T. Lükk, T. Nilson, M. Mõttus, M. Rautiainen, and A. Eenmäe, "Database of optical and structural data for validation of radiative transfer models", Technical Report, September 2009 [2] M. Rautiainen, M. Mõttus, J. Heiskanen, A. Akujärvi, T. Majasalmi

  2. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations in HAART patients infected with HIV-1 CRF06_cpx in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Karki, Tõnis; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Margus, Tõnu; Huik, Kristi; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and substitutions were assessed after the failure of the first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) + 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) treatment regimens (efavirenz [EFV] + lamivudine[3TC] + zidovudine [ZDV] vs. EFV + 3TC + ddI) among the HIV-1 CRF06_cpx infected subjects in Estonia. HIV-1 genomic RNA was sequenced; DRMs and amino acid substitutions were compared in 44 treatment naïve and 45 first-line NNRTI + 2 NRTI treatment failed patients consisting of EFV + 3TC + ZDV (n = 17) and EFV + 3TC + didanosine[ddI] (n = 21) therapy failed sub-populations. At least one DRM was found in 78% of treatment experienced patients. The most common NRTI mutations were M184V (80%), L74V (31%), L74I (17%), K219E (9%), and M184I (9%), NNRTI mutations were K103N (83%), P225H (14%), L100I (11%), and Y188L (11%), reflecting generally the similar pattern of DRMs to that seen in treatment failed subtype B viruses. Sub-population analysis revealed that EFV + 3TC + ddI failed patients had more DRMs compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV failed patients, especially the ddI DRM L74IV and several additional NNRTI DRMs. Additionally, CRF06_cpx specific mutation E179V and substitutions R32K, K122E, and V200AE were also detected in treatment experienced population. After the failure of the first-line EFV + 3TC + ddI therapy HIV-1 CRF06_cpx viruses develop additional NRTI and NNRTI mutations compared to EFV + 3TC + ZDV regimen. Therefore the usage of EFV + 3TC + ddI in this subtype decreases the options for next regimens containing abacavir, and NNRTI class agents. PMID:26291050

  3. Rumination and Loneliness Independently Predict Six-Month Later Depression Symptoms among Chinese Elderly in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Pei; Xie, Yan; Duan, Wenjie; Deng, Qing; Yu, Xiuli

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies conducted in Western countries independently demonstrated that loneliness and rumination are remarkable risk factors of depression among the elderly in both community and nursing homes. However, knowledge on the relationship between these three constructs among the elderly in Eastern countries is scarce. The current study aims to determine the relationship between loneliness, rumination, and depression among Chinese elderly in nursing homes. Methods A total of 71 elderly participants with an average age of 82.49 years completed this six-month longitudinal study. Physical reports indicated that none of the participants were clinically depressed before the study. At Time 1, their loneliness and rumination were measured using UCLA-8 Loneliness Scale and Ruminative Responses Scale. Six months later, the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to assess depressive symptoms (Time 2). Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that both loneliness and rumination at Time 1 were the predictors of depression symptoms at Time 2 among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, in the mediation analysis using PROCESS, the indirect effect between loneliness at Time 1 and depression symptoms at Time 2 was insignificant. Conclusions Results suggest that previous loneliness and rumination thinking are predictors of future depression symptoms among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. However, the insignificant mediation further suggests that the differences between loneliness and rumination should be explored in future studies. Findings have important implications for mental health professionals in nursing homes in China. PMID:26334298

  4. Physical Comorbidities in Depression Co-Occurring with Anxiety: A Cross Sectional Study in the Czech Primary Care System

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Petr; Horáček, Jiří; Weissová, Aneta; Šustr, Martin; Brunovský, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidities associated with depression have been researched in a number of contexts. However, the epidemiological situation in clinical practice is understudied, especially in the post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe region. The aim of this study was to assess physical comorbidities in depression, and to identify whether there are increased odds of physical comorbidities associated with co-occurring depressive and anxiety disorders. Data on 4264 patients aged 18–98 were collected among medical doctors in the Czech Republic between 2010 and 2011. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess comorbidities among patients with depressive disorder. There were 51.29% of those who have a physical comorbidity, and 45.5% of those who have a comorbid anxiety disorders among patients treated with depression in Czech primary care. Results of logistic regressions show that odds of having pain, hypertension or diabetes mellitus are particularly elevated at those who have co-occurring depressive and anxiety disorder. Our findings demonstrate that comorbidities associated with depressive disorders are highly prevalent in primary health care practice, and that physical comorbidities are particularly frequent among those with co-occurring depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:26690458

  5. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  6. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  7. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  8. "Depression Can Disguise Itself…" —But There Is Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Depression "Depression Can Disguise Itself…" —But There Is Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... but the underlying cause can be depression. What is depression and how does it affect us? Depression ...

  9. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms, nicotine addiction, and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation. PMID:21607614

  10. Geothermal opportunities in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.R. Jr.; Stoyanov, B.

    1996-12-31

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a broad survey was conducted to compile existing information regarding the geothermal resources of Eastern Europe and their use patterns. Aside from normal major data bases and the Library of Congress, substantial information was acquired from the countries of interest in their native languages. Translations were accomplished, summarized, and pertinent information was incorporated into a major report on the region. This report is summarized in the following article. Limited references are listed. An extensive listing is available from the authors.

  11. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  12. The effect of large anthropogenic particulate emissions on atmospheric aerosols, deposition and bioindicators in the eastern Gulf of Finland region.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, L; Mäkinen, A; Häsänen, E; Juhanoja, J

    2000-10-30

    The effect of the emissions from large oil shale fuelled power plants and a cement factory in Estonia on the elemental concentration of atmospheric aerosols, deposition, elemental composition of mosses and ecological effects on mosses, lichens and pine trees in the eastern Gulf of Finland region has been studied. In addition to chemical analysis, fly ash, moss and aerosol samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). The massive particulate calcium emissions, approximately 60 kton/year (1992), is clearly observed in the aerosols, deposition and mosses. The calcium deposition is largest next to the Russian border downwind from the power plants and in south-eastern part of Finland. This deposition has decreased due to the application of dust removal systems at the particulate emission sources. At the Virolahti EMEP station approximately 140 km north from the emission sources, elevated elemental atmospheric aerosol concentrations are observed for Al, Ca, Fe, K and Si and during episodes many trace elements, such as As, Br, Mo, Ni, Pb and V. The acidification of the soil is negligible because of the high content of basic cations in the deposition. Visible symptoms on pine trees are negligible. However, in moss samples close to the power plants, up to 25% of the leaf surface was covered by particles. Many epiphytic lichen species do not tolerate basic stemflow and on the other hand most species are also very sensitive for the SO2 content in air. Consequently a large lichen desert is found in an area of 2500 km2 in the vicinity of the power plants with only one out of the investigated 12 species growing. PMID:11059848

  13. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    PubMed

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy. PMID:20394134

  14. Optimal management of perimenopausal depression

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all) studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being. PMID:21072307

  15. Prevalence and incidence of depressive disorder: the Baltimore ECA follow-up, 1981–2004

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, W. W.; Kalaydjian, A.; Scharfstein, D. O.; Mezuk, B.; Ding, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe trends in prevalence and incidence of depressive disorder in a cohort from Eastern Baltimore. Method Twenty-three-year-old longitudinal cohort, the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up. Participants were selected probabilistically from the household population in 1981, and interviewed in 1981, 1993, and 2004. Diagnoses were made via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule according to successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Results Older age, lower education, non-White race, and cognitive impairment are independent predictors of attrition due to death and loss of contact, but depressive disorder is not related to attrition. Prevalence rates rise for females between 1981, 1993, and 2004. Incidence rates in the period 1993–2004 are lower than the period 1981–1993, suggesting the rise in prevalence is due to increasing chronicity. Conclusion There has been a rise in the prevalence of depression in the prior quarter century among middle-aged females. PMID:17655559

  16. [Multidisciplinary approach to postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Arranz Lara, Lilia Cristina; Aguirre Rivera, Wilfrido; Ruiz Ornelas, Jaime; Gaviño Ambriz, Salvador; Cervantes Chávez, José Francisco; Carsi Bocanegra, Eduardo; Camacho Díaz, Margarita; Ochoa Madrigal, Martha Georgina

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a multifactorial condition suffered by 15% of women after delivery. We report a clinical case of a 32 years old female admitted at Postpartum depression clinic of gyneco-obstetric coordination at Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSTE, Mexico City. Patient was evaluated by psychiatric and psychological service personnel and diagnosed as with postpartum depression. She was admitted with her child during two weeks to be studied and treated. Several evaluation tests were applied and specific interventions by multidisciplinary team were designed. PMID:18800591

  17. Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kibby; Herr, Nathaniel R; Zerubavel, Noga; Hoertel, Nicolas; Neacsiu, Andrada D

    2016-03-01

    The gold standard for treating bipolar depression is based on the combination of mood stabilizers and psychotherapy. Therefore, the authors present evidence-based models and promising approaches for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, family focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy are discussed. Behavioral activation, the cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and the unified protocol as promising future directions are presented. This review informs medical providers of the most appropriate referral guidelines for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. The authors conclude with a decision tree delineating optimal referrals to each psychotherapy approach. PMID:26876317

  18. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  19. Managing Depression during the Menopausal Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2010-01-01

    The menopausal transition is associated with both first onset of depression and recurrent depression. Risk factors include vasomotor symptoms, a history of premenstrual dysphoria, postpartum depression, major depression, and sleep disturbances. Hormone replacement therapy, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and counseling…

  20. The Paradigmatic Behavioral Theory of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiby, Elaine M.

    Numerous theories of depression have been proposed and tested with several variables being implicated in the etiology of unipolar depression in the last 15 years. The time has come for unification and integration of recent depression research. Four characteristics of the preunified theory of depression include: (1) failure of researchers to relate…

  1. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  2. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  3. Depression and Hostility in Self-Mutilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennum, I.; Phil, M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated depression and hostility among self-mutilating patients in a sample of 60 mutilators, depressives, and controls. Nonsignificant differences in intropunitive hostility and depression were found between the clinical groups. Specific item differences in the depression assessment indicated a definite qualitative rather than quantitative…

  4. Detecting Depression in Elderly Medical Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephen R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Used Research Diagnostic Criteria to assess base rate of detection of depression in 150 elderly medical inpatients by nonpsychiatric physicians, and evaluated psychometric properties of screening instruments to assess depression. Found detection of depression by house staff extremely low (8.7 percent). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), BDI…

  5. Generalized potentiometric surface of the Sparta-Memphis aquifer, eastern Arkansas, spring 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A map shows generalized contours of the altitude of water levels for wells completed in the Sparta-Memphis aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Most water-level measurements used in constructing the map were from the spring of 1980, but supplemental measurements from other years indicated no long-term change in water levels. Hydrographs for selected wells are included to show trends and lack of trends in water-level changes. The aquifer in the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand of Eocene age which consists of fine to medium sand interbedded with salt, clay, and lignite. The aquifer supplies much of the water used for industry and public supply for eastern Arkansas. Some irrigation users also obtain supplies from the aquifer. Cones of depression caused by pumpage for industrial and public supplies occur near Camden, El Dorado, Magnolia, Pine Buff, and West Memphis. (USGS)

  6. Misconceptions of Depression in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Zohaib; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy; Richie, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues. PMID:24999332

  7. Depression: Should You Consider Antipsychotics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat depression. Aripiprazole Abilify Yes Olanzapine Zyprexa No Data Zyprexa Zydis Quetiapine Seroquel XR Yes – for 300 ... less research to support it. Asenapine Saphris No Data $758 – $761 Clozapine Clozaril Generic No Data No ...

  8. Depression at an Early Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the crisis associated with adolescent affective disorders and probes potential genetics, environmental, and physiological factors. Reviews case examples of depression, eating disorders, and suicide among youths. States clinical implications and advocates early diagnosis and treatment. (ML)

  9. Depression, Schizophrenia, and Social Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Philip C.; Murray, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the dysphoric mood induction and attraction that subjects reported after a vicarious experience with a depressed patient and a comparable experience with a schizophrenic patient. Results showed similar arousal of dysphoric mood and rejection for both patients. (RC)

  10. FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING IN GERIATRIC DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, Faith M.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Abnormalities in specific cerebral networks likely confer vulnerability that increases the susceptibility for development of geriatric depression and impact the course of symptoms. Functional neuroimaging enables the in vivo identification of alterations in cerebral function that not only characterize disease vulnerability, but also may contribute to variability in depressive symptoms and antidepressant response. Judicious use of functional neuroimaging tools can advance pathophysiological models of geriatric depression. Furthermore, due to the age-related vulnerability of specific brain systems that have been implicated in mood disorders, geriatric depression provides a logical context within which to study the role of specific functional abnormalities in both antidepressant response and key behavioral and cognitive abnormalities of mood disorders. PMID:21536165

  11. Depression as a microglial disease.

    PubMed

    Yirmiya, Raz; Rimmerman, Neta; Reshef, Ronen

    2015-10-01

    Despite decades of intensive research, the biological mechanisms that causally underlie depression are still unclear, and therefore the development of novel effective antidepressant treatments is hindered. Recent studies indicate that impairment of the normal structure and function of microglia, caused by either intense inflammatory activation (e.g., following infections, trauma, stroke, short-term stress, autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases) or by decline and senescence of these cells (e.g., during aging, Alzheimer's disease, or chronic unpredictable stress exposure), can lead to depression and associated impairments in neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Accordingly, some forms of depression can be considered as a microglial disease (microgliopathy), which should be treated by a personalized medical approach using microglial inhibitors or stimulators depending on the microglial status of the depressed patient. PMID:26442697

  12. Depression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dhavale, H S

    2001-01-01

    Childhood depression accounts for a substantial proportion of cases in child psychiatric clinics. Depression is more common in boys than girls in school age children and it becomes reverse during adolescents. The childhood depression can be wholly chemical, wholly due to psychological factors of a combination of both. The causes of depression can be discussed under three headings--genetic factors, biological factors and social factors. Some children display the classical symptoms of sadness, anxiety, restlessness, eating and sleeping problems while others present with physical problems like aches and pains which do not respond to treatment. Diagnosis depends on interview or questionnaire instruments to screen populations and some biological procedures to determine neuro-endocrine and other physical dysfunctions. Treatment consists of pharmacological treatment and psychological treatment. Tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors and electroconvulsive therapy constitute pharmacological part of the treatment, whereas supportive, insight oriented, play, behaviour, family therapies and cognitive psychotherapy constitute psychological part. PMID:11480955

  13. Depression in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician November 15, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by ... Physician January 01, 2007, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20070101/73.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  14. St. John's Wort and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... feelings of anxiety in some people. What the Science Says About St. John’s Wort for Depression Study ... D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University; David Mischoulon, M.D., Ph.D., ...

  15. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of contact with reality. It usually includes: Delusions: False beliefs about what is taking place or ... things that aren't there The types of delusions and hallucinations are often related to your depressed ...

  16. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen might have a ... 2014. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and treatment for ... in children and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task ...

  17. Helping your teen with depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publishing. 2013. Bostic JQ, Prince JB. Child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava ... Jansen KL, Cloy JA. Treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Am Fam Physician . 2012;86:442-448. ...

  18. Beating Depression: Working It Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Working It Out Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... of this technique. Especially when combined with medications, it can help relieve depression. Research shows that it ...

  19. Depression and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guck, Thomas P; Elsasser, Gary N; Kavan, Michael G; Barone, Eugene J

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence rates of depression in congestive heart failure patients range from 24%-42%. Depression is a graded, independent risk factor for readmission to the hospital, functional decline, and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. Physicians can assess depression by using the SIG E CAPS + mood mnemonic, or any of a number of easily administered and scored self-report inventories. Cognitive-behavior therapy is the preferred psychological treatment. Cognitive-behavior therapy emphasizes the reciprocal interactions among physiology, environmental events, thoughts, and behaviors, and how these may be altered to produce changes in mood and behavior. Pharmacologically, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended, whereas the tricyclic antidepressants are not recommended for depression in congestive heart failure patients. The combination of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with cognitive-behavior therapy is often the most effective treatment. PMID:12826775

  20. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to have depression. Changes in brain chemistry or structure are believed to play a big ... We know that hormones directly affect the brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood. We also know ...

  1. Depression and religiosity in older age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age. PMID:22024440

  2. Depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duggal, S; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2001-01-01

    Antecedents of depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk youth (n = 168) from families of lower socioeconomic status. Relations between family context factors, maternal depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence were examined, with a focus on early family relationship factors rarely available for analysis in longitudinal data sets. Results suggest the possibility of etiological differences between depressive symptoms in childhood and in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology in childhood was predicted by the overall family context. Cumulative effects of maternal depressive symptomatology, early care lacking in emotional supportiveness, abuse, and family stressors were observed. Depressive symptomatology in adolescence, on the other hand, was specifically associated with maternal depression and early care lacking in emotional supportiveness. Moreover, an intriguing sex difference emerged: maternal depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with depressive symptomatology in adolescence for females, but for males supportive early care appeared more relevant. PMID:11346049

  3. Uninvited Guests: Traditional Insect Repellents in Estonia used Against the Clothes Moth Tineola bisselliella, Human Flea Pulex irritons and Bedbug Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective. PMID:21070174

  4. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  5. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  6. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  7. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  8. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  9. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  10. [Rhythms, depressions and light].

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Anders; Moan, Johan

    2006-04-01

    Many aspects of life in plants, animals and humans are controlled by light. Endogenous, so-called circadian rhythms in the body deviate from the exact 24-hour day and have typically a period of around 25.5 hours in man. Normally these rhythms adapt to the external 24-hour day-and night changes but under constant conditions the rhythms can free run. Many studies show how important the interplay between light and the circadian rhythms are for man as well as for other organisms. The control of these rhythms by light is mediated via the retina and the melatonin system in man. The adaptation of the rhythms is very important in shift work, in rapid jet lag travels over time zones, etc. Organisms often use the circadian rhythm to determine the length of day and of night, a feature that has given rise to the term biological clocks. A biological clock provides possibilities to determine the proper time for physiological processes to start in plants and animals (flowering, hibernation etc). The importance of light and circadian rhythms for seasonal affective disorders and manic-depressive disorders is also discussed. For several organisms one has now been able to specify genes that determine the period of the clocks. The rhythmic physiologic processes, the light reactions and the general importance of light for rhythms and for man are now studied at the molecular level. PMID:16619063

  11. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  12. Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Gausia, Kaniz; Fisher, Colleen; Ali, Mohammed; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted during 2005 in Matlab sub-district, a rural area of eastern Bangladesh. Three hundred and sixty-one pregnant women were identified through an existing health and demographic surveillance system covering a population of 110,000 people. The women were interviewed at home at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy. Information on risk factors was collected through structured questionnaires, with the Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) used to measure their psychological status. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied using the SPSS 15.0 statistical software. The prevalence of depression at 34-35 weeks pregnancy was 33% (95% CI, 27.6-37.5). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression model, a history of being beaten by her husband either during or before the current pregnancy had the highest association with depression followed by having an unhelpful or unsupportive mother-in-law or husband, and family preference for a male child. Of the antenatally depressed women, 17 (14%) admitted to thoughts of self-harm during the pregnancy. This paper further explores the reasons why women have considered some form of self-harm during pregnancy. Depression during pregnancy is common among Bangladeshi women, with about a third being affected. The study highlights the need to allocate resources and develop strategies to address depression in pregnancy. PMID:19468825

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Sparta and Memphis aquifers in eastern Arkansas, April through July 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerfield, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    A water-level map of the Sparta and Memphis aquifers for 1993 is presented in this map report. The Sparta-Memphis aquifer, consisting of sands of Eocene age, is present in much of southern and eastern Arkansas. The potentiometric surface map and long-term hydrographs illustrate the effects of large withdrawals for industrial and public supply and, to a lesser extent, agricultural use, on water levels in the aquifer. Three cones of depression, centered in Columbia, Jefferson, and Union Counties, occur in the potentiometric surface.

  14. Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

    2006-06-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

  15. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  16. Neogene sutures in eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.; Wilson, M. E. J.

    2000-12-01

    Five suture zones are described from the zone of collision between the Eurasian, Indian-Australian and Pacific-Philippine Sea plates within the eastern Indonesia region. These are the Molucca, Sorong, Sulawesi, Banda and Borneo sutures. Each of these sutures has a relatively short history compared to most pre-Neogene orogenic belts, but each preserves a record of major changes in tectonics including subduction polarity reversals, elimination of volcanic arcs, changing plate boundaries, and important extension within an overall contractional setting. Rapid tectonic changes have occurred within periods of less than 5 Ma. Many of these events, although important, would be overlooked in older orogenic belts because the age resolution required to identify them, even when the evidence is preserved, is simply not possible.

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  18. Depression's forgotten genealogy: notes towards a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, G

    2000-03-01

    The history of depression remains unwritten, yet historians harbor plentiful assumptions about its pre-1800 past. These views are necessarily colored, even shaped, by modern views of depression formed after its nineteenth-century medicalization. A history of depression from ancient to modern times is an impossible task to complete successfully and would require, as a minimum, the historian's utmost vigilance to nuance, difference, and the inclusion of non-medical literature, especially poetry, drama and non-didactic prose. Nevertheless, five points about depression's pre-1800 European profile can confidently be made: (1) it developed along lines of female rather than male gender; (2) was transformed in the long eighteenth century when it blended with male madness under the sway of the cults of a pan-European sensibility movement; (3) always embedded a problematic pseudo-depressive state, or feigned version, which acted to permit female escape from dire socio-economic situation; (4) included sustained chronic duration as a requirement in its theory from the Renaissance forward; (5) is richly documented in its pre-1800 versions in imaginative literature, its often overlooked genealogy. PMID:11624608

  19. [Immunological aspects of depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Müller, N; Schwarz, M J

    2007-11-01

    Beside the monoaminergic deficiency concept as a pathophysiological correlate of depressive disorder, the role of increased glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly being discussed. Causes and interactions of these neurotransmitter disturbances are not fully understood to date. This review presents a concept integrating actual findings of the neurotransmitter dysregulations with immunological and morphological findings in depressive disorder. Several intertwined mechanisms seem to be important: The common cause of serotonin deficiency and increased glutamatergic neurotransmission seems to be the increase of proinflammatory cytokines. Immune activation with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines activate the tryptophan- and serotonin-degradating enzyme indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The increased consumption of serotonin and its precursor tryptophan due to IDO activation may explain the reduced availability of serotonin in depression. In inflammatory somatic disorders, depressive mood is associated with an increase of proinflammatory cytokines and increased consumption of tryptophan. This activation of IDO by proinflammatory cytokines leads to the production of glutamatergic agonists. In the CNS, IDO is activated during inflammatory processes primarily in microglial cells. Therefore the astrocyte:microglial balance in depression is important. The observed decrease of astrocytes in the CNS of depressive patients may contribute to a regulatory fault in the activity of IDO in microglial cells but also can cause an alteration of the glutamatergic neurotransmission. By this mechanism, the dysbalance of the immune response and the astrocyte:microglia dysbalance may contribute to serotonergic deficiency and glutamatergic overproduction in depression. The further search for new antidepressant therapeutic mechanisms should take into regard anti-inflammatory substances, e.g. cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)-inhibitors. PMID:17928982

  20. Neuromodulation therapies for geriatric depression.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Verònica; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Alonzo, Angelo; Martin, Donel; George, Duncan; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-07-01

    Depression is frequent in old age and its prognosis is poorer than in younger populations. The use of pharmacological treatments in geriatric depression is limited by specific pharmacodynamic age-related factors that can diminish tolerability and increase the risk of drug interactions. The possibility of modulating cerebral activity using brain stimulation techniques could result in treating geriatric depression more effectively while reducing systemic side effects and medication interactions. This may subsequently improve treatment adherence and overall prognosis in the older patient. Among clinically available neuromodulatory techniques, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the gold standard for the treatment of severe depression in the elderly. Studies have proven that ECT is more effective and has a faster onset of action than antidepressants in the treatment of severe, unipolar, geriatric depression and that older age is a predictor of rapid ECT response and remission. The application of novel and more tolerable forms of ECT for geriatric depression is currently being examined. Preliminary results suggest that right unilateral ultrabrief ECT (RUL-UB ECT) is a promising intervention, with similar efficacy to brief-pulse ECT and fewer adverse cognitive effects. Overall findings in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) suggest that it is a safe intervention in geriatric depression. Higher rTMS stimulation intensity and more treatments may need to be given in the elderly to achieve optimal results. There is no specific data on vagus nerve stimulation in the elderly. Transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy and deep brain stimulation are currently experimental, and more data from geriatric samples is needed. PMID:25995098

  1. An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women. PMID:24744918

  2. An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women. PMID:24744918

  3. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression. PMID:26258131

  4. Trajectories of depressive symptoms after hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cristancho, P.; Lenze, E. J.; Avidan, M. S.; Rawson, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is often complicated by depressive symptoms in older adults. We sought to characterize trajectories of depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture and examine their relationship with functional outcomes and walking ability. We also investigated clinical and psychosocial predictors of these trajectories. Method We enrolled 482 inpatients, aged ≥60 years, who were admitted for hip fracture repair at eight St Louis, MO area hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Participants with current depression diagnosis and/or notable cognitive impairment were excluded. Depressive symptoms and functional recovery were assessed with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Functional Recovery Score, respectively, for 52 weeks after fracture. Health, cognitive, and psychosocial variables were gathered at baseline. We modeled depressive symptoms using group-based trajectory analysis and subsequently identified correlates of trajectory group membership. Results Three trajectories emerged according to the course of depressive symptoms, which we termed ‘resilient’, ‘distressed’, and ‘depressed’. The depressed trajectory (10% of participants) experienced a persistently high level of depressive symptoms and a slower time to recover mobility than the other trajectory groups. Stressful life events prior to the fracture, current smoking, higher anxiety, less social support, antidepressant use, past depression, and type of implant predicted membership of the depressed trajectory. Conclusions Depressive symptoms arising after hip fracture are associated with poorer functional status. Clinical and psychosocial variables predicted membership of the depression trajectory. Early identification and intervention of patients in a depressive trajectory may improve functional outcomes after hip fracture. PMID:27032698

  5. Depression among older adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Depression is among the leading causes of decreased disability-adjusted life years in the world1 and a serious public health problem.2 Older adults with DM experience greater risk for comorbid depression compared to those who do not have DM.3 Having DM increases the risk of subsequent development or recurrence of depression. Conversely, history of depression increases the risk for new onset DM.4 As an unwanted co-traveler of DM, undetected, untreated or undertreated depression impinges an individual’s ability to manage their DM successfully, hindering their adherence to treatment regime.5 It also undermines the effectiveness of provider-patient communication and decays therapeutic relationships. Thus, in the context of caring for older adults with DM, comorbid depression presents special challenges and opportunities for clinicians. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that co-occurring depression and DM may accelerate cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of treating depression and DM. Several treatment modalities are available, which can be used to treat and manage depression in primary care settings: pharmaceutical, brief psychotherapeutic, behavioral and life style interventions, and combination therapies. An evidence-based health care delivery model is also available for treating depression in primary care settings. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation of late-life depression, potential mechanisms of comorbidity of depression and DM, importance of depression in the successful management of DM, and available best practice models for depression treatment. PMID:25453305

  6. DEP: A Depression Emulation Program*

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Charles; Glass, Richard M; Banks, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive deficits can be studied by “lesioning” computer simulations of normal cognitive processes. DEP (Depression Emulation Program) implements key aspects of a computational theory of “normal” adaptive reactive depression. A theory of “normal” depression is a step toward a theory of “pathological” depression. Transient depressed mood caused by an environmental event may be an example of fallure-triggered reprogramming of the self-schema. We normally generate responses to our environment in a fast and effortless “compiled” mode. After experiencing a stable, internal, and global failure, we debug our self-schema in a slow and effortful “interpreted” mode. During debugging, we experience a cognitive loop, increased objectivity, decreased motivation, and fluctuating self-generalizations. DEP exhibits analogous behavior and suggests vulnerability in an emotional operating system that normally, and periodically, adapts to a changing environment. Computer simulation of cognitive deficit may become a valuable research tool in psychiatry and neurology.

  7. Childhood depression: pharmacological therapy/treatment (pharmacotherapy of childhood depression).

    PubMed

    Wagner, K D; Ambrosini, P J

    2001-03-01

    Critiqued the published double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in child and adolescent major depressive disorder to assess their overall efficacy. The pharmacological mechanism of antidepressant action also was discussed. At best, antidepressant treatment for depressed youths is only modestly effective. In particular, the tricyclic antidepressants are not superior to placebo; however, early evidence with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is more encouraging. The theoretical basis for this response pattern is discussed from a methodological perspective, from a neurodevelopmental status, and from a biological viewpoint. Study modifications are suggested which could improve some of the methodological limitations apparent in previous clinical drug trials. PMID:11294082

  8. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, B. N.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing's syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole. PMID:27335521

  9. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression.

    PubMed

    Anil Kumar, B N; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing's syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole. PMID:27335521

  10. Health behaviour, risk awareness and emotional well-being in students from Eastern Europe and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    2001-12-01

    Life expectancy and other indices of health have deteriorated markedly in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe over recent decades. The possible roles of lifestyles, knowledge about health and behaviour, emotional wellbeing and perceptions of control were assessed in a cross-sectional survey of young adults of similar educational status in Eastern and Western Europe. As part of the European Health and Behaviour Survey, data were collected in 1989-1991 from 4170 university students aged 18-30 years from Austria, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and from 2293 students from the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Poland. Measures were obtained of health behaviours, awareness of the role of lifestyle factors in health, depression, social support, health locus of control, and the value placed on health. After adjustment for age and sex, East European students had less healthy lifestyles than Western Europeans according to a composite index of 11 health behaviours, with significant differences for seven activities: regular exercise, drinking alcohol, avoiding dietary fat, eating fibre, adding salt to food, wearing a seat-belt, and using sunscreen protection. East European students were less likely to be aware of the relationship between lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, fat and salt consumption) and cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, they were more depressed (adjusted odds of elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory of 2.46, 95% C.I. 1.95-3.09), reported lower social support, and had higher beliefs in the "chance" and "powerful others" locus of control. Internal locus of control levels did not differ across regions, and Eastern Europeans placed a higher valuation on their health. Unhealthy lifestyles associated with lack of information about health and behaviour, greater beliefs in uncontrollable influences, and diminished emotional well-being, may contribute to poor health status in Eastern

  11. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  12. Psychopathological symptoms of depression in Parkinson's disease compared to major depression.

    PubMed

    Merschdorf, U; Berg, D; Csoti, I; Fornadi, F; Merz, B; Naumann, M; Becker, G; Supprian, T

    2003-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is frequently associated with depressive symptoms. When depression occurs at early stages and before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms of the disease, differential diagnosis of major depression may be difficult. Differences in psychopathological features of depression in Parkinson's disease and major depression have been reported by some authors. This study presents data of 49 patients with depression in Parkinson's disease and 38 patients with major depression. The severity of depressive symptoms was equivalent in both groups. Depressive features did not differ between the two groups with exception of affective flattening, delusional ideas and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this investigation gives support to the assumption of a common neurobiological origin of depression in Parkinson's disease and major depression. PMID:14571050

  13. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05–0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health. PMID:23538729

  14. Depressive rumination and cognitive processes associated with depression in breast cancer patients and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Wagner, Christina D; Bigatti, Silvia M; Storniolo, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    Depression is common among patients with breast cancer (BC) and their spouses. The diagnosis of BC often results in negative cognitive processes, such as appraisals of harm/loss, intrusive thoughts, and depressive rumination, all of which contribute to the occurrence of depression in both the patient and spouse. The present research is a cross-sectional exploration of the mediating role of depressive rumination in the relationships of intrusive thoughts and appraisal of harm/loss with depression, in a sample of 56 BC patients and their partners. We hypothesized that depressive rumination would mediate the relationships between cognitive processes and depression in both BC patient and their partners. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, depressive rumination, cognitive appraisals, and intrusive thoughts. Path analyses using hierarchical linear regression were conducted to assess the relationships among variables. Results indicated that for BC patients, harm/loss appraisals and intrusive thoughts had direct effects on depression; only harm/loss appraisals had indirect effects through depressive rumination. For partners, both harm/loss appraisal and intrusive thoughts had direct effects on depression, and both had indirect effects through depressive rumination. Dyadic analysis showed no relation of partner cognitive variables with patient depression or patient cognitive variables with partner depression. Findings show that the perseverative practice of dwelling on these negative thoughts of loss and harm relates to depressive symptoms. Rumination may act as 1 possible mechanism by which intrusive thoughts and harm/loss appraisals lead to depressive symptoms. PMID:25000223

  15. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants’ and interviewers’ vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery. PMID:26985326

  16. Debt, social disadvantage and maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Reading, R; Reynolds, S

    2001-08-01

    Depression is common among women with young children, and is strongly associated with financial adversity. Debt is a common feature of such adversity, yet its relationship with depression has not been examined before. We have used longitudinal data, collected over six months, on 271 families with young children, to examine this relationship. Multiple regression was used to identify independent predictors of the total Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale score from a range of socioeconomic, demographic, social support and child health related variables. Worry about debt was the strongest independent socioeconomic predictor of the depression score at both initial and follow-up occasions. To account for the possibility of reverse causation, i.e. depression causing worry about debt, alternative regression models are reported which show that owing money by itself predicts depression and earlier debt worries predicts depression six months later. We were unable to show that earlier debt worries independently predicted subsequent depression scores after the initial depression score had been taken into account in the analysis. Although debt has not been shown to be an independent prospective predictor of depression, our results suggest it has a central place in the association between socioeconomic hardship and maternal depression. Evidence from qualitative studies on poverty and from studies on the causes of depression support this hypothesis. The implications for policy are that strategies to enable families to control debt should be an explicit part of wider antipoverty measures which are designed to reduce depression and psychological distress among mothers of young children. PMID:11459395

  17. Oxidative Stress and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Mona; Srivastava, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major causative factor for major depression is inflammation, autoimmune tissue damage and prolonged psychological stress, which leads to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to know the association of free radicals and antioxidant status in subjects suffering from major depression. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as a case of unipolar depression as per DSM IV, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were compared with 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. The sera of both the groups were collected taking aseptic precautions and were evaluated for the markers of oxidative stress and for the antioxidants. The age group of the sample and the controls was between 18-60 y, both males and females were equally represented in the groups. Results: A significantly high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in the patients with major depression (1.95 ± 1.04 mmol/L) as compared to healthy controls (0.366 ± 0.175 mmol/L) (p < 0.0001). The serum level of nitrite was found to be lower in cases (23.18 ± 12.08 μmol/L) in comparison to controls (26.18 ± 8.68 μmol/L) (p = 0.1789). Similarly the serum level of ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly below as compared to healthy controls (all p < 0.0001). Ceruloplasmin levels were also depressed in cases (p = 0.3943). Conclusion: The study concluded that in the absence of known oxidative injury causative agents, the lowered levels of antioxidants and higher levels of MDA implicate the high degree of oxidative stress in unipolar depression. PMID:25653939

  18. Cloud Chemistry in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.; Collett, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid industrial growth and increased energy demand in China have resulted in a large amount of coal consumption, which causes enormous quantities of sulfur dioxide emission. The potential long-range transportation of sulfur dioxide is a concern to neighboring countries such as South Korea and Japan as well as the western United States. The transportation distance of emitted sulfur depends on its atmospheric lifetime. Conversion of gaseous sulfur dioxide to fine particle sulfate can enhance the lifetime of emitted sulfur. Clouds play a substantial role in this transformation. In order to assess the ability of regional clouds to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfate, spring and summer field studies of cloud chemistry were conducted in 2008 at Mt. Tai in eastern China. Samples of cloud water were collected at Mt. Tai with single and 2-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors and analyzed for pH and concentrations of major inorganic ions, total organic carbon, S(IV), hydrogen peroxide, Fe, Mn, and organic acids. Meanwhile, the study also measured key trace gases including sulfur dioxide, ozone and hydrogen peroxide, which are important to understand the mechanism of S(IV) oxidation. This presentation will provide an overview of the composition of cloud water collected in this region, will examine factors controlling cloud pH, and will examine the capacity of the regional atmosphere to support aqueous phase sulfur oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and oxygen (catalyzed by Fe and Mn).

  19. LIMITATIONS TO EASTERN REDCEDAR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive woody plant species are degrading the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems throughout the world. A species of particular concern in Great Plains grasslands is eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), which has rapidly spread due to fire suppression and intenti...

  20. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...